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Encyclopedia > Huaorani
Huaorani
Total population

approx. 2,000 (various post-2001 est.)

Regions with significant populations
Waorani settlements: approx. 4,000,

Nomadic "uncontacted" Tagaeri, Taromenane, Huiñatare, and Oñamenane: approx. 250, Communities of nomadic people move from place to place, rather than settling down in one location. ... Few peoples have remained totally uncontacted by modern civilisation. ... The Tagaeri are a clan of Waorani people living in Yasuni Park, at the Ecuadorian Amazon Basin, named (in Wao-Terero, the Waorani language) for their association with the warrior Taga. ... The Taromenane are an uncontacted clan living in Yasuni National Park, at the Ecuadorian Amazon Basin. ...

Language(s)
Wao Tiriro, many also speak Spanish.
Religion(s)
Animist, Christian
Related ethnic groups
Kichwa, Shuar, Achuar, Siona people, Secoya people, Shiwiar, Záparo, Cofán
Image:50 Ecuador Coat_of_arms_of_Ecuador.svg Portal

The Huaorani, Waorani, or Waos are native amerindians from the Amazonia Region from Ecuador (in the Orient region) with some marked differences with the others ethnic groups from Ecuador. (Auca is another, pejorative, name given by neighboring Kichwa indians and commonly used by Spanish-speakers as well, that literally means "naked one" or "savages".) They comprise almost 4,000 inhabitants and speak Wao Tiriro , an isolate language without congeneres. Their ancestral lands are located between the Curaray and Napo rivers, about 50 miles (80 km) south of El Coca. These homelands are threatened by oil exploration and illegal logging practices. They are approximately 120 miles (190 km) wide and 75 to 100 miles (120 to 160 km) from north to south. The Huaorani have guarded their lands from both indigenous foes and outsider colonials (referred to as cowode, literally "nonhuman cannibals"). This article is in need of attention. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Kichwa (Kichwa shimi, Runashimi, also Spanish Quichua) is a Quechuan language including all Quechua varieties spoken in Ecuador and Colombia (Inga) by approximately 2,500,000 people. ... Shuar, in the Shuar language, means people.[1] The people who speak the Shuar language live in tropical rainforest between the upper mountains of the Andes, and the tropical rainforests and savannas of the Amazonian lowlands, in Ecuador and Peru. ... Shuar, in the Shuar language, means people. ... The Siona people (also known as Sioni, Pioje, or Pioche-Sioni) are an indigenous ethnic group living in the Ecuadorian Amazon or Oriente (est. ... The Secoya people (also known as Angotero, Encabellao) are an indigenous ethnic group living in the Ecuadorian Amazon or Oriente (est. ... Zaparoan (also Sáparoan, Záparo, Zaparoano, Zaparoana) is a endangered language family of Peru and Ecuador with less than 700 speakers. ... The Cofán (also called Kofan, Kofane, or A’i) people are an indigenous people native to Napo Province northeast Ecuador and southern Colombia, between the Guamués River (a tributary of the Putumayo River) and the Aguaricó River (a tributary of the Napo River). ... Kichwa (Kichwa shimi, Runashimi, also Spanish Quichua) is a Quechuan language including all Quechua varieties spoken in Ecuador and Colombia (Inga) by approximately 2,500,000 people. ... The Curaray is a river in Ecuador. ... The Napo is a tributary to the Amazon River that rises in Ecuador on the flanks of the volcanoes of Antisana, Sincholagua and Cotopaxi. ... “Miles” redirects here. ... El Coca (also known as Puerto Francisco de Orellana) is a city located in eastern Ecuador. ... Petro redirects here. ... For other uses, see Log. ...


In the last 40 years, they have become a largely settled people living mostly in permanent forest settlements. As many as five communities, the Tagaeri, the Huiñatare, the Oñamenane and two groups of the Taromenane, have rejected all contact with non-Waorani, and continuously move into more isolated areas, generally towards the Peruvian border. The Tagaeri are a clan of Waorani people living in Yasuni Park, at the Ecuadorian Amazon Basin, named (in Wao-Terero, the Waorani language) for their association with the warrior Taga. ... The Taromenane are an uncontacted clan living in Yasuni National Park, at the Ecuadorian Amazon Basin. ...

