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Encyclopedia > Hoysala architecture
Profile of a Hoysala temple at Somanathapura
Profile of a Hoysala temple at Somanathapura

Hoysala architecture (Kannada: ಹೊಯ್ಸಳ ವಾಸ್ತುಶಿಲ್ಪ) is the distinctive building style developed under the rule of the Hoysala Empire, in the region known today as Karnataka, India, between the 11th and 14th centuries. Hoysala influence was at its peak in the 13th century, when it dominated the Southern Deccan Plateau region. Large and small temples built during this era remain as examples of the Hoysala architectural style, including the Chennakesava Temple at Belur, the Hoysaleswara Temple at Halebidu, and the Kesava Temple at Somanathapura. Other examples of fine Hoysala craftmanship are the temples at Belavadi, Amruthapura, Hosaholalu and Nuggehalli. Study of the Hoysala architectural style has revealed a negligible Indo-Aryan influence while the impact of Southern Indian style is more distinct.[1] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1944 × 2592 pixels, file size: 595 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photographed by self (Dineshkannambadi) at Kesava Temple at Somanathapura, Karnataka, India in June, 2006 I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1944 × 2592 pixels, file size: 595 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photographed by self (Dineshkannambadi) at Kesava Temple at Somanathapura, Karnataka, India in June, 2006 I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to... The entrance of the temple, illustrating the various relief bands Somanathapura (also known as Somnathpur) is a town located in Mysore district, Karnataka, India. ... “Kannada” redirects here. ... Extent of Hoysala Empire, 1200 CE Capital Belur, Halebidu Language(s) Kannada Religion Hindu Government Monarchy King  - 1026 – 1047 Nripa Kama II  - 1292 – 1343 Veera Ballala III History  - Earliest Hoysala records 950  - Established 1026  - Disestablished 1343 The Hoysala Empire (Kannada: ಹೊಯ್ಸಳ ಸಾಮ್ರಾಜ್ಯ) (pronunciation: in Kannada) was a prominent South Indian empire that... , Karnataka (Kannada: , IPA:  ) is a state in the southern part of India. ... Deccan redirects here. ... Chennakesava Temple The Chennakesava Temple sits on the banks of the Yagachi River in Belur, 220 km from Bangalore, in Karnataka, India. ... Belur (Kannada:ಬೇಲೂರು) was the early capital of the Hoysala Empire. ... Siva and Parvathi - Hoysaleswara temple Hoysaleswara temple is in Halebidu 16 kms from Belur, 31 kms from Hassan and 149 kms from Mysore in the state of Karnataka in India. ... Halebidu (Kannada ಹಳೆಬೀಡು) is located in Hassan District, Karnataka, India. ... Entrance Porch, trikuta vimana This article is about Chennakesava Temple at Somanathapura. ... The entrance of the temple, illustrating the various relief bands Somanathapura (also known as Somnathpur) is a town located in Mysore district, Karnataka, India. ... Mantapa, Viranarayana temple, Chikmagalur district Vimana, Viranarayana temple, Chikmagalur district Belavadi, also known as Ekachakranagara is a town in Chikmagalur district of Karnataka state. ... Ekakuta (singly shrined), Amruteshwara temple, 1196, Chikmagalur district Amruthapura is situated 67 km north of Chikmagalur town in Chikmagalur District, Karnataka state, India. ... Lakshminarayana temple stands on a jagati at Hosaholalu, Mandya District, Karnataka Vimana with tower at Lakshminarayana temple in Hosaholalu The Lakshminarayana Temple located in Hosaholalu, a small town in Mandya district of Karnataka, India was built by king Vira Someshwara of the Hoysala Empire in 1250 CE. The date of... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, thus belonging to the Indo-European family of languages. ... South India is a geographic and linguistic-cultural region of India. ...


The vigorous temple building activity of the Hoysala Empire was due to the social, cultural and political events of the period. The stylistic transformation of the Karnata temple building tradition reflected religious trends popularized by the Vaishnava and Virashaiva philosophers as well as the growing military prowess of the Hoysala kings who desired to surpass their Western Chalukya overlords in artistic achievement. Temples built prior to Hoysala independence in the mid-12th century reflect significant Western Chalukya influences, while later temples retain some features salient to Chalukyan art but have additional inventive decoration and ornamentation, features unique to Hoysala artisans. About one hundred temples have survived in present-day Karnataka state, mostly in the Malnad (hill) districts, the native home of the Hoysala kings. Vaishnavism is the branch of Hinduism in which Vishnu or one of his avatars (i. ... Lingayatism is a religious movement in India. ... The Western Chalukyas (973 - 1200) also known as Kalyani Chalukya or Later Chalukya ruled the western Deccan in South India between the tenth and the thirteenth centuries CE. They were related to the Chalukya dynasty of Badami who were a powerful dynasty who reigned over most of the Deccan between... Malnad (Kannada: ಮಲೆನಾಡು) (an English word for Malenadu in Kannada, male means rain and nadu means land) is a region of Karnataka state in South India. ...


As popular tourist destinations in Karnataka, Hoysala temples offer an excellent opportunity for pilgrims and students of architecture to examine medieval Hindu architecture in the Karnata Dravida tradition. This tradition began in the 7th century under the patronage of the Chalukya dynasty of Badami, developed further under the Western Chalukyas of Basavakalyan in the 11th century and finally transformed into an independent style by the 12th century during the reign of the Hoysalas. Medieval Kannada language inscriptions displayed prominently at temple locations give details of the temples and offer valuable information about the history of the Hoysala dynasty. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... Virupaksha temple, Pattadakal, built 740 Badami Chalukya Territories in the reign of Pulakesi II, 640 The Chalukya dynasty (Sanskrit/Marathi[1]:चालुक्य राजवंश,Kannada:ಚಾಲುಕ್ಯರು) IPA: ) was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th centuries. ... Badami Cave Temple No 3. ... Basavakalyan is a town in Bidar District of the state of Karnataka, India. ... “Kannada” redirects here. ...

Contents

Temple deities

Main article: Hoysala Empire
Vishnu with Lakshmi (Lakshminarayana) at Halebidu
Vishnu with Lakshmi (Lakshminarayana) at Halebidu
Shiva, Parvati, Nandi at Halebidu
Shiva, Parvati, Nandi at Halebidu
Hoysala stepped temple tank (Kalyani) at Hulikere, Karnataka

