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Encyclopedia > Hoysala Empire
ಹೊಯ್ಸಳ ಸಾಮ್ರಾಜ್ಯ
Hoysala Empire
Empire
(Subordinate to Western Chalukyas until 1187)
Flag
1026 – 1343 Flag
Location of Hoysala Empire
Extent of Hoysala Empire, 1200 CE
Capital Belur, Halebidu
Language(s) Kannada
Religion Hindu
Government Monarchy
King
 - 1026 – 1047 Nripa Kama II
 - 1292 – 1343 Veera Ballala III
History
 - Earliest Hoysala records 950
 - Established 1026
 - Disestablished 1343

The Hoysala Empire (Kannada: ಹೊಯ್ಸಳ ಸಾಮ್ರಾಜ್ಯ) (pronunciation: [hojsəɭə saːmraːdʒjə] in Kannada) was a prominent South Indian empire that ruled most of the modern day state of Karnataka between the 10th and the 14th centuries. The capital of the Hoysalas was initially located at Belur but was later moved to Halebidu. The Western Chalukyas ruled the western Deccan in South India between the tenth and the thirteenth centuries CE. They were related to the Chalukya dynasty of Badami who were a powerful dynasty who reigned over most of the Deccan between the seventh and the eight centuries. ... The Western Chalukyas ruled the western Deccan in South India between the tenth and the thirteenth centuries CE. They were related to the Chalukya dynasty of Badami who were a powerful dynasty who reigned over most of the Deccan between the seventh and the eight centuries. ... Image File history File links blank picture File links The following pages link to this file: Antioquia Boyacá Cundinamarca Bolívar Department Santander Department Atlántico Magdalena Department Amazonas Department, Colombia Arauca Caquetá Casanare Cauca Cesar Chocó Córdoba Department Guainía Guaviare Huila Department Guajira Department Meta Department Nari... Events Archbishop Ariberto crowns Conrad II King of Italy in Milan. ... Events Magnus II of Sweden abdicates from the throne of Norway in favor of his son Haakon VI of Norway. ... Image File history File links blank picture File links The following pages link to this file: Antioquia Boyacá Cundinamarca Bolívar Department Santander Department Atlántico Magdalena Department Amazonas Department, Colombia Arauca Caquetá Casanare Cauca Cesar Chocó Córdoba Department Guainía Guaviare Huila Department Guajira Department Meta Department Nari... The Vijayanagara empire was based in the Deccan, in peninsular and southern India, from 1336 onwards. ... Image File history File links Hoysala_Empire_extent. ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... Belur (Kannada:ಬೇಲೂರು) was the early capital of the Hoysala Empire. ... Halebidu (Kannada ಹಳೆಬೀಡು) is located in Hassan District, Karnataka, India. ... “Kannada” redirects here. ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... For other uses, see Monarch (disambiguation). ... Nripa Kama II (1026 - 1047 CE) was an early king of the Hoysala Empire from the malnad region of Karnataka and was posssibly a feudatory of the Western Ganga Dynasty and fought many wars against the Cholas. ... Veera Ballala III (1291-1343), was the last great king of the Hoysala dynasty that ruled over what is now the South Indian state of Karnataka. ... Events World Population: 250 Million. ... Kannada - aptly described as sirigannada (known to few as Kanarese) is one of the oldest Dravidian languages and is spoken in its various dialects by roughly 45 million people. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Image File history File links Hoysala_Empire. ... The geographical south of India includes all Indian territory below the 20th parallel. ... , Karnataka (Kannada: , IPA:  ) is a state in the southern part of India. ... Belur (Kannada:ಬೇಲೂರು) was the early capital of the Hoysala Empire. ... Halebidu (Kannada ಹಳೆಬೀಡು) is located in Hassan District, Karnataka, India. ...


The Hoysala rulers were originally hill peoples of Malnad Karnataka, an elevated region in the Western Ghats range. In the 12th century, taking advantage of the internecine warfare between the then ruling Western Chalukyas and Kalachuri kingdoms, they annexed areas of present day Karnataka and the fertile areas north of the Kaveri River delta in present day Tamil Nadu. By the 13th century, they governed most of present-day Karnataka, parts of Tamil Nadu and parts of western Andhra Pradesh in Deccan India. Malnad (Kannada: ಮಲೆನಾಡು) (an English word for Malenadu in Kannada, male means rain and nadu means land) is a region of Karnataka state in South India. ... The Agasthiyamalai range of the Western Ghats The Western Ghats are a mountain range in India. ... The Western Chalukyas ruled the western Deccan in South India between the tenth and the thirteenth centuries CE. They were related to the Chalukya dynasty of Badami who were a powerful dynasty who reigned over most of the Deccan between the seventh and the eight centuries. ... This name is used by two kingdoms who had a secession of dynasties from the 10th-12th century AD, ruling over areas in Central India (west Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan) and were called Chedi or Haihaya (Heyheya) (northern branch) and the other Kalachuri (southern branch). ... This article is about a river. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... “Andhra” redirects here. ... The Deccan Plateau is a vast plateau in India, encompassing most of Central and Southern India. ...


The Hoysala era was an important period in the development of art, architecture, and religion in South India. The empire is remembered today primarily for its temple architecture. Over a hundred surviving temples are scattered across Karnataka, including the well known Chennakesava Temple at Belur, the Hoysaleswara Temple at Halebidu, and the Kesava Temple at Somanathapura. The Hoysala rulers also patronised the fine arts. This patronage encouraged literature to flourish in Kannada and Sanskrit. The geographical south of India includes all Indian territory below the 20th parallel. ... Categories: Buildings and structures stubs ... Chennakesava Temple The Chennakesava Temple sits on the banks of the Yagachi River in Belur, 220 km from Bangalore, in Karnataka, India. ... Siva and Parvathi - Hoysaleswara temple Hoysaleswara temple is in Halebidu 16 kms from Belur, 31 kms from Hassan and 149 kms from Mysore in the state of Karnataka in India. ... Entrance Porch, trikuta vimana This article is about Chennakesava Temple at Somanathapura. ... “Kannada” redirects here. ... Literature in Sanskrit, one of Indias two oldest languages, and the basis of several modern languages in India. ...

Contents

History

Sala fighting the tiger, the symbol of Hoysala Empire at Belur, Karnataka

Kannada folklore tells of a young man, Sala, who was instructed by his Jain guru Sudatta to strike dead a tiger he encountered near the temple of the Goddess Vasantika at Sosevur. The word "strike" literally translates to "hoy" in Hale Kannada (Old Kannada), hence the name "Hoy-sala". This legend first appeared in the Belur inscription of Vishnuvardhana (1117), but owing to several inconsistencies in the Sala story it remains in the realm of folklore.[1][2] The legend may have come into existence or gained popularity after King Vishnuvardhana's victory over the Cholas at Talakad as the Hoysala emblem depicts the fight between the mythical Sala and a tiger, the emblem of the Cholas.[3] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1184x1776, 607 KB) Summary Photograph taken by me in June 2006 - Dineshkannambadi Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1184x1776, 607 KB) Summary Photograph taken by me in June 2006 - Dineshkannambadi Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version... “Kannada” redirects here. ... JAIN is an activity within the Java Community Process, developing APIs for the creation of telephony (voice and data) services. ... Kannada literature refers to the literature in Kannada language spoken mainly in the Indian state of Karnataka. ... The Cholas were a South Indian Tamil dynasty, antedating the early Sangam literature (c. ... Talakad is a scenic and spiritual center located in Mysore district, near T. Narasipura. ...


Early inscriptions, dated 1078 and 1090, have implied that the Hoysalas were descendants of the Yadava by referring to the Yadava vamsa (clan) as Hoysala vamsa. But there are no records directly linking the Hoysalas to the Yadavas of North India.[4] Historians refer to the founders of the dynasty as natives of Malnad Karnataka, based on numerous inscriptions calling them Maleparolganda or "Lord of the Male (hills) chiefs" (Malepas).[5][6][7][8][9][10] This title in the Kannada language was proudly used by the Hoysala kings as their royal signature in their inscriptions. Literary sources from that time in Kannada (Jatakatilaka) and Sanskrit (Gadyakarnamrita) have also helped confirm they were natives of the region known today as Karnataka.[11][12] The Yadava Dynasty ruled a kingdom in what is now Maharashtra, India from the 12th century to the 14th century. ... Malnad (Kannada: ಮಲೆನಾಡು) (an English word for Malenadu in Kannada, male means rain and nadu means land) is a region of Karnataka state in South India. ... , Karnataka (Kannada: , IPA:  ) is a state in the southern part of India. ...