Contents

Name

The word Waorani means human or hombre in Wao Tiriro. Before the mid 20th century, it only included those kin associated with the speaker. Others in the ethnic group were called Waomoni, while outsiders were and are known by the derogatory term cowodi. This structure duplicates the in-group/out-group naming conventions used by many peoples, and may reflect a period of traumatic conflict with outsiders during the 19th and early 20th century rubber boom. Map showing the region of the Amazon which enjoyed the rubber boom. ...


The name Waorani reflects a phoneticization by english-speaking missionary linguists. The phonetic equivalent used by spanish-speakers is Huaorani (reflecting the absence of 'w' in spanish usage.)


Subdivision

The Waorani are subdivided into the Huamuno Dayuno, Quehueruno, Garzacocha (Yasuní River), Quemperi (Cononaco River) Mima, and Caruhue.


Culture

Worldview

In the animist Waorani worldview, there is no distinction between the physical and spiritual worlds and spirits are present throughout the world. The Waorani once believed that the entire world was a forest (and used the same word, ömë, for both) and the Oriente’s rainforest remains the essential basis of their physical and cultural survival. For them, the forest is home, while the outside world is unsafe: living in the forest offers protection from the witchcraft and attacks of neighboring peoples. In short, as one Huaorani put it, “The rivers and trees are our life.” (Kane 1995:199) In all its specificities, the forest is woven into each Huaorani’s life and conceptions of the world. They have remarkably detailed knowledge of its geography and ecology. The term Animism is derived from the Latin anima, meaning soul.[1][2] In its most general sense, animism is simply the belief in souls. ... Witch redirects here. ...


Plants, especially trees, hold a complex and important interest for the Huaorani. Their store of botanical knowledge is extensive and ranges from knowledge of materials to poisons to hallucinogens to medicines. They also relate plants to their own experiences, particularly that of growing. Among trees, certain kinds are auspicious. Canopy trees, with their distinctly colored young leaves and striking transformation as they mature to towering giants, are “admired for their solitary character … as well as for their profuse entanglement” with other plants. Other significant trees are the pioneer species of the peach palm (used for making spears and blowguns, as well as for fruit), and fast-growing balsa wood, used for ceremonial purposes. Peach palm trees are associated with past settlements and the ancestors who live there. (Rival 1993) Pinguicula grandiflora commonly known as a Butterwort Example of a cross section of a stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... For other uses, see Poison (disambiguation). ... Hallucinogenic drug - drugs that can alter sensory perceptions. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... The canopy is the habitat found at the uppermost level of a forest, especially rainforest. ... Binomial name Bactris gasipaes Kunth Bactris gasipaes is a species of palm native to the tropical forests of the South and Central America. ... For the e-mail client, see Balsa (e-mail client). ...


The Waorani believe the animals of their forest have a spiritual as well as physical existence. They believe that when one dies he walks a trail to the afterlife which has a large python in waiting. Those among the dead who cannot escape the python fail to enter the domain of dead spirits and return to Earth to become animals, often termites. This underlies a peculiar mix of practices that recognize and respect animals, but do not shield them from harm for human use. Huaroani who become Christians believe that God sent his son to experience death and walk the trail and encounter the python for them. Families Mastotermitidae Kalotermitidae Termopsidae Hodotermitidae Rhinotermitidae Serritermitidae Termitidae Termites, sometimes known as white ants, are a group of social insects usually classified at the taxonomic rank of order Isoptera. ...