Hinduism is a combination of secular and sacred beliefs, rituals, daily practices, and traditions that has evolved over the course of over two thousand years and embodies complex symbolism combining the natural world with philosophy. Hindu temples began as simple shrines housing a deity and by the time of the Hoysalas had evolved into impressive edifices of worship and transcendence of the daily world. Hoysala temples were not limited to any specific organised tradition of Hinduism and encouraged pilgrims of different Hindu devotional movements. The Hoysalas usually dedicated their temples to Lord Shiva or to Lord Vishnu (two of the major Hindu gods), but they occasionally chose a different deity. Shiva followers are called Shaivas or Lingayats and the Vishnu followers are called Vaishnavas. While King Vishnuvardhana and his descendants were Vaishnava by faith,[2] records show that the Hoysalas maintained religious harmony by building as many temples dedicated to Shiva as they did to Vishnu.[3] Most of these temples have secular features with broad themes depicted in their sculptures. This can be seen in the famous Chennakesava Temple at Belur dedicated to Vishnu and in the Hoysaleswara temple at Halebidu dedicated to Shiva. The Kesava temple at Somanathapura is different in that its ornamentation is strictly Vaishnavan.[4] Generally Vaishnava temples are dedicated to Keshava (or Chennakeshava meaning Beautiful Vishnu) while a small number are dedicated to Lakshminarayana and Lakshminarasimha (Narayana and Narasimha are both Vishnu bodily manifestations of the god or avatars) with Lakshmi, consort of Vishnu, seated at his feet. Temples dedicated to Vishnu are always named after the deity. The Shaiva temples have a Shiva linga, symbol of fertility and the universal symbol of Shiva, in the shrine. The names of Shiva temples can end with the suffix eshwara meaning Lord of. The name Hoysaleswara for instance means Lord of Hoysala. The temple can also be named after a devotee who commissioned the construction of the temple, an example being the Bucesvara temple at Koravangala named after a devotee Buci.[5] The most striking sculptural decorations are the horizontal rows of exquisitely detailed, intricately carved images of Gods, Goddesses and their attendants on the temple outer wall panels. The Doddagaddavalli Lakshmi Devi temple (Goddess of wealth) is an exception as it deifies neither Vishnu nor Shiva. The defeat of the Jain Western Ganga Dynasty (of present day south Karnataka) by the Cholas in early 11th century and the rising numbers of followers of Vaishnava Hinduism and Virashaivism in the 12th century was mirrored by a decreased interest in Jainism.[6] However, two notable locations of Jain worship in the Hoysala territory were Shravanabelagola and Kambadahalli. The Hoysalas built Jain temples to satisfy the needs of its Jain population, a few of which have survived in Halebidu containing icons of Jain tirthankaras. They constructed stepped wells called Pushkarni or Kalyani, the ornate tank at Hulikere being an example. The tank has twelve minor shrines containing Hindu deities.[7] Extent of Hoysala Empire, 1200 CE Capital Belur, Halebidu Language(s) Kannada Religion Hindu Government Monarchy King  - 1026 – 1047 Nripa Kama II  - 1292 – 1343 Veera Ballala III History  - Earliest Hoysala records 950  - Established 1026  - Disestablished 1343 The Hoysala Empire (Kannada: ಹೊಯ್ಸಳ ಸಾಮ್ರಾಜ್ಯ) (pronunciation: in Kannada) was a prominent South Indian empire that... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 395 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1176 × 1784 pixel, file size: 679 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photograph taken by self (Dineshkannambadi) at Hoysaleswara Temple at Halebidu, Karnataka, India in June 2005 I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 395 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1176 × 1784 pixel, file size: 679 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photograph taken by self (Dineshkannambadi) at Hoysaleswara Temple at Halebidu, Karnataka, India in June 2005 I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to... Halebidu (Kannada ಹಳೆಬೀಡು) is located in Hassan District, Karnataka, India. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 396 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1176 × 1780 pixel, file size: 593 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photograph taken by self (Dineshkannambadi) at Hoysaleswara Temple at Halebidu, Karnataka, India in June 2005 I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 396 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1176 × 1780 pixel, file size: 593 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photograph taken by self (Dineshkannambadi) at Hoysaleswara Temple at Halebidu, Karnataka, India in June 2005 I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to... Halebidu (Kannada ಹಳೆಬೀಡು) is located in Hassan District, Karnataka, India. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,592 × 1,944 pixels, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,592 × 1,944 pixels, file size: 2. ... Lord Vishnu Devotional movements refers to various forms of Hinduism in India that co-exist with differing doctrines and practices. ... For other uses, see Shiva (disambiguation). ... Vishnu (IAST , Devanagari ), (honorific: Sri Vishnu) also known as Narayana is the Supreme Being (i. ... Virasaivism is a religious movement of Hinduism in India. ... Vaishnavism is the branch of Hinduism in which Vishnu or one of his avatars (i. ... Vishnuvardhana (Kannada: ವಿಷ್ಣುವರ್ಧನ) (1108-1152), was a king of the Hoysala Empire in what is today the Indian state of Karnataka. ... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... Chennakesava Temple The Chennakesava Temple sits on the banks of the Yagachi River in Belur, 220 km from Bangalore, in Karnataka, India. ... Belur (Kannada:ಬೇಲೂರು) was the early capital of the Hoysala Empire. ... Vishnu (IAST , Devanagari ), (honorific: Sri Vishnu) also known as Narayana is the Supreme Being (i. ... Siva and Parvathi - Hoysaleswara temple Hoysaleswara temple is in Halebidu 16 kms from Belur, 31 kms from Hassan and 149 kms from Mysore in the state of Karnataka in India. ... Halebidu (Kannada ಹಳೆಬೀಡು) is located in Hassan District, Karnataka, India. ... For other uses, see Shiva (disambiguation). ... The entrance of the temple, illustrating the various relief bands Somanathapura (also known as Somnathpur) is a town located in Mysore district, Karnataka, India. ... Keshava and Keshav (Sanskrit: केशव) are alternate names for Lord Krishna from within Hindu tradition. ... See Avatar (disambiguation) for other meanings. ... For other uses, see Lakshmi (disambiguation). ... This article is about the religion Shaivism. ... It has been suggested that Shiva lingham stones be merged into this article or section. ... Shrine is also used as a conventional translation of the Japanese Jinja. ... Lakshmidevi temple, constructed 1114 CE Doddagaddavalli is a village in Hassan District in the South India state of Karnataka, India. ... The Gangas of Talakad, like the Kadambas of Banavasi, rose to political eminence in the middle of the fourth century A.D., and ruled over the southern parts of Karnataka, in southern India. ... Vaishnavism is the branch of Hinduism in which Vishnu or one of his avatars (i. ... Virasaivism is a religious movement of Hinduism in India. ... Jain and Jaina redirect here. ... The statue of Gomatheswara dates from 978-993 AD. Shravanabelagola is a city located in the Hassan district, in the Indian state of Karnataka. ... Panchakuta Basadi, Kambadahalli, Mandya district Mantapa, Panchakuta Basadi, Kambadahalli Mandya District Kambadahalli is a town in Mandya district of Karnataka state. ... JAIN is an activity within the Java Community Process, developing APIs for the creation of telephony (voice and data) services. ... Halebidu (Kannada ಹಳೆಬೀಡು) is located in Hassan District, Karnataka, India. ... In Jainism, a Tirthankara (Fordmaker) is a human who achieved enlightenment, became a Jiva, and whose religious teachings have formed the canon of Jainism; although not Gods, statues of Tirthankaras are found in temples. ...


The two main deities found in Hoysala temple sculpture are Lord Shiva and Lord Vishnu in their various forms and avatars (incarnations). Shiva is usually shown with four arms holding a trident and a small drum among other emblems that symbolise objects worshipped independently of the divine image with which they are associated.[8] Any male icon portrayed in this way is Shiva although a female icon may sometimes be portrayed with these attributes as Shiva’s consort, Parvati. Various depictions of Lord Shiva show him in action, such as slaying a demon or dancing on the head of an elephant. He is often accompanied by his consort, Parvati or shown with Nandi the bull. He may be represented as Bhairava, another of Shiva’s many manifestations. For other uses, see Shiva (disambiguation). ... Vishnu (IAST , Devanagari ), (honorific: Sri Vishnu) also known as Narayana is the Supreme Being (i. ... This article is about the concept in Hindu philosophy. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For the Harry Potter character, see Parvati Patil. ... For other uses, see Shiva (disambiguation). ... In Hinduism, Nandi is the white bull which Shiva rides, and the leader of the Ganas. ... Bhairava (भैरव) is a name of the fearsome aspect of the god Shiva. ... For other uses, see Shiva (disambiguation). ...


