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Encyclopedia > Hugo Chávez Frías

Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (born July 28, 1954) is the President of Venezuela. A former paratroop lieutenant-colonel who led an unsuccessful coup d'état in 1992, he was elected president in 1999. During his presidency, Venezuela has seen sweeping changes throughout the country, including a new constitution, many new social programs, and a new, self-proclaimed anti-imperial foreign policy. Chávez and his administration have been met with hostility from some established sectors in Venezuela, like the business federation Fedecámaras and union federation CTV, resulting in a coup d'état, general strike/lockout, and recall referendum, all of which failed to remove him from office. Chávez and his allies have made consistent electoral progress, occupying the vast majority of elected municipal, state, and national posts. July 28 is the 209th day (210th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 156 days remaining. ... 1954 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... List of Presidents of Venezuela José Antonio Páez (1830-1835) José María Vargas (1835-1837) Carlos Soublette (1837-1839) José Antonio Páez (1839-1843) Carlos Soublette (1843-1847) José Tadeo Monagas (1847-1851) José Gregorio Monagas (1851-1855) José Tadeo Monagas (1855-1858) Julián Castro (1858... An American Paratrooper using a T-10C series parachute Paratroopers are soldiers trained in parachuting and formed into an airborne force. ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... 1992 is a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Spanish: República Bolivariana de Venezuela)1 is a country in northern South America. ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... (Redirected from 2004 Venezuela recall) The Venezuelan recall referendum of 15 August 2004 was a referendum to determine whether Hugo Chávez, the Venezuela, should be recalled from office. ...

President Hugo Chávez
President Hugo Chávez

2.1 Early presidency
2.2 Coup attempt against Chávez
2.3 Strike/lockout
2.4 Movement to remove Chávez in a referendum
2.5 Arrest of alleged paramilitaries
Hugo Chavez waving What is the cp status of this image ? Anthère File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

Early years

Chávez was born in Sabaneta, Barinas State. His father, Hugo de los Reyes Chávez, was a former regional director of education and a former member of the conservative Social Christian Party, and is currently the governor of Barinas. Barinas is one of the 23 states (estados) into which Venezuela is divided. ...

In 1975, Chávez graduated from the Venezuelan Academy of Military Sciences with M.S. in military sciences and engineering. He did further graduate work in political sciences at the Simón Bolívar University in Caracas, but left without a degree. 1975 was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1975 calendar). ... A masters degree is an academic degree usually awarded for completion of a postgraduate course of one or two years in duration. ... Cerro Avila, Caracas. ...

In 1989, President Carlos Andrés Pérez had presided over unpopular IMF austerity measures that led to protests in 1989, which he brutally suppressed, leaving hundreds dead. On February 4, 1992, Chávez led a failed military coup against President Pérez, in which hundreds were killed. Chávez appeared on television to announce that he and his co-conspirators had not achieved their goals por ahora ("for now"). After spending two years in prison, Chávez was pardoned by former President Rafael Caldera and emerged as a politician, organizing a new political party called the Movement for the Fifth Republic. Carlos Andrés Pérez Rodríguez (born October 27, 1922) was President of Venezuela from 1974 to 1979 and again from 1989 to 1993. ... The flag of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is the international organization entrusted with overseeing the global financial system by monitoring foreign exchange rates and balance of payments, as well as offering technical and financial assistance when asked. ... February 4 is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1992 is a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... Rafael Caldera Rodriguez (born 24 January 1916) was president of Venezuela from 1969 to 1974 and again from 1994 to 1999. ... The Movement for the Fifth Republic (Spanish: Movimiento V [Quinta] Republica, MVR) is a left-wing Venezuelan political party founded by Hugo Chávez, the current President of Venezuela. ...

Chronology of Presidency

Early presidency

Chávez won the presidential election on December 6, 1998 by the largest percent of voters (56.2%) in four decades, running on an anti-corruption and anti-poverty platform, and condemning the two major parties that had dominated Venezuelan politics since 1958 (see: Venezuelan presidential election, 1998). Shortly after taking office on February 2, 1999, Chávez embarked on a series of sweeping changes to the Venezuelan government. He organized a series of elections. The first one, a referendum, authorized calling for a constitutional assembly. A second selected delegates to that Assembly, distinct from his country's legislature. Chávez's initial widespread popularity allowed supporters to win 60% of the votes and 120 of the 131 assembly seats. December 6 is the 340th day (341st on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1998 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... 1958 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... A presidential election was held in the Republic of Venezuela on 6 December 1998. ... February 2 is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ...