Hunting supplies a major part of the Waorani diet and is of cultural significance. Traditionally, the creatures hunted were limited to monkeys, birds, and wild peccaries. Neither land-based predators nor birds of prey are hunted. There is also an extensive collection of hunting and eating taboos. They refuse to eat deer on the grounds that deer eyes look similar to human eyes. While a joyful activity, hunting (even permitted animals) has ethical ramifications: “The Huaorani must kill animals to live, but they believe dead animal spirits live on and must be placated or else do harm in angry retribution.” (Seamans 1996) To counterbalance the offense of hunting, a shaman demonstrates respect through the ritual preparation of the poison, curare, used in blow darts. Hunting with such darts is not even considered killing, but retrieving, another kind of harvesting from the trees. Spearing wild peccaries on the other hand, is killing and is practiced with violence and rage. (Rival 2002) In nutrition, the diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism. ... Approximate worldwide distribution of monkeys. ... Species Tayassu Tayassu tajacu Tayassu pecari Catagonus Catagonus wagneri The peccaries (also known by its Spanish name, javelina or pecarí) are medium-sized mammals of the family Tayassuidae. ... This article is about the ruminent animal. ... The shaman is an intellectual and spiritual figure who is regarded as possessing power and influence on other peoples in the tribe and performs several functions, primarily that of a healer ( medicine man). The shaman provides medical care, and serves other community needs during crisis times, via supernatural means (means... Strychnos toxifera by Koehler 1887 This page is about the plant toxins. ... Species Tayassu Tayassu tajacu Tayassu pecari Catagonus Catagonus wagneri The peccaries (also known by its Spanish name, javelina or pecarí) are medium-sized mammals of the family Tayassuidae. ...


While never hunted, two other animals, the snake and the jaguar have special significance for the Huaorani. Snakes are considered "the most evil force in the Huaorani cosmology" (Kane 1995:44), particularly the imposing (though nonvenemous) anaconda, or obe. A giant obe stands in the way of the forest trail that the dead follow to an afterlife with the creator in the sky. Here on earth, snakes are a very bad omen and killing them is a powerful taboo. For other uses, see Snake (disambiguation). ... keels is bent and she has a big nose which she picks every day. ... For other uses, see Anaconda (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Afterlife (disambiguation). ... Examples of omens from the Nuremberg Chronicle (1493): natural phenomena and strange births. ... This article is about cultural prohibitions in general; for other uses, see Taboo (disambiguation). ...


The Waorani identify themselves deeply with the jaguar, an important and majestic predator in the Oriente. According to myth, the Huaorani were the descendants of a mating between a jaguar and an eagle. Elders become shamans by metaphorically adopting “jaguar sons” whose spirits communicate medical and spiritual knowledge. In the Huaorani belief system, jaguar shamans are able “to become a jaguar, and so to travel great distances telepathically and communicate with other Huaorani.”[citation needed]


As with many peoples, the Waos maintained a strong in-group/out-group distinction, between Waorani (people who are kin), Waomoni (others in their culture who are unrelated) and cowode, other humans described as inhuman cannibals. It is not known if their view of outsiders predates the slavery and kidnapping associated with the 19th century rubber boom. The use of Waorani as a term for their entire culture emerged in the last fifty years in a process of ethnogenesis, which was greatly accelerated by the creation of ONHAE (see Indigenist political reorganization below), a radio service and a soccer league. Kin has multiple meanings: It can refer to family. ... Cannibal redirects here. ... Slave redirects here. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Ethnogenesis is the process by which a group of human beings comes to be understood or to understand themselves as ethnically distinct from the wider social landscape from which their grouping emerges. ... Soccer redirects here. ...


The Waorani notion of time is particularly oriented to the present, with few obligations extending backwards or forwards in time. Their one word for future times, baane, also means "tomorrow". (Rival 2002)


Weapons

A Waorani blowgun
A Waorani blowgun

Spears are the main weapons of the Waorani culture used in person to person conflict.


Their main hunting weapon is the blowgun. These weapons are typically from 9 to 12 feet long, and the arrows that are in them have curare poison, which paralyzes the animal that is hit with it. Strychnos toxifera by Koehler 1887 This page is about the plant toxins. ...


Marriage

Waorani families practice endogamy, especially cross-cousin marriages — a male may marry his cousin(s) from one or more sisters on his father's side, or from brother(s) on his mother's side (and necessarily vice-versa with regard to females and their marriage choices). The men may also have multiple wives. Sometimes, a man will kill another man to gain another wife; this was traditionally common if a man had no available cousin to marry. Endogamy is the practice of marrying within a social group. ... Cross Cousin is an anthropological term describing kin who are in the same descent group as the subject (ego) and are from the parents opposite-sexed sibling. ... Polygyny, a form of polygamy, is the practice of having more than one female sexual partner or wife simultaneously. ...


