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Encyclopedia > Huang He

For other Yellow Rivers, see Yellow River (disambiguation). The Yellow River is the name of several different rivers: The Huang He in China, called the Yellow River in English. ...

Huang He
Course of the Huang He with major cities
Origin Kunlun Mountains, Qinghai Province
Mouth Yellow Sea
Basin countries China
Length 4,700 km (2,920 mi)
Source elevation 4,500 m (14,765 ft)
Avg. discharge 2,571 m³/s (90,808 ft³/s)
Watershed area 944,970 km² (364,853 mi²)

The Yellow River, or Huang He / Hwang-ho (Chinese: 黃河, ), is 4,700 km long and is the second longest river in China, after the Yangtze. Download high resolution version (2160x1100, 94 KB)Map of the Huang He and the location of major cities along its course. ... Region containing Kunlun Mountains The Kunlun mountain range (崑崙山) is one of the longest mountain chains in Asia, extending more than 3000 km. ... Qinghai (Chinese: 青海; pinyin: Qīnghǎi; Wade-Giles: Ching-hai; Postal System Pinyin: Tsinghai) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, named after the enormous Qinghai Lake (Koko Nor). ... ... A watershed is a region of land where water drains downhill into a specified body of water, such as a river, lake, sea, ocean or wetland. ... The source of a river or stream may be a lake, a spring, or a collection of headwaters. ... In hydrology, the discharge of a river is the volume of water transported by it in a certain amount of time. ... A watershed is a region of land where water drains downhill into a specified body of water, such as a river, lake, sea, ocean or wetland. ... Image File history File links Zh-Huang_he. ... A kilometre (American spelling: kilometer), symbol: km is a unit of length in the metric system equal to 1000 metres (from the Greek words χίλια (khilia) = thousand and μέτρο (metro) = count/measure). ... The Murray River in Australia. ... Afternoon light on the jagged grey mountains rising from the Yangtze River gorge The Yangtze River (Simplified Chinese: 扬子江; Traditional Chinese: 揚子江; Hanyu Pinyin: ) is the longest river in Asia and the third longest in the world after the Amazon in South America and the Nile in Africa. ...


The headwaters of the Huang He lie in the Kunlun Mountains in north-western Qinghai province, where the river originates at an elevation of 4,500 m in the Yueguzonglie Basin located on the northern slope of the Bayankara Mountains in the Qingzang Plateau (Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau). From its source, the river flows at first eastwards, bends northwestward, and then flows east again until it reaches the town of Lanzhou, the capital of Gansu Province, where its Great Northern Bend starts. The bend extends northward through the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region into Inner Mongolia. Region containing Kunlun Mountains The Kunlun mountain range (崑崙山) is one of the longest mountain chains in Asia, extending more than 3000 km. ... Qinghai (Chinese: 青海; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching-hai; Postal System Pinyin: Tsinghai) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, named after the enormous Qinghai Lake (Koko Nor). ... The metre (Commonwealth English) or meter (American English) (symbol: m) is the SI base unit of length. ... The Qingzang Plateau is a plateau in Tibet, also known as Chighai-Tibet Plateau. ...   Lanzhou (Simplified Chinese: 兰州; Traditional Chinese: 蘭州; pinyin: Lánzhōu; Wade-Giles: Lan-chou; sometimes seen transliterated as Lanchow) is the capital of the Gansu province in China. ... Gansu (Simplified Chinese: 甘肃; Traditional Chinese: 甘肅; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kan-su, or modified as Kan-suh) is a province located in the northwest of the Peoples Republic of China. ... A province, in the context of China, is a translation of sheng (省 shÄ›ng), which is an administrative division of China. ... Ningxia (Simplified Chinese: 宁夏; Traditional Chinese: 寧夏; pinyin: Níngxià; Wade-Giles: Ning-hsia) is an autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China, located on the northwest loess highland, the Yellow River flows through a vast area of its land. ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N i Měnggǔ Z qū) is an Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