The first Hoysala family record is dated 950 and names Arekalla as the chieftain, followed by Maruga and Nripa Kama I (976). The next ruler, Munda (1006–1026), was succeeded by Nripa Kama II who held such titles as Permanadi that show an early alliance with the Western Ganga dynasty.[13] From these modest beginnings, the Hoysala dynasty began its transformation into a strong subordinate of the Western Chalukyas. Through Vishnuvardhana's expansive military conquests, the Hoysalas achieved the status of a real kingdom for the first time.[14] He wrested Gangavadi from the Cholas in 1116 and moved the capital from Belur to Halebidu. The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The Western Chalukyas ruled the western Deccan in South India between the tenth and the thirteenth centuries CE. They were related to the Chalukya dynasty of Badami who were a powerful dynasty who reigned over most of the Deccan between the seventh and the eight centuries. ... Vishnuvardhana (Kannada: ವಿಷ್ಣುವರ್ಧನ) (1108-1152), was a king of the Hoysala Empire in what is today the Indian state of Karnataka. ... The Kingdom of Mysore was one of the three largest princely states within the erstwhile British Empire of India. ...


Vishnuvardhana's ambition of creating an independent empire was fulfilled by his grandson Veera Ballala II, who freed the Hoysalas from subordination in 1187. Thus the Hoysalas began as subordinates of the Western Chalukyas and gradually established their own empire in Karnataka with such strong Hoysala kings as Vishnuvardhana, Veera Ballala II and later Veera Ballala III. During this time, peninsular India saw a four way struggle for hegemony - Pandya, Kakatiya and Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri being the other kingdoms.[15] Veera Ballala II defeated the aggressive Pandya when they invaded the Chola kingdom and assumed the title "Establisher of the Chola Kingdom" (Cholarajyapratishtacharya), "Emperor of the south" (Dakshina Chakravarthi) and "Hoysala emperor" (Hoysala Chakravarthi).[16] The Western Chalukyas ruled the western Deccan in South India between the tenth and the thirteenth centuries CE. They were related to the Chalukya dynasty of Badami who were a powerful dynasty who reigned over most of the Deccan between the seventh and the eight centuries. ... Profile, Amritheshwara temple (1196 C.E.) in Amrithapura, Chikmagalur District Veera Ballala II (1173 - 1220) was the greatest monarch of the Hoysala dynasty. ... Veera Ballala III (1291-1343), was the last great king of the Hoysala dynasty that ruled over what is now the South Indian state of Karnataka. ... Deccan Plateau // Main article: Geography of India So anyway,The Deccan Plateau (Marathi: डेक्कन), also known as The Great Country, is a vast elevated tableland area with widely varying terrain features making up the majority of the southern India located between three ranges and extending over eight states. ... The Pandyan kingdom was an ancient state at the tip of South India, founded around the 6th century BCE. It was part of the Dravidian cultural area, which also comprised other kingdoms such as that of the Pallava, the Chera, the Chola, the Chalukya and the Vijayanagara. ... The Kakatiya Dynasty was a South Indian dynasty that ruled parts of what is now Andhra Pradesh, India from 1083 to 1323. ... The Yadavas of Devagiri, Seuna/Sevuna or Yadava dynasty (Marathi: देवगिरीचे यादव) (850 - 1334) was an Indian dynasty, which during their peak ruled present day Maharashtra, north Karnataka and parts of Madhya Pradesh from their capital at Devagiri(or Deogiri) (present-day Daulatabad in Maharashtra). ...

Hoysala Kings (1026-1343)
Nripa Kama II (1026 - 1047)
Hoysala Vinayaditya (1047 - 1098)
Ereyanga (1098 - 1102)
Veera Ballala I (1102 -1108)
Vishnuvardhana (1108 - 1152)
Narasimha I (1152 – 1173)
Veera Ballala II (1173 – 1220)
Vira Narasimha II (1220 – 1235)
Vira Someshwara (1235 – 1254)
Narasimha III (1254 – 1291)
Veera Ballala III (1292 – 1343)
Harihara Raya
(Vijayanagara Empire)
(1342-1355)

He founded the city of Bangalore according to Kannada folklore.[17] Nripa Kama II (1026 - 1047 CE) was an early king of the Hoysala Empire from the malnad region of Karnataka and was posssibly a feudatory of the Western Ganga Dynasty and fought many wars against the Cholas. ... Vinayaditya (1047 - 1098 CE) an able king of the Hoysala Empire distinguished himself as an able feudatory of the Kalyani Chalukya during his long reign. ... Ereyanga (1098 - 1102 CE) was the son of Hoysala Vinayaditya and distinguished himself as a Chalukya feudatory during their campaigns against Dhara of Malwa. ... Veera Ballala I (1102 - 1108 CE) was king of the Hoysala Empire. ... Vishnuvardhana (Kannada: ವಿಷ್ಣುವರ್ಧನ) (1108-1152), was a king of the Hoysala Empire in what is today the Indian state of Karnataka. ... Narasimha I (Kannada: ಒಂದನೆ ನರಸಿಂಹ) (1152 - 1173 CE) was a ruler of the Hoysala Empire. ... Profile, Amritheshwara temple (1196 C.E.) in Amrithapura, Chikmagalur District Veera Ballala II (1173 - 1220) was the greatest monarch of the Hoysala dynasty. ... Vira Narasimha II (1220 - 1235). ... Vira Someshwara (Kannada: ವೀರ ಸೋಮೇಶ್ವರ) (1235 - 1254 CE) was a king of the Hoysala Empire. ... Narasimha III (1254 - 1291 CE). ... Veera Ballala III (1291-1343), was the last great king of the Hoysala dynasty that ruled over what is now the South Indian state of Karnataka. ... Harihara I, also called as Vira Harihar I, was the founder of the Vijayanagara empire, one of the best known empires of the Indian subcontinent. ... The Vijayanagara empire was based in the Deccan, in peninsular and southern India, from 1336 onwards. ... For other uses, see Bangalore (disambiguation). ...


The Hoysalas extended their foothold in areas known today as Tamil Nadu around 1225, making the city of Kannanur Kuppam near Srirangam a provincial capital and giving them control over South Indian politics that began a period of Hoysala hegemony in the southern Deccan.[18][19] His son Vira Someshwara earned the honorific "uncle" (Mamadi) from the Pandyas and Cholas. The Hoysala influence spread over Pandya kingdom also.[20] Toward the end of 13th century, Veera Ballala III recaptured territory lost to the Pandya uprising and expanded his kingdom to encompass all areas south of the Krishna River.[21] Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... Srirangam (Tamil: ஸ்ரீரங்கம்), also known as Thiruvarangam, is an island town in the district of Tiruchirapalli ( also known shortly as Trichy or Tiruchi) in South India. ... Vira Someshwara (Kannada: ವೀರ ಸೋಮೇಶ್ವರ) (1235 - 1254 CE) was a king of the Hoysala Empire. ... Veera Ballala III (1291-1343), was the last great king of the Hoysala dynasty that ruled over what is now the South Indian state of Karnataka. ... Krishna in Vijayawada in 2007 The River Krishna (meaning dark (feminine) in Sanskrit, also called the Krishnaveni, is one of the longest rivers of India (about 1300 km in length). ...


Major political changes were taking place in the Deccan region in the early 14th century when significant areas of northern India were under Muslim rule. Alla-ud-din Khilji, the Sultan of Delhi, was determined to bring isolated South India under his domain and sent his commander, Malik Kafur, on a southern expedition to plunder the Seuna capital Devagiri in 1311. The Seuna empire was subjugated by 1318 and the Hoysala capital Halebidu (also called Dorasamudra or Dwarasamudra) was sacked twice, in 1311 and 1327.[22] Dark green region marks the approximate extent of northern India while the regions marked as light green lies within the sphere of north Indian influence. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The geographical south of India includes all Indian territory below the 20th parallel. ... Malik Kafur (fl. ... Daulatabad (from Persian دولت‌آباد meaning Built by the Government), also called Deogiri or Devagiri, is a hill-fortress in Maharashtra state, India, in about 40 miles northwest of the city of Aurangabad in Aurangabad district. ...


