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Encyclopedia > Huangjiu
Shaoxing jiu, a famous huangjiu
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Shaoxing jiu, a famous huangjiu

Huangjiu (黄酒; pinyin: huáng jiǔ, lit. "yellow wine" or "yellow liquor") is a type of Chinese alcoholic beverage brewed directly from grains such as rice, millet, or wheat. Such liquors contain less than 20% alcohol, due to the inhibition of fermentation by ethanol at that concentration. These wine are traditionally pasteurized, aged, and filtered before their final bottling for sale to consumers. Species Oryza glaberrima Oryza sativa Rice refers to two species (Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima) of grass, native to tropical and subtropical southeastern Asia and to Africa, which together provide more than one fifth of the calories consumed by humans[1]. Rice is an annual plant, growing to 1-1. ... Pearl millet in the field Ripe head of proso millet For other uses, see Millet (disambiguation). ... Species T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat (Triticum spp. ...


Yellow liquors are either drunk directly after being cooled or warmed, or used in Chinese cooking. Chinese cuisine is widely seen as representing one of the richest and most diverse culinary heritages in the world. ...

Contents


Classifications

Chinese "yellow liquors" (fermented wines) are classified based on several factors. Among them are the liquor's dryness, the starter used in its production, and its production method. A bread starter, also called a sponge, consists of a simple mixture of flour, water, and a leavening agent (typically yeast or yogurt), and is added to bread dough before the kneading and baking process as a substitute for yeast. ...


Dryness/Sweetness

This is the formal classification for all Chinese wines. There are five categories: dry, semi-dry, semi-sweet, sweet, and extra-sweet.[1]


Starter/Inoculant

  • Small starter (小麴, 小曲; pinyin: xiǎo qū): Wines inoculated using rice cultured with Rhizopus, yeast, and other bacteria. The mixture generates less heat, so they are mostly used in the tropical South of China.
  • Large starter (酒麴, 酒曲; pinyin: jiǔ qū): Wines inoculated using rice cultured with Aspergillus oryzae and yeast. Almost all famous alcoholic drinks in China belong to this type.
  • Red starter (紅麴, 红曲; pinyin: hóng qū): Wines that are flavoured and coloured with Monascus purpureus or other red rice molds of the Monascus genus.

Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: 汉语拼音; Traditional Chinese: 漢語拼音; Pinyin: Hànyǔ Pīnyīn), also known as scheme of the Chinese phonetic alphabet (Simplified Chinese: 汉语拼音方案; Traditional Chinese: 漢語拼音方案; Pinyin: Hànyǔ Pīnyīn fāngàn), while pin means spell(ing) and yin means sound(s)), is a system of romanization (phonemic notation... ... Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: 汉语拼音; Traditional Chinese: 漢語拼音; Pinyin: Hànyǔ Pīnyīn), also known as scheme of the Chinese phonetic alphabet (Simplified Chinese: 汉语拼音方案; Traditional Chinese: 漢語拼音方案; Pinyin: Hànyǔ Pīnyīn fāngàn), while pin means spell(ing) and yin means sound(s)), is a system of romanization (phonemic notation... Aspergillus oryzae (Japanese: kōji 麹) is a fungus used in Japanese cuisine. ... Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: 汉语拼音; Traditional Chinese: 漢語拼音; Pinyin: Hànyǔ Pīnyīn), also known as scheme of the Chinese phonetic alphabet (Simplified Chinese: 汉语拼音方案; Traditional Chinese: 漢語拼音方案; Pinyin: Hànyǔ Pīnyīn fāngàn), while pin means spell(ing) and yin means sound(s)), is a system of romanization (phonemic notation... Binomial name Monascus purpureus (Went, 1895) Monascus purpureus (syn. ...

Production methods

  • Hot rice (燙飯; pinyin: tàng fàn): The steamed rice used to make the wine is cooled in the open air until it is still relatively warm before processing.
  • Cool rice (凉飯; pinyin: liáng fàn): The steamed rice used to make the wine is quenched with cold water before further processing. The unfiltered mash for this wine is sometimes eaten as a dessert or used as an inoculant for other Chinese wines.
  • Feeding rice (加飯 or 餵飯; pinyin: jiā fàn or wèi fàn ): Steamed rice is continuously fed into a fermenting mixture (up to three times), which produces a sweeter wine.
  • Fortified: Distilled Chinese wines are added to the fermenting mash, which increases the concentration of alcohol in the mash and halts the fermentation process. This leaves a significant quantity of unfermented sugars, thus producing an especially sweet tasting wine.

Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: 汉语拼音; Traditional Chinese: 漢語拼音; Pinyin: Hànyǔ Pīnyīn), also known as scheme of the Chinese phonetic alphabet (Simplified Chinese: 汉语拼音方案; Traditional Chinese: 漢語拼音方案; Pinyin: Hànyǔ Pīnyīn fāngàn), while pin means spell(ing) and yin means sound(s)), is a system of romanization (phonemic notation... Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: 汉语拼音; Traditional Chinese: 漢語拼音; Pinyin: Hànyǔ Pīnyīn), also known as scheme of the Chinese phonetic alphabet (Simplified Chinese: 汉语拼音方案; Traditional Chinese: 漢語拼音方案; Pinyin: Hànyǔ Pīnyīn fāngàn), while pin means spell(ing) and yin means sound(s)), is a system of romanization (phonemic notation... Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: 汉语拼音; Traditional Chinese: 漢語拼音; Pinyin: Hànyǔ Pīnyīn), also known as scheme of the Chinese phonetic alphabet (Simplified Chinese: 汉语拼音方案; Traditional Chinese: 漢語拼音方案; Pinyin: Hànyǔ Pīnyīn fāngàn), while pin means spell(ing) and yin means sound(s)), is a system of romanization (phonemic notation...

Types

Some of the most popular yellow liquors include:

  • Mijiu (米酒; pinyin: mǐjiǔ) is the generic name for Chinese fermented rice wine, similar to Japanese sake. It is used for both drinking and cooking, and cooking mijiu often contains 1.5% salt. Alcohol content by volume: 12-19.5%.
  • Fujian glutinous rice wine (福建糯米酒; pinyin: Fújiàn nuòmǐ jiǔ): made by adding a long list of expensive Chinese medicinal herbs to glutinous rice and a low alcohol distilled rice wine. The unique brewing technique uses another wine as raw material, instead of starting with water. The wine has an orange-red color. Alcohol content by volume: 18%.[2]
Huadiao jiu
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Huadiao jiu
  • Huadiao jiu (花雕酒; pinyin: huādiāo jiǔ; lit. "flowery carving wine"): a variety of yellow wine that originates from Shaoxing, Zhejiang. It is made of glutinous rice and wheat. This wine evolved from the Shaoxing tradition of burying nu'er hong wine (女儿红; pinyin: nǚ'ér hóng, lit. "daughter red") underground when a daughter was born, and digging it up for the wedding banquet when the daughter was to be married. The containers would be decorated with bright colors as a wedding gift, and, to make the gift more appealing, people began to use pottery with flowery carvings and patterns. Huadiao jiu's alcohol content is 16% by volume.
    • Huadiao jiu, nü'er hong, Shaoxing jiu (绍兴酒 or 紹興酒; pinyin: Shàoxīng jiǔ), and hong lu jiu (红露酒 or 紅露酒; pinyin: hóng lù jiǔ; lit. "red dew wine") are basically made of the same wine except they are named differently depending on the age, the container, and how they are used. It is not uncommon for some varieties of huadiao jiu to be aged for 50 years or more. Shaoxing jiu is commonly used in Chinese cooking as well as for drinking, and hong lu jiu is a lower grade used primarily for cooking. The reddish color of these wines is imparted by red yeast rice.

Rice wine refers to wine made from rice instead of grapes. ... Glutinous rice, also called sticky rice, sweet rice, sushi rice, waxy rice, botan rice, mochi rice, Japanese rice, and pearl rice, is the main type of rice grown and consumed by the Lao of Laos and Northeast Thailand, areas which are considered to be the primary center of origin and... Shaoxing (Simplified Chinese: 绍兴; Traditional Chinese: 紹興; Pinyin: Shàoxīng; Wade-Giles: Shao-hsing) is a prefecture-level city in northeastern Zhejiang province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Zhejiang (Chinese: 浙江; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Che-chiang; Postal System Pinyin: Chehkiang or Chekiang) is an eastern coastal province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Glutinous rice, also called sticky rice, sweet rice, sushi rice, waxy rice, botan rice, mochi rice, Japanese rice, and pearl rice, is the main type of rice grown and consumed by the Lao of Laos and Northeast Thailand, areas which are considered to be the primary center of origin and...

See also

Baijiu (Chinese: 白酒; pinyin: ) or Shaojiu is potent Chinese alcohol. ... Jiu (Chinese: 酒; Pinyin: jiǔ) is the Chinese word that refers to all alcoholic beverages. ...

External links

  • Shaoxing wine online
  • China Wines Information
  • Chinese wine photos

 
 

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