In August 1999, the assembly set up a "judicial emergency committee" with the power to remove judges without consulting other branches of government. In the same month, the assembly declared a "legislative emergency". A seven-member committee was created to perform congressional functions, including law-making. The Constitutional Assembly prohibited the Congress from holding meetings of any sort.

The new constitution renamed the country the "Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela", after South American independence hero Simón Bolívar. It increased the presidential term of office to six years and added provisions for presidents to serve two terms, while providing for a new procedure to recall a president. It was approved in a nationwide referendum held in December 1999. Elections for the new, unicameral legislature were held in July 2000. During the same election, Chávez stood for re-election. Chávez's coalition obtained a commanding 2/3 majority of seats in the new unicameral assembly and Chávez himself was reelected (see Venezuelan presidential election, 2000). Simón José Antonio de la Santísima Trinidad Bolívar y Palacios ( July 24, 1783 – December 17, 1830) was a South American revolutionary leader. ... A presidential election was held in the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela on 30 July 2000. ...

In November 2000, he backed a bill through the legislature allowing him to rule by decree for one year. In November 2001, Chávez passed a set of 49 laws by decree, shortly before the enabling law expired, including the "Hydrocarbons law" (regarding oil) and the "Land law" (For more on these laws, see policy below.) Business federation Fedecámaras vehemently opposed the 49 laws and called for a general business strike on December 10, 2001. December 10 is the 344th day (345th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

In December 2000, Chávez put a referendum on the ballot to force Venezuela's labor unions to hold state-monitored elections. (For more, see below.)

Coup attempt against Chávez

Main article: Venezuelan coup attempt of 2002

Hugo Chávez, surrounded by resolute supporters, makes a dramatic return to power on , after the collapse of the first Latin American coup of the 21st century.
Hugo Chávez, surrounded by resolute supporters, makes a dramatic return to power on April 12, 2002 after the collapse of the first Latin American coup of the 21st century.

On April 9, 2002, Venezuela's largest union federation, the Confederación de Trabajadores de Venezuela (CTV), led by Carlos Ortega Carvajal (who was not present at Pedro Carmona's "inauguration" but greeted him the next morning at the Palace), called for a two-day general strike. Fedecámaras joined the strike and called on all of its affiliated businesses to close for 48 hours. (Footage available via Edonkey p2p network [1]  (http://www.filehash.com/file/a8a6df74d90b639205b0aee14348cdbe)). This work is copyrighted. ... April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ... April 9 is the 99th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (100th in leap years). ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ...

On Thursday, April 11, an estimated one million people marched to the headquarters of Venezuela's oil company, PDVSA, in defense of its fired management. The organizers decided to re-route the march to Miraflores, the presidential palace, where a pro-government demonstration was taking place. After violence erupted between demonstrators, the metropolitan police (controlled by the opposition) and national guard (controlled by Chávez), 17 people were killed and more than one hundred people were wounded. Doctors who treated the wounded reported that many of them appeared to have been shot from above in a sniper-like fashion. April 11 is the 101st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (102nd in leap years). ... Petróleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PdVSA) is the Venezuelan nationally owned petroleum company. ...

After commander in chief Lucas Rincon Romero announced to the nation that he had resigned, Chávez was arrested on April 12, 2002, and Fedecámaras president Pedro Carmona was appointed by the military as interim president. [2]  (http://www.11abril.com/index/videos/abril_2002_1.asp) His first decree dissolving all established powers was also his last and did not even make it for publication in the official journal. These events generated a widespread uprising and looting on some sectors of Caracas in support of Chávez that was repressed by the Metropolitan Police. Learning that Chávez had not resigned and emboldened by massive popular protest, army troops loyal to Chávez retook the presidential palace. Thus ended the briefest de facto government in Venezuelan history with the return of Chávez in the night of Saturday to Sunday, April 14. April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ... Categories: Stub | 1941 births ... Metropolitan Police is a generic title for the municipal police force for a major metropolitan area. ... April 14 is the 104th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (105th in leap years). ...