A male icon depicted holding certain objects such as a conch (symbol of eternal, heavenly space) and a wheel (eternal time and destructive power) is Vishnu. If a female icon is depicted holding these objects, she is seen as his consort, Lakshmi. In all the depictions Vishnu is holding four objects: a conch, a wheel, a lotus and a mace. These can be held in any of the icon’s hands, making possible twenty four different forms of Vishnu, each with a unique name.[9] Apart from these, Vishnu is depicted in any of his ten avataras (bodily manifestations) which include Vishnu sitting on Anantha (celestial snake and keeper of life energy), with Lakshmi seated on his lap (Lakshminarayana), with the head of a lion disemboweling a demon on his lap (Lakshminarasimha), with head of a boar walking over a demon (Varaha), in the Krishna avatar (as Venugopala or the cow herder playing the Venu (flute}, dancing on the head of the snake Kaliya, lifting a hill such as Govardhana), with his feet over head of a small figure (Vamana), with Lakshmi seated on Garuda, and the eagle (stealing the parijata tree). Species Strombus gigas Strombus luhuanus Strombus pugilis A conch (pronounced in the U.S.A. as konk or conch(IPA: ) [1] is a sea-dwelling mollusk. ... Vishnu (IAST , Devanagari ), (honorific: Sri Vishnu) also known as Narayana is the Supreme Being (i. ... For other uses, see Lakshmi (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Gaertn. ... A development of the club, a mace consists of a strong, heavy wooden, metal-reinforced, or metal shaft, with a head made of stone, copper, bronze, iron or steel. ... See Avatar (disambiguation) for other meanings. ... Yoga Narasimha form at a temple in Vijayanagara, Hampi, India (man-lion) (also spelt as Narasingh, Narasinga) (नरसिंह in Devanagari) is described as the fourteenth incarnation (avatara) of Vishnu within the Puranic texts of Hinduism [1] who takes the form of half-man / half-lion, having a human torso and lower... Varaha is the third avatar of Vishnu, a boar sent to defeat Hiranyaksha, a demon who had taken the Earth (prthivi) and carried it to the bottom of what is described as the cosmic ocean in the story. ... This article is about the Hindu deity. ... Sree Venugopla Krishna Swami Dewastan is a Hindu temple located in Chendamangalam. ... The venu is a bamboo transverse flute used in the Carnatic music of South India. ... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Close-up of Govardhan hill, Vrindavan Govardhan (Sanskrit:गोवर्धन) is a hill located near the town of Vrindavan in India, considered as sacred by a number of traditions within Hinduism. ... In Hinduism, Vamana is the fifth avatar of Vishnu, a dwarf. ... For other uses, see Lakshmi (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Binomial name Pandanus fascicularis Lam. ...


Temple complex

See also: Chennakesava Temple, Hoysaleswara temple, and Chennakesava Temple at Somanathapura
Temple profile — staggered square plan mantapa at Balligavi
Symmetrical architecture on jagati at Somanathapura

A Hindu temple is a place of contact between the gods or deities and man. The focus of a temple is the centre or sanctum sanctorum (garbhagriha) where the image of the deity resides, so temple architecture is designed to move the devotee from outside to the garbhagriha through ambulatory passageways for circumambulation and halls or chambers (mantapas) that become increasingly sacred as the deity is approached. Hoysala temples have distinct parts that are merged to form a unified organic whole, in contrast to the temples of Tamil country where different parts of a temple stand independently.[10] Although superficially unique, Hoysala temples resemble each other structurally. They are characterised by a complex profusion of sculpture decorating all the temple parts chiseled of soft soapstone (chloritic schist), a good material for intricate carving, executed mostly by local craftsmen, and exhibit architectural features that distinguish them from other temple architectures of South India.[11] Chennakesava Temple The Chennakesava Temple sits on the banks of the Yagachi River in Belur, 220 km from Bangalore, in Karnataka, India. ... Siva and Parvathi - Hoysaleswara temple Hoysaleswara temple is in Halebidu 16 kms from Belur, 31 kms from Hassan and 149 kms from Mysore in the state of Karnataka in India. ... Entrance Porch, trikuta vimana This article is about Chennakesava Temple at Somanathapura. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 2055 KB) Photographed by self (Dineshkannambadi) in july 2006 I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 2055 KB) Photographed by self (Dineshkannambadi) in july 2006 I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Kedareshwara temple, Balligavi, Shimoga District Balligavi is today known as Belagami. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 1993 KB) Summary Photograph taken by me (Dineshkannambadi) in June, 2006 Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 1993 KB) Summary Photograph taken by me (Dineshkannambadi) in June, 2006 Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version... Symmetrical architecture on a jagati at Somanathapura A jagati , a term used in Indian temple architecture, is a a raised surface, platform or terrace upon which the temple is placed. ... The entrance of the temple, illustrating the various relief bands Somanathapura (also known as Somnathpur) is a town located in Mysore district, Karnataka, India. ... The sanctum sanctorum is the area inside a Hindu temple complex where the main deity is installed. ... garbhagriha (or garbagriham) is a Sanskrit word meaning the interior of the sanctum sanctorum, the inner most sanctum of a Hindu temple where resides an image of the primary deity. ... Circumambulation is the act of walking around something. ... [[LiItalic textLink title == Headline text == Media:Example. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... The lid of a pyrophyllite box. ... Petroglyphs on a Bishop Tuff tableland Petroglyph on Petroglyph Point Petroglyphs on Petroglyph Point Petroglyphs on Petroglyph Point Petroglyphs on Newspaper Rock State Historic Monument Petroglyphs from Scandinavia (Häljesta, Västmanland in Sweden). ...


Most Hoysala temples have a plain covered entrance porch supported by lathe turned (circular or bell-shaped) pillars which were sometimes further carved with deep fluting and moulded with decorative motifs. The temples may be built upon a platform raised by about a metre called “jagati”. The jagati, apart from giving a raised look to the temple, serves as a Pradakshinapatha for circumambulation around the temple as the garbagriha (inner sanctum) provides no such feature.[12] Such temples will have an additional set of steps leading to an open mantapa (open hall) with parapet walls. A good example of this style is the Kesava Temple at Somanathapura. The jagati which is in unity with the rest of the temple[13] follows a star-shape design and the walls of the temple follow a zig-zag pattern, a Hoysala innovation.[14] A pair of small shrines, each with a deity and a miniature tower directly facing the entrance could adorn either side of steps of the Jagati. This would be repeated for all entrances leading to the Jagati. Devotees can first complete a ritual circumambulation on the jagati starting from the main entrance by walking in a clockwise direction (towards the left) before entering the mantapa, following the sculptural clockwise-sequenced reliefs (sequence of epic scenes) on the outside temple walls depicting the Hindu epics. Temples that are not built on a jagati can have steps flanked by elephant balustrades (parapets) that lead to the mantapa from ground level. An example of a temple that does not exhibit the raised platform is the Bucesvara temple in Korvangla, Hassan District. In temples with two shrines (dvikuta), the vimanas (shrine or cella) may be placed either next to each other or on opposite sides.[15] The Lakshmidevi temple at Doddagaddavalli has a minor shrine at each of the four corners of the walled temple complex in addition to five major shrines. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Lathe (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of the term, see column (disambiguation). ... Symmetrical architecture on a jagati at Somanathapura A jagati , a term used in Indian temple architecture, is a a raised surface, platform or terrace upon which the temple is placed. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... garbhagriha (or garbagriham) is a Sanskrit word meaning the interior of the sanctum sanctorum, the inner most sanctum of a Hindu temple where resides an image of the primary deity. ... The sanctum sanctorum is the area inside a Hindu temple complex where the main deity is installed. ... Open mandapa at Amritapura A mandapa (also spelled mantapa or mandapam) in Indian architecture is a pillared outdoor hall or pavilion. ... A parapet is a barrier at the edge of a roof or structure to prevent persons or vehicles from falling over the edge. ... Entrance Porch, trikuta vimana This article is about Chennakesava Temple at Somanathapura. ... Circumambulation is the act of walking around something. ... For other meanings, see Relief (disambiguation) In the art of sculpture, a relief is an artwork where a modelled form projects out of a flat background. ... A parapet is a barrier at the edge of a roof or structure to prevent persons or vehicles from falling over the edge. ... Hassan (Kannada : ಹಾಸನ) is a district in Karnataka state, India. ... Vimana is a term for the sanctum sanctorum of a South Indian temple. ... Temple layout with cella highlighted A cella (from Latin for small chamber) or naos (from the Greek for temple), is the inner chamber of a temple in classical architecture, or a shop facing the street in domestic Roman architecture (see domus). ... Lakshmidevi temple, constructed 1114 CE Doddagaddavalli is a village in Hassan District in the South India state of Karnataka, India. ...