Huaorani women remove all their body hair by first rubbing ash in the areas they do not want hair, allegedly to reduce the pain, then pulling out the hair.


Recent history

Around the time of World War II, there was a great increase of inter-clan killings: at this time it was estimated that up to 60% of all Huaorani deaths were due to murder. These killings were carried out in revenge for a number of deaths that most likely resulted from the introduction of outside diseases (Robarchek & Robarchek 1997). The Huaorani were also immensely hostile to outsiders on their land (mostly prospectors for foreign oil companies - such as Shell Oil - and their Quichua employees). Some of the Huaorani trace the beginning of the killing to the breakdown of clan relationships around ten generations prior to this time. Prior to this period large gatherings frequently brought distant clans together from time to time to celebrate and arrange marriages, among other activities. These were organized by informal tribal leaders (although the Huaorani have no chiefs or formal leadership in general). When these gatherings became less common clans became estranged and offended with one another and conflicts began to escalate until the Huaorani became one of the most violent cultures ever documented (Saint 2005). Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article is about the medical term. ... Petro redirects here. ... Quechua (also Runasimi language of people) is a Native American language of South America. ...


In 1956, a group of five American missionaries, led by Jim Elliot and pilot Nate Saint, made contact with the Huaorani in what was known as Operation Auca. Two days after friendly contact with three Huaorani, all five of the missionaries were killed in a spearing attack by a larger group from the same Huaorani clan. Nate Saint's sister, Rachel Saint, prior to these killings, had befriended a Huaorani woman named Dayuma. While it has been said that Dayuma's brother Nampa died of bullet wounds inflicted by the missionaries (Rival 2002; Colby and Dennett 1995:290, citing Elliot 1961), the recorded testimony of the warriors who were present at the missionaries' killing does not support the claim that the missionaries killed anyone (Saint 1996, Beyond the Gates of Splendor 2005). It is undisputed that most of Dayuma's clan had been killed in the inter-clan battles. Saint, Dayuma, and Jim Elliot's wife Elisabeth converted several of the Huaorani to Christianity. This helped break the cycle of violence in stopping most of the revenge killings that had threatened the very existence of the Huaorani clans. Pacification of the Huaorani and reliance upon missionaries for dealing with the outside world did, however, eventually allow increased oil scouting in the area over the years. With the discovery by Texaco of large petroleum reserves in the Ecuadorian Amazon rainforest in 1968, potential for conflict was again renewed. Eventually a deal was brokered in which many of the Huaorani were subsequently concentrated into a protectorate under the responsibility of SIL International. For other uses, see Missionary (disambiguation). ... For others named Jim Elliot, see Jim Elliot (disambiguation) Philip James Elliot (October 8, 1927 – January 8, 1956) was an evangelical Christian missionary to Ecuador who, along with four others, was killed while attempting to evangelize the Huaorani people through efforts known as Operation Auca. ... Nathanael Nate Saint (August 30, 1923 – January 8, 1956) was an evangelical Christian missionary pilot to Ecuador who, along with four others, was killed while attempting to evangelize the Huaorani people through efforts known as Operation Auca. ... The reconstructed frame of Nate Saints plane, on display at the headquarters of the Mission Aviation Fellowship. ... Rachel Saint (1914-1994) was an evangelical Christian missionary from the United States who worked in Ecuador. ... This article is about states protected and/or dominated by a foreign power. ... SIL International is a worldwide non-profit evangelical Christian organization whose main purpose is to study, develop and document lesser-known languages in order to expand linguistic knowledge, promote literacy and aid minority language development. ...


Once the Huaorani schools were brought under the control of SIL missionaries, there was an attempt made to teach the beliefs of Christianity. There was also an attempt made to convert the tribe from hunting-and-gathering to farming in order to provide an agro-export, thus "contribut[ing] to the national good".[citation needed] Teachers were mainly of the neighboring Quichua. New systems of government were also introduced. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in Indonesia Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock). ... Quechua (also Runasimi language of people) is a Native American language of South America. ...