For two months from December 2, 2002, the Chávez government was faced with a business strike aimed at forcing the president from office by cutting off the state off from all-important oil revenue. The strike was led by a coalition of labor unions, industry captains and oil workers. What started as one day stopage transformed itself in the course of one week,because of inadequate crisis management, into a full scale general strike. In particular, Ali Rodriguez, the then president of PDVSA, handled the difficult crisis confronting the oil industry like the former guerrilla commander that he had been back in the 60's and 70's, and rather than trying to look for conciliation with the workers, he chose all out confrontation. December 2 is the 336th day (337th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ali Rodriguez Araque (born 1937) is a Venezuelan politician, diplomat, and oil adviser to President Hugo Chavez. ...

As a consequence, Venezuela stopped exporting a daily average of 2,800,000 barrels (450,000 m³) of oil and derivatives and began to require the import of gasoline for internal use. Chávez was responsible for the replacement of the upper management of the Venezuelan national oil company as well as the dismissal of 18,000 PDVSA employees, Petróleos de Venezuela (PDVSA), allegedly on grounds of mismanagement and corruption, but supporters of the oil workers call the action "politically motivated". A court ruling has deemed the dismissal of these workers illegal and has ordered the immediate return of the entire group to their former posts. Nevertheless, Chávez, PDVSA's CEO Alí Rodríguez, and Minister of Mines Rafael Rodríguez have repeatedly expressed that such ruling will not be enforced.

Almost three years after this event(2005), the oil industry is still far from recovered. Despite an almost miraculous comeback to some measure of normalcy, independent sources point to inefficiency, corruption and political interference as the trademarks of "La Nueva PDVSA".

Movement to remove Chávez in a referendum

See also: Venezuelan recall referendum, 2004 The Venezuelan recall referendum of 15 August 2004 was a referendum to determine whether Hugo Chávez, the president of Venezuela, should be recalled from office. ...

A 'Yes' billboard is seen along a Caracas highway in this August 4, 2004 photo: an eyecatching attempt to encourage Venezuelans to vote to remove Chávez in the recall referendum.
Chávez supporters march through the streets of Caracas on August 8, 2004, urging a 'No' vote in the upcoming recall.

In August 2003, opposition leaders began the process to recall Chávez, a procedure first allowed in Venezuela in the 1999 constitution. When the opposition presented the National Electoral Council (CNE) with 3.2 million signatures, the CNE rejected the petition by a vote of 3-0 with 2 members abstaining, ruling that signatures collected before the mid-point of Chávez's term were not valid under Venezuelan law. In November, the opposition conducted another signature drive, again presenting over 3 million signatures. This work is copyrighted. ... This work is copyrighted. ... August 4 is the 216th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (217th in leap years), with 149 days remaining. ... This work is copyrighted. ... This work is copyrighted. ... August 8 is the 220th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (221st in leap years), with 145 days remaining. ... 2003 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December A timeline of events in the news for August, 2003. ... A recall election is a procedure by which voters can remove an elected official from office. ... The Consejo Nacional Electoral (National Electoral Council, or CNE) is the institution in charge of all electoral processes that take place in Venezuela. ...

Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez waves to cheering supporters from the balcony of the Presidential Palace in Caracas after the electoral commission announcement.

The recall vote was held on August 15, 2004. Record numbers of voters turned out, and polling hours had to be extended by at least eight hours. 59.25% of the vote was against the recall, for Chávez remaining in office. Election observers Jimmy Carter of the Carter Center and Organization of American States Secretary General César Gaviria endorsed the results of Venezuela's recall referendum. In the following weeks, opposition supporters made numerous claims regarding irregularites. Eventually, most of the opposition agreed that Chávez survived the recall effort. This work is copyrighted. ... This work is copyrighted. ... August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ... Order: 39th President Vice President: Walter Mondale Term of office: January 20, 1977 – January 20, 1981 Preceded by: Gerald Ford Succeeded by: Ronald Reagan Date of birth: October 1, 1924 Place of birth: Plains, Georgia First Lady: Rosalynn Carter Political party: Democratic James Earl Jimmy Carter, Jr. ... The Carter Center is a human rights organization, founded in 1982 and chaired by former U.S. President Jimmy Carter. ... The Organization of American States (OAS; OEA in the other three official languages) is an international organization, headquartered in Washington, D.C., USA. Its members are the 35 independent nations of the Americas. ...

