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Encyclopedia > Hrodna
Hrodna City emblem
Hrodna City emblem

Coordinates: 53°40′N, 23°50′E Image File history File links Coat_of_Arms_of_Hrodna,_Belarus. ... Image File history File links Coat_of_Arms_of_Hrodna,_Belarus. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


Hrodna (Belarusian: Гро́дна; Russian: Гро́дно; Polish: Grodno; Lithuanian: Gardinas; Yiddish: גראָדנע Grodne; German: Garten) is a city in Belarus. It is located on the Neman River, close to the borders of Poland and Lithuania (about 15 km and 30 km away respectively). It has 317,366 inhabitants (2005 estimate). It is the capital of Hrodna voblast (province) and Hrodna raion (district). Yiddish (Yid. ... The Neman (Belarusian: ; Lithuanian: ; Russian: ; Polish: ; German: ) is a major Eastern European river rising in Belarus and flowing through Lithuania before draining into the Baltic Sea near KlaipÄ—da. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Categories: Belarus-related stubs | Regions of Belarus ...


Records indicate it has been in existence for at least 900 years. Not surprising given its location, Hrodna has a significant Polish and Lithuanian heritage and lay for a time within these realms historically.

Contents

History

Medieval origin

Orthodox church of Sts. Boris and Gleb (12th century)
Orthodox church of Sts. Boris and Gleb (12th century)

The modern city of Grodno originated as a small fortress and a fortified trading outpost maintained by the Rurikid princes on the border with the lands of the Baltic tribal union Yotvingians. Its name derives from the Old East Slavic verb gorodit', i.e., to enclose, to fence (see "grad" for details). Image File history File linksMetadata Grodno_kaloza. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Grodno_kaloza. ... Rurik Dynasty ... The term prince, from the Latin root princeps, is used for a member of the highest ranks of the aristocracy or the nobility. ... http://www. ... Categories: Baltic peoples | Stub ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... Grad or gorod (Cyrillic: град, город) is a Slavic word for town or city. ...


Mentioned for the first time in the Primary Chronicle under 1127 as Goroden' and located at a crossing of numerous trading routes, this Slavic settlement, possibly originating as far as the late 10th century, became the capital of a poorly attested but separate principality, ruled by Yaroslav the Wise's grandson and his descendants. The Russian Primary Chronicle (Russian: Повесть временных лет, Povest vremennykh let, which is often translated in English as Tale of Bygone Years), is a history of the early East Slavic state, Kievan Rus, from... Conrad III establishes the Hohenstaufen dynasty when he is crowned antiking to the Holy Roman Emperor, Lothair II. First coalition of the Norman princes against Roger II of Sicily. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... Yaroslav I the Wise (978?-1054) (Christian name: Yury, or George) was thrice prince of Novgorod and Kiev, uniting the two principalities for a time under his rule. ...


