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Encyclopedia > Hubert Walter

Hubert Walter (died July 13, 1205), chief justiciar of England and archbishop of Canterbury, was a relative of Ranulf de Glanvill, the great justiciar of Henry II, and rose under the eye of his kinsman to an important position in the Curia Regis. Ancestor of the Butler family of Leinster, Ireland. July 13 is the 194th day (195th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 171 days remaining. ... Events January 6 - Philip of Swabia becomes King of the Romans April 14 - Battle of Adrianople (1205) between Bulgars and Latins August 20 - Following certain news of Baldwin Is death, Henry of Flanders is crowned Emperor of the Latin Empire Births Walter IV of Brienne Wenceslaus I, King of... In the medieval England and Scotland, a justiciar was an important legal and political figure. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2005 est. ... Arms of the see of Canterbury The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior clergyman of the established Church of England and symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... Ranulf de Glanvill (sometimes written Glanvil, Glanville) (died 1190) was chief justiciar of England during the reign of King Henry II and reputed author of a book on English law. ... Henry II of England (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, and as King of England (1154–1189) and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland[], eastern Ireland, and western France. ... Statistics Area: 19,774. ...

Contents

Early assignments

In 1184 and in 1185 he appears as a baron of the exchequer. He was employed, sometimes as a negotiator, sometimes as a justice, sometimes as a royal secretary. He received no clerical promotion from Henry II, but Richard I appointed him bishop of Salisbury, and by Richard's command he went with the third crusade to the Holy Land. He gained the respect of all the crusaders, and acted as Richard’s principal agent in all negotiations with Saladin, being given a place in the first band of pilgrims that entered Jerusalem. Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England from 1189 to 1199. ... The Third Crusade (1189–1192) was an attempt by European leaders to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin. ... Artistic representation of Saladin (1137 - March 4, 1193), Kurdish: Selahedîn Ayûbî; ; Saladin or Salah el Din, (Arabic: صلاح الدين الأيوبي, Kurdish: صلاح الدین ایوبی) (c. ...


He led the English army back to England after Richard's departure from Palestine; but in Sicily he heard of the king's captivity, and hurried to join him in Germany. In 1193 he returned to England to raise the king's ransom. Soon afterwards he was elected archbishop of Canterbury and made justiciar. Map of the British Mandate of Palestine. ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian, Sicilian and Spanish, Σικελία in Greek) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,700 km² and 5 million inhabitants. ... Events Saladin dies, and the lands of the Kurdish Ayyubid dynasty of Egypt and Syria are split among his descendants. ...


Justiciar

He was very successful in the government of the kingdom, and after Richard's last visit he was practically the ruler of England. He had no light task to keep pace with the king's constant demand for money. He was compelled to work the administrative machinery to its utmost, and indeed, to invent new methods of extortion. To pay for Richard's ransom, he had already been compelled to tax personal property, the first instance of such taxation for secular purposes. The main feature of all his measures was the novel and extended use of representation and election for all the purposes of government.


His chief measures are contained in his instruction to the itinerant justices of 1194 and 1198, in his ordinance of 1195 for the conservation of the peace, and in his scheme of 1198 for the assessment of the carucage. The justices of 1194 were to order the election of four coroners by the suitors of each county court. These new officers were to "keep," i.e. to register, the pleas of the crown, an important duty hitherto left to the sheriff. The juries, both for answering the questions asked by the judges and for trying cases under the grand assize, were to be chosen by a committee of four knights, also elected by the suitors of each county court for that purpose.


In 1195 Hubert issued an ordinance by which four knights were to be appointed in every hundred to act as guardians of the peace, and from this humble beginning eventually was evolved the office of justice of the peace. His reliance upon the knights, or middle-class landowners, who now for the first time appear in the political foreground, is all the more interesting because it is this class who, either as members of parliament or justices of the peace, were to have the effective rule of England in their hands for so many centuries. In 1198, to satisfy the king's demand for money, Hubert demanded a carucage or plough-tax of five shillings on every plough-land (carucate) under cultivation. This was the old tax, the Danegeld, in a new and heavier form and there was great difficulty in levying it. To make it easier, the justiciar ordered the assessment to be made by a sworn jury in every hundred, and one may reasonably conjecture that these jurors were also elected. Events Priory of St Marys, Bushmead, founded. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Go-Toba of Japan Emperor Tsuchimikado ascends to the throne of Japan January 8 - Pope Innocent III ascends Papal Throne Frederick II, infant son of German King Henry VI, crowned King of Sicily Births August 24 - Alexander II of Scotland (d. ... The carucate was both a unit of assessment and a peasant landholding unit found in most of the Danelaw counties. ... The Danegeld was an English tribute raised to pay off Viking raiders (usually led by the Danish king) to save the land from being ravaged by the raiders. ...


Besides these important constitutional changes Hubert negotiated a peace with Scotland in 1195, and in 1197 another with the Welsh. But Richard had grown dissatisfied with him, for the carucage had not been a success, and Hubert had failed to overcome the resistance of the Great Council when its members refused to equip a force of knights to serve abroad. Motto: (Latin for No one provokes me with impunity)1 Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official language(s) English, Gaelic, Scots 2 Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister of the UK Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification    - by Kenneth I... Events Priory of St Marys, Bushmead, founded. ... Events Amalric II succeeds Henry II of Champagne as king of Jerusalem. ... Motto: (Welsh for Wales forever) Anthem: Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau Capital Cardiff Largest city Cardiff Official language(s) Welsh, English Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister of the UK Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Rhodri Morgan AM Unification    - by Gruffudd ap Llywelyn 1056  Area    - Total 20,779...