The river turns then to flow almost straight to the south, forming the border between the Provinces of Shaanxi and Shanxi. About 130 km northeast of Xi'an, the capital of Shaanxi Province, the Huang He turns again to flow eastwards once more. It reaches the coastal lowlands of Eastern China near the town of Kaifeng and flows through them towards its mouth in northeastern direction and empties into Bohai. In total, it drains an area of 944,970 km² (364,417 square miles). A province, in the context of China, is a translation of sheng (省 shÄ›ng), which is an administrative division of China. ... Shaanxi (Simplified Chinese: 陕西; Traditional Chinese: 陝西; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Shensi, pronounced like Shahn-shee) is a north-central province of the Peoples Republic of China, and includes portions of the Loess Plateau on the middle reaches of the Yellow River as... Shanxi (Chinese: 山西; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Shansi) is a province in the northern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Nickname: Changan Motto: Official website: http://www. ... In politics, a capital (also called capital city or political capital — although the latter phrase has an alternative meaning based on an alternative meaning of capital) is the principal city or town associated with its government. ... Kaifeng (Simplified Chinese: 开封; Traditional Chinese: 開封; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kai-feng), formerly known as Bianliang (汴梁), is a prefecture-level city in eastern Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Alternate meaning: Bohai Sea Balhae (Korean) or Bohai (Chinese) was a kingdom in northeast Asia from AD 698 to 926, occupying parts of Manchuria, northern Korea and the Russian Far East. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... A square mile is an Imperial unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (5,280 feet, 1,760 yards, 1,609. ...

Ordos Desert in 1912
Ordos Desert in 1912

Despite this large drainage area, the water flow of the Huang He is comparatively small. It amounts to only one 15th of that of the Yangtze and only one-fifth of that of the Pearl River, although the drainage area of the latter is less than half that of the Huang He. This is due to the predominant aridity of the Huang He's drainage area, which contains the Ordos Desert along the river's northern bend. Although the eastern parts of the drainage area in Henan and Shandong are much wetter, they cannot compensate for the effect of the arid portions. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1165x920, 204 KB) Description: Ordos Region in China in the early 20th century Source: Robert Sterling Clark and Arthur de C. Sowerby: Through Shên-kan. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1165x920, 204 KB) Description: Ordos Region in China in the early 20th century Source: Robert Sterling Clark and Arthur de C. Sowerby: Through Shên-kan. ... Afternoon light on the jagged grey mountains rising from the Yangtze River gorge The Yangtze River (Simplified Chinese: 扬子江; Traditional Chinese: 揚子江; Hanyu Pinyin: ) is the longest river in Asia and the third longest in the world after the Amazon in South America and the Nile in Africa. ... The Pearl River (珠江 Pinyin: Zhū Jiāng) is Chinas third longest river (2,200 km, after the Yangtze River and the Huang He), and second largest by volume (after the Yangtze). ... A dune in the Egyptian desert In geography, a desert is a landscape form or region that receives little precipitation. ... Ordos Desert 1912 The Ordos Desert (Chinese: 鄂尔多斯沙漠, pinyin: Èěrduōsī (Ordos) Shā Mò (Desert)) is a desert and steppe region lying on a plateau in the south of the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Henan (Chinese: 河南; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-nan), is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. ... Shandong (Simplified Chinese: 山东; Traditional Chinese: 山東; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan-tung) is a coastal province of eastern Peoples Republic of China. ...

Contents


Characteristics of the river

The Huang He is notable for the amount of silt it carries, 1.6 billion tons where it emerges from the Loess Plateau. If the river is running to the sea with sufficient volume, 1.4 billion tons are carried to the sea. In modern times, since 1972 when it first went dry, the river has gone dry in its lower reaches, from Jinan to the sea, in most years, in 1997 for 226 days. The low volume of the river is due to increased demands on the river for use in irrigation which has increased by a factor of five since 1950. Water diverted from the river by 1999 served 140 million people and irrigated 74000 km² of land. Highest volume occurs during the rainy season, from July to October, when 60% of the volume of the river flows. Water for irrigation, on the other hand, is needed between March and June. In order to capture excess water for use when needed and for flood control and electricity generation several dams have been built, but due to the high silt load their life is expected to be limited. Several schemes have been proposed to divert water from the Yangtze River, one in the western headwaters of the rivers where they are closest to one another, another from the upper reaches of the Han River, and a third using the route of the Grand Canal. Silt refers to soil or rock particles of a certain very small size range (see grain size). ... The Loess Plateau is a plateau that covers an area of some 640,000 km² in the upper and middle parts of Chinas Yellow River. ... Jinan (Simplified Chinese: 济南; Traditional Chinese: 濟南; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chi-nan) is a sub-provincial city and the capital of Shandong province, Peoples Republic of China. ... High-altitude aerial view of irrigation in the Heart of the Sahara Irrigation (in agriculture) is the replacement or supplementation of rainfall with water from another source in order to grow crops. ... Afternoon light on the jagged grey mountains rising from the Yangtze River gorge The Yangtze River (Simplified Chinese: 扬子江; Traditional Chinese: 揚子江; Hanyu Pinyin: ) is the longest river in Asia and the third longest in the world after the Amazon in South America and the Nile in Africa. ... Han River is the name of four unrelated rivers: Han River, or Han Gang, is a river in Korea, passing through Seoul and entering the Yellow Sea Han River, or Han Shui, is a tributary of the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang) in central China Han River, or Han Jiang, is... The Grand Canal of China connects a series of rivers in China. ...


