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Encyclopedia > Hudson River School
Thomas Cole (1801-1848)View from Mount Holyoke, Northampton, Massachusetts, after a Thunderstorm or The Oxbow 1836
Thomas Cole (1801-1848)
View from Mount Holyoke, Northampton, Massachusetts, after a Thunderstorm or The Oxbow 1836

The Hudson River School was a mid-19th century American art movement by a group of landscape painters, whose aesthetic vision was influenced by romanticism. Their paintings depict the Hudson River Valley and the surrounding area, as well as the Catskill Mountains, Adirondack Mountains, and White Mountains of New Hampshire. "School", in this sense, refers to a group of people whose outlook, inspiration, output, or style demonstrates a common thread, rather than a learning institution. View from Mount Holyoke, Northampton, Massachusetts, after a Thunderstorm (The Oxbow). ... View from Mount Holyoke, Northampton, Massachusetts, after a Thunderstorm (The Oxbow). ... Thomas Cole, ca. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Landscape art depicts scenery such as mountains, valleys, trees, rivers, and forests. ... Painting by Rembrandt self-portrait Detail from Las Meninas by Diego Velazquez, in which the painter portrayed himself at work For the computer graphics program, see Corel Painter. ... Romantics redirects here. ... For the magazine, see Hudson Valley (magazine). ... The Catskill Mountains (also known as simply the Catskills), a natural area in New York State northwest of New York City and southwest of Albany are a mature dissected plateau, an uplifted region that was subsequently eroded into sharp relief. ... Stream on the hike to the top of Ampersand Mountain The Adirondack mountain range is located in the northeastern part of New York that runs through Clinton, Essex, Franklin, Fulton, Hamilton, Herkimer, Lewis, St. ... Looking south on the Franconia Ridge Trail. ...

Contents

Overview

Neither the originator of the term Hudson River School nor its first published use has been fixed with certainty. It is thought to have originated with the New York Tribune art critic Clarence Cook or the landscape painter Homer D. Martin (Howat, pages 3-4). As originally used, the term was meant disparagingly, as the work so labelled had gone out of favor when the Barbizon School and Impressionism came into vogue. The Gleaners. ... This article is about the art movement. ...


Hudson River School paintings reflect three themes of America in the 19th century: discovery, exploration, and settlement. The paintings also depict the American landscape as a pastoral setting, where human beings and nature coexist peacefully. Hudson River School landscapes are characterized by their realistic, detailed, and sometimes idealized portrayal of nature along with the juxtaposition of colonialism and wilderness. In general, Hudson River School artists believed that nature in the form of the American landscape was an ineffable manifestation of God, though the artists varied in the depth of their religious conviction. They took as their inspiration such European masters as Claude Lorrain, John Constable and J.M.W. Turner, and shared a reverence for America's natural beauty with contemporary American writers such as Henry David Thoreau and Ralph Waldo Emerson. For other uses, see Pastoral (disambiguation). ... This article is about modern humans. ... This article is about the physical universe. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Claude Lorrain. ... A self portrait by John Constable John Constable (11 June 1776 – 31 March 1837) was an English Romantic painter. ... J. M. W. Turner, English landscape painter The fighting Temeraire tugged to her last berth to be broken up, painted 1839. ... Thoreau redirects here. ... Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25, 1803 – April 27, 1882) was an American essayist, poet, and leader of the Transcendentalist movement in the early nineteenth century. ...


While the elements of the paintings are rendered very realistically, many of the actual scenes are the synthesized compositions of multiple scenes or natural images observed by the artists. In gathering the visual data for their paintings, the artists would travel to rather extraordinary and extreme environments, the likes of which would not permit the act of painting. During these expeditions, sketches and memories would be recorded and the paintings would be rendered later, upon the artists' safe return home.


