FACTOID # 1: Idaho produces more milk than Iowa, Indiana and Illinois combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Hugo Chávez
Hugo Chavez in 1999, as President of Venezuela

Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (born July 28, 1954) is the President of Venezuela. A former paratroop lieutenant-colonel who led an unsuccessful coup d'état in 1992, he was elected president in 1999. A highly polarising figure in Venezuela, his presidency has seen sweeping changes throughout the country, including a new constitution, many new social programs, and a new foreign policy distancing Venezuela from the United States. Official photo of Venezuela President Hugo Chavez. ... Official photo of Venezuela President Hugo Chavez. ... July 28 is the 209th day (210th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 156 days remaining. ... 1954 was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... List of Presidents of Venezuela José Antonio Páez (1830-1835) José María Vargas (1835-1837) Carlos Soublette (1837-1839) José Antonio Páez (1839-1843) Carlos Soublette (1843-1847) José Tadeo Monagas (1847-1851) José Gregorio Monagas (1851-1855) José Tadeo Monagas (1855-1858) Julián Castro (1858... An American Paratrooper using a T-10C series parachute Paratroopers are soldiers trained in parachuting and formed into an airborne force. ... A coup détat (pronounced kū dā ta), or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... 1992 is a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1999 is a common year starting on Friday of the Common Era, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... The 1999 Venezuelan constitution is an interesting hybrid of jurisprudential and political norms drawn from sources as wide as Bolivars own writings on constitutionality and popular sovereignty, Jose Marti, the Peruvian Marxist Jose Mariategui, J.V. Stalin and E. Pashukanis. ... Foreign Policy is a bimonthly American magazine founded in 1970 by Samuel P. Huntington and Warren Demian Manshel. ...


Chávez and his administration have been opposed through confrontative methods by some established sectors in Venezuela, including the business federation Fedecámaras and union federation CTV, resulting in a coup d'état, general strike/lockout, and recall referendum, all of which failed to remove him from office. Chávez and his allies have won consistent political victories, occupying the vast majority of elected municipal, state, and national posts, as well as majorities in the supreme court, national electoral council and national assembly. CTV symbol The Confederación de Trabajadores de Venezuela (CTV, English: Confederation of Workers of Venezuela) is a federation of labor unions in Venezuela. ... A coup détat (pronounced kū dā ta), or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... A lockout is a work stoppage in which an employer prevents employees from working. ... (Redirected from 2004 Venezuela recall) The Venezuelan recall referendum of 15 August 2004 was a referendum to determine whether Hugo Chávez, the Venezuela, should be recalled from office. ...


Chávez has been married twice and is currently separated from his second wife, Marisabel Rodríguez de Chávez. He has four children: Rosa Virginia, María Gabriela, Hugo Rafael and Rosiné.

Contents

Early years

Chávez was born to a mestizo family in Sabaneta, Barinas State. His father, Hugo de los Reyes Chávez, was a former regional director of education and a former member of the conservative Social Christian Party, and is currently the governor of Barinas. Mestizo (Portuguese, Mestiço; Canadian French, Métis: from Late Latin mixtcius, from Latin mixtus, past participle of miscere, to mix) is a term of Spanish origin used to designate the peoples of mixed European and Amerindian racial strain inhabiting the region spanning the Americas, from the Canadian prairies in the north... Sabaneta de Barinas, Edo. ... Barinas is one of the 23 states (estados) into which Venezuela is divided. ... Conservatism is any of several historically-related political philosophies or political ideologies. ... conservative party founded in 1945 by rafael caldera This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ...


At the age of 17, Chávez joined the paratroop legion of the Venezuelan armed forces, and began studies at the Venezuelan Academy of Military Sciences. He graduated in 1975 in military sciences and engineering. He did further graduate work in political sciences at the Simón Bolívar University in Caracas, but left without a degree. An American Paratrooper using a T-10C series parachute Paratroopers are soldiers trained in parachuting and formed into an airborne force. ... The Universidad Simón Bolívar (Simón Bolívar University) in Caracas, Venezuela is a public institution with scientific and technological orientation. ... Cerro Avila, Caracas. ...


Chávez was fascinated by Simón Bolívar, an important independence figure in Venezuela and Latin America. On July 24, 1983, the 200th anniversary of Bolívar's birth, Chávez founded the Movimiento Bolivariano Revolucionario 200 (MBR-200, "Revolutionary Bolivarian Movement-200"). July 24 is the 205th day (206th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 160 days remaining. ... 1983 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... marxist millitiant movement ...