By 1336, the Sultan had conquered the Pandyas of Madurai, the Kakatiyas of Warangal and the tiny kingdom of Kampili. The Hoysalas were the only remaining Hindu empire who resisted the invading armies. Veera Ballala III stationed himself at Tiruvannamalai and offered stiff resistance to invasions from the north and the Sultanate of Madurai to the south. Then, after nearly two decades of resistance, Veera Ballala III was killed at the battle of Madurai in 1343 and the sovereign territories of the Hoysala empire were merged with the areas administered by Harihara I in the Tungabhadra region.[23] This new Hindu kingdom resisted the northern invasions and would later prosper and come to be known as the Vijayanagara Empire.[24] , For the district of the same name, see Warangal district. ... Tiruvannamalai Tiruvannamalai (திருவண்ணாமலை in Tamil) is a town in the state of Tamil Nadu in India situated 185 km from Chennai/Madras. ... Madurai Sultanate was a short lived kingdom based in the city of Madurai in Tamil Nadu, India during the 14th century CE. It lasted from 1323 until 1378. ... Harihara I, also called as Vira Harihar I, was the founder of the Vijayanagara empire, one of the best known empires of the Indian subcontinent. ... The Tungabhadra is a river of southern India. ... The Vijayanagara empire was based in the Deccan, in peninsular and southern India, from 1336 onwards. ...


Economy

Main article: Economy of the Hoysala Empire
Part of a series on
History of Karnataka
Origin of Karnataka's name
Kadambas and Gangas
Chalukya dynasty
Rashtrakuta Dynasty
Western Chalukya Empire
Southern Kalachuri
Hoysala Empire
Vijayanagara Empire
Bahamani Sultanate
Bijapur Sultanate
 Political history of medieval Karnataka 
Kingdom of Mysore
Unification of Karnataka

Societies    Economies
Architectures    Forts

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The Hoysala administration supported itself through revenues from an agrarian economy.[25] The kings gave grants of land as rewards for service to beneficiaries who then became landlords to tenants producing agricultural goods and forest products. There were two types of landlords (gavunda); gavunda of people (praja gavunda) was lower in status than the wealthy lord of gavundas (prabhu gavunda).[26] The highlands (malnad regions) with its temperate climate was suitable for raising cattle and the planting of orchards and spices. Paddy and corn were staple crops in the tropical plains (Bailnad). The Hoysalas collected taxes on irrigation systems including tanks, reservoirs with sluices, canals and wells which were built and maintained at the expense of local villagers. Irrigation tanks such as Vishnusagara, Shantisagara, Ballalarayasagara were created at the expense of the state.[27] Hoysala country, malnad Karnataka The Hoysala Empire (Kannada: ಹೊಯ್ಸಳ ಸಾಮ್ರಾಜ್ಯ) was a notable South Indian empire that ruled most of the modern day state of Karnataka between the 10th to the 14th centuries. ... Hoysala Empire architecture in Belur The recorded history of Karnataka goes back more than two millenia. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 312 × 335 pixelsFull resolution (312 × 335 pixel, file size: 95 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Karnataka Bangalore Hoysala Empire Kalburgi Hubballi... Karnataka is an Indian state. ...  Extent of Kadamba Empire, 500 CE Capital Banavasi Language(s) Sanskrit, Kannada Religion Hindu Government Monarchy King  - 345 - 365 Mayurasharma Krishna Varma II History  - Earliest Kadamba records 450  - Established 345  - Disestablished 525 Kadamba Dynasty (Kannada:ಕದಂಬರು) (345 - 525 CE) was an ancient royal dynasty of Karnataka that ruled from Banavasi in... The Gangas of Talakad, like the Kadambas of Banavasi, rose to political eminence in the middle of the fourth century A.D., and ruled over the southern parts of Karnataka, in southern India. ... Virupaksha temple, Pattadakal, built 740 Badami Chalukya Territories in the reign of Pulakesi II, 640 The Chalukya dynasty (Sanskrit/Marathi[1]:चालुक्य राजवंश,Kannada:ಚಾಲುಕ್ಯರು) IPA: ) was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th centuries. ... Jain cave in Ellora The Rastrakutas (Sanskrit:राष्ट्रकूट, Kannada: ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರಕೂಟ) were a dynasty which ruled the southern and the central parts or the Deccan, India during the 8th - 10th century. ... Extent of Western Chalukya Empire, 1121 CE Capital Manyakheta, Basavakalyan Language(s) Kannada Religion Hindu Government Monarchy King  - 957 – 997 Tailapa II  - 1184 – 1189 Somesvara IV History  - Earliest records 957  - Established 973  - Disestablished 1189 The Western Chalukya Empire (Kannada:ಪಶ್ಚಿಮ ಚಾಲುಕ್ಯ ಸಾಮ್ರಾಜ್ಯ) ruled most of the western deccan, South India, between the 10th... This name is used by two kingdoms who had a secession of dynasties from the 10th-12th century AD, ruling over areas in Central India (west Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan) and were called Chedi or Haihaya (Heyheya) (northern branch) and the other Kalachuri (southern branch). ... The Vijayanagara empire was based in the Deccan, in peninsular and southern India, from 1336 onwards. ... Bahmani Sultante, 1470 CE The Bahmani Sultanate (Also called the Bahmanid Empire) was a Muslim state of the Deccan in southern India and one of the great medieval Indian kingdoms. ... Bijapur is a district in the Indian state of Karnataka. ... Kadamba tower at Doddagaddavalli The political history of medieval Karnataka spans the 4th to the 16th centuries CE, when the empires that evolved in the Karnataka region of India made a lasting impact on subcontinent. ... Flag of former princely state of Mysore. ... During the period of British rule, the Indian state of Karnataka as it stands today did not exist. ... Malnad (Kannada: ಮಲೆನಾಡು) (an English word for Malenadu in Kannada, male means rain and nadu means land) is a region of Karnataka state in South India. ... For the usage in virology, see temperate (virology). ... Terrace of paddy fields in Yunnan Province, southern China. ... The tropics are the geographic region of the Earth centered on the equator and limited in latitude by the two tropics: the Tropic of Cancer in the north and the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere. ... Sluice gates near Henley, on the River Thames A small wooden sluice in Magome, Japan, used to power a waterwheel. ... For other uses, see Canal (disambiguation). ... // Irrigation tank or tank, in India, is an earthen bound reservoir, constructed across a slope, used to collect and store water by taking advantage of local mounds and depressions. ...


Importing horses for use as general transportation and in army cavalries of Indian kingdoms was a flourishing business on the western seaboard.[28] The forests were harvested for rich woods such as teak which was exported through ports located in the area of present day Kerela. Sung dynasty records from China mention the presence of Indian merchants in ports of South China, indicating active trade with overseas kingdoms.[29] South India exported textiles, spices, medicinal plants, precious stones, pottery, salt made from salt pans, jewels, gold, ivory, rhino horn, ebony, aloe wood, perfumes, sandalwood, camphor and condiments to China, Dhofar, Aden, and Siraf (the entryport to Egypt, Arabia and Persia).[30] Architects (Vishwakarmas), sculptors, quarry workers, goldsmiths and other skilled craftsmen whose trade directly or indirectly related to temple construction were also prosperous due to the vigorous temple building activities.[31][32]
Species Tectona grandis Tectona hamiltoniana Tectona philippinensis Teak (Tectona), is a genus of tropical hardwood trees in the family Verbenaceae, native to the south and southeast of Asia, and is commonly found as a component of monsoon forest vegetation. ... Kerala (IPA: ; Malayalam: കേരളം — Keralam) is a state on the southwestern tropical Malabar Coast of India. ... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Bianjing (汴京) (960–1127) Linan (臨安) (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960–976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou... For other uses, see Ebony (disambiguation). ... Agarwood or eaglewood is the most expensive wood in the world. ... The branches of a young sandalwood tree found in Hawaii Sandalwood is the fragrant wood of trees in the genus Santalum. ... R-phrases 11-20/21/22-36/37/38 S-phrases 16-26-36 RTECS number EX1260000 (R) EX1250000 (S) Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... The Dhofar (Arabic ظفار Ẓufār) region lies in Oman, east of Yemen. ... Port of Aden (around 1910). ... Map of the Persian Gulf Siraf, a legendary ancient port, was located on the north shore of the Iranian coast on the Persian Gulf. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ...


