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Encyclopedia > Howler monkey
Howler monkeys
Black Howler Alouatta caraya
Black Howler Alouatta caraya
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Primates
Family: Atelidae
Subfamily: Alouattinae
Trouessart, 1897 (1825)
Genus: Alouatta
Lacepede, 1799
Type species
Simia belzebul
Linnaeus, 1766
Species

Alouatta coibensis
Alouatta palliata
Alouatta pigra
Alouatta belzebul
Alouatta guariba
Alouatta macconnelli
Alouatta nigerrima
Alouatta sara
Alouatta seniculus
Alouatta caraya Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1000x664, 150 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Howler monkey Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... Black Howler Monkey, Alouatta caraya, is a Howler Monkey from Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay, being the southernmost member of the group. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes Subphylum Urochordata - Tunicates Ascidiacea Thaliacea Larvacea Subphylum Cephalochordata - Lancelets Subphylum Myxini - Hagfishes Subphylum Vertebrata - Vertebrates Petromyzontida - Lampreys Placodermi (extinct) Chondrichthyes - Cartilaginous fishes Acanthodii (extinct) Actinopterygii - Ray-finned fishes Actinistia - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Amphibia - Amphibians Reptilia - Reptiles Aves - Birds Mammalia - Mammals Chordates (phylum Chordata) include the vertebrates, together with... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the production of milk in female mammary glands and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex region in... Families 15, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all the species commonly related to the lemurs, monkeys, and apes, with the latter category including humans. ... Genera Alouatta Ateles Brachyteles Lagothrix Oreonax The Atelidae are one of the two families of New World monkeys now recognised. ... Édouard Louis Trouessart (August 25, 1842 - June 30, 1927) was a French zoologist. ... Bernard Germain tienne de la Ville, Comte de Lac de (December 26, 1756 - October 6, 1825) was a French naturalist. ... In biology, a type is that which fixes a name to a taxon. ... The Red handed Howler Monkeys Scientific name is Alouatta Belzebul. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 23, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... The hierarchy of scientific classification. ... Binomial name Alouatta coibensis Thomas, 1902 The Coiba Island Howler (Alouatta coibensis) is a howler monkey species endemic to Panama. ... Binomial name Alouatta palliata (Gray, 1849) The Golden-mantled Howling Monkey (Alouatta palliata), or just Mantled Howler, is a howler monkey species from Central and South America. ... Binomial name Alouatta pigra Lawrence, 1933 Guatemalan Black Howler (Alouatta pigra) is a howler monkey species from Central America. ... The Red handed Howler Monkeys Scientific name is Alouatta Belzebul. ... Brown Howler Monkey, Alouatta fusca, is a Howler Monkey from Argentina and Brazil. ... Binomial name Alouatta nigerrima Lönnberg, 1941 The Amazon Black Howler (Alouatta nigerrima) is a howler monkey species endemic to Brazil. ... Binomial name Alouatta sara Elliot, 1910 The Bolivian Red Howler (Alouatta sara) is a howler monkey species endemic to Bolivia. ... Red Howler Monkey, Alouatta seniculus, is a South American Howler Monkey. ... Black Howler Monkey, Alouatta caraya, is a Howler Monkey from Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay, being the southernmost member of the group. ...

The howler monkeys (genus Alouatta monotypic in subfamily Alouattinae) are among the largest of the New World monkeys. Nine species are currently recognised. Previously classified in the family Cebidae, they are now placed in the family Atelidae. For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... ... Families Cebidae Nyctipithecidae Pitheciidae Atelidae The New World monkeys or Platyrrhines are the four families of primates that are found in Central and South America, the Cebidae, Nyctipithecidae, Pitheciidae and Atelidae. ... The hierarchy of scientific classification. ... The hierarchy of scientific classification In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is a rank, or a taxon in that rank. ... Genera Callithrix Leontopithecus Saguinus Callimico Cebus Saimiri The Cebidae form one of the four families of New World monkeys now recognised. ... Genera Alouatta Ateles Brachyteles Lagothrix Oreonax The Atelidae are one of the two families of New World monkeys now recognised. ...


Howler monkeys range in size from 56 to 92cm, excluding their tail which can be equally as long. Like many New World monkeys, they have prehensile tails. They have a lifespan of 15 to 20 years. These monkeys are native to South and Central American forests. They live in groups of usually about 18 individuals. Threats to howler monkeys include being hunted for food and captivity. A prehensile tail is the tail of an animal that has adapted to be able to grasp and/or hold objects. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ...


As their name suggests, vocal animal communication forms an important part of their social behavior. Specifically, the name comes from their distinctive loud barking whoop they make, which can be heard over considerable distances. (As correctly pointed out by William Henry Hudson in his novel Green Mansions, "howler" is a misnomer since the male's voice sounds rather like a powerful roar; female vocalisations sound like a pig's grunt). They have an enlarged basihyal or hyoid bone which helps them make their loud sound. They are considered the loudest land animal. Unlike other New World monkeys, both male and female howler monkeys have trichromatic colour vision. Animal communication is any behaviour on the part of one animal that has an effect on the current or future behaviour of another animal. ... In biology, psychology and sociology social behavior is behavior directed towards, or taking place between, members of the same species. ... William H. Hudson William Henry Hudson (August 4, 1841 - August 18, 1922) was an Argentinan-British author, naturalist and ornithologist. ... Green Mansions: A Romance of the Tropical Forest is an exotic romance about a traveller to the Guyana jungle of Southeastern Venezuela, as told by William Henry Hudson. ... The hyoid bone (Os Hyoideum; Lingual Bone) is a bone in the human neck, not articulated to any other bone; it is supported by the muscles of the neck and in turn supports the root of the tongue. ... Families Cebidae Aotidae Pitheciidae Atelidae The New World monkeys are the four families of primates that are found in Central and South America: the Cebidae, Aotidae, Pitheciidae and Atelidae. ... A trichromat is an organism for which the perceptual effect of any arbitrarily chosen light from its visible spectrum can be matched by a mixture of no more than three different pure spectral lights. ...