In 1989, President Carlos Andrés Pérez had presided over unpopular IMF austerity measures that led to protests in 1989. On February 4, 1992, Chávez and the MBR-200 led a failed military coup against President Pérez, in which hundreds were killed. Chávez was permitted to read a statement on television in order to tell his co-conspirators to stand down. Famously, he said that they had not achieved their goals por ahora ("for now"). After spending two years in prison, Chávez was pardoned by President Rafael Caldera. He reconstructed the MBR as a political movement called the Movement for the Fifth Republic (MVR). Carlos Andrés Pérez Rodríguez (born October 27, 1922) was President of Venezuela from 1974 to 1979 and again from 1989 to 1993. ... The flag of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is the international organization entrusted with overseeing the global financial system by monitoring foreign exchange rates and balance of payments, as well as offering technical and financial assistance when asked. ... The caracazo or sacudón is the name given to the wave of protests, riots and looting that occurred on 27 February 1989 in the Venezuelan capital Caracas and surrounding towns. ... February 4 is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1992 is a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... Rafael Caldera Rodriguez (born 24 January 1916) was president of Venezuela from 1969 to 1974 and again from 1994 to 1999. ... The Movement for the Fifth Republic (Spanish: Movimiento V [Quinta] Republica, MVR) is a left-wing Venezuelan political party founded by Hugo Chávez, the current President of Venezuela. ...


Personal style

"Chavez’s speeches are relatively simple. They are not like those of Fidel Castro, a professional orator with aristocratic features and a lawyers training, nor like those of Brazilian President Lula, accustomed to addressing trade union meetings and workers demonstrations. Chavez is a talkative colonel, of the kind found in our army too. He is not especially well versed in the art of rhetoric. He talks with those around him, reflects on life, and has trouble stopping. People like it."[1] (http://www.tni.org/archives/kagarlitsky/venezuela.htm)


Chronology of Presidency

Early presidency

Chávez won the presidential election on December 6, 1998 by the largest percent of voters (56.2%) in four decades, running on an anti-corruption and anti-poverty platform, and condemning the two major parties that had dominated Venezuelan politics since 1958 (see: Venezuelan presidential election, 1998). Shortly after taking office on February 2, 1999, Chávez embarked on a series of sweeping changes to the Venezuelan government. He organized a series of elections. The first one, a referendum, authorized calling for a constitutional assembly. A second selected delegates to that Assembly, distinct from his country's legislature. Chávez's initial widespread popularity allowed supporters to win 60% of the votes and 120 of the 131 assembly seats. December 6 is the 340th day (341st on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1998 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... Poverty is the state of being without, often associated with need, hardship and lack of resources across a wide range of circumstances. ... 1958 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A presidential election was held in the Republic of Venezuela on 6 December 1998. ... February 2 is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1999 is a common year starting on Friday of the Common Era, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ...


In August 1999, the assembly set up a "judicial emergency committee" with the power to remove judges without consulting other branches of government. In the same month, the assembly declared a "legislative emergency". A seven-member committee was created to perform congressional functions, including law-making. The Constitutional Assembly prohibited the Congress from holding meetings of any sort.


The new constitution renamed the country the "Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela", after South American independence hero Simón Bolívar. It increased the presidential term of office to six years and added provisions for presidents to serve two terms, while providing for a new procedure to recall a president. It was approved in a nationwide referendum held in December 1999. Elections for the new, unicameral legislature were held in July 2000. During the same election, Chávez stood for re-election. Chávez's coalition obtained a commanding 2/3 majority of seats in the new Assembly and Chávez himself was reelected (see Venezuelan presidential election, 2000). The 1999 Constitution of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela is an interesting hybrid of jurisprudential and political norms drawn from sources as wide as Bolívars own writings on constitutionality and popular sovereignty, José Martí, the Peruvian Marxist José Mariátegui, Stalin and Pashukanis. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Simón Bolívar Simón José Antonio de la Santísima Trinidad Bolívar y Palacios (July 24, 1783 – December 17, 1830) was a South American revolutionary leader. ... Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber. ... A presidential election was held in the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela on 30 July 2000. ...


In November 2000, he backed a bill through the legislature allowing him to rule by decree for one year. In November 2001, Chávez passed a set of 49 laws by decree, shortly before the enabling law expired, including the Hydrocarbons Law (about oil) and the Land Law (For more on these laws, see policy below.) Business federation Fedecámaras vehemently opposed the 49 laws and called for a general business strike on December 10, 2001. December 10 is the 344th day (345th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2001 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In December 2000, Chávez put a referendum on the ballot to force Venezuela's labor unions to hold state-monitored elections. (For more, see below.)