The village assembly was responsible for collecting government land taxes. Land revenue was called Siddhaya and included the original assessment (Kula) plus various cesses.[33] Taxes were levied on professions, marriages, goods in transit on chariots or carriages, and domesticated animals. Taxes on commodities (gold, precious stones, perfumes, sandalwood, ropes, yarn, housing, hearths, shops, cattle pans, sugarcane presses) as well as produce (black pepper, betel leaves, ghee, paddy, spices, palm leaves, coconuts, sugar) are noted in village records.[34] The village assembly could levy a tax for a specific purpose such as construction of a water tank. // Irrigation tank or tank, in India, is an earthen bound reservoir, constructed across a slope, used to collect and store water by taking advantage of local mounds and depressions. ...


Administration

Main article: Hoysala administration
Garuda pillar of 1121 CE at Halebidu with old Kannada inscription
Hero stone (virgal) with old Kannada inscription, 1220 CE at Arasikere, Karnataka

In its administrative practices, the Hoysala Empire followed some of the well-established and proven methods of its predecessors covering administrative functions such as cabinet organisation and command, the structure of local governing bodies and the division of territory.[35] Records show the names of many high ranking positions reporting directly to the king. Senior ministers were called Pancha Pradhanas, ministers responsible for foreign affairs were designated Sandhivigrahi and the chief treasurer was Mahabhandari or Hiranyabhandari. Dandanayakas were in charge of armies and the chief justice of the Hoysala court was the Dharmadhikari. The Hoysala Empire (Kannada: ಹೊಯ್ಸಳ ಸಾಮ್ರಾಜ್ಯ) was a notable South Indian empire that ruled most of the modern day state of Karnataka between the 10th to the 14th centuries. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 398 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1188 × 1788 pixels, file size: 576 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photograph taken by self (Dineshkannambadi) at Hoysaleswara Temple at Halebidu, Karnataka, India in July 2006 I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 398 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1188 × 1788 pixels, file size: 576 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photograph taken by self (Dineshkannambadi) at Hoysaleswara Temple at Halebidu, Karnataka, India in July 2006 I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to... Halebidu (Kannada ಹಳೆಬೀಡು) is located in Hassan District, Karnataka, India. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1944 × 2592 pixels, file size: 2 MB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This Photograph of a hero stone (Virgal) from the 13th century Hoysala period was taken by self (Dinesh Kannambadi) at the Ishwara temple in Arasikere... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1944 × 2592 pixels, file size: 2 MB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This Photograph of a hero stone (Virgal) from the 13th century Hoysala period was taken by self (Dinesh Kannambadi) at the Ishwara temple in Arasikere... Hero stone is a term for a memorial commemorating the death of a hero in India. ... Arsikere is a town in Hassan district, Karnataka, India. ...


The kingdom was divided into provinces named Nadu, Vishaya, Kampana and Desha, listed in descending order of geographical size.[36] Each province had a local governing body consisting of a minister (Mahapradhana) and a treasurer (Bhandari) that reported to the ruler of that province (Dandanayaka). Under this local ruler were officials called Heggaddes and Gavundas who hired and supervised the local farmers and labourers recruited to till the land. Subordinate ruling clans such as Alupas continued to govern their respective territories while following the policies set by the empire. The Alupas kings (Kannada: ಆಲೂಪರು)(450 - 1400 C.E.) were a minor dynasty who ruled parts of coastal Karnataka. ...


An elite and well trained force of bodyguards known as Garudas protected the members of the royal family at all times. These servants moved closely yet inconspicuously by the side of their master, their loyalty being so complete that they committed suicide after his death.[37] Hero stones (virgal) erected in memory of these bodyguards are called Garuda pillars. The Garuda pillar at the Hoysaleswara temple in Halebidu was erected in honor of Kuvara Lakshma, a minister and bodyguard of King Veera Ballala II.


King Vishnuvardhana's coins had the legends "victor at Nolambavadi" (Nolambavadigonda), "victor at Talakad" (Talakadugonda), "chief of the Malepas" (Maleparolganda), "Brave of Malepa" (malapavira) in Hoysala style Kannada script.[38][39] Their gold coin was called Honnu or Gadyana and weighed 62 grains of gold. Pana or Hana was a tenth of the Honnu, Haga was a fourth of the Pana and Visa was fourth of Haga. There were other coins called Bele and Kani and some of these terms such as Hana and Bele are still used in the Kannada language today and mean "money" and "cost" respectively. Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... A grain is a unit of mass equal to 0. ...


Culture

Religion

See also: Ramanujacharya, Basavanna, and Madhvacharya

The defeat of the Jain Western Ganga Dynasty by the Cholas in early 11th century and the rising numbers of followers of Vaishnava Hinduism and Virashaivism in the 12th century was mirrored by a decreased interest in Jainism.[40] Two notable locations of Jain worship in the Hoysala territory were Shravanabelagola and Kambadahalli. The decline of Buddhism in South India began in the 8th century with the spread of Adi Shankara's Advaita philosophy.[41] The only places of Buddhist worship during the Hoysala time were at Dambal and Balligavi. Shantala Devi, queen of Vishnuvardhana was a Jain but nevertheless commissioned the Hindu Kappe Chennigaraya temple in Belur, evidence that the royal family was tolerant of all religions. During the rule of the Hoysalas, three important religious developments took place in present day Karnataka inspired by three philosophers, Basavanna, Madhvacharya and Ramanujacharya.
Sri Ramanuja Acharya (1017 - 1137 AD) was an Indian philosopher and is recognized as the most important saint of Sri Vaishnavism. ... Basaveshvara Shree Basava (also known as Basaveshwara or Basavanna) is known as the reviver of the Veerashaiva (Lingayats) religion in India. ... For Madhavacharya the Advaita saint, see Madhava Vidyaranya. ... Vaishnavism is the branch of Hinduism in which Vishnu or one of his avatars (i. ... Virasaivism is a religious movement of Hinduism in India. ... Jain and Jaina redirect here. ... The statue of Gomatheswara dates from 978-993 AD. Shravanabelagola is a city located in the Hassan district, in the Indian state of Karnataka. ... Panchakuta Basadi, Kambadahalli, Mandya district Mantapa, Panchakuta Basadi, Kambadahalli Mandya District Kambadahalli is a town in Mandya district of Karnataka state. ... A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ... Adi Shankara (Malayalam: ആദി ശങ്കരന്‍, Devanāgarī: , , IPA: ); c. ... Advaita Vedanta is probably the best known of all Vedanta schools of Hinduism, the others being Dvaita and Vishishtadvaita. ... , Dambal is a village in the Gadag district of the state of Karnataka, India. ... Kedareshwara temple, Balligavi, Shimoga District Balligavi is today known as Belagami. ... Basaveshvara Shree Basava (also known as Basaveshwara or Basavanna) is known as the reviver of the Veerashaiva (Lingayats) religion in India. ... For Madhavacharya the Advaita saint, see Madhava Vidyaranya. ... Sri Ramanuja Acharya (1017 - 1137 AD) was an Indian philosopher and is recognized as the most important saint of Sri Vaishnavism. ...