Architectural elements

Mantapa

Ornate lintel over mantapa entrance
Ornate lintel over mantapa entrance

The mantapa is the hall where groups of people gather during prayers. The entrance to the mantapa normally has a highly ornate overhead lintel called a makaratorana (makara is an imaginary beast and torana is an overhead decoration).[16] The open mantapa which serves the purpose of an outer hall (outer mantapa) is a regular feature in larger Hoysala temples leading to an inner small closed mantapa and the shrine(s). The open mantapas have seating areas made of stone with the mantapa’s parapet wall acting as a back rest. The seats may follow the same staggered square shape of the parapet wall. The open mantapa is the largest part of the temple and is the place supporting larger congregations of people. The ceiling here is supported by numerous pillars that create many bays.[17] The shape of the open mantapa is best described as staggered-square and is the style used in most Hoysala temples.[18] Even the smallest open mantapa has 13 bays. The walls have parapets that have half pillars supporting the outer ends of the roof which allow plenty of light making all the sculptural details visible. The mantapa ceiling is generally ornate with sculptures, both mythological and floral. The ceiling consists of deep and domical surfaces and contain sculputral depictions of banana bud motifs and other such decorations.[19] The Amruteswara temple in Chikmagalur district has forty eight domes in the mahamantapa (great open hall). Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,048 × 1,536 pixels, file size: 624 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The carvings at the entrance of Chennakesava temple, Belur. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,048 × 1,536 pixels, file size: 624 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The carvings at the entrance of Chennakesava temple, Belur. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Post and lintel. ... Open mandapa at Amritapura A mandapa (also spelled mantapa or mandapam) in Indian architecture is a pillared outdoor hall or pavilion. ... Pre-fabricated, pre-tensioned concrete lintels spanning garage doors. ... Vidyasankara temple in Shringeri. ...

Open Mantapa with shining, lathe-turned pillars at Amruthapura

If the temple is small it will consist of only a closed mantapa (enclosed with walls extending all the way to the ceiling) and the shrine. The closed mantapa, well decorated inside and out, is larger than the vestibule connecting the shrine and the mantapa and has four lathe turned pillars to support the ceiling which may be deeply domed. The four pillars divide the hall into nine bays. The nine bays result in nine finely decorated ceilings.[20] Pierced stone latticework screens placed between pillars to filter the light is a characteristic Hoysala stylistic element. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 2271 KB) Summary Photograph taken by self (Dineshkannambadi) in June, 2006 Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 2271 KB) Summary Photograph taken by self (Dineshkannambadi) in June, 2006 Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version... Ekakuta (singly shrined), Amruteshwara temple, 1196, Chikmagalur district Amruthapura is situated 67 km north of Chikmagalur town in Chikmagalur District, Karnataka state, India. ... Mashrabiya screen on display in the British Museum Latticework is an ornamental framework consisting of a criss-crossed pattern of strips of building material, usually wood or metal but can be of any material. ...


A porch adorns the entrance to a closed mantapa consisting of an awning supported by two half pillars (engaged columns) and two parapets all richly decorated. The closed mantapa is connected to the shrine(s) by a vestibule, a square area that also connects the shrines. Its outer walls are finely decorated but as the size the vestibule is not large, this may not be a conspicuous part of the temple. The vestibule also has a short tower called the sukanasi or “nose”[21] upon which is mounted the Hoysala emblem. In Belur and Halebidu, these sculptures are quite large and are placed at all doorways. Engaged columns embedded in the side walls of the cella of the Maison Carrée at Nimes (right side of the image) In architecture, an engaged column is a column embedded in a wall and partly projecting from the surface of the wall, sometimes defined as semi or three-quarter... Belur (Kannada:ಬೇಲೂರು) was the early capital of the Hoysala Empire. ... Halebidu (Kannada ಹಳೆಬೀಡು) is located in Hassan District, Karnataka, India. ...


The outer and inner mantapa (open and closed) have circular lathe turned pillars[22] having four brackets at the top. Over each bracket stands sculptured figure(s) called salabhanjika or madanika. The pillars may also exhibit fine ornamental carvings on the surface and no two pillars are alike.[23] This is how Hoysala art differs from the work of their early overlords, the Western Chalukyas, who added sculptural details to the circular pillar base and left the top plain. The lathe turned pillars are 16, 32 or 64 pointed; some are bell shaped and have properties that reflect light. The Parsvanatha Basadi at Halebidu is a good example.[24] The shaft of the pillar is a monolith with the base left as a square and beautifully sculptured figures adorn the top. For other uses, see Lathe (disambiguation). ... Salabhanjika bracket Salabhanjika means literally breaking a branch of a sala tree and refers to the posture of a woman standing near a tree and grasping a branch. ... The Western Chalukyas ruled the western Deccan in South India between the tenth and the thirteenth centuries CE. They were related to the Chalukya dynasty of Badami who were a powerful dynasty who reigned over most of the Deccan between the seventh and the eight centuries. ... A monolith is a geological or technological feature such as a mountain, consisting of a single massive stone or rock. ...

Star shaped Vimana at Somanathapura
Star shaped Vimana at Somanathapura

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (480x640, 52 KB) photographed by self Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (480x640, 52 KB) photographed by self Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... The entrance of the temple, illustrating the various relief bands Somanathapura (also known as Somnathpur) is a town located in Mysore district, Karnataka, India. ...

Vimana

The vimana, also called the cella, contains the most sacred shrine wherein resides the image of the presiding deity. The vimana is often topped by a tower which is quite different outside than inside. Inside the vimana is plain and square whereas outside it is profusely decorated and can be either star shaped or staggered square or a combination of these in design, giving it many projections and recesses that seem to multiply as lighting falls on it.[25] Each projection and recess has a complete decorative articulation that is rhythmic and repetitive and comprised of blocks and mouldings, obscuring the tower profile. Depending on the number of shrines (and hence number of towers), the temples are classified as ekakuta (one), dvikuta (two), trikuta (three), chatushkuta (four) and panchakuta (five). Most Hoysala temples are ekakuta, dvikuta or trikuta.[26] In temples with multiple shrines, all essential parts are duplicated for symmetry and balance. A temple’s minor shrine usually has its own tower. There are cases where a temple is trikuta but has only one tower over the main shrine (in the middle). So the terminology trikuta may not be literally true. Smaller shrines attached to the outer walls and facing outward from a larger vimana are a common feature. Vimana is a term for the sanctum sanctorum of a South Indian temple. ... Temple layout with cella highlighted A cella (from Latin for small chamber) or naos (from the Greek for temple), is the inner chamber of a temple in classical architecture, or a shop facing the street in domestic Roman architecture (see domus). ... Cavetto molding and resulting shadow pattern Ovolo molding and resulting shadow pattern Cyma molding and resulting shadow pattern Ogee molding and resulting shadow pattern Molding (USA) or moulding (AUS, CAN, UK) is a strip of material with various cross sections used to cover transitions between surfaces or for decoration. ...


The highest point of the temple (kalasa) has the shape of a beautiful water pot and stands on top of the tower. This portion of the vimana is often lost due to age and replaced with a metallic pinnacle. Below the kalasa is a large, highly sculptured structure resembling a dome which is made from large stones and looks like a helmet.[27] It may be 2 m by 2 m in size and follows the shape of the shrine. Below this structure are domed roofs in a square plan, all of them much smaller and crowned with small kalasas. They are mixed with other small roofs of different shapes and are ornately decorated. The tower of the shrine usually has three or four tiers of rows of decorative roofs while the tower on top of the sukanasi has one less tier, making the tower look like an extension of the main tower (“nose”). One decorated roof tier runs on top of the wall of a closed mantapa above the heavy eaves of an open mantapa and above the porches.