Coup attempt against Chávez

Main article: Venezuelan coup attempt of 2002 Hugo Chávez, surrounded by resolute supporters, makes a dramatic return to power on April 12, 2002 after the collapse of the first Latin American coup of the twenty-first century. ...

Loyal troops at Miraflores, April 14 celebrate the victory of the mass upsurge against the coup.
Loyal troops at Miraflores, April 14 celebrate the victory of the mass upsurge against the coup.

On April 9, 2002, Venezuela's largest union federation, the Confederación de Trabajadores de Venezuela (CTV), led by Carlos Ortega Carvajal, called for a two-day general strike. Fedecámaras joined the strike and called on all of its affiliated businesses to close for 48 hours. (Footage available via Edonkey p2p network [2] (http://www.filehash.com/file/a8a6df74d90b639205b0aee14348cdbe)). This work is copyrighted. ... April 9 is the 99th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (100th in leap years). ... 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... CTV symbol The Confederación de Trabajadores de Venezuela (CTV, English: Confederation of Workers of Venezuela) is a federation of labor unions in Venezuela. ... Carlos Ortega Carvajal is a union and political leader in Venezuela. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ...


On Thursday April 11, an estimated one million people marched to the headquarters of Venezuela's oil company, PDVSA, in defense of its fired management. The organizers decided to re-route the march to Miraflores, the presidential palace, where a pro-government demonstration was taking place. After violence erupted between demonstrators, the metropolitan police (controlled by the opposition) and national guard (controlled by Chávez), 17 people were killed and more than one hundred people were wounded. Doctors who treated the wounded reported that many of them appeared to have been shot from above in a sniper-like fashion. April 11 is the 101st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (102nd in leap years). ... Petróleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PdVSA) is the Venezuelan nationally owned petroleum company. ... Miraflores presidential palace is the Venezuelan presidential residence in Caracas. ...


After commander-in-chief Lucas Rincón Romero announced to the nation that he had resigned, Chávez was arrested on April 12, 2002, and Fedecámaras president Pedro Carmona was appointed by the military as interim president. [3] (http://www.11abril.com/index/videos/abril_2002_1.asp) His first decree dissolved all established powers and reverted the nation's name back to República de Venezuela. This decree did not make it for publication in the official journal, due to the short time his self-proclaimed interim government was in power. These events generated some uprisings and looting on some sectors of Caracas in support of Chávez. Emboldened by massive popular protest, army troops loyal to Chávez retook the presidential palace. Thus ended the briefest government in Venezuelan history with the return of Chávez in the night of Saturday April 13, 2002. April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ... 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Categories: Stub | 1941 births ... April 13 is the 103rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (104th in leap years). ... 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Strike/lockout

For two months from December 2, 2002, the Chávez government was faced with a business strike aimed at forcing the president from office by cutting off the state from all-important oil revenue. The strike was led by a coalition of labor unions, industry captains and oil workers. As a consequence, Venezuela stopped exporting a daily average of 2,800,000 barrels (450,000 m³) of oil and derivatives and began to import gasoline for internal use. Chávez replaced the upper management of the Venezuelan national oil company, Petróleos de Venezuela (PDVSA), and dismissed 18,000 PDVSA employees on grounds of mismanagement and corruption, although supporters of the oil bosses called the action "politically motivated". A disputed court ruling declared the dismissal of these workers illegal and ordered the immediate return of the entire group to their former posts. Nevertheless, Chávez, PDVSA's CEO Alí Rodríguez, and Minister of Mines Rafael Rodríguez have repeatedly expressed that the ruling will not be enforced. December 2 is the 336th day (337th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Petróleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PDVSA) is the Venezuelan nationally owned petroleum company. ... Chief Executive Officer (CEO) is the job of having the ultimate executive responsibility or authority within an organization or corporation. ... Alí Rodríguez Araque (born 1937) is a Venezuelan politician, diplomat, and oil adviser to President Hugo Chávez. ... Minister of Energy and Mines officially, sometimes known as Energy and Oil. ...