While the origin of Virashaiva faith is debated, the movement grew through its association with Basavanna in the 12th century.[42] Basavanna and other Virashaiva saints preached of a faith without a caste system. In his Vachanas he appealed to the masses in simple Kannada and wrote "work is worship" (Kayakave Kailasa). Madhvacharya was critical of the teachings of Shankaracharya and argued the world is real and not an illusion.[43] His philosophy gained popularity enabling him to establish eight Mathas (monastery) in Udupi. Ramanujacharya, the head of the Vaishnava monastery in Srirangam, preached the way of devotion (bhakti marga) and wrote Sribhashya, a critique on the Advaita philosophy of Adi Shankara.[44] Lingayatism is a religious movement in India. ... The Indian caste system describes the social stratification and social restrictions in the Indian Subcontinent, in which social classes are defined by thousands of endogamous, hereditary groups often termed as jātis or castes. ... Vachanas are a form of Kannada poetry and, according to the 20th century scholars, closely linked to the social revolution lead by Basaveshvara, Allama Prabhu and Akka Mahadevi. ... Adi Shankara (Malayalam: ആദി ശങ്കരന്‍, Devanāgarī: , , IPA: ); c. ... A maţha (also written math, matha or mutt) is a term for monastic and similar religious establishments of the Hindu and Jain traditions. ... , For other uses, see Udupi (disambiguation). ... Srirangam (Tamil: ஸ்ரீரங்கம்), also known as Thiruvarangam, is an island town in the district of Tiruchirapalli ( also known shortly as Trichy or Tiruchi) in South India. ... Advaita Vedanta is probably the best known of all Vedanta schools of Hinduism, the others being Dvaita and Vishishtadvaita. ...

Vaishnava temple of 1268 CE at Somanathapura

The impact of these religious developments on culture, literature, poetry and architecture in South India was profound. Important works of literature and poetry based on the teachings of these philosophers were written during the coming centuries. The Saluva, Tuluva and Aravidu dynasties of Vijayanagar empire were followers of Vaishnavism and a Vaishnava temple with an image of Ramanujacharya exists in the Vitthalapura area of Vijayanagara.[45] Scholars in later Mysore Kingdom wrote Vaishnavite works upholding the teachings of Ramanujacharya.[46] King Vishnuvardhana built many temples after his conversion from Jainism to Vaishnavism.[47][48] The later saints of Madhvacharya's order, Jayatirtha, Vyasatirtha, Sripadaraya, Vadirajatirtha and devotees (dasa) such as Vijaya Dasa, Gopaladasa and others from the Karnataka region spread his teachings far and wide.[49] His teachings inspired later day philosophers like Vallabhacharya in Gujarat and Chaitanya in Bengal.[50] Another wave of devotion (bhakti) in the 17th century–18th century found inspiration in his teachings. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 1993 KB) Summary Photograph taken by me (Dineshkannambadi) in June, 2006 Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 1993 KB) Summary Photograph taken by me (Dineshkannambadi) in June, 2006 Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version... Entrance Porch, trikuta vimana This article is about Chennakesava Temple at Somanathapura. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The Tuluvas (Tulu: ತುಳುವ) are speakers of the Tulu language. ... The Kingdom of Mysore was a kingdom of southern India, which was founded about 1400 by the Wodeyar dynasty, who ruled the state until Indian independence in 1947, when the kingdom became Mysore state of India, later renamed Karnataka. ... Seer Jayateertharu (c. ... Vyasatirtha (1460-1539) (also known as Vyasaraja, Vyasaraayaru) was one of the foremost dialecticians in the history of Indian philosophy. ... Sripadaraya , a haridasa is also known as Sripadaraja or Lakshminarayana Tirtha 1404 - 1502. ... Sri Vadirajatirtha 1480 - 1600,a haridasa is considered as the second highest saint in the Madhva hierarchy, next only to Srimad Ananda Tîrtha, even though his guru was Sri Vyasatirtha. ... Vijaya Dasa (1682-1755) or Sri Vijaya Dasa was a prominant saint from the Haridasa tradition of Karnataka, India in the 18th century. ... Vallabhacharya (1479 - 1531) was the founder of the Vallabha sect in Indian philosophy. ... This article is for the Indian state. ... Deities of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu (right) and Sri Nityananda (left) at Radha-Krishna temple in Radhadesh, Belgium Caitanya Mahaprabhu (also transliterated Chaitanya) (1486 - 1534), was an ascetic Hindu monk and social reformer in 16th century Bengal, India (present-day West Bengal and Bangladesh). ... For other uses, see Bengal (disambiguation). ...


Society

Main article: Society of the Hoysala Empire
Dancer, 1117 CE, (Madanika) at Belur

Hoysala society in many ways reflected the emerging religious, political and cultural developments of those times. During this period, the society became increasingly sophisticated. The status of women was varied. Some royal women were involved in administrative matters as shown in contemporary records describing Queen Umadevi's administration of Halebidu in the absence of Veera Ballala II during his long military campaigns in northern territories. She also fought and defeated some antagonistic feudal rebels.[51] Records describe the participation of women in the fine arts, such as Queen Shantala Devi's skill in dance and music, and the 12th century Vachana poet and Virashaiva mystic Akka Mahadevi's devotion to the bhakti movement is well known.[52] Temple dancers (Devadasi) were common and some were well educated and accomplished in the arts. These qualifications gave them more freedom than other urban and rural women who were restricted to daily mundane tasks.[53] The practice of sati in a voluntary form was prevalent and prostitution was socially acceptable.[54] As in most of India, the Indian caste system was conspicuously present. The Hoysala Empire (Kannada: ಹೊಯ್ಸಳ ಸಾಮ್ರಾಜ್ಯ) was a notable South Indian empire that ruled most of the modern day state of Karnataka between the 10th to the 14th centuries. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 396 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1176 × 1780 pixel, file size: 588 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photograph taken by me at Chennakesava Temple in Belur, Karnataka, India in June 2006 - Dineshkannambadi I, the creator of this work, hereby grant... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 396 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1176 × 1780 pixel, file size: 588 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photograph taken by me at Chennakesava Temple in Belur, Karnataka, India in June 2006 - Dineshkannambadi I, the creator of this work, hereby grant... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ... The vachanas are a body of work, and a form of writing, in Kannada. ... Lingayatism is a religious movement in India. ... Akka Mahadevi (ಅಕ್ಕ ಮಹಾದೇವಿ) was a prominent figure of the Veerashaiva Bhakti movement in the 12th Century Karnataka. ... Devadasis (Sanskrit: देवदासी, translation: Servant of God) are cult prostitutes in the service of the Yellamma, the Hindu goddess of fertility. ... // Ceremony of Burning a Hindu Widow with the Body of her Late Husband, from Pictorial History of China and India, 1851. ... The Indian caste system describes the social stratification and social restrictions in the Indian Subcontinent, in which social classes are defined by thousands of endogamous, hereditary groups often termed as jātis or castes. ...


Trade on the west coast brought many foreigners to India including Arabs, Jews, Persians, Chinese and people from the Malay Peninsula.[55] Migration of people within Southern India as a result of the expansion of the empire produced an influx of new cultures and skills.[56] In South India, towns were called Pattana or Pattanam and the marketplace, Nagara or Nagaram, the marketplace serving as the nuclei of a city. Some towns such as Shravanabelagola developed from a religious settlement in the 7th century to an important trading center by the 12th century with the arrival of rich traders, while towns like Belur attained the atmosphere of a regal city when King Vishnuvardhana built the Chennakesava Temple there. Large temples supported by royal patronage served religious, social, and judiciary purposes, elevating the king to the level of "God on earth". The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... The Malay Peninsula (Malay: Semenanjung Tanah Melayu) is a major peninsula located in Southeast Asia. ... The statue of Gomatheswara dates from 978-993 AD. Shravanabelagola is a city located in the Hassan district, in the Indian state of Karnataka. ...


Temple building served a commercial as well as a religious function and was not limited to any particular sect of Hinduism. Shaiva merchants of Halebidu financed the construction of the Hoysaleswara temple to compete with the Chennakesava temple built at Belur, elevating Halebidu to an important city as well. Hoysala temples however were secular and encouraged pilgrims of all Hindu sects, the Kesava temple at Somanathapura being an exception with strictly Vaishnava sculptural depictions.[57] Temples built by rich landlords in rural areas fulfilled fiscal, political, cultural and religious needs of the agrarian communities. Irrespective of patronage, large temples served as establishments that provided employment to hundreds of people of various guilds and professions sustaining local communities as Hindu temples began to take on the shape of wealthy Buddhist monasteries.[58] Åšaivism, also transliterated Shaivism and Saivism, is a branch of Hinduism that worships Siva as the Supreme God. ...