Arrest of alleged paramilitaries

Main article: Alleged planned Venezuelan coup in 2004

In May 2004, Venezuelan state TV reported the capture of 126 Colombians accused of being paramilitaries, near properties belonging to Cuban exile Roberto Alonso, one of the leaders of the Venezuelan opposition group Bloque Democrático, and media magnate Gustavo Cisneros, a Cuban-Venezuelan Chávez opponent and one of the alleged architects of the 2002 coup. According to one of the detainees, they would have been offered 500,000 Colombian pesos to work on the farm, before being informed that they would have to prepare for an attack on a National Guard base, with the goal of stealing weapons to potentially arm a 3,000-strong militia. [3]  (http://www.greenleft.org.au/back/2004/583/583p18b.htm) The Republic of Colombia is a country in north-western South America. ... A paramilitary is a group of civilians trained and organized in a military fashion. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Gustavo Cisneros is a Latin American media king and is among the worlds 100 richest men according to Forbes magazine. ... The Colombian peso is the currency of Colombia. ... A militia is a group of citizens organized to provide paramilitary service. ...

Venezuelan policy under Chávez

With Chávez's emergence, there have been many social and economic changes in Venezuela. Traditionally, lighter skinned groups have held economic and political sway over this oil-rich nation. The Venezuelan business community, represented by the Venezuelan Federation of Chambers of Commerce (Fedecámaras), strongly opposes Chávez and his policies, and the largest labor federation has joined them.

Oil policy

President and Hugo Chávez are OPEC allies. Shown near Caracas, , .
President Mohammad Khatami and Hugo Chávez are OPEC allies. Shown near Caracas, March 12, 2005.

Venezuela is a major producer of oil products, and oil is vitally important to the Venezuelan economy. Chávez has gained a reputation as a price hawk in OPEC, pushing for stringent enforcement of production quotas and higher target prices. He has also attempted to broaden Venezuela's customer base, striking joint exploration deals with other developing countries, including Argentina, Brazil, India, and China. President Khatami Hojjat ol-Eslam Seyyed Mohammad Khatami (Persian: حجت‌الاسلام سید محمد خاتمی; born October, 1943 in Ardakan) is the fifth and current President of Iran. ... March 12 is the 71st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (72nd in Leap years). ... The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is made up of Algeria, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Venezuela; since 1965, its international headquarters have been in Vienna, Austria. ...

Chávez has redirected the focus of PDVSA, the Venezuelan state oil company, bringing it more closely under the direction of the Minister of Energy. He has also attempted to repatriate more oil funds, by raising the percentage of royalties Venezuela receives on joint extraction contracts, and exploring selling some or all of Citgo's assets, a US-based subsidiary of PDVSA. Petróleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PdVSA) is the Venezuelan nationally owned petroleum company. ... The Citgo gasoline brand was inaugurated in 1965 by the Cities Service Company, a U.S. energy company that first rose to prominence in the early 1900s. ...

International relations

Chávez has made Latin American integration one of the centerpieces of his policies. This has come in many forms: the creation or extension of joint institutions like Petrosur, Telesur, and Mercosur; bilateral trade relationships with other Latin American countries, including arms purchases from Brazil, oil-for-expertise trades with Cuba, and a pipeline through Colombia. Venezuela's relationship with its neighbor Colombia has been rocky at times, though; with events like the Rodrigo Granda affair temporarily throwing the relationship into crisis. Flag of Mercosur Mercosur or Mercosul (Spanish: Mercado Común del Sur, Portuguese: Mercado Comum do Sul, English: Southern Common Market) is a trading zone among Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay, founded in 1991. ... The Republic of Cuba is an archipelago in the northern Caribbean that lies at the confluence of the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean. ... The Republic of Colombia is a country in north-western South America. ... The Republic of Colombia is a country in north-western South America. ...

President Hugo Chávez and Saddam Hussein in 2000
President Hugo Chávez and Saddam Hussein in 2000