The majority of those who participated in the lockout were opposition-supporting management, opposed in particular to Chavez' attempt to gain control of the oil industry from longstanding vested interests. The Chavez government as well as many of the workers who refused to be part of the lockout, and unemployed who participated in getting PDVSA back online, have repeatedly alleged that important equipment was sabotaged, and that the white-collar workers who participated in the strike/lockout destroyed many of the computer passwords and sabotaged much software. This has been compared to the way the 'interim government', who tried to replace the president during their short-lived coup attempt, robbed the Miraflores safe before escaping the Presidential Palace.


Movement to remove Chávez in a referendum

See also: Venezuelan recall referendum, 2004 The Venezuelan recall referendum of 15 August 2004 was a referendum to determine whether Hugo Chávez, the president of Venezuela, should be recalled from office. ...

Chávez supporters march through the streets of Caracas on August 8, 2004, urging a 'No' vote in the upcoming recall.

In August 2003, opposition leaders began the process to recall Chávez, a procedure first introduced in Venezuela in the 1999 constitution. When the opposition presented the National Electoral Council (CNE) with 3.2 million signatures, the CNE rejected the petition by a vote of 3-0 with 2 members abstaining, ruling that signatures collected before the mid-point of Chávez's term were not valid under Venezuelan law. In November, the opposition conducted another signature drive, again presenting over 3 million signatures. This work is copyrighted. ... This work is copyrighted. ... August 8 is the 220th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (221st in leap years), with 145 days remaining. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December A timeline of events in the news for August, 2003. ... A recall election is a procedure by which voters can remove an elected official from office. ... The Consejo Nacional Electoral (National Electoral Council, or CNE) is the institution in charge of all electoral processes that take place in Venezuela. ...


The recall vote was held on August 15, 2004. Record numbers of voters turned out, and polling hours had to be extended by at least eight hours. 59.25% of the vote was against the recall, for Chávez remaining in office. Election observers Jimmy Carter of the Carter Center and Organization of American States Secretary General César Gaviria endorsed the results of Venezuela's recall referendum. In the following weeks, opposition supporters made numerous claims regarding irregularites. Eventually, most of the opposition agreed that Chávez survived the recall effort. August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Order: 39th President Vice President: Walter Mondale Term of office: January 20, 1977 – January 20, 1981 Preceded by: Gerald Ford Succeeded by: Ronald Reagan Date of birth: October 1, 1924 Place of birth: Plains, Georgia First Lady: Rosalynn Carter Political party: Democratic James Earl Jimmy Carter, Jr. ... The Carter Center is a human rights organization, founded in 1982 and chaired by former U.S. President Jimmy Carter. ... The Organization of American States (OAS; OEA in the other three official languages) is an international organization, headquartered in Washington, D.C., USA. Its members are the 35 independent nations of the Americas. ... Term of office: August 7, 1990 – August 7, 1994 Preceded by: Virgilio Barco Vargas Succeeded by: Ernesto Samper Pizano Date of birth: March 31, 1947 Place of birth: Pereira, Colombia First Lady: Ana Milena Muñoz de Gaviria Political party: Liberal César Gaviria Trujillo (born March 31, 1947) is a Colombian...


Arrest of alleged paramilitaries

Main article: Alleged planned Venezuelan coup in 2004 On May 9, 2004, Venezuelan police raided a ranch in Buruta, on the outskirts of the capital Caracas, arresting fifty-five Colombian men. ...


In May 2004, Venezuelan state TV reported the capture of 126 Colombians accused of being paramilitaries, near properties belonging to Cuban exile Roberto Alonso, one of the leaders of the Venezuelan opposition group Bloque Democrático, and media magnate Gustavo Cisneros, a Cuban-Venezuelan Chávez opponent and one of the alleged architects of the 2002 coup. According to one of the detainees, they would have been offered 500,000 Colombian pesos to work on the farm, before being informed that they would have to prepare for an attack on a National Guard base, with the goal of stealing weapons to potentially arm a 3,000-strong militia. [4] (http://www.greenleft.org.au/back/2004/583/583p18b.htm) 2004 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December Deaths in May • 28 Gerald Anthony • 27 Umberto Agnelli • 22 Richard Biggs • 20 Len Murray • 17 Tony Randall • 17 Ezzedine Salim • 9 Alan King • 9 Akhmad Kadyrov • 8(?) Nick Berg • 7 Waldemar Milewicz Other recent deaths Ongoing... A paramilitary is a group of civilians trained and organized in a military fashion. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Gustavo Cisneros is a Latin American media king and is among the worlds 100 richest men according to Forbes magazine. ... The Colombian peso is the currency of Colombia. ... A militia is a group of citizens organized to provide paramilitary service. ...