Outer wall panel with six horizontal mouldings at Somanathapura
Outer wall panel with six horizontal mouldings at Somanathapura

Below the superstructure of the vimana are temple “eaves[28] projecting half a meter from the wall. Below the eaves two different decorative schemes may be found, depending on whether a temple was built in the early or the later period of the empire. In the early temples built prior to the 13th century, there is one eave and below this are decorative miniature towers. A panel of Hindu deities and their attendants are below these towers followed by a set of five different mouldings forming the base of the wall. In the later temples there is a second eave running about a metre below the upper eaves with decorative miniature towers placed between them. The wall images of gods are below the lower eaves followed by six different mouldings of equal size. This is broadly termed horizontal treatment.[29] The six mouldings at the base are divided in two sections. Going from the very base of the wall, the first horizontal layer contains a procession of elephants, above which are horsemen and then a band of foliage. The second horizontal section has depictions of the Hindu epics and puranic scenes executed with detail. Above this are two friezes of yalis (or makara, an imaginary beast) and hamsas (swans). The vimana (tower) is divided into three horizontal sections and is even more ornate than the walls.[30] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 537 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,776 × 1,192 pixels, file size: 813 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 537 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,776 × 1,192 pixels, file size: 813 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The entrance of the temple, illustrating the various relief bands Somanathapura (also known as Somnathpur) is a town located in Mysore district, Karnataka, India. ... Hampi tower Vimana in South India architecture is the Tamil word for the towered roof of a Hindu temples sanctum sanctorum. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Purana (Sanskrit: , meaning tales of ancient times) is the name of an ancient Indian genre (or a group of related genres) of Hindu or Jain literature (as distinct from oral tradition). ... Yalli pillars at Aghoreshwara Temple, Shimoga district Yalli balustrade, Agoreshwara temple, Shimoga district Yalli, a corruption of the Sanskrit word vyala meaning fierce monster, is an architectural or decorative motif of an animal-mask. ...


Sculpture

Sthamba buttalika, Chola influence in Hoysala art at Belur
Sthamba buttalika, Chola influence in Hoysala art at Belur
Madanika bracket at Belur
Madanika bracket at Belur

Hoysala artists are famous for their sculptural detail, be it in the depiction of the Hindu epics, Yali (mythical creature), deities, Kirthimukha (Gargoyle), eroticism or aspects of daily life. Their medium, the soft chlorite schist, enabled a virtuoso carving style. Their workmanship shows an attention paid to precise detail. Every aspect down to a finger nail or toe nail is perfected. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 396 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,176 × 1,780 pixels, file size: 629 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 396 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,176 × 1,780 pixels, file size: 629 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Chennakesava temple Belur was the capital of the Hoysala Empire. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 396 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,176 × 1,780 pixels, file size: 590 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 396 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,176 × 1,780 pixels, file size: 590 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Brackets in Badami Cave Temples in India A bracket in architecture is a member made of wood, stone, or metal that overhangs a wall with the purpose of carrying or supporting a weight. ... Chennakesava temple Belur was the capital of the Hoysala Empire. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Yalli pillars at Aghoreshwara Temple, Shimoga district Yalli balustrade, Agoreshwara temple, Shimoga district Yalli, a corruption of the Sanskrit word vyala meaning fierce monster, is an architectural or decorative motif of an animal-mask. ... Kirti Mukha, demon faces at Amriteshwara temple in Amruthapura, Chikkamagaluru district, Karnataka Kirthimukha at Kasivisvesvara Temple at Lakkundi, Gadag district, Karnataka Kirthimukha at Kedareswara Temple in Balligavi, Shimoga district, Karnataka Kirthimukha is an Sanskrit word for a fierce demon face with horns, huge fangs, and gaping mouth often used as...


Salabhanjika, a common form of Hoysala sculpture, is an old Indian tradition going back to Buddhist sculpture. Sala is the Sala tree and bhanjika the chaste maiden. In the Hoysala idiom, madanika figures are decorative objects put at an angle on the outer walls of the temple near the roof so worshippers who circumambulate the temple could view them.[31] They served the purpose of bracket figures to pillars inside the mantapa. These madanika were sculptured as seeming engaged in artistic skills such as music (holding musical instruments) and dance. Kirthimukhas (demon faces) adorn the towers of vimana in some temples. Sometimes the artists left behind their signature on the sculpture they created. Salabhanjika bracket Salabhanjika means literally breaking a branch of a sala tree and refers to the posture of a woman standing near a tree and grasping a branch. ... Binomial name Roth Sal (Shorea robusta) is a species of tree native to southern Asia, ranging south of the Himalaya, from Myanmar in the east to India, Bangladesh, and Nepal. ... Hampi tower Vimana in South India architecture is the Tamil word for the towered roof of a Hindu temples sanctum sanctorum. ...


The sthamba buttalikas are pillar images that show traces of Chola art in the Chalukyan touches. Some of the artists working for the Hoysalas may have been from Chola country, a result of the expansion of the empire into Tamil speaking regions of Southern India. The image of mohini on one of the pillars in the mantapa (closed hall) of the Chennakeshava temple is a fine example of Chola art.[32] The Cholas were the most famous of the three dynasties that ruled ancient Tamil Nadu. ... [[LiItalic textLink title == Headline text == Media:Example. ...


General life themes are portrayed on wall panels such as the way horses were reined, the type of stirrup used, the depiction of dancers, musicians, instrumentalists, rows of animals such as lions and elephants (where no two animals are identical). Perhaps no other temple in the country depicts the epics Ramayana and Mahabharata more effectively than the Hoysaleshwara temple at Halebidu.[33][34] For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ...


Erotica was a subject the Hoysala artist handled with discretion. There is no exhibitionism in this and erotic themes were carved into recesses and niches, generally miniature in form making them inconspicuous. These erotic representations are associated with the Shakta practice. The temple doorway is heavily engraved with ornamentation called Makaratorana (makara or imaginary beast) and each side of the doorway exhibits sculptured Salabhanjika (maidens).


Apart from these sculptures, entire sequences from the Hindu epics (commonly the Ramayana and the Mahabharata) have been sculptured in a clockwise direction starting at the main entrance.[35] The right to left sequence is the same direction taken by the devotees in their ritual circumambulation as they wind inward toward the inner sanctum. Depictions from mythology such as the epic hero Arjuna shooting fish, the elephant headed God Ganesha, the Sun God Surya, the weather and war god Indra, and Brahma with Sarasvati are common. Also frequently seen in these temples is Durga, with several arms holding weapons given to her by other Gods, in the act of killing a buffalo (a demon in a buffalo’s form) and Harihara (a fusion Shiva and Vishnu) holding a conch, wheel and trident. Many of these friezes were signed by the artisan, the first known instance of signed art work in India.[36] This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... Circumambulation is the act of walking around something. ... For other uses, please see Arjun. ... For other uses, see Ganesha (disambiguation). ... In Hinduism, Surya (Devanagari: सूर्य, sÅ«rya) is the chief solar deity,one of the Adityas, son of Kasyapa and one of his wife Aditi[1] ,in Nordics Tyr he is said to be the son of Dyaus Pitar. ... For other uses, see Indra (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about Saraswati, the Hindu goddess. ... In Hinduism, Durga (Sanskrit: ) is a form of Devi, the supreme goddess. ... Harihara is a term used to denote the unity of Vishnu and Shiva as one and the same with Hari being the name of Vishnu and Hara that of Shiva. ...


