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Encyclopedia > Hudson Bay
Hudson Bay, Canada.

Hudson Bay (French: baie d'Hudson) is a large (1.23 million km²), relatively shallow body of water in northeastern Canada. It drains a very large area that includes parts of Ontario, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Alberta, most of Manitoba, parts of North Dakota and Minnesota, and the southeastern area of Nunavut. A smaller offshoot of the bay, James Bay, lies to the south. The IHO, in its Special Publication 23, Limits of Oceans and Seas, fourth edition, lists Hudson Bay as part of the Arctic Ocean. On the east it is connected with the Atlantic Ocean by Hudson Strait, and on the north with the rest of the Arctic Ocean by Foxe Basin (which is not considered part of the bay) and Fury and Hecla Strait. Geographic coordinates: 78° to 95° W, 51° to 70° N. New York Harbor, a geographic term, refers collectively to the rivers, bays, and tidal estuaries near the mouth of the Hudson River in the vicinity of New York City. ... The Hudson River, called Muh-he-kun-ne-tuk in Mahican or as the Lenape Native Americans called it in Unami, Muhheakantuck, is a river that runs through the eastern portion of New York State and, along its southern terminus, demarcates the border between the states of New York and... Image File history File links Authored by user Tim Vasquez. ... Image File history File links Authored by user Tim Vasquez. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 107 Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... This article is about the Canadian province. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... For other uses, see Alberta (disambiguation). ... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English French (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 14 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th) Area  Ranked 8th Total 647,797... Official language(s) English Capital Bismarck Largest city Fargo Area  Ranked 19th  - Total 70,762 sq mi (183,272 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 340 miles (545 km)  - % water 2. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Area  Ranked 12th  - Total 87,014 sq mi (225,365 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 8. ... For the Canadian federal electoral district, see Nunavut (electoral district). ... James Bay in summer 2000 James Bay (French, Baie James) is a large body of water on the southern end of Hudson Bay in Canada. ... The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) is an intergovernmental international organization established in 1921. ... Hudson Strait is a strait connecting Hudson Bay to the Atlantic Ocean, running in an west-east direction. ... Foxe Basin, Nunavut, Canada. ... Fury and Hecla Strait is a narrow channel of water located in Northern Canada between Baffin Island and Melville Peninsula. ...


The Eastern Cree name for the Hudson and James bays is Wînipekw (Southern dialect) or Wînipâkw (Northern dialect), meaning muddy or brackish water. Lake Winnipeg is similarly named by the local Cree. Cree is the name for a group of closely-related Algonquian languages spoken by approximately 50,000 speakers across Canada, from Alberta to Labrador. ... Winnipeg Beach, Manitoba, on Lake Winnipeg Lake Winnipeg (52°30′N 97°47′W) is a very large (24,400 km²) lake in central North America, in the province of Manitoba, Canada, about 55 km north of the city of Winnipeg. ...

Contents

History

Canada, Routes of Explorers, 1497 to 1905
Canada, Routes of Explorers, 1497 to 1905

Hudson Bay was named after Henry Hudson, who explored the bay in 1610 on his ship the Discovery. On this fourth voyage he worked his way around the west coast of Greenland and into the bay, mapping much of its eastern coast. The Discovery became trapped in the ice over the winter, and the crew survived onshore at the southern tip of James Bay. When the ice cleared in the spring Hudson wanted to explore the rest of the area, but the crew mutinied on June 22, 1611. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... No portrait of Hudson is known to be in existence. ... // Events January 7 - Galileo Galilei discovers the Galilean moons of Jupiter. ... Discovery was a 70-ton fly-boat of the English East India Company, launched before 1602. ... Mutiny is the act of conspiring to disobey an order that a group of similarly-situated individuals (typically members of the military; or the crew of any ship, even if they are civilians) are legally obliged to obey. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events June 23 - Henry Hudsons crew maroons him, his son and 7 others in a boat November 1 - At Whitehall Palace in London, William Shakespeares romantic comedy The Tempest is presented for the first time. ...


Sixty years later the Nonsuch reached the bay and successfully traded for beaver pelts with the Cree. This led to the creation of the Hudson's Bay Company, which bears its name to this day. The British crown awarded a trading monopoly on the Hudson Bay watershed, called Rupert's Land, to the Hudson's Bay Company. France contested this grant by sending several military expeditions to the region, but abandoned its claim in the Treaty of Utrecht (April, 1713). The Nonsuch was the ship that sailed into Hudson Bay in 1668-1669, in the first trading voyage for what was to become the Hudsons Bay Company two years later. ... Binomial name Castor canadensis Kuhl, 1820 A taxidermied American Beaver The American Beaver (Castor canadensis) is a large semi-aquatic rodent native to Canada, most of the United States and parts of northern Mexico. ... For other uses, see Cree (disambiguation). ... Hudsons Bay Company (HBC; Compagnie de la Baie dHudson in French) is the oldest commercial corporation in North America and is one of the oldest in the world. ... A drainage basin is the area within the drainage basin divide (blue outline), and drains the surface runoff and river discharge (green lines) of a contiguous area. ... This article is about the trading territory. ... A map depicting the major changes in Western Europes borders as a result of the Treaties of Utrecht and Rastatt. ... Year 1713 (MDCCXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...