Venezuelan policy under Chávez

With Chávez's emergence, there have been many social and economic changes in Venezuela. The Venezuelan business community, represented by the Venezuelan Federation of Chambers of Commerce (Fedecámaras), strongly opposes Chávez and his policies, and the largest labor federation has joined them.


Economic and oil policy

Hugo Chavez meets with Chinese President Hu Jintao on December 23, 2004 during a state visit to China aimed at bolstering his country's oil deals with the world's fastest growing large economy.

Venezuela is a major producer of oil products, and oil is vitally important to the Venezuelan economy. Chávez has gained a reputation as a price hawk in OPEC, pushing for stringent enforcement of production quotas and higher target prices. He has also attempted to broaden Venezuela's customer base, striking joint exploration deals with other developing countries, including Argentina, Brazil, India, and China. Taken from [1] This work is copyrighted. ... Taken from [1] This work is copyrighted. ... Hú Jǐntāo (born December 21, 1942) became General Secretary of the Communist Party of China on November 15, 2002. ... The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is made up of Algeria, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Venezuela; since 1965, its international headquarters have been in Vienna, Austria. ...


Chávez has redirected the focus of PDVSA, the Venezuelan state oil company, bringing it more closely under the direction of the Minister of Energy. He has also attempted to repatriate more oil funds, by raising the percentage of royalties Venezuela receives on joint extraction contracts, and exploring selling some or all of Citgo's assets, a US-based subsidiary of PDVSA. Petróleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PdVSA) is the Venezuelan nationally owned petroleum company. ... The Citgo gasoline brand was inaugurated in 1965 by the Cities Service Company, a U.S. energy company that first rose to prominence in the early 1900s. ...


International relations

Chávez has made Latin American integration one of the centerpieces of his policies. This has come in many forms: the creation or extension of joint institutions like Petrosur, Telesur, and Mercosur; bilateral trade relationships with other Latin American countries, including arms purchases from Brazil, oil-for-expertise trades with Cuba, and a pipeline through Colombia. Venezuela's relationship with its neighbor Colombia has been rocky at times, though; with events like the Rodrigo Granda affair temporarily throwing the relationship into crisis. Televisora del Sur (Television of the South, teleSUR) is a proposed television network in South America. ... Flag of Mercosur Mercosur or Mercosul (Spanish: Mercado Común del Sur, Portuguese: Mercado Comum do Sul, English: Southern Common Market) is a trading zone among Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay, founded in 1995. ... The Rodrigo Granda affair was an international incident that increased tension between Venezuela and Colombia between December 2004 and February 2005. ...

In May 2005 Presidents Chavez and Castro sign the document creating the Bolivarian Alternative for the Americas (ALBA), which deepens integration between the Cuban and Venezuelan economies. The signing was also an apparent protest against the U.S.-backed Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA).

Venezuela under Chávez has had a mostly antagonistic relationship with the United States. Chávez's public friendship and significant trade relationship with Cuba and Fidel Castro have undermined the U.S. policy of isolating Cuba, and long-running ties between the U.S. and Venezuelan militaries were severed on Chávez's initiative. Chávez's stance as an OPEC price hawk has raised the price of oil for the United States, as Venezuela pushed OPEC producers towards a higher price, around $25 a barrel. During Venezuela's presidency of OPEC in 2000, Chávez made a ten-day tour of OPEC countries, in the process becoming the first head of state to meet Saddam Hussein (whom Chávez had previously referred to as a "brother"), since the Gulf War. Despite OPEC duties, the visit was controversial at home and in the US. Chávez did respect the ban on international flights to and from Iraq (he drove from Iran, his previous stop).[5] (http://archives.cnn.com/2000/WORLD/meast/08/10/iraq.chavez.02/) This work is copyrighted. ... This work is copyrighted. ... The Free Trade Area of the Americas or FTAA (in Spanish: Área de Libre Comercio de las Américas, ALCA; in French: Zone de libre-échange des Amériques, ZLEA; in Portuguese: Área de Livre Comércio das Américas, ALCA) is a proposed agreement to eliminate or reduce trade barriers among all States... Fidel Castro Fidel Castro Ruz (born August 13, 1926), has led Cuba since 1959, when, leading the 26th of July Movement, he overthrew the dictatorship of Fulgencio Batista, and transformed Cuba into the first Communist-led state in the Western Hemisphere. ... The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is made up of Algeria, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Venezuela; since 1965, its international headquarters have been in Vienna, Austria. ... Though a term originally coined for Republican presidents, a head of state or chief of state is now universally known as the chief public representative of a nation-state, federation or commonwealth, whose role generally includes personifying the continuity and legitimacy of the state and exercising the political powers, functions... Saddam Hussein Saddām Hussein ʻAbd al-Majīd al-Tikrīt, spelled Husayn or Hussain; Arabic صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي; born April 28, 1937 1) was President of Iraq from 1979 until 2003. ... C Company, 1st Battalion, The Staffordshire Regiment, 1st UK Armoured Division The 1991 Persian Gulf War was a conflict between Iraq and a coalition force of 34 nations mandated by the United Nations and led by the United States. ...