Research

Kirthimukha decoration (demon faces) on tower at Amruthapura

Surveys in modern times have indicated that 1500 structures were built by the Hoysalas of which about a hundred temples have survived to date.[37] The Hoysala style is an offshoot of the Western Chalukya style the was popularised in the 10th century – 11th century time period.[38][39] It is distinctively Dravidian and owing to its unique features, Hoysala architecture qualifies as an independent style.[40] While the Hoysalas introduced innovative features into their architecture they also borrowed features from the earlier great builders of Karnata like the Kadambas, Western Chalukyas. These features were the use of chloritic schist or Soapstone as basic building material,[41][42] pierced stone window screens which were very popular in Hoysala temples,[43] and the vimana which follows a star shaped pattern.[44] All these features were popular with their early overlords, the Western Chalukyas. Other features were the stepped style of vimana tower called the Kadamba Shikhara which was inherited from the Kadambas.[45] Engrained in the craftsmanship of Hoysala sculptors was their knowledge of the effect of light and shade on carved walls which they used to maximum effect in their sculptures in the numerous projections and recesses. The Hoysala sculpture in all its richness is said to be a challenge to photography.[46] The art of the Hoysalas on stone is compared to the finesse of an ivory worker or a goldsmith. The abundance of jewelry worn by the sculpted figures, the variety of hairstyles and head dresses depicted gives a fair idea of the social life styles of the Hoysala times.[47] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,944 × 2,592 pixels, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,944 × 2,592 pixels, file size: 2. ... Kirti Mukha, demon faces at Amriteshwara temple in Amruthapura, Chikkamagaluru district, Karnataka Kirthimukha at Kasivisvesvara Temple at Lakkundi, Gadag district, Karnataka Kirthimukha at Kedareswara Temple in Balligavi, Shimoga district, Karnataka Kirthimukha is an Sanskrit word for a fierce demon face with horns, huge fangs, and gaping mouth often used as... Ekakuta (singly shrined), Amruteshwara temple, 1196, Chikmagalur district Amruthapura is situated 67 km north of Chikmagalur town in Chikmagalur District, Karnataka state, India. ... The Western Chalukyas (973 - 1200) also known as Kalyani Chalukya or Later Chalukya ruled the western Deccan in South India between the tenth and the thirteenth centuries CE. They were related to the Chalukya dynasty of Badami who were a powerful dynasty who reigned over most of the Deccan between... Indian architecture encompasses a wide variety of geographically and historically spread structures, and was transformed by the long history of the entire South Asian subcontinent. ... Kadambas was an ancient royal dynasty of Karnataka, who ruled from their capital of Banavasi from (345-525AD) later branched into Goa, Hanagal and Chandavar. ... The Western Chalukyas ruled the western Deccan in South India between the tenth and the thirteenth centuries CE. They were related to the Chalukya dynasty of Badami who were a powerful dynasty who reigned over most of the Deccan between the seventh and the eight centuries. ... The lid of a pyrophyllite box. ... The Sikhara of the Raghunath Temple at Jammu, India is built in the Nagar style of temple architecture. ... The Western Chalukyas ruled the western Deccan in South India between the tenth and the thirteenth centuries CE. They were related to the Chalukya dynasty of Badami who were a powerful dynasty who reigned over most of the Deccan between the seventh and the eight centuries. ... The Sikhara of the Raghunath Temple at Jammu, India is built in the Nagar style of temple architecture. ... Kadambas was an ancient royal dynasty of Karnataka, who ruled from their capital of Banavasi from (345-525AD) later branched into Goa, Hanagal and Chandavar. ...


Notable craftsmen

Elephant balustrades in Bucesvara temple without jagati at Korvangla
Elephant balustrades in Bucesvara temple without jagati at Korvangla

While the Hoysalas had the services of great architects and sculptors, some names stand out in their history. While medieval Indian artists preferred to remain anonymous, Hoysala artists signed their works, which has given researchers fascinating details of their lives, family, guild, etc. Apart from the architects and sculptors, people of other guilds such as goldsmiths, ivory carvers, carpenters, silversmiths also contributed to the completion of temples. The artists were from diverse geographical backgrounds and included famous locals. Prolific architects included Amarashilpi Jakanachari,[48] a native of Kaidala in Tumkur district, who also built temples for the Western Chalukyas. Ruvari Malithamma built the Kesava temple at Somanathapura and worked on forty other monuments, including the Amruteshwara temple at Amruthapura. Malithamma specialised in ornamentation, and his works span six decades. His sculptures were typically signed in shorthand as Malli or simply Ma.[49][50] Dasoja and his son Chavana from Balligavi were the architects of Chennakesava Temple at Belur, Kedaroja was the chief architect of the Hoysaleswara temple at Halebidu.[51] Their influence is seen in other temples built by the Hoysalas as well. Names of other locals found in inscriptions are Maridamma, Baicoja, Caudaya, Nanjaya and Bama,[52][53] Malloja, Nadoja, Siddoja,[54] Masanithamma, Chameya and Rameya. Artists from Tamil country included Pallavachari and Cholavachari.[55]
Image File history File links Size of this preview: 399 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,180 × 1,772 pixels, file size: 604 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 399 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,180 × 1,772 pixels, file size: 604 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Jakanachari, the legendary sculptor who is credited to have built many fine temples for the Kalyani Chalukyas and Hoysalas, including the famous sculptures at Belur and Halebidu was born in a small village called Kaidala, 9km. ... , Tumkur (Kannada: ತುಮಕೂರು) is an administrative district in the state of Karnataka in India. ... The Western Chalukyas ruled the western Deccan in South India between the tenth and the thirteenth centuries CE. They were related to the Chalukya dynasty of Badami who were a powerful dynasty who reigned over most of the Deccan between the seventh and the eight centuries. ... Ruvari Malithamma was a famous architect and sculptor in the 12th century who made many important contributions to temples built by the Hoysala Empire in Karnataka state, India. ... The entrance of the temple, illustrating the various relief bands Somanathapura (also known as Somnathpur) is a town located in Mysore district, Karnataka, India. ... Ekakuta (singly shrined), Amruteshwara temple, 1196, Chikmagalur district Amruthapura is situated 67 km north of Chikmagalur town in Chikmagalur District, Karnataka state, India. ... Kedareshwara temple, Balligavi, Shimoga District Balligavi is today known as Belagami. ... Chennakesava Temple The Chennakesava Temple sits on the banks of the Yagachi River in Belur, 220 km from Bangalore, in Karnataka, India. ... Belur (Kannada:ಬೇಲೂರು) was the early capital of the Hoysala Empire. ... Siva and Parvathi - Hoysaleswara temple Hoysaleswara temple is in Halebidu 16 kms from Belur, 31 kms from Hassan and 149 kms from Mysore in the state of Karnataka in India. ... Halebidu (Kannada ಹಳೆಬೀಡು) is located in Hassan District, Karnataka, India. ...