Literature

Jain temple at Halebidu
Main article: Hoysala literature

Although Sanskrit literature remained popular during the Hoysala rule, royal patronage of local Kannada scholars increased.[59][60] In the 12th century some works were written in the Champu style,[61] but distinctive Kannada metres became more widely accepted. The Sangatya metre used in compositions,[62] Shatpadi, Tripadi metres in verses (seven and three line) and Ragale (lyrical poems) became fashionable. Jain works continued to extol the virtues of Tirthankaras (Jain ascetics).[63] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1776 × 1332 pixels, file size: 622 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photograph taken by self (Dineshkannambadi) at a Jain Temple at Halebidu, Karnataka, India in June 2006 I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1776 × 1332 pixels, file size: 622 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photograph taken by self (Dineshkannambadi) at a Jain Temple at Halebidu, Karnataka, India in June 2006 I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission... Halebidu (Kannada ಹಳೆಬೀಡು) is located in Hassan District, Karnataka, India. ... Kirti Mukha, demon faces Amrithapura Hoysala literature during the era of Hoysala Empire (1000-1343) (Kannada: ಹೊಯ್ಸಳ ಸಾಮ್ರಾಜ್ಯ) was dominated by the ascent of famous Kannada and Sanskrit poets. ... Literature in Sanskrit, one of Indias two oldest languages, and the basis of several modern languages in India. ... In Jainism, a Tirthankara (Fordmaker) is a human who achieved enlightenment, became a Jiva, and whose religious teachings have formed the canon of Jainism; although not Gods, statues of Tirthankaras are found in temples. ...


The Hoysala court supported scholars such as Janna, Rudrabhatta, Harihara and his nephew Raghavanka, whose works are enduring masterpieces in Kannada. In 1209, the Jain scholar Janna wrote Yashodharacharite, the story of a king who intends to perform a ritual sacrifice of two young boys to a local deity, Mariamma. Taking pity on the boys, the king releases them and gives up the practice of human sacrifice.[64][65] In honour of this work, Janna received the title "Emperor among poets" (Kavichakravarthi) from King Veera Ballala II.[66] Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... JAIN is an activity within the Java Community Process, developing APIs for the creation of telephony (voice and data) services. ...


Rudrabhatta, a Smartha Brahmin (believer of monistic philosophy), was the earliest well known Brahminical writer whose patron was Chandramouli, a minister of King Veera Ballala II.[67] Based on the earlier work of Vishnu Purana, he wrote Jagannatha Vijaya in the Champu style relating the life of Lord Krishna leading up to his fight with the demon Banasura. Rudrabhatta was an influential Kannada writer in the court of the Hoysala Empire whose patron was a minister of King Veera Ballala II in the late 12th century. ... // Introduction The term Smartha refers to those who accept and profess the Advaitha or non-dualistic philosophy propounded by Sri Adi Shankaracharya. ... A Brahmin (anglicised from the Sanskrit word IAST ; Devanagari ), also known as Vipra, Dvija, Dvijottama (best of the Dvijas), (god on Earth) is a member of an upper caste within Hindu society. ... The Vishnu Purana is one of the oldest of the Puranas (dating to maybe the 5th century), containing some 23,000 shlokas, presented as a dialogue between Parasara with his disciple Maitreya. ... This article is about the Hindu deity. ... Bana (also called Banasura(Sanskrit: बाणासुर)), in Hindu mythology, was a thousand-armed asura and son of Bali. ...


Harihara, (also known as Harisvara) a Virashaiva writer and the patron of King Narasimha I, wrote the Girijakalyana in the old Jain Champu style which describes the marriage of Lord Shiva and Parvati in ten sections.[68][69] He was one of the earliest Virashaiva writers who was not part of the Vachana literary tradition. He came from a family of accountants (Karanikas) from Halebidu and spent many years in Hampi writing more than one hundred Ragales (poems in blank verse) in praise of Lord Virupaksha (a form of Lord Shiva).[70] Raghavanka was the first to introduce the Shatpadi metre into Kannada literature in his Harishchandra kavya which is considered a classic even though it occasionally violates strict rules of Kannada grammar.[71][72][70] Lingayatism is a religious movement in India. ... For other uses, see Siva (disambiguation). ... For the Harry Potter character, see Parvati Patil. ... The vachanas are a body of work, and a form of writing, in Kannada. ... Hampi (Kannada: ಹಂಪೆ, Hampe in Kannada) is a village in northern Karnataka, on the banks of the Tungabhadra River in India. ... Virupaksha Raya was an emperor of the Vijayanagara Empire from the Sangama Dynasty. ...


In Sanskrit, the philosopher Madhvacharya wrote Rigbhshya on Brahmasutras (a logical explanation of Hindu scriptures, the Vedas) as well as many polemical works rebutting the doctrines of other schools of Vedas. He relied more on the Puranic literature than the Vedas for logical proof of his philosophy.[73] Another famous writing was Rudraprshnabhashya by Vidyatirtha. For Madhavacharya the Advaita saint, see Madhava Vidyaranya. ... The Brahma sūtras, also called Vedānta Sūtras, constitute the Nyāya prasthāna, the logical starting point of the Vedānta philosophy (Nyāya = logic/order). ... Veda redirects here. ... ...


Architecture

Main article: Hoysala architecture
Hoysala Vimana, 1268 CE at Somanathapura
Hoysala Vimana, 1268 CE at Somanathapura

The modern interest in the Hoysalas is due to their patronage of art and architecture rather than their military conquests. The brisk temple building throughout the kingdom was accomplished despite constant threats from the Pandyas to the south and the Seunas Yadavas to the north. Their architectural style, an offshoot of the Western Chalukya style,[74] shows distinct Dravidian influences. The Hoysala architecture style is described as Karnata Dravida as distinguished from the traditional Dravida,[75] and is considered an independent architectural tradition with many unique features.[76][77] Categories: Buildings and structures stubs ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (480x640, 52 KB) photographed by self Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (480x640, 52 KB) photographed by self Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Entrance Porch, trikuta vimana This article is about Chennakesava Temple at Somanathapura. ... Indian architecture encompasses a wide variety of geographically and historically spread structures, and was transformed by the long history of the entire South Asian subcontinent. ...


A feature of Hoysala temple architecture is its attention to exquisite detail and skilled craftmanship. The tower over the temple shrine (vimana) is delicately finished with intricate carvings, showing attention to the ornate and elaborately detailed rather than to a tower form and height.[78] The stellate design of the base of the shrine with its rhythmic projections and recesses is carried through the tower in an orderly succession of decorated tiers.[79] Hoysala temple sculpture replicates this emphasis on delicacy and craftmanship in its focus on depicting feminine beauty, grace and physique. The Hoysala artists achieved this with the use of Soapstone (Chloritic schist), a soft stone as basic building and sculptural material.[80] The lid of a pyrophyllite box. ...


The Chennakesava Temple at Belur (1117), the Hoysaleswara temple at Halebidu (1121), the Chennakesava Temple at Somanathapura (1279), the temples at Arasikere (1220), Amrithapura (1196), Belavadi (1200) and Nuggehalli (1246) are all notable examples of Hoysala art. While the temples at Belur and Halebidu are the best known because of the beauty of their sculptures, the Hoysala art finds more complete expression in the smaller and lesser known temples.[81] The outer walls of all these temples contain an intricate array of stone sculptures and horizontal friezes (decorative mouldings) that depict the Hindu epics. These depictions are generally clockwise in the traditional direction of circumambulation (pradakshina). The temple of Halebidu has been described as an outstanding example of Hindu architecture[82] and an important milestone in Indian architecture.[83] The temples of Belur and Halebidu are a proposed UNESCO world heritage sites.[84] Amrithapura is situated 67 kilometers north of Chikamaglur, Karnataka state, India. ... Mantapa, Viranarayana temple, Chikmagalur district Vimana, Viranarayana temple, Chikmagalur district Belavadi, also known as Ekachakranagara is a town in Chikmagalur district of Karnataka state. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... Elabana Falls is in Lamington National Park, part of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves World Heritage site in Queensland, Australia. ...