Chávez has been intensely critical of U.S. economic and foreign policy: in Iraq, Haiti, regarding the Free Trade Area of the Americas and in numerous other areas. On 20 February 2005, Chávez stated that he had reasons to believe that the U.S. had plans to have him assassinated; he said that any attempt would mean that Venezuela would cut off oil to the U.S. [6] (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/4282603.stm) His rhetoric has sometimes touched the personal: in response to the ouster of Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide in February 2004, Chávez called U.S. President George W. Bush a pendejo ("prick"); in a later speech, he made personal remarks regarding Condoleezza Rice. The Free Trade Area of the Americas or FTAA (in Spanish: Área de Libre Comercio de las Américas, ALCA; in French: Zone de libre-échange des Amériques, ZLEA; in Portuguese: Área de Livre Comércio das Américas, ALCA) is a proposed agreement to eliminate or reduce trade barriers among all States... February 20 is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and is the current year. ... Jean-Bertrand Aristide Jean-Bertrand Aristide (born July 15, 1953) is a Haitian politician and former Roman Catholic priest who was President of Haiti in 1991, from 1994 to 1996, and again from 2001 to 2004. ... 2004 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December- → February 29, 2004 Jean-Bertrand Aristide resigns as president of Haiti and flees the country for the Central African Republic. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician and the 43rd and current president of the United States. ... Pendejo is a vulgar Spanish-language term of abuse. ... Condoleezza Condi Rice (born November 14, 1954), is the second United States Secretary of State in the administration of President George W. Bush. ...


The United States has consistently opposed Chávez, recognizing the Carmona government during the 2002 coup, calling Chávez a "negative force" in the region, and requesting support from Venezuela's neighbors in isolating Chávez. The U.S. has opposed and lobbied against numerous arms Venezuelan arms purchases, including a purchase of 100,000 rifles from Russia, which Donald Rumsfeld implied would be passed on to FARC, and the purchase of aircraft from Brazil. At the 2005 meeting of the Organization of American States, a United States resolution to add a mechanism to monitor the nature of democracies was widely seen as a move to isolate Venezuela. The failure of the resolution was seen as politically significant. (For more, see U.S.-Venezuelan relations.) Donald Rumsfeld Donald Henry Rumsfeld (born July 9, 1932) is the current Secretary of Defense of the United States, since January 20, 2001, under President George W. Bush. ... The Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia – Ejército del Pueblo (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia – Peoples Army, or FARC-EP) was established in 1964 as the paramilitary wing of the Colombian Communist Party, and is Colombias oldest, largest, most capable, and best-equipped insurgent force. ... The Organization of American States (OAS; OEA in the other three official languages) is an international organization, headquartered in Washington, D.C., USA. Its members are the 35 independent nations of the Americas. ... Hugo Chávez era Since Hugo Chávez was elected President of Venezuela, the long-standing close diplomatic relationship between Venezuela and the United States have progressively worsened. ...


Social programs

Venezuela under Chávez has started numerous social programs: Barrio Adentro, an initiative to provide free health care to poor and underserved areas, Mission Robinson and Mission Sucre to increase literacy and basic education. The literacy programs are centered on learning to read and understand the Venezuelan Constitution and their inherent rights as Venezuelan citizens. These programs have been criticized as inefficient and incomplete by opposition figures but are widely heralded and appreciated by Chávez backers and by many international observers, including the World Health Organization. Barrio Adentro (Inside the neighborhood, or Into the neighborhood) is a government-sponsored Venezuelan program to provide free health care and dental care to poor and traditionally underserved communities. ... For other meanings of the acronym WHO, see WHO (disambiguation) WHO flag Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the World Health Organization (WHO) is an agency of the United Nations, acting as a coordinating authority on international public health. ...