These large, slow moving monkeys are the only folivores of the New World monkeys. Howlers eat mainly top canopy leaves, together with fruit, buds, flowers, and nuts. They move quadrapedally and do not brachiate, usually holding on to a branch with at least two hands or one hand and the tail at all times. Their prehensile tails are strong enough to support the monkey's entire body weight, although they seldom do so. The first 2 fingers of each hand are set apart and are opposable to the other three. They very seldom leave the trees. They rest about 80 percent of the time and are considered the least active of all monkeys. In Zoology, a folivore is an animal that specializes in eating leaves. ... Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... Look up flower in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up nut in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Howler monkeys are relatively friendly animals that live together in groups where the number of females is greater than the number of males. However, when there is a fight over food or mates or territory, they do not scratch or bite but rather yell and slap.

Contents

Howlers and humans

While seldom aggressive, howler monkeys do not take well to captivity and are of surly disposition, and hence are the only monkey in their forests not made a pet by the Native Americans [citation needed]. However, the Black Howler (Alouatta caraya) is a relatively common pet monkey in contemporary Argentina due to its gentle nature, in comparison to the capuchin monkey's aggressive tendencies, in spite of its lesser intelligence as well as the liabilities meant by the size of its droppings and the males' loud vocalisation. It has been suggested that Residential pets be merged into this article or section. ... Native Americans redirects here. ... Black Howler Monkey, Alouatta caraya, is a Howler Monkey from Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay, being the southernmost member of the group. ... Type species Simia capucina Linnaeus, 1758 Species Cebus capucinus Cebus albifrons Weeper uolivaceus Cebus kaapori Cebus apella Cebus libidinosus Cebus nigritus Cebus xanthosternos Cebus queirozi Tufted Capuchin (Cebus apella) The capuchins are the group of New World monkeys classified as genus Cebus. ...


Alexander von Humboldt said about howler monkeys that "their eyes, voice, and gait are indicative of melancholy", while John Lloyd Stephens described those at the Maya ruins of Cop├ín as "grave and solemn as if officiating as the guardians of consecrated ground". To the Mayas of the Classic Period, they were the divine patrons of the artisans, especially scribes and sculptors. Copan in particular is famous for its representations of Howler Monkey Gods. Two howler monkey brothers play a role in the 16th-century myth of the Maya Hero Twins included in the Popol Vuh. An 1859 portrait of Alexander von Humboldt by the artist Julius Schrader, showing Mount Chimborazo in the background. ... John Lloyd Stephens in 1839 John Lloyd Stephens (November 28, 1805–October 13, 1852) was an American explorer, writer, and diplomat. ... Location of Copán The Pre-Columbian city now known as Copán is a locale in extreme western Honduras, in the Copán Department, near to the Guatemalan border. ... The howler monkey god was a major deity of the arts and the patron of the artisans among the Classic Mayas, especially of the scribes and sculptors. ... The Hero Twins feature prominently in Maya mythology. ... The Popol Vuh (Quiché for Council Book or Book of the Community; Popol Wuj in modern spelling) is the book of scripture of the Quiché, a kingdom of the post classic Maya civilization in highland Guatemala. ...


Other names

Howlers are called "congos" in Nicaragua and Costa Rica. In Belize they are called "baboons", although they are not related to the primate which usually carries that name.


Classification

  • Family Atelidae
    • Subfamily Alouattinae
      • A. palliata group
      • A. seniculus group
        • Red-handed Howler, Alouatta belzebul
        • Brown Howler, Alouatta guariba
          • Northern Brown Howler, Alouatta guariba guariba
          • Southern Brown Howler, Alouatta guariba clamitans
        • Guyanan Red Howler, Alouatta macconnelli
        • Amazon Black Howler, Alouatta nigerrima
        • Bolivian Red Howler, Alouatta sara
        • Venezuelan Red Howler, Alouatta seniculus
          • Colombian Red Howler, Alouatta seniculus seniculus
          • Alouatta seniculus arctoidea
          • Juara Red Howler, Alouatta seniculus juara
      • A. caraya group
    • Subfamily Atelinae


Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (800x1028, 969 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Howler monkey ...


References

  • Groves, Colin (16 November 2005). in Wilson, D. E., and Reeder, D. M. (eds): Mammal Species of the World, 3rd edition, Johns Hopkins University Press, 148-152. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 
  • Jacobs, G. H.; Neitz, M., Deegan, J. F., & Neitz, J. (1996). "Trichromatic colour vision in New World monkeys". Nature (382): 156-158. 

Dr Colin Groves is a Professor of Biological Anthropology at the Australian National University in Canberra, Australia. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikispecies has information related to:
Alouattinae
Wikispecies has information related to:
Alouatta

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Comparative Placentation (3151 words)
Howler monkeys, of course, are characterized by their loud howl - penetrating noises in the jungle.
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The frequency of toxoplasmosis in howler monkeys was assessed by a serologic survey of numerous animals in French Guiana (Carme et al., 2002).
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