Venezuela has had a mostly antagonistic relationship with the United States for many reasons: Chávez's hawkish stance in OPEC, his public friendship and trade relationship with Cuba and Fidel Castro; and his numerous public statements in opposition to U.S. economic and foreign policy. In response to the ouster of Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide in February 2004, with U.S. assistance, Chávez called U.S. President George W. Bush a pendejo ("prick") and threatened to cut off all oil exports to the United States if it took any more action against his country. [4] (http://www.reuters.com/locales/newsArticle.jsp;:4042a149:0c1a48964cc2b5?type=worldNews&locale=en_IN&storyID=4463411) He was also the first democratically-elected president to visit Iraqi President Saddam Hussein since the 1991 Gulf War, on August 11, 2000, and strongly opposed the 2003 invasion of Iraq. The United States has consistently opposed Chávez, though constitutionally elected, recognizing the Carmona government during the 2002 coup, calling Chávez a "negative force" in the region, and requesting support from Venezuela's neighbors in isolating Chávez. On 20 February 2005, Chávez stated that he had reasons to believe that the U.S. had plans to have him assassinated; he said that any attempt would mean that Venezuela would cut off oil to the U.S. [5]  (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/4282603.stm) This was a claim first made a week before by Fidel Castro [6] (http://www.mercurynews.com/mld/mercurynews/news/world/10886111.htm?1c) This work is copyrighted. ... The Republic of Cuba is an archipelago in the northern Caribbean that lies at the confluence of the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean. ... Cuban President Fidel Castro Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born August 13, 1926) has ruled Cuba since 1959, when, leading the 26th of July Movement, he helped overthrow the dictatorship of Fulgencio Batista and turn Cuba into the first socialist state in the Western Hemisphere. ... Haiti is a country situated on the western third of the island of Hispaniola and the smaller islands of La Gonâve, La Tortue (Tortuga), Grande Caye, and Ile a Vache in the Caribbean Sea, east of Cuba; the Dominican Republic shares Hispaniola with Haiti. ... Jean-Bertrand Aristide Jean-Bertrand Aristide (born July 15, 1953) is a Haitian politician and former priest who was President of Haiti in 1991, from 1994 to 1996, and again from 2001 to 2004. ... 2004 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December- → February 29, 2004 Jean-Bertrand Aristide resigns as president of Haiti and flees the country for the Central African Republic. ... Pendejo is a vulgar Spanish-language term of abuse. ... Oil is a generic term for organic liquids that are not miscible with water. ... The President of Iraq is Iraqs head of state and chief of government. ... Saddam Hussein Saddām Hussein ʻAbd al-Majid al-Tikrītī (Often spelt Husayn or Hussain; Arabic صدام حسين عبدالمجيد التكريتي; born April 28, 1937 1) was President of Iraq from 1979 to 2003. ... (Redirected from 1991 Gulf War) See also: 2003 invasion of Iraq and Gulf War (disambiguation) C Company, 1st Battalion, The Staffordshire Regiment, 1st UK Armoured Division The Gulf War was a conflict between Iraq and a coalition force of 34 nations led by the United States. ... August 11 is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... For other uses of the term, see Iraq war (disambiguation) The 2003 invasion of Iraq (also called the 2nd or 3rd Persian Gulf War) began on March 20, 2003, when forces belonging primarily to the United States and the United Kingdom invaded Iraq without the explicit backing of the United... February 20 is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ...

Social programs

Venezuela under Chávez has started numerous social programs: Barrio Adentro, an initiative to provide free health care to poor and underserved areas, Mission Robinson and Mission Sucre to increase literacy and basic education. The literacy programs are centered on learning to read and understand the Venezuelan Constitution and their inherent rights as Venezuelan citizens. These programs have been criticized as inefficient and incomplete by opposition figures but are widely heralded and appreciated by Chávez backers.

Chávez speaks at an MST camp. (Photo: Marcello Jr/ABr)

Many of these programs involve importing expertise from abroad; Venezuela is providing Cuba with 53,000 barrels (8,000 m³) of below-market-rate oil a day in exchange for the service of hundreds of physicians, teachers, and other professionals. (BBC)  (http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/4035787.stm) Goiania, Brasil - Landless Workers Movement members marching to Brasília. ...

Land Reform

The Ley de Tierras ("Land Law"), passed by decree in November 2001, created Plan Zamora to enact land reforms in Venezuelan agriculture: taxing unused landholdings, expropriating unused private lands (with compensation), and giving inheritable, unsellable land grants to small farmers and farm collectives. Venezuela has seen a vast disinvestment in its rural areas since oil wealth was discovered; the country has an urbanization rate of more than 85% and it is a net food importer. The rationale given for this program was that it would provide incentives for the repopulation of the countryside and provide "food security" for the country by lessening dependence on foreign imports. There are three types of land that may be granted under the program: government land, land which is claimed by private owners, but which the government disputes their claim, and disused private land. To date, only the first two types of land have been distributed. Plan Zamora is a land reform program in Venezuela, created in law by the Ley de Tierras (Law of Land), part of a package of 49 decrees made by Hugo Chávez in November 2001. ... Land reform (also agrarian reform) is the government-initiated or government-backed transfer of ownership of (or tenure in) agricultural land. ...