Many of these programs involve importing expertise from abroad; Venezuela is providing Cuba with 53,000 barrels (8,000 m³) of below-market-rate oil a day in exchange for the service of hundreds of physicians, teachers, and other professionals that are severely lacking in Venezuela. (BBC) (http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/4035787.stm)


Land Reform

Enlarge
Chávez speaks at an MST camp. (Photo: Marcello Jr/ABr)

The Ley de Tierras ("Land Law"), passed by decree in November 2001, created Plan Zamora to enact land reforms in Venezuelan agriculture: taxing unused landholdings, expropriating unused private lands (with compensation), and giving inheritable, unsellable land grants to small farmers and farm collectives. Venezuela has seen a vast disinvestment in its rural areas since oil wealth was discovered; the country has an urbanization rate of more than 85% and it is a net food importer. The rationale given for this program was that it would provide incentives for the repopulation of the countryside and provide "food security" for the country by lessening dependence on foreign imports. There are three types of land that may be granted under the program: government land, land which is claimed by private owners, but which the government disputes their claim, and disused private land. To date, only the first two types of land have been distributed. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... MST logo The Brazilian Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais Sem Terra MST), commonly known in English as the Landless Workers Movement, is the largest social movement in Latin America with more than a 1. ... Plan Zamora is a land reform program in Venezuela, created in law by the Ley de Tierras (Law of Land), part of a package of 49 decrees made by Hugo Chávez in November 2001. ... Land reform (also agrarian reform) is the government-initiated or government-backed transfer of ownership of (or tenure in) agricultural land. ...


Media

All of the five privately-owned mainstream TV networks and most major mainstream newspapers oppose Chávez, but a small minority of the media is said to support him. Chávez claims the opposition media is controlled by the interests which oppose him, whereas the media accuse him of having intimidated journalists with his pronouncements and of allegedly sending gangs to threaten journalists with physical violence.


The coverage of the 2002 coup by the five mainstream, privately-owned TV networks has been the source of much antagonism between the Chavez government and the media. These five stations openly urged popular support of the coup, showing footage which has come under fire from Chavistas (supporters of Chavez), the government and international journalists for its subjective selection of detail and even manipulation of images. On the first morning after the coup, many of the highest ranking members of the coup appeared on these stations openly thanking them and their owners for their support. Once the counter-coup was launched by Chavistas and Loyalist elements of the Palace Guard, these five stations ran an infamous 'news-blackout', refusing to report on the events, and instead showing old films and repeats of sitcoms. A sitcom or situation comedy is a genre of comedy performance originally devised for radio but today typically found on television. ...


Even before the April 2002 coup, these five TV networks and the Chavez government have been on very poor relations. Chavez and government officials repeatedly allege that the owners of these networks are allied to the interests of the U.S.A. and the economic policies of neoliberalism. The TV networks have made many comments against Chavez, which include repeatedly alleging that he is insane, has 'a sexual obsession with Castro' and other vitriolic accusations about his political dealings with other nations. For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ... The term neoliberalism was coined by Conservative Republicans to describe a political-economic philosophy that had major implications for government policies beginning in the 1970s – and increasingly prominent since 1980 – that de-emphasizes or rejects positive government intervention in the economy (that complements private initiative), focusing instead on achieving progress...


In 2005, the Chávez government announced the creation of Telesur, a proposed Latin America-wide satellite television network to compete with CNN en español and Univisión. 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and is the current year. ... Televisora del Sur (Television of the South, teleSUR) is a proposed television network in South America. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Univision Communications (also known as Univision or in Spanish, Univisión) is one of the largest Spanish language media companies and television networks in the United States. ...


Labor

Chávez has had a combative relationship with the nation's largest trade union confederation, the Confederación de Trabajadores de Venezuela (CTV), historically aligned with the Acción Democrática party. During December 2000 local elections, Chávez placed a referendum on the ballot to force internal elections within unions. The referendum, condemned by the International Labour Organisation (ILO) and International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU) as interference in internal union matters, passed by a large margin on very thin turnout. In the ensuing elections, Carlos Ortega declared victory and remained in office, whereas Chavista candidates declared fraud. A union (labor union in American English; trade union in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a group of workers who act collectively to address common issues. ... CTV symbol The Confederación de Trabajadores de Venezuela (CTV, English: Confederation of Workers of Venezuela) is a federation of labor unions in Venezuela. ... The Acción Democrática (Democratic Action, or AD) is a Venezuelan social democratic political party. ... For other meanings of the ILO abbreviation, see ILO (disambiguation). ... Claiming 157 million members in 225 affiliated organisations in 148 countries and territories, the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU) came into being on December 7, 1949 following a split within the World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU). ... Carlos Ortega Carvajal is a union and political leader in Venezuela. ...