During this period, the Hudson's Bay Company built several forts and trading posts along the coast at the mouth of the major rivers (such as Fort Severn, Ontario, York Factory, Manitoba, and Churchill, Manitoba). The strategic locations allowed inland exploration and more importantly, facilitated trade with the indigenous people, who would bring fur to the posts from where the HBC would transport it directly to Europe (which incidentally is a shorter distance than from Montreal). The HBC continued to use these posts until the beginning of the 20th century. For the fortification of food, see Food fortification. ... A trading post is a place where trading of goods takes place. ... Fort Severn First Nation is located on the Hudson Bay and is the most northerly community in Ontario, Canada. ... Ruperts Land, showing the location of York Factory York Factory was a historic settlement and longtime headquarters of the Hudsons Bay Company in North America, located on the southwestern shore of Hudson Bay in present-day northeastern Manitoba, Canada. ... Orthographic projection centred over Churchill Manitoba. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - Total 365. ...


This land, an area of approximately 3.9 million km², was ceded in 1870 to Canada as part of the Northwest Territories when the trade monopoly was abolished. Starting in 1913, the Bay was extensively charted by the Canadian Government's CSS Acadia to develop the bay for navigation. This resulted in the establishment of Churchill, Manitoba, as a deep-sea port for wheat exports in 1929 after unsuccessful attempts at Port Nelson. 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For the former United States territory, see Northwest Territory. ... Crest of HMCS Acadia HMCS Acadia is the commissioned unit name in Royal Canadian Navy service for the CSS Acadia, a hydrographic surveying ship of the Hydrographic Survey of Canada and its successor the Canadian Hydrographic Service. ... Orthographic projection centred over Churchill Manitoba. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Port Nelson in 1917. ...


Due to a change in naming conventions, Hudson's Bay is now correctly called Hudson Bay. As a result, both the body of water and the company are often misnamed.


Geography

Waters

In late spring (May), large chunks of ice float near the eastern shore of the bay, while to the west, the center of the bay remains frozen. Between 1971 and 2003, the length of the ice-free season in the southwestern part of the Hudson Bay — historically the last area to thaw — had increased by about 3 days.
In late spring (May), large chunks of ice float near the eastern shore of the bay, while to the west, the center of the bay remains frozen. Between 1971 and 2003, the length of the ice-free season in the southwestern part of the Hudson Bay — historically the last area to thaw — had increased by about 3 days.

Hudson Bay has a salinity that is lower than the world ocean on average. This is caused mainly by the low rate of evaporation (the bay is ice-covered for much of the year), the large volume of terrestrial runoff entering the bay (about 700 km³ annually; the Hudson Bay watershed covers much of Canada, with many rivers and streams discharging into the bay), and the limited connection with the larger Atlantic Ocean (and its higher salinity). The annual freeze and melt of sea ice significantly alters the salinity of the surface layer, representing roughly three years' worth of river inflow. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (540x687, 95 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Hudson Bay ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (540x687, 95 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Hudson Bay ... Annual mean sea surface salinity for the World Ocean. ... This is a list of watercourses draining into Hudson Bay and thus making up the Hudson Bay watershed. ... Annual mean sea surface salinity for the World Ocean. ... An icebreaker navigates through young (1 year old) sea ice Nilas Sea Ice in arctic Sea ice is formed from ocean water that freezes. ...


Shores

The western shores of the bay are a lowland known as the "Hudson Bay Lowlands" which covers 324,000 km². The area is drained by a large number of rivers and has formed a characteristic vegetation known as muskeg. Much of the landform has been shaped by the actions of glaciers and the shrinkage of the bay over long periods of time. Signs of numerous former beachfronts can be seen far inland from the current shore. A large portion of the lowlands in the province of Ontario is part of the Polar Bear Provincial Park, and a similar portion of the lowlands in Manitoba is contained in Wapusk National Park. To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here surface areas between 100,000 km² and 1,000,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... Muskeg is a soil type (also a peatland or wetland type called a bog) common in arctic and boreal areas. ... This article is about the geological formation. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 107 Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... Polar Bear Provinvial Park is a wilderness park in Ontario, Canada. ... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English French (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 14 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th) Area  Ranked 8th Total 647,797... Wapusk National Park is Canadas 37th national park, established in 1996. ...