Along with Navahradak, Hrodna was regarded as the main city on the far west of the historical area so-called Black Rus, that was neighbouring the original Duchy of Lithuania. It was often attacked by various invaders, especially the Teutonic Knights. In the 1250s territory of modern Hrodna province became a center where Baltic-Slavic state - the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was formed. The famous Lithuanian grand duke Vytautas was the prince of Hrodna from 1376 to 1392, and he stayed there during his preparations for the Battle of Grunwald (1410). Since 1413, Hrodna had been the administrative center of a powiat in Trakai Voivodeship. Navahradak (Нава́градак in Belarusian; Russian: Novogrudok; Polish: Nowogródek; Lithuanian: Naugardukas) is a city in western Belarus. ... Black Ruthenia (dark green, north-west). ... Duchy of Lithuania (Latin: ; Lithuanian: ) was a state-territorial formation of ethnic Lithuanians, that existed from the 11th century until 1413. ... For Sienkiewicz novel, see The Teutonic Knights. ... Baltic can refer to: The Baltic Sea Council of the Baltic Sea States - an intergovernmental organization Baltic sea countries - countries with access to the Baltic Sea The Baltic region (Balticum) Baltic States - the independent countries of Estonia Latvia Lithuania Baltic Republics - term refers to the three Baltic states under the... Slav, Slavic or Slavonic can refer to: Slavic peoples Slavic languages Slavic mythology Church Slavonic language Old Church Slavonic language Slav, a former Jewish settlement in the Gaza Strip. ... The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: , Ruthenian: Wialikaje Kniastwa Litowskaje, Ruskaje, Å»amojckaje, Belarusian: , Ukrainian: , Polish: , Latin: ) was an Eastern and Central European state of the 12th[1] /13th century until the 18th century. ... The title of Grand Duke (Latin, Magnus Dux; German, Großherzog, Russian, Великий князь) used in Slavic, Baltic, and Germanic countries, is ranked in honour below King but higher than a sovereign Duke (Herzog) or Prince (Fürst). ... Vytautas the Great - engraving of XVI ct. ... Combatants Kingdom of Poland Grand Duchy of Lithuania Kingdom of Moldavia Teutonic Order and Mercenaries and Various Knights from the rest of Europe Commanders WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw II JagieÅ‚Å‚o, Vytautas the Great, Alexandru cel Bun Ulrich von Jungingen† Strength 39,000 (2/3 was Polish Knights) 27,000 Casualties... March 29 - The Aragonese capture Oristano, capital of the giudicato di Arborea in Sardinia July 15 – Battle of Grunwald (also known as Tannenberg or Zalgiris). ... A county (Polish: powiat, pronounced povyat; plural, powiaty) is the Polish third-level unit of administration, equivalent to a county, district or prefecture (NUTS-4 or rather LAU-1) in other countries. ... Trakai Voivodeship Trakai Voivodeship (Lithuanian: Trakų vaivadija, Polish: Województwo Trockie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (after the Union of Lublin it, together with whole Grand Duchy of Lithuania, became part of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) from the 16th century till...


Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth

The New Castle in Hrodna used to be a summer residence of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth monarchs.
The New Castle in Hrodna used to be a summer residence of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth monarchs.

To aid the reconstruction of trade and commerce, the grand dukes allowed the creation of a Jewish commune in 1389. It was one of the first Jewish communities in the grand duchy. In 1441 the city received its charter, based on the Magdeburg Law. After the First Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Hrodna became the capital of the short-lived Hrodna Voivodship in 1793. Image File history File linksMetadata Прыклад.jpg‎ New Royal Palace in Hrodna. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Прыклад.jpg‎ New Royal Palace in Hrodna. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... Events February 24 - Margaret I defeats Albert in battle, thus becoming ruler of Denmark, Norway and Sweden June 28 - Battle of Kosovo between Serbs and Ottomans. ... This page is about the year 1441. ... The Magdeburg Rights (or Magdeburg law) were the laws of the Imperial Free City of Magdeburg during many centuries of the Holy Roman Empire, and possibly the most important set of Germanic medieval city laws. ... The Partitions of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Lietuvos-Lenkijos padalijimai, Belarusian: Падзелы Рэчы Паспалітай) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


An important centre of trade, commerce, and culture, Hrodna remained one of the places where the Sejms were held. Also, the Old and New Castles were often visited by the Commonwealth monarchs. In 1793 the last Sejm in the history of the Commonwealth occurred at Hrodna. Two years afterwards, in 1795, Russia obtained the city in the Third Partition of Poland. It was in the New Castle on November 25 of that year that the last Polish king and Lithuanian grand duke Stanisław August Poniatowski abdicated. In the Russian Empire, the city continued to serve its role as a seat of Grodno Governorate since 1801. The industrial activities, started in the late 18th century by Antoni Tyzenhauz, continued to develop. The Sejm building in Warsaw. ... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... New Castle in Grodno, where the Grodno Sejm took place. ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Partitions of Poland (Polish Rozbiór or Rozbiory Polski) happened in the 18th century and ended the existence of a sovereign state of Poland (or more correctly the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth). ... November 25 is the 329th (in leap years the 330th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other persons named Stanisław Poniatowski, see Stanisław Poniatowski. ... Look up abdication in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Anthem God Save the Tsar! The Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721-1725 Peter the Great (first)  - 1894-1917 Nicholas II (last) History  - Established 22 October, 1721  - February Revolution 2 March, 1917 Area  - 1897 22,400,000 km2 8,648,688 sq... Grodno Governorate (Russian: ) was a governorate (guberniya) of the Russian Empire. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ...