In 1196 a popular uprising in London led by William Fitz Osbern was quickly suppressed by Hubert. Events Spring, London, popular uprising of the poor against the rich led by William Fitz Osbern. ... William Fitz Osbern was a citizen of London who took up the role of the advocate of the poor in a popular uprising in the spring of 1196. ...


End of Justiciarship

In 1198 Hubert, who had inherited from his predecessors in the primacy a fierce quarrel with the Canterbury monks, gave these enemies an opportunity of complaining to the pope, for in arresting the London demagogue William Fitz Osbern, he had committed an act of sacrilege in Bow Church, which belonged to the monks. The pope asked Richard to free Hubert from all secular duties, and he did so, thus making the demand an excuse for dismissing Hubert from the justiciarship. Events End of the reign of Emperor Go-Toba of Japan Emperor Tsuchimikado ascends to the throne of Japan January 8 - Pope Innocent III ascends Papal Throne Frederick II, infant son of German King Henry VI, crowned King of Sicily Births August 24 - Alexander II of Scotland (d. ... William Fitz Osbern was a citizen of London who took up the role of the advocate of the poor in a popular uprising in the spring of 1196. ...


On May 27, 1199 Hubert crowned King John, making a speech in which the old theory of election by the people was enunciated for the last time. He also took the office of chancellor and cheerfully worked under Geoffrey Fitz Peter, one of his former subordinates. In 1201 he went on a diplomatic mission to Philip Augustus of France, and in 1202 he returned to England to keep the kingdom in peace while John was losing his continental possessions. In 1205 he died. Hubert was an ingenious, original and industrious public servant, but he was grasping and perhaps dishonest. May 27 is the 147th day (148th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 218 days remaining. ... Events John Lackland, becomes King of England Births Isobel of Huntingdon (d. ... John of England depicted in Cassells History of England (1902) John (French: Jean) (December 24, 1166/67–October 18/19, 1216) reigned as King of England from 1199 to 1216. ... Geoffrey Fitz Peter, 1st Earl of Essex, (Piers de Lutegareshale), (b. ... // Events The town of Riga was chartered as a city. ... Philip II Augustus (French: Philippe II Auguste) (August 21, 1165 – July 14, 1223), was King of France from 1180 to 1223. ...


References

  • See W Stubbs, Constitutional History, vol. i. (1897); Miss K Norgate's England under the Angevin Kings, vol. ii. (1887); W Stubbs, preface to vol. iv. of Roger of Hoveden's Chronicle ("Rolls" series, 1868—1871).
Religious Posts
Preceded by
Josceline de Bohon
Bishop of Salisbury
1189–1194
Succeeded by
Herbert Poore
Preceded by
Reginald Fitz Jocelin
Archbishop of Canterbury
1194–1205
Succeeded by
John de Gray
Political offices
Preceded by
Eustace
Lord Chancellor
1199–1205
Succeeded by
Walter de Gray
Saxon: Augustine | Laurentius | Mellitus | Justus | Honorius | Deusdedit | Wighard | Adrian | Theodore | Bertwald | Tatwin | Nothelm | Cuthbert | Bregwin | Jaenbert | Æthelhard | Wulfred | Syred | Feologild | Ceolnoth | Ethelred | Plegmund | Athelm | Wulfhelm | Oda | Aelfsige | Birthelm | Dunstan | Æthelgar | Sigeric | Ælfric | Alphege | Lyfing | Aethelnoth | Edsige | Robert of Jumièges | Stigand
Medieval to Reformation: Lanfranc | Anselm | Ralph d'Escures | William de Corbeil | Theobald | Thomas Becket | Richard | Baldwin | Reginald Fitz-Jocelin | Hubert Walter | John de Gray | Stephen Langton | Walter d'Eynsham | Richard le Grant | Ralph Neville | John of Sittingbourne | John Blund | Edmund Rich | Boniface | William Chillenden | Robert Kilwardby | Robert Burnell | John Peckham | Robert Winchelsey | Thomas Cobham | Walter Reynolds | Simon Mepeham | John de Stratford | John de Ufford | Thomas Bradwardine | Simon Islip | William Edington | Simon Langham | William Whittlesey | Simon Sudbury | William Courtenay | Thomas Arundel | Roger Walden | Thomas Arundel | Henry Chichele | John Stafford | John Kemp | Thomas Bourchier | John Morton | Thomas Langton | Henry Deane | William Warham
Reformation to present: Thomas Cranmer | Reginald Pole | Matthew Parker | Edmund Grindal | John Whitgift | Richard Bancroft | George Abbot | William Laud | William Juxon | Gilbert Sheldon | William Sancroft | John Tillotson | Thomas Tenison | William Wake | John Potter | Thomas Herring | Matthew Hutton | Thomas Secker | Frederick Cornwallis | John Moore | Charles Manners-Sutton | William Howley | John Bird Sumner | Charles Thomas Longley | Archibald Campbell Tait | Edward White Benson | Frederick Temple | Randall Thomas Davidson | Cosmo Lang | William Temple | Geoffrey Fisher | Michael Ramsey | Donald Coggan | Robert Runcie | George Carey | Rowan Williams

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Hubert Walter (826 words)
In 1195 Hubert issued an ordinance by which four knights were to be appointed in every hundred to act as guardians of the peace, and from this humble beginning eventually was evolved the office of justice of the peace.
In 1198 Hubert, who had inherited from his predecessors in the primacy a fierce quarrel with the Canterbury monks, gave these enemies an opportunity of complaining to the pope, for in arresting the London demagogue, William Fitz Osbert[?], he had committed an act of sacrilege in Bow Church, which belonged to the monks.
On May 27, 1199 Hubert crowned John, making a speech in which the old theory of election by the people was enunciated for the last time.
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