Notable temples

Some famous temples built by the Hoysalas are shown in the table.[56]

Famous Hoysala temples in Karnataka

(1113-1268)

Deity Location Year King
Amruteshwara Amruthapura 1196 Veera Ballala II
Chennakesava Aralaguppe 1250 Vira Someshwara
Ishvara Arsikere 1220 Veera Ballala II
Mallikarjuna Basaralu 1234 Vira Narasimha II
Chennakesava Belur 1117 Vishnuvardhana
Viranarayana Belavadi 1200 Veera Ballala II
Lakshmidevi Doddagaddavalli 1113 Vishnuvardhana
Hoysaleswara Halebidu 1120 Vishnuvardhana
Someshvara Haranhalli 1235 Vira Someshwara
Lakshminarasimha Haranhalli 1235 Vira Someshwara
Lakshminarayana Hosaholalu 1250 Vira Someshwara
Lakshminarasimha Javagallu 1250 Vira Someshwara
Bucheshvara Koravangala 1173 Veera Ballala II
Nageshvara Mosale 1200 Veera Ballala II
Chennakesava Mosale 1200 Veera Ballala II
Lakshminarasimha Nuggehalli 1246 Vira Someshwara
Kesava Somanathapura 1268 Narasimha III
Kadamba shikara (tower)with Kalasa (pinnacle) on top at Doddagaddavalli
Pierced stone window screens at Somanathapura
Chennakeshava Temple at Aralaguppe, Karnataka
Chennakeshava Temple at Aralaguppe, Karnataka


Ekakuta (singly shrined), Amruteshwara temple, 1196, Chikmagalur district Amruthapura is situated 67 km north of Chikmagalur town in Chikmagalur District, Karnataka state, India. ... Profile, Amritheshwara temple (1196 C.E.) in Amrithapura, Chikmagalur District Veera Ballala II (1173 - 1220) was the greatest monarch of the Hoysala dynasty. ... Vira Someshwara (Kannada: ವೀರ ಸೋಮೇಶ್ವರ) (1235 - 1254 CE) was a king of the Hoysala Empire. ... Profile, Amritheshwara temple (1196 C.E.) in Amrithapura, Chikmagalur District Veera Ballala II (1173 - 1220) was the greatest monarch of the Hoysala dynasty. ... Vira Narasimha II (1220 - 1235). ... Belur (Kannada:ಬೇಲೂರು) was the early capital of the Hoysala Empire. ... Vishnuvardhana (Kannada: ವಿಷ್ಣುವರ್ಧನ) (1108-1152), was a king of the Hoysala Empire in what is today the Indian state of Karnataka. ... Mantapa, Viranarayana temple, Chikmagalur district Vimana, Viranarayana temple, Chikmagalur district Belavadi, also known as Ekachakranagara is a town in Chikmagalur district of Karnataka state. ... Profile, Amritheshwara temple (1196 C.E.) in Amrithapura, Chikmagalur District Veera Ballala II (1173 - 1220) was the greatest monarch of the Hoysala dynasty. ... Lakshmidevi temple, constructed 1114 CE Doddagaddavalli is a village in Hassan District in the South India state of Karnataka, India. ... Vishnuvardhana (Kannada: ವಿಷ್ಣುವರ್ಧನ) (1108-1152), was a king of the Hoysala Empire in what is today the Indian state of Karnataka. ... Halebidu (Kannada ಹಳೆಬೀಡು) is located in Hassan District, Karnataka, India. ... Vishnuvardhana (Kannada: ವಿಷ್ಣುವರ್ಧನ) (1108-1152), was a king of the Hoysala Empire in what is today the Indian state of Karnataka. ... Vira Someshwara (Kannada: ವೀರ ಸೋಮೇಶ್ವರ) (1235 - 1254 CE) was a king of the Hoysala Empire. ... Vira Someshwara (Kannada: ವೀರ ಸೋಮೇಶ್ವರ) (1235 - 1254 CE) was a king of the Hoysala Empire. ... Vira Someshwara (Kannada: ವೀರ ಸೋಮೇಶ್ವರ) (1235 - 1254 CE) was a king of the Hoysala Empire. ... Vira Someshwara (Kannada: ವೀರ ಸೋಮೇಶ್ವರ) (1235 - 1254 CE) was a king of the Hoysala Empire. ... Profile, Amritheshwara temple (1196 C.E.) in Amrithapura, Chikmagalur District Veera Ballala II (1173 - 1220) was the greatest monarch of the Hoysala dynasty. ... Profile, Amritheshwara temple (1196 C.E.) in Amrithapura, Chikmagalur District Veera Ballala II (1173 - 1220) was the greatest monarch of the Hoysala dynasty. ... Profile, Amritheshwara temple (1196 C.E.) in Amrithapura, Chikmagalur District Veera Ballala II (1173 - 1220) was the greatest monarch of the Hoysala dynasty. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Vira Someshwara (Kannada: ವೀರ ಸೋಮೇಶ್ವರ) (1235 - 1254 CE) was a king of the Hoysala Empire. ... The entrance of the temple, illustrating the various relief bands Somanathapura (also known as Somnathpur) is a town located in Mysore district, Karnataka, India. ... Narasimha III (1254 - 1291 CE). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 2. ... Lakshmidevi temple, constructed 1114 CE Doddagaddavalli is a village in Hassan District in the South India state of Karnataka, India. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 794 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,768 × 1,336 pixels, file size: 863 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photograph taken by me (Dinesh kannambadi) at Kesava Temple in Somanathapura, Karnataka state, India in June, 2006 I, the copyright holder of this work... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 794 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,768 × 1,336 pixels, file size: 863 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photograph taken by me (Dinesh kannambadi) at Kesava Temple in Somanathapura, Karnataka state, India in June, 2006 I, the copyright holder of this work... The entrance of the temple, illustrating the various relief bands Somanathapura (also known as Somnathpur) is a town located in Mysore district, Karnataka, India. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (683 × 1,024 pixels, file size: 442 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (683 × 1,024 pixels, file size: 442 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ...


See also

Indian architecture encompasses a wide variety of geographically and historically spread structures, and was transformed by the long history of the entire South Asian subcontinent. ... Vijayanagar Raya Gopura Belur, Karnataka The Vijayanagara Architecture of the period (1336 - 1565CE) was a unique building idiom evolved by the imperial Vijayanagar Empire that ruled the whole of South India from their regal capital at Vijayanagara on the banks of the Tungabhadra River in Karnataka, India. ... Sangameshvara temple 725 CE Pattadakal Galaganatha temple, 680 CE Pattadakal The Badami Chalukya Architecture was a temple building idiom that evolved in the time period of 5th - 8th centuries CE. in the area of Malaprabha basin, in present day Bagalkot district of Karnataka state. ... Extent of Hoysala Empire, 1200 CE Capital Belur, Halebidu Language(s) Kannada Religion Hindu Government Monarchy King  - 1026 – 1047 Nripa Kama II  - 1292 – 1343 Veera Ballala III History  - Earliest Hoysala records 950  - Established 1026  - Disestablished 1343 The Hoysala Empire (Kannada: ಹೊಯ್ಸಳ ಸಾಮ್ರಾಜ್ಯ) (pronunciation: in Kannada) was a prominent South Indian empire that...