Thomas Cole

The artist Thomas Cole is generally acknowledged as the founder of the Hudson River School. Cole took a steamship up the Hudson in the autumn of 1825, the same year the Erie Canal opened, stopping first at West Point, then at Catskill landing where he ventured west high up into the eastern Catskill Mountains of New York State to paint the first landscapes of the area. The first review of his work appeared in the New York Evening Post on Nov. 22, 1825[1]. At that time, only the English native Cole, born in a monochromatic green landscape, found the brilliant autumn hues of the area unusual. Cole's close friend, Asher Durand, became a prominent figure in the school as well, particularly when the banknote-engraving business evaporated in the Panic of 1837. Thomas Cole, ca. ... Year 1825 (MDCCCXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Erie Canal (currently part of the New York State Canal System) is a canal in New York State, United States, that runs from the Hudson River to Lake Erie, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... The Catskill Mountains (also known as simply the Catskills), a natural area in New York State northwest of New York City and southwest of Albany are a mature dissected plateau, an uplifted region that was subsequently eroded into sharp relief. ... Asher Brown Durand (1796 - 1886) was a U.S. painter of Hudson River School. ... Whig campaign poster blames Van Buren for hard times (1840). ...


Second generation

The second generation of Hudson River school artists emerged to prominence after Cole's premature death in 1848, including Cole's prize pupil Frederic Edwin Church, John Frederick Kensett, and Sanford Robinson Gifford. Works by artists of this second generation are often described as examples of Luminism, or the Luminist movement in American art. In addition to pursuing their art, many of the artists, including Kensett. Gifford and Church[2], were founders of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. Frederic Edwin Church (May 4, 1826 - April 7, 1900) was an American landscape painter born in Hartford, Connecticut. ... John Frederick Kensett b. ... Sanford Robinson Gifford (July 10, 1823 – August 29, 1880) was an American landscape painter and one of the leading members of the Hudson River School. ... Luminism is an American landscape painting style of the 1850s – 1870s, characterized by effects of light in landscapes, through the use of aerial perspective, and the hiding of visible brushstrokes. ... Metropolitan Museum of Art New York Elevation The Metropolitan Museum of Art, often referred to simply as the Met, is one of the worlds largest and most important art museums. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...


Most of the finest works of the Hudson River school were painted between 1855 and 1875. During that time, artists like Frederic Edwin Church and Albert Bierstadt were treated like major celebrities. When Church exhibited paintings like Niagara[3] or Icebergs of the North [4], thousands of people would line up around the block and pay fifty cents a head to view the solitary work. The epic size of the landscapes in these paintings reminded Americans of the vast, untamed, but magnificent wilderness areas in their country, and their works helped build upon movements to settle the American West, preserve national parks, and create city parks. Albert Bierstadt, by Napoleon Sarony. ...


Public collections

One of the largest collections of paintings by artists of the Hudson River School is at the Wadsworth Atheneum in Hartford, Connecticut. Some of the most notable works in the Atheneum's collection are 13 landscapes by Thomas Cole, and 11 by Hartford native Frederic Edwin Church, both of whom were personal friends of the museum's founder, Daniel Wadsworth. Other important collections of Hudson River School art can be seen at the Metropolitan Museum of Art and the New-York Historical Society, both in Manhattan, NY; the Brooklyn Museum in Brooklyn, NY; the National Gallery of Art in Washington, DC; the Albany Institute of History & Art in Albany, New York; the Gilcrease Museum in Tulsa, Oklahoma; the Newark Museum in Newark, NJ; and the Westervelt Warner Museum of American Art in Tuscaloosa, Alabama. The Wadsworth Atheneum is the oldest public art museum in the United States and largest in the state of Connecticut. ... Hartford redirects here. ... Metropolitan Museum of Art New York Elevation The Metropolitan Museum of Art, often referred to simply as the Met, is one of the worlds largest and most important art museums. ... The New-York Historical Society is an American organization located in New York City and dedicated to the preservation of the citys history. ... This article is about the borough of New York City. ... The Brooklyn Museum, located at 200 Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn, New York, is the second largest art museum in New York City, and one of the largest in the United States. ... This article is about the borough of New York City. ... The West building of the National Gallery of Art with the East building visible behind and to to the left The National Gallery of Art is an art museum, located on the National Mall in Washington, D.C. The museum was established in 1937 by the Congress, with funds for... The Albany Institute of History & Art (AIHA) is a museum in Albany, New York dedicated to collecting, preserving, interpreting and promoting interest in the history, art, and culture of Albany and the Upper Hudson Valley region.[1] The museum is located at 125 Washington Avenue in downtown Albany. ... For other uses, see Albany. ... Gilcrease Museum Gilcrease Museum is a museum located northwest of downtown Tulsa, Oklahoma. ... Main Building of the Newark Museum The Newark Museum is the largest museum in New Jersey. ... The Westervelt Warner is located in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, United States. ... Tuscaloosa is a city in west central Alabama in the southern United States. ...