Recent history

After the outbreak of World War I, Hrodna was occupied by Germany (1915) and ceded by Bolshevist Russia under the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in 1918. After the war the German government permitted a short-lived state to be set up there, the first one with a Belarusian name - the Belarusian National Republic. This declared its independence from Russia in March of 1918 in Minsk (Mensk), but then the BNR's Rada (Council) had to leave Minsk and fled to Hrodna. All this time the military authority in the city remained in German hands. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Belligerent military occupation, occurs when one nations military garrisons occupy all or part of a foreign nation during an invasion (during or after a war). ... Bolshevist Russia is a common term that refers to the Red side in the Russian government between the Bolsheviks October Revolution (November 7, 1917) and the constitution of the Soviet Union (December 30, 1922). ... The first two pages of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, in (left to right) German, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Ottoman Turkish and Russian The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918, at Brest-Litovsk (now Brest, Belarus) between the Russian SFSR and the Central Powers, marking... map of the Belarusian National Republic, 1918 National motto: None Official language Belarusian Capital Minsk, Currently in Exile National anthem Vajacki marÅ¡ Chairperson of the Rada Ivonka Survilla Independence  - Declared  - Forced into Exile Treaty of Brest-Litovsk March 25, 1918 January 5, 1919 The Belarusian Peoples Republic (Belarusian: Белару́ская Наро́дная Рэспу́бліка, eng. ... Location of Minsk, shown within the Minsk Voblast Coordinates: Country Subdivision Belarus Minsk Founded 1067 Government  - Mayor Mikhail Pavlov Area  - City 305. ...


After the outbreak of the Polish-Bolshevik War, the German commanders of the Ober Ost feared that the city might fall to Soviet Russia, so on April 27, 1919 they passed authority to Poland. The city was seized by the Polish Army the following day and Polish administration was established in the city. The city was lost to the Red Army on July 19, 1920 because of the Polish strategic withdrawal towards Warsaw. The city was also claimed by Lithuanian government, who were promised during the July 12, 1920 talks in Moscow that it would be transferred to Lithuania. However, Soviet defeat in the Battle of Warsaw made these plans obsolete, and Lithuanian authority was never established in the city. Instead, the Red Army organised its last stand in the city and the Battle of Neman took place there. On September 23 the Polish Army recaptured the city. After the Peace Treaty of Riga, the city remained in Poland. Polish-Bolshevik War Conflict Polish-Bolshevik War Date 1919–1921 Place Central and Eastern Europe Result Polish victory The Polish-Soviet War (also known as the Polish-Bolshevik War or the Polish-Russian War) was the war (February 1919 – March 1921) that determined the borders between the Russian... Leopold von Bayern Ober Ost (short for Oberbefehlshabers der gesamten deutschen Streitkräfte im Osten) was a German WWI military administration governing a large part of the German-held areas of the Russian Empire. ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Polish Army (Polish Wojsko Polskie) is the name applied to the military forces of Poland. ... Red Army flag The Workers and Peasants Red Army (Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия, Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya; RKKA or usually simply the Red Army) were the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918 and that, in 1922, became the army of the Soviet Union. ... July 19 is the 200th day (201st in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 165 days remaining. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Combatants Poland Soviet Russia Commanders Józef PiÅ‚sudski, Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y Aleksandr Yegorov, Semyon Budionny Strength 8 Infantry Divisions, 1 Cavalry Division, 2 understrength Ukrainian divisions 8 Infantry Divisions, 2 Cavalry Divisions, later also 1st Cavalry Army Casualties ? ? The Kiev Offensive (or Kiev Operation) was an attempt by... July 12 is the 193rd day (194th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 172 days remaining. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... The Battle of Warsaw (sometimes referred to as the Miracle at the Vistula, Polish Cud nad WisÅ‚Ä…) was the decisive battle of the Polish-Soviet War, the war that began soon after the end of World War I in 1918 and lasted until the Treaty of Riga in 1921. ... Red Army flag The Workers and Peasants Red Army (Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия, Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya; RKKA or usually simply the Red Army) were the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918 and that, in 1922, became the army of the Soviet Union. ... Battle of the Niemen River was the second largest battle of the Polish-Bolshevik War. ... September 23 is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years). ... See also Riga Peace Treaty for other treaties concluded in Riga. ...