In contrast, most of the eastern shores (the Quebec portion) form the western edge of the Canadian Shield in Quebec. The area is rocky and hilly. Its vegetation is typically boreal forest, and to the north, tundra. Canadian Shield The Canadian Shield— also called the Precambrian Shield, Laurentian Shield, Bouclier Canadien (French), or Laurentian Plateau— is a large shield covered by a thin layer of soil that forms the nucleus of the North American craton. ... For other uses, see Taiga (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tundra (disambiguation). ...


Islands

There are many islands in Hudson Bay, mostly near the eastern coast. All are part of the territory Nunavut. The main group of islands is known as the Belcher Islands. For the Canadian federal electoral district, see Nunavut (electoral district). ... Belcher Islands, Nunavut (red). ...


Geology

When Earth's gravitational field was mapped starting in the 1960s a large region of below-average gravity was detected in the Hudson Bay region. This was initially thought to be a result of the crust still being depressed from the weight of the Laurentide ice sheet during the most recent Ice Age, but more detailed observations taken by the GRACE satellite suggest that this effect cannot account for the entirety of the gravitational anomaly. It is thought that convection in the underlying mantle may be contributing.[1] The Laurentide ice sheet was a massive sheet of ice that covered hundreds of thousands of square miles, including most of Canada and a large portion of the northern United States, between ~ 90,000 and ~ 18,000 years before the present day. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... Look up grace in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ...


Coastal communities

The coast of Hudson Bay is extremely sparsely populated; there are only about a dozen villages. Some of these were founded in the 17th and 18th centuries by the Hudson's Bay Company as trading posts, making them part of the oldest settlements in Canada. With the closure of the HBC posts and stores in the second half of the 20th century, the coastal villages are now almost exclusively populated by Cree and Inuit people. For other uses, see Cree (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Inuit (disambiguation). ...


Some of the more prominent communities along the Hudson Bay coast are:

Puvirnituq is a Inuit settlement on the Povungnituk River near its mouth on the Hudson Bay in northern Quebec, Canada. ... Orthographic projection centred over Churchill Manitoba. ... A Thule site at the Meliadine River near Rankin Inlet Rankin Inlet (Inuktitut: Kangiqiniq; Inuktitut syllabics: ᑲᖏᕿᓂᖅ or Kangirliniq ᑲᖏᖅᖠᓂᖅ, meaning deep bay/inlet) is an Inuit hamlet in Nunavut, Canada. ...

Military development

Not until the Cold War was there any military significance attributed to the region. In the 1950s, a few sites along the coast became part of the Mid-Canada Line, watching for a potential Soviet bomber attack over the North Pole. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... A rough map of the three warning lines The Mid-Canada Line, also known as the McGill Fence, was a line of radar stations across the middle of Canada intended to provide early warning of a Soviet bomber attack on North America. ...


See also

This is a list of watercourses draining into Hudson Bay and thus making up the Hudson Bay watershed. ... James Bay in summer 2000 James Bay (French, Baie James) is a large body of water on the southern end of Hudson Bay in Canada. ... The Tyrrell Sea, named for Canadian geologist Joseph Tyrrell, is another name for prehistoric Hudson Bay, namely as it existed during the retreat of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. ...

References

  1. ^ Young, Kelly. "Satellites solve mystery of low gravity over Canada", New Scientist, 10 May 2007. Retrieved on 2007-05-11. 
  • Atlas of Canada, online version.

Coordinates: 60° N 85° W Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Hudson Bay (0 words)
Baffin Island lies athwart the entrance to the bay, and SOUTHAMPTON, COATS and MANSEL islands are lodged across the northern gap.
The bay is generally shallow, and the land is rising steadily at around 60 cm per 100 years because of isostatic uplift (Corel Professional Photos).
The bay is generally shallow, and the land is rising steadily at around 60 cm per 100 years because of isostatic uplift, exposing more and more of the coast.
Hudson Bay - Ontario Canada (0 words)
The Hudson Bay region is made up of an immense wilderness area over 500,000 square kilometres in size, which is accessed, only by air or canoe.
The village of Pickle Lake, located at the end of the highway (north of Ignace on the Trans Canada highway west of Thunder Bay) is the jumping off point for access to this crownland area and nine provincial parks.
Wildlife viewing opportunities are immeasurable with Woodland Caribou, wolf, fox, wolverine, sand hill cranes, otter, mink, moose and hundreds of bird species in addition to the arctic flora and fauna found out on the coast of Hudson Bay in Polar Bear Park (Ptarmigan, arctic fox, snow geese and almost 300 bird species).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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