Noteworthy artists of the Hudson River School

Main article: List of Hudson River School artists

Albert Bierstadt, by Napoleon Sarony. ... Frederic Edwin Church (May 4, 1826 - April 7, 1900) was an American landscape painter born in Hartford, Connecticut. ... Thomas Cole, ca. ... Samuel Colman (1832—1920) was an American painter, interior designer, and writer, probably best remembered for his paintings of the Hudson River. ... Jasper Francis Cropsey is an artist of the Hudson River School. ... Thomas Doughty (1793–1856) was an American artist of the Hudson River School. ... Robert Scott Duncanson (c. ... Asher Brown Durand, circa 1869. ... Sanford Robinson Gifford (July 10, 1823 – August 29, 1880) was an American landscape painter and one of the leading members of the Hudson River School. ... James McDougal Hart (1828 - 1901), born in Kilmarnock, Scotland, like his brother, was a landscape and cattle painter. ... William Hart in c. ... Martin Johnson Heade (1819-1904) was an American painter of the Hudson River School. ... Hermann Ottomar Herzog (November 15, 1831 - September 11, 1932) was a prominent nineteenth- and early twentieth-century European and American artist. ... Yosemite Valley by Thomas Hil, c. ... Near Noroton Connecticut (1875) by David Johnson David Johnson (1827 – 1908) was an Hudson River School painter. ... John Frederick Kensett b. ... Jervis McEntee (July 14, 1828 - January 27, 1891) was a American painter of the Hudson River School. ... Thomas Moran. ... Robert Walter Weir, circa 1864. ... Worthington Whittredge (1820-1910) was an American artist of the Hudson River School. ...

See also

Thomas Hill (1829-1908) Mount Lafayette in Winter 1870 In the early part of the 19th century, artists ventured to the White Mountains of New Hampshire to sketch and paint. ... Landscape art depicts scenery such as mountains, valleys, trees, rivers, and forests. ... See also Western art, History of painting, History of art, Art history, Painting, Outline of painting history Jan Vermeer, Girl with a Pearl Earring, known as the Mona Lisa of the North 1665-1667 Édouard Manet, The Balcony 1868 The history of Western painting represents a continuous, though disrupted, tradition... // The history of painting reaches back in time to artifacts from pre-historic humans, and spans all cultures. ...

References

  1. ^ Thomas Cole
  2. ^ Magazine Antiques, Jan, 2000 by John K. Howat
  3. ^ Collection Highlights / The Corcoran Gallery of Art
  4. ^ [1][2]
  5. ^ [3],
  6. ^ Robert W
  7. ^ Archives of American Art - Weir family papers, 1823-1930

Sources

Howat, John K. American Paradise, The World of the Hudson River School. The Metroplitan Museum of Art, Harry N. Abrams, Inc., New York, 1987. Harry N. Abrams, Inc. ...


External links

The Age of Enlightenment (French: ; Italian: ; German: ; Spanish: ; Swedish: ; Polish: ) was an eighteenth-century movement in Western philosophy. ... Victorianism is the name given to the attitudes, art, and culture of the later two-thirds of the 19th century. ... For other uses, see Realism (disambiguation). ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Hudson River school - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1026 words)
The Hudson River School was a mid-19th century American art movement by a group of landscape painters whose aesthetic vision was influenced by romanticism.
In general, Hudson River School artists believed that nature in the form of the American landscape was an ineffable manifestation of God, though the artists varied in the depth of their religious conviction.
Other important collections of Hudson River School art can be seen at the Metropolitan Museum of Art and the New-York Historical Society, both in New York City; the Brooklyn Museum in Brooklyn, NY; the National Gallery of Art in Washington, DC; and the Westervelt Warner Museum of American Art in Tuscaloosa, Alabama.
Hudson River - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2092 words)
The Hudson River Railroad was chartered the next year as a continuation of the Troy and Greenbush south to New York City, and was completed in 1851.
The width of the Lower Hudson River required major feats of engineering to cross, the results today visible in the Verrazano Narrows and George Washington Bridges, as well as the Lincoln and Holland Tunnels and the PATH and Pennsylvania Railroad tubes.
The Hudson River serves as a political boundary between the states of New Jersey and New York, and further north between New York counties.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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