Due to its heavy load of silt the Huang He is a depositing stream, that is, it deposits part of its carried burden of soil in its bed in stretches where it is flowing slowly. These deposits elevate the riverbed which flows between natural levees in its lower reaches. Should a flood occur the river may break out of the levees into the surrounding lower flood plain and adopt a new course. Historically this has occurred about once every hundred years. In modern times considerable effort has been made to strengthen levees and control floods. A levee, levée (from the feminine past participle of the French verb lever, to raise), floodbank or stopbank is a natural or artificial embankment or dike, usually earthen, which parallels the course of a river. ...


Cradle of Chinese civilization

During the long history of China, the Huang He has been considered a blessing as well as a curse and has been nicknamed both "China's Pride" (Zhōngguó de Jiāoào) and "China's Sorrow" (Zhōngguó de Tòng). Records indicate that, from 602 BC to present, the river's course made at least 5 major large-scale changes in direction and its levees were breached more than 1,500 times. A major course change that took place in 1194 took over the Huai River drainage system throughout the next 700 years. The mud in the Huang He literally blocked the mouth of the Huai River and left thousands homeless. The Yellow River adopted its present course in 1897 after the final course change occurred in 1855. Currently, Huang He flows through Jinan, capital of the Shandong province and ends in the Bohai Sea (Bohai Gulf). The history of China is detailed by historical records dating back to 1500 BC. China is one of the worlds oldest continuous major civilizations. ... A nickname is a short, clever, cute, derogatory, or otherwise substitute name for a person or things real name (for example, Tom is short for Thomas). ... Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 650s BC 640s BC 630s BC 620s BC 610s BC - 600s BC - 590s BC 580s BC 570s BC 560s BC 550s BC Events and Trends Fall of the Assyrian Empire and Rise of Babylon 609 BC _ King Josiah... Huai He The Huai River (Chinese: 淮河; pinyin: ) is about mid-way between the Yellow River (Huang He) and the Yangtze River. ... Jinan (Simplified Chinese: 济南; Traditional Chinese: 濟南; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chi-nan) is a sub-provincial city and the capital of Shandong province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Shandong (Simplified Chinese: 山东; Traditional Chinese: 山東; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan-tung) is a coastal province of eastern Peoples Republic of China. ... Bo Hai (Chinese: 渤海; pinyin: B hăi; Wade-Giles: Po-hai lit. ...


The river gets its yellow color mostly from the fine-grained calcareous silts originated from the Loess Plateau which are carried in the flow. Centuries of silt deposition and diking has caused the river to flow above the surrounding farmland, making flooding a critically dangerous problem. Flooding of the Huang He has created some of the highest death tolls in recent history, with the 1887 Huang He flood killing 900,000-2,000,000 and the 1931 Huang He flood killing 1,000,000-3,700,000. In 1938, during the Second Sino-Japanese War, the Nationalist troops under Chiang Kai-Shek broke the levees holding back the Yellow River in order to stop the advancing Japanese troops. The river at that time flooded a huge area and the floodwaters took some 500,000-900,000 lives. Silt refers to soil or rock particles of a certain very small size range (see grain size). ... The Loess Plateau is a plateau that covers an area of some 640,000 km² in the upper and middle parts of Chinas Yellow River. ... A dike (or dyke) is an earthen wall, constructed as a defence or as a boundary. ... A death toll is the number of dead as a result of war, violence, accident, natural disaster, extreme weather, or disease. ... im doing this for a scool project this site is helpless ... The 1931 Huang He floods (Yellow River Floods) are generally thought to be the deadliest natural disaster of historic times, and almost certainly of the twentieth century (when pandemics are discounted). ... Combatants National Revolutionary Army, Republic of China Imperial Japanese Army, Empire of Japan Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Zhu De, He Yingqin Tojo Hideki, Matsui Iwane, Minami Jiro, Kesago Nakajima, Toshizo Nishio, Neiji Okamura. ... The Chinese Nationalist Party (Traditional Chinese: 中國國民黨; Simplified Chinese: 中国国民党; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung1-kuo2 Kuo2-min2-tang3; Tongyong Pinyin: Jhōngguó Guómíndǎng), commonly known as the Kuomintang (KMT), is a conservative political party currently active in the Republic of China (ROC) on Taiwan. ... Chiang Kai-shek (Jiǎng Jiè Shí in standard Mandarin) (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was a Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ...


