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Huayan (華嚴, Pinyin: huáyán, Sanskrit: Avatamsaka) or Flower Garland is a tradition of Mahayana Buddhist philosophy that flourished in China during the Tang period. It is based on the Sanskrit scripture of the same name and on a lengthy Chinese interpretation of it, the Huayan Lun. The name “Flower Garland” is meant to suggest the crowning glory of profound understanding. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Jump to: navigation, search A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had... The cultural elements of Buddhism vary by region and include: Buddhist cuisine Buddhist art Buddharupa Art and architecture of Japan Greco-Buddhism Tibetan Buddhist sacred art Buddhist music Buddhist chant Shomyo Categories: Buddhism-related stubs ... Jump to: navigation, search The history of Buddhism spans from the 6th century BCE to the present, starting with the birth of the Buddha Siddharta Gautama. ... Contents: Top - A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z The following is a List of Buddhist topics: A Abhidharma Ahimsa Ajahn Ajahn Chah Ajanta Aksobhya Alexandra David-Néel Amara Sinha B... Jump to: navigation, search Buddhist beliefs and practices vary according to region. ... The percentage of Buddhist population of each country was taken from the US State Departments International Religious Freedom Report 2004 [1]. Other sources used were CIA Factbook [2] and adherents. ... An image of Gautama Buddha with a swastika, traditionally a Buddhist symbol of good luck, on his chest. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Buddhist temple Wat Chiang Man, in Chiang Mai, Thailand, which dates from the late 13th century Buddhist temples and monasteries, sorted by location. ... Several Buddhist terms and concepts lack direct translations into English that cover the breadth of the original term. ... There is great variety in Buddhist texts. ... // Before Common Era Trad. ... Jump to: navigation, search Pinyin (Chinese: 拼音, pÄ«nyÄ«n) literally means join (together) sounds (a less literal translation being phoneticize, spell or transcription) in Chinese and usually refers to HànyÇ” PÄ«nyÄ«n (汉语拼音, literal meaning: Han language pinyin), which is a system of romanization (phonemic notation and transcription to... Jump to: navigation, search Sanskrit ( संस्कृता) is a classical language of India and a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. ... Relief image of the bodhisattva Guan Yin (Avalokitesvara) from Mt. ... Statues of Buddha such as this, the Tian Tan Buddha statue in Hong Kong, remind followers to practice right living. ... Jump to: navigation, search Philosophy is a discipline or field of study involving the investigation, analysis, and development of ideas at a general, abstract, or fundamental level. ... Jump to: navigation, search Also the name of a rock band. ... The Avataṃsaka Sūtra (Chinese 華嚴經; pinyin hua yan jing) is one of the most influential scriptures in East Asian Buddhism. ...

Contents


Historical Background

The doctrines of the Huayan school ended up having profound impact on the philosophical attitudes of all of East Asian Buddhism. Established during the period of the end of the Sui and beginning of Tang dynasties, this school centered on the philosophy of interpenetration and mutual containment which its founders perceived in the Huayan Jing. Yet despite basic reliance on this sutra, much of the technical terminology that the school becomes famous for is not found in the sutra itself, but in the commentaries written by its early founders. The Sui Dynasty (隋朝 Hanyu Pinyin: Suí, 581-618) followed the Southern and Northern Dynasties and preceded the Tang Dynasty in China. ... The Avataṃsaka Sūtra (Chinese 華嚴經; pinyin hua yan jing) is one of the most influential scriptures in East Asian Buddhism. ... Jump to: navigation, search Sutra (सूत्र) in Sanskrit is derived from the verb siv-, meaning to sew (these words, including English to sew and Latinate suture, all derive from PIE *syÅ«-). It literally means a rope or thread, and more metaphorically refers to an aphorism (or line, rule, formula), or a...


The founding of the school is traditionally attributed to a series of five “patriarchs” who were instrumental in developing the schools' doctrines. These five are: Dushun (杜順), Zhiyan (智儼), Fazang (法藏), Chengguan (澄觀) and Zongmi. Another important figure in the development and popularization of Huayan thought was the lay scholar Li Tongxuan (李通玄). Some accounts of the school also like to extend its patriarchship earlier to Aśvaghoṣa and Nāgārjuna. Zongmi (宗密) (780 - 841), also commonly referred to by the monastic title of Guifeng (圭峰), was a Tang dynasty Buddhist scholar-monk, installed as fifth patriarch of the Huayan school as well as a patriarch of the Heze Chan lineage. ... Jump to: navigation, search A statue depicting Nagarjuna Nāgārjuna (నాగార్జునా in Telugu, 龍樹 in Chinese) (c. ...


Although there are certain aspects of this patriarchal scheme which are clearly contrived, it is fairly well accepted that these men each played a significant and distinct role in the development of the school: for example, Dushun is known to have been responsible for the establishment of Huayan studies as a distinct field; Zhiyan is considered to have established the basic doctrines of the sect; Fazang is considered to have rationalized the doctrine for greater acceptance by society; Chengguan and Zongmi are understood to have further developed and transformed the teachings.