The Unión Nacional de los Trabajadores (UNT, National Workers' Union) is a pro-Chávez union federation which has been growing during Chávez's presidency, with some pro-Chávez unions disaffiliating with CTV because of their strident anti-Chávez activism and affiliation with the UNT. In 2003, Chávez sent UNT representatives to an ILO meeting, rather than CTV.


On January 19, 2005, Chávez nationalized Venepal, a paper- and cardboard-manufacturing company at the request of its workers. The company had gone bankrupt as a result of its participation in the general lockout in 2003. Workers occupied the factory and restarted production, but following a failed deal with management and amidst management threats to sell off equipment, Chávez ordered the nationalization, extended a line of credit, and ordered that the Venezuelan educational missions (see above) purchase paper products from the company. January 19 is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and is the current year. ... Nationalization is the act of taking assets into state ownership. ...


Military

Before social programs like Barrio Adentro had been created, Chávez enacted Plan Bolivar. A large component of that plan was the involvement of the military in civic development. Each military branch became involved in different areas of development, such as road-building, vaccinations, or housing construction. These programs were widely criticized as corrupt, but Chávez has defended them, arguing that they were the only means of development available to him while his political opposition controlled most of the state bureacracy. [7] (http://www.zmag.org/content/showarticle.cfm?SectionID=45&ItemID=2841)


Under Chávez, the Venezuelan military has diversified its sources of weaponry, purchasing arms from Brazil, Russia, and Spain. The U.S. has criticized many of these purchases and pressured both Russia and Spain not to carry through with them. Venezuela has also complained that the U.S. has refused or delayed sale of parts for F-16 airplanes which Venezuela had purchased from the U.S. in the 1980s. Venezuelan has distanced itself from the United States military, ending cooperation between the two militaries and asking U.S. soldiers to leave the country. The F-16 Fighting Falcon is a modern multi-role jet fighter aircraft built in the United States and used by dozens of countries all over the world. ...


In 2005, Chávez announced the creation of a large "military reserve" to eventually encompass 1.5 million people.


Democratic Socialism

On 30 January 2005 at the World Social Forum in Porto Alegre, Brazil, Chávez declared his support for democratic socialism, in his words "a new type of socialism, a humanist one, which puts humans and not machines or the state ahead of everything." [8] (http://www.venezuelanalysis.com/news.php?newsno=1486) He later reiterated this in a February 26 speech at the 4th Summit on the Social Debt held in Caracas. [9] (http://www.cnn.com/2005/WORLD/americas/02/25/venezuela.chavez.reut/) January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and is the current year. ... Noam Chomsky at World Social Forum 2003. ... Public Market of Porto Alegre located in the centre of the city. ... A red carnation held in a closed fist is the international symbol of democratic socialism. ... February 26 is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Cerro Avila, Caracas. ...


See also

This is a List of national leaders, showing heads of state and heads of government where different, mainly in parliamentary systems; it should be noted that often a leader is both in presidential systems or dictatorships. ... Leaders and revolutionaries Mahmoud Abbas - new President of the Palestinian Authority Gordon Brown - British Chancellor of the Exchequer George W. Bush — President of the United States Hugo Chávez - President of Venezuela Chen Shui-bian - President of the Republic of China; leader of Taiwan. ... This is the history of Venezuela. ... Current President Hugo Chávez was elected in December 1998 on a platform that called for the creation of a National Constituent Assembly in order to write a new Constitution. ... The Bolivarian Revolution is the social and political movement founded by Hugo Chávez that is based on the ideals of Simón Bolívar, an early 19th century Latin American Independence hero. ... Hugo Chávez, surrounded by resolute supporters, makes a dramatic return to power on April 13, 2002 after the collapse of the first Latin American coup of the twenty-first century. ... Bolivarianism is a rough doctrine somewhat popular in northern Latin American countries, named after the South American general Simón Bolívar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has more media related to:

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... May 30 is the 150th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (151st in leap years). ... The Nation is a weekly leftist periodical devoted to politics and culture. ... April 11 is the 101st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (102nd in leap years). ...

Blogs


 
 

COMMENTARY     

Socorro25GOLDEN
20th July 2010
That's known that money makes people autonomous. But how to act when one has no cash? The one way only is to receive the loan and just bank loan.
There are 1 more (non-authoritative) comments on this page

Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m