Another reason that causes floods is the ice dam. There have been 11 such major floods in the past century in Inner Mongolia where the Yellow River flows across, causing tremendous loss of life and properties. Explosives dropped from aircraft are used nowadays to break the ice dams. An ice dam is a geological phenomenon. ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N i Měnggǔ Z qū) is an Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Sometimes Huang He is literally spoken as the Zhuo Liu (濁流), or the Muddy Flow. The Chinese expression "when the Yellow River flows clear" is similar to the English expression "when hell freezes over." ... A list of English proverbs is provided at Wikiquote:English proverbs. ...


Tributaries

The Wei River and Fen River are the chief tributaries of Huang He. The Wei River (渭河, pinyin: Wei He; Wade-Giles: Wei Ho) is a river in central China. ... The Fen River is a river in Shanxi Province, the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Hydroelectric power dams

Hydroelectric power dams were built across the Yellow River at Liujia Gorge, Lanzhou, Sanmen Gorge, and Xiaolangdi. Hydroelectric dam diagram The waters of Llyn Stwlan, the upper reservoir of the Ffestiniog Pumped-Storage Scheme in north Wales, can just be glimpsed on the right. ...   Lanzhou (Simplified Chinese: 兰州; Traditional Chinese: 蘭州; pinyin: Lánzhōu; Wade-Giles: Lan-chou; sometimes seen transliterated as Lanchow) is the capital of the Gansu province in China. ...


Provinces and cities on the Yellow River

The provinces of Hebei and Henan derive their names from the Huang He. Their names mean respectively "north" and "south of the (Yellow) River". Hebei (Chinese: 河北; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-pei; Postal System Pinyin: Hopeh) is a northern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Henan (Chinese: 河南; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-nan), is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. ...


Major cities located along the Huang He include (starting from the source): Lanzhou, Wuhai, Baotou, Kaifeng, and Jinan. The upper reaches of the river were first explored by Nikolai Przhevalsky in the 1880s.   Lanzhou (Simplified Chinese: 兰州; Traditional Chinese: 蘭州; pinyin: Lánzhōu; Wade-Giles: Lan-chou; sometimes seen transliterated as Lanchow) is the capital of the Gansu province in China. ... Wuhai (Chinese: 乌海; pinyin: ; literally Dark Sea) is a small prefecture-level city (since 1976) and regional center in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of Peoples Republic of China. ... Baotou (Chinese: 包头; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city and the largest city in Inner Mongolia, Peoples Republic of China. ... Kaifeng (Simplified Chinese: 开封; Traditional Chinese: 開封; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kai-feng), formerly known as Bianliang (汴梁), is a prefecture-level city in eastern Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Jinan (Simplified Chinese: 济南; Traditional Chinese: 濟南; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chi-nan) is a sub-provincial city and the capital of Shandong province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Nikolai Mikhaylovich Przhevalsky, also spelled Przewalski and Prjevalsky (Russian: ) (April 12, 1839—November 1, 1888 (Gregorian calendar)), was a Russian geographer and explorer in central and eastern Asia. ...


Further reading

  • Sinclair, Kevin. 1987. The Yellow River: A 5000 Year Journey Through China. (Based on the television documentary). Child & Associates Publishing, Chatswood, Sydney, Australia. ISBN 0-86777-347-2

External link

  • Yellow River Home Page at UMassD
  • Huang He delta Information at LSU
  • Listen to the Yellow River Ballade from the Yellow River Contata

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Huang He - MSN Encarta (702 words)
The Huang He rises in northern China in a series of springs and lakes in the Kunlun Mountains in Qinghai Province, south of the Gobi Desert.
The Wei River enters the Huang He in the central portion of Shaanxi, and the river then flows east across the northern portion of Henan Province to the plains of northern China.
Construction of a dam across the Huang He at Three-Gate Gorge was begun in 1956, with funding from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR).
Huang Shan Mao Feng Tea - TeaSpring.com (232 words)
Huang Shan is one of China's famous mountain for producing great Green teas and their Mao Feng is certainly one of the best.
Our Huang Shan Mao Feng comes from the tea company owned by Mr.
Every sip of Huang Shan Mao Feng tea promises a sweet and refreshing memory.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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