After the time of Zongmi and Li Tongxuan the Chinese school of Huayan generally stagnated in terms of new development, and then eventually began to decline. The school, which had been dependent upon the support it received from the government, suffered severely during the purge of 841-845, never to recover its former strength. Nonetheless, its profound metaphysics, such as that of the four dharmadhātu (四法界) of interpenetration, had a deep impact on surviving East Asian schools, especially the Chan school. Events June 25: Battle of Fontenay _ Louis the German and Charles the Bald defeat Lothar. ... Jump to: navigation, search Events March 28 - Paris is sacked by Viking raiders, probably under Ragnar Lodbrok, who collect a huge ransom in exchange for leaving. ... CHAN-TV Vancouver, British Columbia (otherwise known as Global BC) is the Global Television Networks owned-and-operated station in British Columbia, broadcasting from its studios in Lake City in Burnaby. ...


Philosophy of the Hua Yen School

The most important philosophical contributions of the Huayan school were in the area of its metaphysics, as it taught the doctrine of the mutual containment and interpenetration of all phenomena: that one thing contains all things in existence, and that all things contain one.


Distinctive features of this approach to Buddhist philosophy include:

  • Truth (or: reality) is understood as encompassing and interpenetrating falsehood (or: illusion), and vice-versa
  • Good is understood as encompassing and interpenetrating evil
  • Similarly, all mind-made distinctions are understood as 'collapsing' in the enlightened understanding of emptiness (a tradition traced back to the Buddhist philosopher Nagarjuna)

Huayan makes extensive use of paradox in argument and literary imagery. The following quote from Dale S. Wright (1982) summarizes the range of such devices a reader is likely to encounter in a first foray into Huayan literature: Jump to: navigation, search A statue depicting Nagarjuna Nāgārjuna (నాగార్జునా in Telugu, 龍樹 in Chinese) (c. ... Jump to: navigation, search Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from the revision dated 2005-07-07, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ...

The first type of paradox is modeled after paradoxical assertions found in many early Mahayana texts that emphasize the concept emptiness (k’ung(f)/’suunyataa). Beginning with the assertion that a phenomenon, X, is empty (k’ung/’suunyaa) (that is, since X originates dependently, it is empty of own-being), one moves to the further paradoxical implication that X is not X. An example from Fa-tsang is the assertion that “when one understands that origination is without self-nature, then there is no origination.”(5)
A second type of paradox is derived from two doctrinal sources: the Hua-yen concept of “true emptiness” (chen-k’ung(g) ) and the Hua-yen interpretation of the dialectic of the One Mind (i-hsin(h)) in the Awakening of Faith. Whereas the first type of paradox worked with the negative assertion that phenomenal form is empty and nonexistent (wu so yu(i)), the second type reverses that claim by asserting that any empty phenomenon is an expression of, and the medium for, the ultimate truth of emptiness. The union of opposites effected here is the identity between conditioned, relative reality and the ultimate truth of suchness (chen-ju(j)/tathataa). Fa-tsang’s paradoxical assertion illustrates this second type. “When the great wisdom of perfect clarity gazes upon a minute hair, the universal sea of nature, the true source, is clearly manifest.”(6)
The third variation of paradox is grounded in the Hua-yen doctrine of the “nonobstruction of all phenomena” (shih shih wu-ai(k)). According to this doctrine, when the ultimate truth of emptiness becomes manifest to the viewer, each phenomenon is paradoxically perceived as interpenetrating with and containing all others. This paradoxical violation of the conventional order of time and space is best exemplified by Fa-tsang’s famous Essay on the Golden Lion.
In each and every hair [of the lion] there is the golden lion. All of the lions contained in each and every hair simultaneously and suddenly penetrate into one hair. [Therefore], within each and every hair there are unlimited lions.(7)
The common element in all three types of paradox is that they originate in the tension between the two truths, between conventional truth (su-ti(l) /sa.mv.rtisatya) and ultimate truth (chen-ti(m) /paramaarthasatya). Our task of interpreting the significance of paradoxical language in Hua-yen texts, therefore, will begin by working out an initial interpretation of the two truths and the relation between them.

See also

Hwaeom is the name of the Korean transmission of the Huayan school of Chinese Buddhism. ... Jump to: navigation, search Korea refers to South Korea and North Korea together, which were a unified country until 1948. ... Kegon is the name of the Japanese transmission of the Huayan school of Chinese Buddhism, via the Korean Hwaeom tradition. ...

References

Wright, Dale S. (1983). Philosophy East and West 32 (3).


  Results from FactBites:
 
www.MTSource.org (3102 words)
The third aspect of the Huayan fourfold dharmadhatu is the mutual, non-obstructing interpenetration of the universal and particular.
Huayan further explicates the importance of the relationship of wholeness to everyday activities, matching the central emphasis of Zen training on expressing clear awareness amid ordinary conduct.
The Huayan Fourfold Dharmadhatu is the direct inspiration and starting point for the important Zen teaching of the Five Ranks by Dongshan (806-869), the founder of the Caodong Chan lineage, later brought to Japan as Soto Zen by Dogen (1200-1253).
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Huayan (1795 words)
Huayan (華嚴, Pinyin: huáyán, Sanskrit: Avatamsaka) or Flower Garland is a tradition of Mahayana Buddhist philosophy that flourished in China during the Tang period.
The most important philosophical contributions of the Huayan school were in the area of its metaphysics, as it taught the doctrine of the mutual containment and interpenetration of all phenomena: that one thing contains all things in existence, and that all things contain one.
Located to the west of Datong City, Huayan Temple was one of the important temples for the Huayan Sect (one of the seven important Buddhist sects of China) during China's Liao Dynasty (916 - 1125) the sect found receptive popularity among the imperial courts.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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