In the city centre.
In the city centre.

Initially, prosperity was reduced due to the fact that the city remained only the capital of a powiat, while the capital of the voivodship was moved to Białystok. However, in the late 1920s the city became one of the biggest Polish Army garrisons. This brought the local economy back on track. Also, the city was a notable centre of Jewish culture, with roughly 37% of the city's population being Jewish. The Belarusian language was forbidden by the Polish authorities and Belarusian schools were closed down. Belarusians were only 3% of the population and Polish were 60%. Image File history File linksMetadata Grodno_plac. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Grodno_plac. ... A county (Polish: powiat, pronounced povyat; plural, powiaty) is the Polish third-level unit of administration, equivalent to a county, district or prefecture (NUTS-4 or rather LAU-1) in other countries. ... A Voivodship (also voivodeship, Romanian: voievodat, Polish: województwo, Serbian: vojvodstvo or vojvodina) was a feudal state in medieval Romania, Hungary, Poland, Russia and Serbia (see Vojvodina), ruled by a Voivod (voivode). ... BiaÅ‚ystok (pronounced: , Belarusian: , Lithuanian: , Yiddish ביאַליסטאָק) is the largest city (pop. ... Belarusian (беларуская мова) is the language of the Belarusian people. ...


During the Polish Defensive War of 1939 the garrison of Hrodna was mostly used for the creation of numerous military units fighting against the invading Wehrmacht. In the course of the Soviet invasion of Poland initiated on September 17, there was heavy fighting in the city between Soviet and improvised Polish forces, composed mostly of march battalions and volunteers. In the course of the Battle of Grodno (September 20September 22), the Red Army lost some hundred men (by the Polish sources; by the Soviet sources - 57 killed and 159 wounded) and also 19 tanks and 4 APCs destroyed or damaged. The Polish side suffered at least 100 killed in action, military and civil, but losses still remain uncertain in detail (Soviet sources claim 644 killed and 1543 captives with many guns and machine guns etc. captured). Many more were shot in mass executions after being imprisoned. After the engaged Polish units were surrounded, the remaining units withdrew to Lithuania. Combatants Poland Germany, Soviet Union, Slovakia Commanders Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y Fedor von Bock (Army Group North), Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group South), Mikhail Kovalov (Belorussian Front), Semyon Timoshenko (Ukrainian Front), Ferdinand ÄŒatloÅ¡ (Field Army Bernolak) Strength 39 divisions, 16 brigades, 4,300 guns, 880 tanks, 400 aircraft Total: 950... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full year calendar). ... Wehrmacht   (armed forces, literally defence force(s)) was the name of the armed forces of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1945. ... Combatants Poland Germany, Soviet Union, Slovakia Commanders Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y Fedor von Bock (Army Group North), Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group South), Mikhail Kovalov (Belorussian Front), Semyon Timoshenko (Ukrainian Front), Ferdinand ÄŒatloÅ¡ (Field Army Bernolak) Strength 39 divisions, 16 brigades, 4,300 guns, 880 tanks, 400 aircraft Total: 950... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... March battalion (French Bataillon de Marche, Polish Batalion marszowy, German Marschbatallion) is a battalion-sized military unit formed of all the rear-echelon units of an infantry regiment. ... The Battle of Grodno took place between September 21 and September 24, 1939, during the Polish Defensive War. ... September 20 is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years). ... September 22 is the 265th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (266th in leap years). ... Red Army flag The Workers and Peasants Red Army (Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия, Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya; RKKA or usually simply the Red Army) were the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918 and that, in 1922, became the army of the Soviet Union. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ...