Language

Kannada inscription, 1114 CE at Doddagaddavalli
Kannada inscription, 1114 CE at Doddagaddavalli

Use of the Kannada and Sanskrit languages was extensive in the Hoysala empire. Temples served as local schools where learned Brahmins taught in Sanskrit, while Jain and Buddhist monasteries educated novice monks. Schools of higher learning were called Ghatikas. The local Kannada language was widely used in the rising number of devotional movements to express the ecstatic experience of closeness to the deity (vachanas and devaranama). Literary works were written in it on palm leaves which were tied together. While in past centuries Jain works had dominated Kannada literature, Shaiva and early Brahminical works became popular during the Hoysala reign. Writings in Sanskrit included poetry, grammar, lexicon, manuals, rhetoric, commentaries on older works, prose fiction and drama.[85] Inscriptions on stone (Shilashasana) and copper plates (Tamarashasana) were written in Kannada, Sanskrit or were bilingual. The sections of bilingual inscriptions stating the title, genealogy, origin myths of the king and benedictions were generally done in Sanskrit. Kannada was used to state terms of the grants, including information on the land, its boundaries, the participation of local authorities, rights and obligations of the grantee, taxes and dues, and witnesses. This ensured the content was clearly understood by the local people without ambiguity.[86] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 384 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (740 × 1156 pixels, file size: 361 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photographh taken by me at Lakshmi Devi Temple at Doddagaddavalli, Hassan district, Karnataka state, India June 2006 - Dineshkannambadi I, the creator of this work, hereby grant... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 384 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (740 × 1156 pixels, file size: 361 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photographh taken by me at Lakshmi Devi Temple at Doddagaddavalli, Hassan district, Karnataka state, India June 2006 - Dineshkannambadi I, the creator of this work, hereby grant... Kannada - aptly described as sirigannada (known to few as Kanarese) is one of the oldest Dravidian languages and is spoken in its various dialects by roughly 45 million people. ... Doddagaddavalli is a village in Hassan District in the south India state of Karnataka, India. ... Example of a Chola inscription in Tamil from the 12th century C.E. Siyakas Harsola Paramara copper plate of 1005 Indian copper plate inscriptions play an extremely important role in the reconstruction of the history of India. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Historians feel that Sala was a mythical founder of the empire (Kamath 2001, p123)
  2. ^ Derrett in Chopra, Ravindran and Subrahmanian (2003), p150 Part1
  3. ^ The myth and the emblem was a creation of King Vishnuvardhana. Another opinion is the emblem symbolically narrates the wars between the early Hoysala chieftains and the Cholas, (Settar in Kamath 2001, p123)
  4. ^ It is argued that there is no evidence of even a tradition that traces back their lineage to one of Northern origin and hence a poetic fancy (William Coelho of Hoysala Vamsa - 1950 in Kamath) and that it was a common practice in royal families of medieval South India to build puranic genealogies (Kamath 2001, p122)
  5. ^ Rice B.L. et al. (Mysore and Coorg from Inscriptions- 1909) in Kamath (2001), p123
  6. ^ Keay (2000), p251
  7. ^ Thapar (2003), p367
  8. ^ Stien (1989), p16
  9. ^ Rice, B.L. (1897), p335
  10. ^ Natives of south Karnataka (Chopra, Ravindran and Subrahmanian (2003), p150 Part1)
  11. ^ The Hoysalas originated from Sosevuru, identified as modern Angadi in Mudigere taluk (Kamath 2001, p123)
  12. ^ An indigenous ruling family of Karnataka from Sosevuru (modern Angadi) (Ayyar 1993, p600)
  13. ^ Seetharam Jagirdhar, M.N. Prabhakar, B.S. Krishnaswamy Iyengar in Kamath (2001), p123
  14. ^ King Vishnuvardhana made many military conquests later to be further expanded by his successors into one of the most powerful empires of South India (Coelho in Kamath, p124). The true maker of the Hoysala kingdom as this was a period of significant religious and cultural activity (B.S.K. Iyengar in Kamath p126). Vishnuvardhana was practically an independent king by the latter part of his rule, (P.B. Desai in Kamath 2001, p126)
  15. ^ Their mutual competition and antagonisms were the main feature during this period (Sastri 1955, p192)
  16. ^ The most outstanding of all the Hoysala kings and the one who fulfilled the dream of his illustrious grandfather Vishnuvardhana of making an independent empire (Barrett and Coelho in Kamath 2001, p126)
  17. ^ K. Chandramouli. The City of Boiled Beans. The Hindu, Thursday, Jul 25, 2002. The Hindu. Retrieved on 2006-11-17.
  18. ^ B.S.K. Iyengar in Kamath (2001), p128
  19. ^ Keay (2000), p252
  20. ^ Sastri (1955), p195
  21. ^ Thapar (2003), p368
  22. ^ Kamath (2001), p129
  23. ^ While many theories exist about the origin of Harihara I and his brothers, collectively known as the Sangama brothers, it is well accepted that they administered the northern territories of the Hoysala empire in the 1336–1343 time either as Hoysala commanders or with autonomous powers (Kamath 2001, pp159–160)
  24. ^ A collaboration between the waning Hoysala kingdom and the emerging Hindu Vijayanagara empire is proven by inscriptions. The queen of Veera Ballala III, Krishnayitayi, made a grant to the Sringeri monastery on the same day as the founder of the Vijayanagara empire, Harihara I in 1346. The Sringeri monastic order was patronised by both Hoysala and Vijayanagara empires (Kamath 2001, p161)
  25. ^ Kamath (2001), p132
  26. ^ Thapar (2003), p378
  27. ^ Kamath (2001), p132
  28. ^ Marco Polo who claims to have travelled in India at this time wrote of a monopoly in horse trading by the Arabs and merchants of South India. Imported horses became an expensive commodity because horse breeding was never successful in India, perhaps due to the different climatic, soil and pastoral conditions (Thapar 2003, p383)
  29. ^ Thapar (2003), p382
  30. ^ Thapar (2003), p383
  31. ^ Some 1500 monuments were built during these times in about 950 locations- S. Settar. Hoysala Heritage. Frontline, Volume 20 - Issue 08, April 12–25, 2003. Frontline, From the publishers of the Hindu. Retrieved on 2006-11-17.
  32. ^ This created employment for people of numerous guilds and backgrounds (Kamath 2001, p132)
  33. ^ Kamath (2001), p132
  34. ^ Thapar (2003), p382
  35. ^ Kamath (2001), p130–131
  36. ^ It is not clear which among Vishaya and Nadu was bigger in area and that a Nadu was under the supervision of the commander (Dandanayaka) (Barrett in Kamath 2001, pp 130–31)
  37. ^ Shadow like, they moved closely with the king, lived near him and disappeared upon the death of their master - S. Settar. Hoysala Heritage. Frontline, Volume 20 - Issue 08, April 12–25, 2003. Frontline, From the publishers of the Hindu. Retrieved on 2006-11-17.
  38. ^ Many Coins with Kannada legends have been discovered from the rule of the Hoysalas (Kamath 2001, p12, p125)
  39. ^ Govindaraya Prabhu, S. Indian coins-Dynasties of South-Hoysalas. Prabhu's Web Page On Indian Coinage, November 1, 2001. Retrieved on 2006-11-17.
  40. ^ Kamath (2001), p112, p132
  41. ^ A 16th century Buddhist work by Lama Taranatha speaks disparagingly of Shankaracharya as close parallels in some beliefs of Shankaracharya with Buddhist philosophy was not viewed favourably by Buddhist writers (Thapar 2003, pp 349–350, p397)
  42. ^ It is said five earlier saints Renuka, Daruka, Ekorama, Panditharadhya and Vishwaradhya were the original founders of Virashaivism, a sect that preaches devotion to Lord Shiva (Kamath 2001, p152)
  43. ^ Madvacharya upheld the virtues of Lord Vishnu and propounded the Dvaita philosophy (dualism) and condemned the "mayavada" (illusion) of Shankaracharya and maintained there was a distinction between Paramathma (supreme being) and the dependent principle of life (Kamath 2001, p155)
  44. ^ He criticised Adi Shankara as a "Buddhist in disguise" (Kamath 2001, p151)
  45. ^ Fritz and Michell (2001), pp35–36
  46. ^ Kamath (2001), p152
  47. ^ K.L. Kamath, November 04,2006. Hoysala Temples of Belur. 1996–2006 Kamat's Potpourri. Retrieved on 2006-12-01.
  48. ^ S. Settar. Hoysala Heritage. Frontline, Volume 20 - Issue 08, April 12–25, 2003. Frontline, From the publishers of the Hindu. Retrieved on 2006-12-01.
  49. ^ Madhusudana Rao, 12th December 2000. Karnataka Haridasas. [email protected] Retrieved on 2006-12-01.
  50. ^ The worldwide ISKON movement is an outcome of the efforts of the followers of Chaitanya (Kamath 2001, p156)
  51. ^ This is in stark contrast to the literature of the time (like Vikramankadeva Charita of Bilhana) that portrayed women as retiring, overly romantic and unconcerned with affairs of the state (Thapar 2003, p392)
  52. ^ She was not only a pioneer in the era of Women's emancipation but also an example of a transcendental world-view (Thapar 2003, p392)
  53. ^ Thapar (2003), p391
  54. ^ Arthikaje, Mangalore. Administration, Economy and Society in Hoysala Empire. 1998–2000 OurKarnataka.Com, Inc. Retrieved on 2006-12-08.
  55. ^ Sastri (1955), p286
  56. ^ Royal patronage of education, arts, architecture, religion and establishment of new forts and military outposts caused the large scale relocation of people (Sastri 1955, p287)
  57. ^ S. Settar. Hoysala Heritage. Frontline, Volume 20 - Issue 08, April 12–25, 2003. Frontline, From the publishers of the Hindu. Retrieved on 2006-11-17.
  58. ^ Thapar (2003), p389
  59. ^ Ayyar (1993), p600
  60. ^ Kamath (2001), p132
  61. ^ A composition which is written in a mixed prose-verse style is called Champu, Narasimhacharya (1988), p12
  62. ^ A Sangatya composition is meant to be sung to the accompaniment of a musical instrument (Sastri 1955), p359)
  63. ^ Sastri(1955), p361
  64. ^ Sastri (1955), p359
  65. ^ E.P. Rice (1921), p43-44
  66. ^ Narasimhacharya (1988), p20
  67. ^ Sastri (1955), p364
  68. ^ Sastri (1955), p362
  69. ^ Narasimhacharya, (1988), p20
  70. ^ a b E.P.Rice (1921), p60
  71. ^ Sastri (1955), p362
  72. ^ Narasimhacharya (1988), p20
  73. ^ Sastri (1955), p324,
  74. ^ The Hoysala style has many features in common with that of the Western Chalukya, according to Fergusson and Cousens - Arthikaje, Mangalore. History of Karnataka-Religion, Literature, Art and Architecture in Hoysala Empire. 1998–2000 OurKarnataka.Com, Inc. Retrieved on 2006-11-17.
  75. ^ Adam Hardy. Indian Temple Architecture : Form and Transformation-The Karnata Dravida Tradition 7th to 13th Centuries,1995. Vedams Books from India, Vedams eBooks (P) Ltd. Retrieved on 2006-11-17.
  76. ^ Hoysala style has negligible influences of the Indo-Aryan style and owing to its many independent features, it qualifies as an independent school of architecture (Brown in Kamath 2001, p134)
  77. ^ An independent tradition, according to Havell, Narasimhachar, Sheshadri and Settar - Arthikaje, Mangalore. History of Karnataka-Religion, Literature, Art and Architecture in Hoysala Empire. 1998–2000 OurKarnataka.Com, Inc. Retrieved on 2006-11-17.
  78. ^ Though the Hoysala vimana have rich texture, yet they are formless and lacks structural strength, according to Brown - Arthikaje, Mangalore. History of Karnataka-Architecture of Hoysala Empire. 1998–2000 OurKarnataka.Com, Inc. Retrieved on 2006-11-17.
  79. ^ This is a Hoysala innovation (Brown in Kamath 2001, p135)
  80. ^ K.L.Kamat. Hoysala Temples of Belur. 1996-2006 Kamat's Potpourri. Retrieved on 2006-12-22.
  81. ^ It is the smaller Hoysala temples like the ones at Somanathapura, Javagal, and Nuggehalli that really convey the full meaning of Hoysala architecture, according to Foekema - Gerard Foekema. A Complete Guide to Hoysala Temples, 1996. Vedams Books from India, Vedams eBooks (P) Ltd.. Retrieved on 2006-11-17.
  82. ^ Foekema (1996), p61
  83. ^ Brown in Kamath (2001), p135
  84. ^ Staff Correspondent. Belur for World Heritage Status. The Hindu, Sunday July 25, 2004. The Hindu. Retrieved on 2006-11-17.
  85. ^ The Manasollasa of king Somesvara III is an early encyclopedia in Sanskrit (Thapar 2003, p393)
  86. ^ However by the 14th century, bilingual inscriptions lost favour and inscriptions became mostly in the local language (Thapar 2003, pp393–95)