All of the five mainstream TV networks and most major mainstream newspapers oppose Chávez, but a small minority of the media is said to support him. Chávez claims the opposition media is controlled by the interests which oppose him, whereas the media accuse him of having intimidated journalists with his pronouncements and of allegedly sending gangs to threaten journalists with physical violence.

In 2005, the Chávez government announced the creation of Telesur, a proposed Latin America-wide television network to compete with CNN en español and Univisión. Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Univision Communications (also known as Univision or in Spanish, Univisión) is one of the largest Spanish language media companies and television networks in the United States. ...


Chávez has had a combative relationship with the nation's largest trade union confederation, the CTV, historically aligned with the Acción Democrática party. During December 2000 local elections, Chávez placed a referendum on the ballot to force internal elections within unions. The referendum, condemned by the International Labour Organisation (ILO) and International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU) as interference in internal union matters, passed by a large margin on very thin turnout. In the ensuing elections, Carlos Ortega declared victory and remained in office, whereas Chavista candidates declared fraud. A union (labor union in American English; trade union, sometimes trades union, in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a legal entity consisting of employees or workers having a common interest, such as all the assembly workers for one employer, or all the workers... CTV is a TLA that may stand for: CTV Television Network - a Canadian English language television network Channel Television - the main television broadcaster in the Channel Islands Chukyo TV. Broadcasting - a Japanese TV station in Nagoya This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might... The Acción Democrática (Democratic Action, or AD) is a Venezuelan social democratic political party. ... For other meanings of the ILO abbreviation, see ILO (disambiguation). ... Claiming 157 million members in 225 affiliated organisations in 148 countries and territories, the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU) came into being on December 7, 1949 following a split within the World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU). ...

The Union Nacional de los Trabajadores (UNT, National Workers' Union) is a pro-Chávez union federation which has been growing during Chávez's presidency, with some pro-Chávez unions disaffiliating with CTV because of their strident anti-Chávez activism and affiliating with the UNT. In 2003, Chávez sent UNT representatives to an ILO meeting, rather than CTV.

On January 19, 2005, Chávez nationalized Venepal, a paper- and cardboard-manufacturing company at the request of its workers. The company had gone bankrupt and participation in the general lockout in 2003 was its final undoing. Workers occupied the factory and restarted production, but following a failed deal with management and amidst management threats to sell off equipment, Chávez ordered the nationalization, extended a line of credit, and ordered that the Venezuelan educational missions (see above) purchase paper products from the company. January 19 is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ...

Democratic Socialism

On 30 January 2005 at the World Social Forum in Porto Alegre, Brazil, Chávez declared his support for democratic socialism, in his words "a new type of socialism, a humanist one, which puts humans and not machines or the state ahead of everything." [7]  (http://www.venezuelanalysis.com/news.php?newsno=1486) He later reiterated this in a February 26 speech at the 4th Summit on the Social Debt held in Caracas. [8] (http://www.cnn.com/2005/WORLD/americas/02/25/venezuela.chavez.reut/) January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Noam Chomsky at World Social Forum 2003. ... This article is about Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. ... The Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil in Portuguese) is the largest and most populous country in South America, and fifth largest in the world. ... Democratic socialism is a political movement propagating the ideals of socialism within the framework of a parliamentary democracy. ... Cerro Avila, Caracas. ...

Personal life

Chávez was married twice and is currently separated from his second wife, Marisabel Rodríguez de Chávez. He has four children; his younger daughter is named Rosines.

See also

This is a List of national leaders, showing heads of state and heads of government where different, mainly in parliamentary systems; it should be noted that often a leader is both in presidential systems or dictatorships. ... Leaders and revolutionaries George W. Bush Condoleezza Rice Bill Clinton Barack Obama Bill Frist Donald Rumsfeld Mark Malloch Brown Gordon Brown Ali Husaini Sistani Abu Mousab al-Zarqawi Hu Jintao Kim Jong Il Manmohan Singh Thabo Mbeki Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger Mahmoud Abbas Ayaan Hirsi Ali Ariel Sharon Javier Solana John... This is the history of Venezuela. ... Current President Hugo Chávez was elected in December 1998 on a platform that called for the creation of a National Constituent Assembly in order to write a new Constitution. ... The Bolivarian Revolution is the social and political movement founded by Hugo Chávez purportedly based on the ideals of Simón Bolívar, an early 19th century Latin American Independence hero. ... Bolivarianism is a rough doctrine somewhat popular in northern Latin American countries, named after the South American general Simón Bolívar. ...

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