In accordance with the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact the city was transferred to the Belarusian SSR of the Soviet Union, and several thousand of the city's Polish inhabitants were deported to remote areas of the Soviet Union. In 1941, the city came under German occupation, which lasted until July 1944. In the course of the World War II, the majority of Hrodna's remaining Jews were exterminated in German concentration camps. Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ... language None. ... Not by Their Own Will. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... See also the related article on Nazi concentration camps The following is a list of German concentration camps during World War II. are marked with pink, while major concentration camps of are marked with blue. ...

Theatre and World War II monument
Theatre and World War II monument

Since 1945 the city has been a centre of one of provinces of the Belarusian SSR, now of the independent Republic of Belarus. Image File history File linksMetadata Grodno_tank_dramteatr. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Grodno_tank_dramteatr. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday. ... language None. ...


Modern city

Because the city is located near the border of Poland and Lithuania, it has one of the largest concentrations of Roman Catholics in Belarus. It is also a center of Polish culture, with the majority of Poles living in Belarus, residing in the city and its surroundings. The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ...


This city is known for its very important Medical University, where many students from different parts of Belarus acquire an academic degree, as do a good number of foreign students as well.


Architecture

The town was scored to be dominated by the Old Castle, first built in stone by Grand Duke Vytautas and thoroughly rebuilt in the Renaissance style by Scotto from Parma at the behest of Stefan Batory, who made the castle his principal residence. Batory died at this palace seven years later and was interred in Hrodna. After his death, the castle was altered on numerous occasions, although a 17th-century stone arch bridge linking it with the city still survives. The Saxon monarchs of Poland were dissatisfied with the old residence and commissioned Matthäus Daniel Pöppelmann to design the New Castle, whose once sumptuous Baroque interiors were destroyed during the World War II. Vytautas the Great - engraving of XVI ct. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... Stefan Bat(h)ory, King of Poland, Prince of Transylvania, Grand Duke of Lithuania (27 September 1533–12 December 1586) was Prince of Transylvania (1571-1586), then King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania (1575-1586). ... Matthäus Daniel Pöppelmann (May 3, 1662, Herford - January 17, 1737, Dresden) was a German master builder who helped to rebuild Dresden after the fire of 1685, and designed Dresden Castle and the Pillnitz church. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...

The Jesuit Cathedral of Hrodna (1678-1705)
The Jesuit Cathedral of Hrodna (1678-1705)

Image File history File linksMetadata Grodno_katedra. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Grodno_katedra. ...

Medieval

The oldest extant structure in Hrodna is the Kolozha church of Sts. Boris and Gleb (Russian: Kolozhskaya). It is the only surviving monument of ancient Black Ruthenian architecture, distinguished from other Orthodox churches by prolific use of polychrome faceted stones of blue, green or red tint which could be arranged to form crosses or other figures on the wall. The church is a cross-domed building supported by six circular pillars. The outside is articulated with projecting pilasters, which have rounded corners, as does the building itself. The ante-nave contains the choir loft, accessed by a narrow gradatory in the western wall. Two other stairs were discovered in the walls of the side apses; their purpose is not clear. The floor is lined with ceramic tiles forming decorative patterns. The interior was lined with innumerable built-in pitchers, which usually serve in Eastern Orthodox churches as resonators but in this case were scored to produce decorative effects. For this reason, the central nave has never been painted.


The church was built before 1183 and survived intact until 1853, when the south wall collapsed, due to its perilous location on the high bank of the Neman. During restoration works, some fragments of 12th-century frescoes were discovered in the apses. Remains of four other churches in the same style, decorated with pitchers and coloured stones instead of frescoes, were discovered in Hrodna and Vaŭkavysk. They all date back to the turn of the 13th century, as do remains of the first stone palace in the Old Castle. VaÅ­kavysk (Belarusian: , Polish: ) is a town in the Hrodna Province of Belarus. ...