Notes

  1. ^ Percy Brown in Kamath (2001), p134
  2. ^ Kamath (2001), p132
  3. ^ Foekema (1996), p19
  4. ^ Settar S.. Hoysala Heritage. Frontline, Volume 20 - Issue 08, April 12–25, 2003. Frontline, From the publishers of the Hindu. Retrieved on 2006-11-13.
  5. ^ Foekema (1996), p19–20
  6. ^ Kamath (2001), pp 112, 132
  7. ^ Foekema (1996), plate 27
  8. ^ Foekema (1996), p31
  9. ^ Foekema (1996), p32
  10. ^ Foekema (1996), p21
  11. ^ Kamath (2001), p136
  12. ^ Kamath (2001), p135
  13. ^ Foekema (1996), p25
  14. ^ Arthikaje. History of Karnataka-Religion, Literature, Art and Architecture in Hoysala Empire. 1998–2000 OurKarnataka.Com, Inc. Retrieved on 2006-11-13.
  15. ^ The Hoysaleswara shrine and Shantaleswara shrine in the Hoysaleswara temple in Halebidu are examples. (Foekema 1996, p59)
  16. ^ Kamath (2001), p135
  17. ^ A bay is a square or rectangular compartment in the hall (Foekema 1996, p93)
  18. ^ This is also called “cross-in-square” style and is not a square (Foekema, 1996, p22)
  19. ^ Githa U.B.. Here, the past unfolds itself in all its glory & might —Hoyasala architecture in Somanathapura. Deccan Herald, Tuesday, May 11, 2004. Chitralakshana. Retrieved on 2006-11-13.
  20. ^ The 4 pillars and 9 bays of a closed mantapa is a norm in Hoysala temples (Foekema 1996, p22)
  21. ^ It is called “nose” because it looks like an extension of the main tower (Foekema 1996, p22)
  22. ^ This is a common feature of Western Chalukya-Hoysala temples (Kamath 2001, p117)
  23. ^ It is possible that the Hoysalas encouraged different groups of artists to execute pillars and these groups may have been in competition to produce unique pillars, (Sastri 1955, p429)
  24. ^ Arthikaje. Architecture in Hoysala Empire. 1998–2000 OurKarnataka.Com, Inc. Retrieved on 2006-12-28.
  25. ^ Foekema (1996), p21
  26. ^ Sometimes a trikuta may not literally mean three towers as only the central shrine has a tower (Foekema 1996, p25)
  27. ^ Foekema (1996), p27
  28. ^ under the projecting roof overhanging the wall (Foekema 1996, p93)
  29. ^ Kamath (2001), p134
  30. ^ Art critic Percy Brown calls this one of the distinguishing features of Hoysala art (Kamath 2001, p134)
  31. ^ Settar S. Hoysala Heritage. Frontline, Volume 20 - Issue 08, April 12–25, 2003. Frontline, From the publishers of the Hindu. Retrieved on 2006-11-13.
  32. ^ Settar S. Hoysala Heritage. Frontline, Volume 20 - Issue 08, April 12–25, 2003. Frontline, From the publishers of the Hindu. Retrieved on 2006-11-13.
  33. ^ The epic frieze is the most exciting feature of their sculptures (Foekema 1996, p29)
  34. ^ Settar S. Hoysala Heritage. Frontline, Volume 20 - Issue 08, April 12–25, 2003. Frontline, From the publishers of the Hindu. Retrieved on 2006-11-13.
  35. ^ Foekema (1996), p29
  36. ^ Thapar, Binda (2004). Introduction to Indian Architecture. Singapore: Periplus Editions, p 69. ISBN 0794600115. 
  37. ^ 1,500 temples in 958 centres were built, according to historical records, between 10001346 CE. Settar S. Hoysala Heritage. Frontline, Volume 20 - Issue 08, April 12–25, 2003. Frontline, From the publishers of the Hindu. Retrieved on 2006-11-13.
  38. ^ Kamath (2001), p134
  39. ^ Arthikaje. History of Karnataka-Religion, Literature, Art and Architecture in Hoysala Empire. 1998–2000 OurKarnataka.Com, Inc. Retrieved on 2006-11-13. — James Fergusson and Henry Cousens opine the Hoysala style has features in common to Western Chalukya style
  40. ^ Hoysala architecture and sculpture is a phenomenal effort of human concentration, skill and religious consciousness (Percy Brown in Kamath 2001, p134)
  41. ^ Kamath (2001) p136
  42. ^ Kamiya Takeo. Architecture of the Indian Subcontinent, 1996. Architecture Autonomous , Bardez, Goa, India. Gerard da Cunha. Retrieved on 2006-11-13. — The Western Chalukya carvings were done on green schist (Soapstone), a technique adopted by the Hoysalas
  43. ^ This is very commonly found in earlier Western Chalukya temples (Kamath 2001, p116)
  44. ^ Kamiya Takeyo. Architecture of the Indian Subcontinent, 1996. Architecture Autonomous , Bardez, Goa, India. Gerard da Cunha. Retrieved on 2006-11-13. — The Western Chalukya architecture has a star-shaped plan for the vimana
  45. ^ The most prominent feature of the Kadamba architecture is their Shikhara called Kadamba Shikhara. The Shikhara is pyramid shaped and rises in steps without any decoration and has a stupika or kalasha on the top (Kamath 2001, p38)
  46. ^ Settar S. Hoysala Heritage. Frontline, Volume 20 - Issue 08, April 12–25, 2003. Frontline, From the publishers of the Hindu. Retrieved on 2006-11-13.
  47. ^ Sastri (1955), p429
  48. ^ Raghavendra, Srinidhi. In need of support. Deccan Herald, Spectrum, Tuesday, August 9, 2005. Deccan Herald. Retrieved on 2006-11-13.
  49. ^ Githa U.B.. Here, the past unfolds itself in all its glory & might-Hoyasala architecture in Somanathapura. Deccan Herald, Tuesday, May 11, 2004. Chitralakshana. Retrieved on 2006-11-13.
  50. ^ Premkumar P.B.. Architectural marvel. Spectrum, Deccan Herald, Tuesday, January 20, 2004. Deccan Herald. Retrieved on 2006-11-13.
  51. ^ Kamath (2001), p135
  52. ^ Sastri (1955), p299
  53. ^ Kamath (2001), p135
  54. ^ Chandragutti, Raghavendra. A glimpse of the lost grandeur. Spectrum, Deccan Herald, Tuesday, January 25, 2005. Deccan Herald. Retrieved on 2006-11-13.
  55. ^ Githa U.B.. Here, the past unfolds itself in all its glory & might-Hoyasala architecture in Somanathapura. Deccan Herald, Tuesday, May 11, 2004. Deccan Herald. Retrieved on 2006-11-13.
  56. ^ Foekema (1996), pp5-6

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References

  • Foekema, Gerard [1996]. A Complete Guide To Hoysala Temples. New Delhi: Abhinav. ISBN 81-7017-345-0. 
  • Kamath, Suryanath U. [1980] (2001). A concise history of Karnataka: from pre-historic times to the present. Bangalore: Jupiter books. LCCN 809-5179. OCLC 7796041. 
  • Nilakanta Sastry, K.A. [1955] (2002). A history of South India from prehistoric times to the fall of Vijayanagar. New Delhi: Indian Branch, Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-560686-8. 
  • Settar S. Hoysala heritage. history and craftsmanship of Belur and Halebid temples. Frontline. Retrieved on 2006-11-13.
  • Kamat, Jyotsna. The Hoysala Dynasty. The Hoysala dynasty: 1000 A.D. to 1346 A.D.. Kamat’s Potpourri. Retrieved on 2006-11-13.
  • Arthikaje. Architecture in Hoysala Empire. History of karnataka. OurKarnataka.Com. Retrieved on 2006-11-13.
  • Kamiya Takeo. Architecture of Indian Subcontinent. Indian Architecture. Architecture Autonomous. Retrieved on 2006-11-13.
  • Ragavendra, Srinidhi. In need of support. Spectrum. Retrieved on 2006-11-13.
  • Githa U.B.. Hoyasala architecture in Somanathapura. History of Indian art. chitralakshana. Retrieved on 2006-11-13.
  • Hardy, Adam. Indian Temple Architecture: Form and Transformation—The Karnata Dravida Tradition 7th to 13th Centuries. Art History. Retrieved on 2006-11-12.
  • Premakumar, B.P.. Architectural marvel. Deccan Herald. Spectrum. Retrieved on 2006-11-12.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Hoysala architecture: Information from Answers.com (3252 words)
Hoysala architecture is the distinctive building style that developed under the aegis of the Hoysala Empire in the state of Karnataka, India between the 10th and 14th century.
This is where Hoysala art is different from the work of their early overlords, the Western Chalukyas who added sculptural details to the bottom of the circular pillars and let the top be generally plain.
Hoysala artists are famous for their sculptural detail, be it the depiction of the Hindu epics, deities, erotcism or daily life.
Hoysala Empire: Information from Answers.com (5777 words)
The Hoysalas later came into conflict with the empire of Vijayanagar and the Muslim sultans of Delhi, and the last Hoysala rule was overthrown in 1346.
Historians have argued that the founders of the dynasty hailed from hill regions of Angadi in Mudigere taluk of Chikmagalur District.
Hoysala period is remembered today as one of the brightest periods in the history of Karnataka, next only to the Vijayanagara Empire.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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