Acting on the advice of anthropologist James Yost, SIL eventually asked that Rachel Saint leave the Huaorani due to her interference with their culture and concerns about fostering dependency on imported goods (Brysk 2000:220). Rather than follow these instructions, Saint left SIL, maintaining her relationship with the Ecuadorian government. Since that time, the 60 mile (100 km) Vía Auca has contributed to the rise of oil exploration and settlers in Huaorani territory.[1] Demographic studies of Amazonian colonists See Anthropology. ...


Nowadays (2008), the Huaorani have about 680, 000 hectares of land, about one third of their original land. Some work with tourism companies, and others obtain education until University level. Half of the small kids attend schools in Spanish, but others still spend their days hunting and gathering. For more information go to The Peoples of the World Foundation, or www.huaorani.com.


Indigenous political reorganization

Prior to 1989, the Huaorani were very divided and politically unorganized. Of the more than two dozen settlements, the two permanent ones were Rachel Saint's (the Toñampare) and Dayuno, which was also under missionary influence. There were also a number of traditional clans and the Tagaeri. Though the Huaorani were surviving and healthy, their society in the two largest settlements was controlled almost entirely by missionaries, and there was no clear voice to communicate to the outside world. For other uses, see Missionary (disambiguation). ... The Tagaeri are a clan of Waorani people living in Yasuni Park, at the Ecuadorian Amazon Basin, named (in Wao-Terero, the Waorani language) for their association with the warrior Taga. ...


In 1989, some of the Waorani attempted to regroup. A group consisting of over sixty, known as the Ñihuari and led by a man named Ñame, left Dayuno and traveled to the Shiripuno River, where they founded the community of Quehueire Ono. The main intention of this settlement was to create a community separate from the mission settlements (and Rachel Saint's/Dayuma's dominance) and return to the old Huaorani culture, though without giving up some of the more modern tools. A school was begun in the settlement in 1990, thanks to funding from the Napo Provincial Government. By 1993, Quehueire Ono was the second-largest Huaorani community, with approximately 223 members. Napo is a province in Ecuador. ...


In March of 1990, an organization called ONHAE (The Organization of the Huaorani Nation of the Amazonian from Ecuador; the acronym means flower) was founded. This was with the assistance of CONFENIAE (confederacion de nacionalidades Indigenas del Ecuador), of which ONHAE later became a member. The main purpose of ONHAE was to provide for self-representation of the Huaorani in dealings with the Ecuadorian government, oil companies and other cowode. Also thanks to CONFENIAE, the Huaorani were given legal ownership of over 2,600 square miles (6700 km²) of land, approximately one third of the traditional lands. ONHAE currently operated by holding consensus-based assemblies (Biye in Huao Terero) drawn from across the contacted Huaorani communities. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Backronym and Apronym (Discuss) Acronyms and initialisms are abbreviations, such as NATO, laser, and ABC, written as the initial letter or letters of words, and pronounced on the basis of this abbreviated written form. ... CONFENAE (Confederacion de Nacionalidades de la Amazonia Ecuatoriana) or CONAIE: The Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador. ...


An August 2005 assembly of over 250 Huaorani convoked by Moi Enomenga, ONHAE and AMWAE (Association of Huaorani Women of the Ecuadorian Amazon) in the community of Tiwino (Orellana province) further rejected drilling and denounced ten Huaorani, contracted by the company to negotiate, for acting without broader support. ONHAE is currently headed by President Nancano Enomenga and Vice President Moi Enomenga. 2005 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December- → Deaths in August August 31: Michael Sheard August 26: Lord Fitt August 24: Jack Slipper August 24: Maurice Cowling August 24: Dr. Tom Pashby August 23: Brock Peters August 22: Lord Lane August 21: Robert Moog August... Orellana is a province of Ecuador. ...