Baroque

The Bridgettine convent (1642)
The Bridgettine convent (1642)

Probably the most spectacular landmark of Hrodna is the Cathedral of St. Franciscus Xaver, the former (until 1773) Jesuit church on Batory Square (now: Soviet Square). This confident specimen of high Baroque architecture, exceeding 50 metres in height, was started in 1678. Due to wars that rocked Poland-Lithuania at that time, the cathedral was consecrated only 27 years later, in the presence of Peter the Great and Augustus the Strong. Its late Baroque frescoes were executed in 1752. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (480x640, 56 KB) Klasztor Brygidek w Grodnie. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (480x640, 56 KB) Klasztor Brygidek w Grodnie. ... 1773 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... Batory square in the centre of Hrodna city Batory Square is the administrative central headquarters for the city of Hrodna in the heart of Hrodna city, in western Belarus. ... Soviet redirects here. ... Baroque architecture, starting in the early 17th century in Italy, took the humanist Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical, theatrical, sculptural fashion, expressing the triumph of absolutist church and state. ... Peter I Emperor and Autocrat of All Russia Peter I (Pyotr Alekseyvich) (9 June 1672–8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death. ... Reign From 1697, until 1706 and from 1709, until February 1, 1733 Elected In 1697 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation On September 15, 1697 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Royal House Wettin Parents John George III Wettin Anne Sophie Consorts  ? Children August III Sas Maurice...


The extensive grounds of the Bernardine monastery (1602-18), renovated in 1680 and 1738, display all the styles flourishing in the 17th century, from Gothic to Baroque. The interior is considered a masterpiece of so-called Wilno Baroque. Other monastic establishments include the old Franciscan cloister (1635), Basilian convent (1720-51, by Giuseppe Fontana III), the church of the Bridgettine cloister (1642, one of the earliest Baroque buildings in the region) with the wooden two-storey dormitory (1630s) still standing on the grounds, and the 18th-century buildings of the Dominican monastery (its cathedral was demolished in 1874).


Among other sights in Hrodna and its environs, we should mention the Orthodox cathedral, a polychrome Russian Revival extravaganza from 1904; the botanical garden, the first in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, founded in 1774; a curiously curved building on the central square (1780s); a 254-metre-high TV tower (1984); and Stanisławów, a summer residence of the last Polish king. Thons Cathedral of Christ the Saviour, Moscow, 1839-60 The Russian Revival style (Russian: ) is the generic term for a number of different movements within Russian architecture, that arose in second quarter of the 19th century and was an eclectic melding of pre-Peterine Russian architecture and elements of... Grodno TV Tower is a 254 metre tall lattice tower at Grodno, Belarus. ...

Related pages

The Battle of Grodno took place between September 21 and September 24, 1939, during the Polish Defensive War. ... Disputed territories of Baltic States are those territories of Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia, which were in the mentioned countries in the interwar period, but with the Soviet occupation after WW2, they werent attached to Lithuanian, Latvian and Estonian Soviet socialist republics, being attached instead to Russian SFSR, Byelorussian SSR... The following is a list of Slavic states that existed in the first half of the second millennium on the territories of contemporary Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Hrodna
  • Coat of Arms
  • Photos on Radzima.org
  • Hrodna online - regional info portal
  • History of the Jewish community in Hrodna
  • Lost Jewish Worlds - Grodno at Yad Vashem
  • Sights of Grodno
  • The Jewish Comunity of Grodno of Today
  • Grodno.biz - Grodno regional information and business project

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... An exterior view of the Yad Vashem Holocaust memorial museum in Jerusalem. ...



  Results from FactBites:
 
Hrodna (1342 words)
From the second half of the XII Century Hrodna was part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and in 1569 it merged with the Kingdom of Poland to form Rzech Pospolita Polsko-Litewska - the Commonwealth of Poland and Lithuania.
Hrodna was occupied in 1812 as Napoleon's Army marched toward Moscow.
In the subsequent turmoil caused by the end of the war and the onset of the Russian Revolution Hrodna was captured by the Pilsudski Army in 1920, was ceded to Poland by the Treaty of Riga and remained part of Poland until 1939.
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