Purana (Sanskrit: , meaning tales of ancient times) is the name of an ancient Indian genre (or a group of related genres) of Hindu or Jain literature (as distinct from oral tradition). ... Mudigere is a panchayat town in Chikmagalur district in the Indian state of Karnataka. ... A Tehsil is an administrative subdivision or tier of local government in some South Asian countries. ... The geographical south of India includes all Indian territory below the 20th parallel. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Sringeri is the site of the first matha established by the Adi Sankaracharya, the 8th century Hindu reformer and exponent of the Advaita Vedanta philosophy. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Vishnu (IAST , Devanagari ), (honorific: Sri Vishnu) also known as Narayana is the Supreme Being (i. ... Dvaita (Devanagari:द्बैत, Kannada:ದ್ವೈತ) (also known as Tattvavada and Bheda-vada), a school of Vedanta (the most widespread Hindu philosophy) founded by Madhvacharya, stresses a strict distinction between God (Vishnu) and the individual living beings (jivas). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Iskon may refer to: the International Society for Krishna Consciousness Iskon is the former name of a popular Croatian webportal, now named (as of 2006) net portal. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Somesvara III (1126 - 1138) C.E. was the next Chalukya king and son of Vikramaditya VI and Queen Chandaladevi. ...

References

  • Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (1955). A History of South India, From Prehistoric times to fall of Vijayanagar, OUP, New Delhi (Reprinted 2002), ISBN 0-19-560686-8.
  • Suryanath U. Kamath (2001). A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC, Bangalore (Reprinted 2002), OCLC: 7796041.
  • Romila Thapar, The Penguin History of Early India, From Origin to 1300 AD., 2003, Penguin, New Delhi, ISBN 0-14-302989-4.
  • Gerard Foekema, A Complete Guide to Hoysala Temples, Abhinav, 1996 ISBN 81-7017-345-0
  • John Keay, History of India, 2000, Grove publications, New York, ISBN 0-8021-3797-0, BINC: 6494766
  • R. Narasimhacharya, History of Kannada Literature, 1988, Asian Educational Services, New Delhi, Madras,1988, ISBN 81-206-0303-6
  • New Light on Hampi, Recent research in Vijayanagara, edited by John M. Fritz and George Michell, MARG, 2001, ISBN 81-85026-53-X
  • Hoysala Dynasty, Jyothsna Kamat. © 1996–2006 Kamat's Potpourri. Retrieved on 2006-11-17.
  • Rice, B.L. [1897] (2001). Mysore Gazatteer Compiled for Government-vol 1. New Delhi, Madras: Asian Educational Services. ISBN 81-206-0977-8. 
  • Stien, Burton [1989] (1989). Vijayanagara. Wiltshire: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521266939. 
  • Chopra, Ravindran, Subrahmanian, P.N., T.K., N [2003] (2003). History of South India (Ancient, Medieval and Modern) Part 1. New Delhi: Chand Publications. ISBN 81-219-0153-7. 
  • Rice, E.P. [1921] (1982). Kannada Literature. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. ISBN 8120600630. 

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