Land rights

In 1990, the Waorani won the rights to an indigenous reserve covering some 6,125.60 square kilometres, thus enabling a semi-autonomous existence. A demarcation process is underway to surround this region with a distinctive band of monoculture trees in order to discourage colonization. However, the land title does not extend to subsoil minerals including extensive oil deposits. The Ecuadorian government has proceeded to license the petroleum drilling rights in the region to multinational oil corporations. The protected status of Yasuní National Park, which overlaps with the Huaorani reserve provides some measure of environmental protection. Additionally, the government has created a protected zone to avoid contact with the Tagaeri. This article is about the year. ... An autonomous (subnational) entity is a subnational entity that has a certain amount of autonomy. ... Minerals are natural compounds formed through geological processes. ... Petro redirects here. ... Yasuni National Park is a National Park in Ecuador that lies on 9,820 square kilometres between the Napo and Curaray rivers in Napo and Pastaza provinces in Amazonian Ecuador, around 250 km from Quito. ...


The conflict over oil drilling rights came to head once again in 2005, as many Waorani have vocally challenged the national government's concession of Oil Block 31 to Petrobras to drill in 1,000 km² of Yasuní National Park. A delegation of more than 100 Waorani to Quito in July called on the national government and that of Brazilian President Lula da Silva to withdrawal from Yasuni. Petrobras, short for Petróleo Brasileiro S.A., is a government-owned Brazilian oil company headquartered in Rio de Janeiro. ...


Recently the Waos have adopted modern technology including GPS and digital mapping, in their effort to resist encroachment on their traditional lands. anthropology.net National Geographic article


See also

The reconstructed frame of Nate Saints plane, on display at the headquarters of the Mission Aviation Fellowship. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Rudel, T.K.; D. Bates, R. Machinguiashi (2002). "Ecologically noble Amerindians? Cattle ranching and cash cropping among the Shuar and colonists in Ecuador". Latin American Research Review (37): 144-159. 

References

  • Beyond the Gates of Splendor (2005). [Documentary].
  • Brysk, Alison (2000). From Tribal Village to Global Village: Indian Rights and International Relations in Latin America. Stanford University Press. 
  • Colby, Gerard and Charlotte Dennett, Thy Will Be Done, the Conquest of the Amazon: Nelson Rockefeller and Evangelism in the Age of Oil HarperCollins, 1995, Hardcover. 960 pages, ISBN 0-06-016764-5; HarperCollins: Janice Temple, 1996, Paperback. 1008 pages, ISBN 0-06-092723-2
  • "Huaorani Elect New Anti-Oil Officer to ONHAE, the Huaorani Government" (2005). Yasuní Rainforest Campaign.
  • Elliot, Elisabeth (1961). The Savage My Kinsman. Harper & Bros.. 
  • Kane, Joe (1995). Savages. Alfred A. Knopf. 
  • Rival, Laura. "Right to a way of life", Resurgence 189.
  • Rival, Laura. (1993) "The Growth of Family Trees: Understanding Huaorani Perceptions of the Forest." Man 28(December), 635-652.
  • Rival, Laura (2002). Trekking Through History: The Huaorani of Amazonian Ecuador. Columbia University Press. 
  • Smith, Randy (1993). Crisis Under the Canopy: Tourism and Other Problems Facing the Present Day Huaorani. Abya-Yala. 
  • Robarchek, Carole and Clayton Robarchek (1997). Waorani: The Contexts of Violence and War. Harcourt Brace College Publishers. 
  • Saint, Steve (1996). "Did They Have to Die?". Christianity Today (September 16, 1996): 20-27. 
  • Seamans, Joe. The Last Shaman. NOVA website. 1996.

Elisabeth Elliot is a missionary who spent some years among the Waorani people in Ecuador. ... Stephen Farris Saint (born January 30, 1951) is an American Ecuadorian author, pilot, and business professional. ... Christianity Today is an Evangelical Christian periodical based in Carol Stream, Illinois. ... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
The Huaorani of Ecuador - Crystalinks (1241 words)
The Huaorani in the Ecuadorian headwaters of the Amazon comprise about 1,500 people who are living in up to 24 temporary settlements in an area of almost 20,000 sq.
The identity of the Huaorani is characterised by their self-sufficient life off and in the forest whose biodiversity is one of the abundant in the world.
To the Huaorani this is a kind of refuge which they use in case of danger or when their resource basis is diminishing.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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