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Encyclopedia > Howard Martin Temin

Howard Martin Temin (December 10, 1934February 9, 1994) was a U.S. geneticist. He discovered reverse transcriptase in the 1970's at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. He won a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1975 for describing how tumor viruses act on the genetical material of the cell through reverse transcriptase. This upset the widely held belief at the time of the "Central Dogma" of molecular biology posited by Nobel laureate Francis Crick, one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA (along with James Watson and Rosalind Franklin). Crick, along with most other molecular biologists of the day, believed genetic information to flow exclusively from DNA to RNA to protein. Temin showed that certain tumor viruses carried the enzymatic ability to reverse the flow of information from RNA back to DNA using reverse transcriptase. This phenomenon was also independently studied by David Baltimore, with whom Temin shared the Nobel Prize. The discovery of reverse transcriptase is one of the most important of the modern era of medicine, as reverse transcriptase is the central enzyme in several widespread human diseases, such as HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, and Hepatitis B. Reverse transcriptase is also an important component of several important techniques in molecular biology and diagnostic medicine, such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). December 10 is the 344th day (345th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... February 9 is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ... The United States of America — also referred to as the United States, the U.S.A., the U.S., America, the States, or (archaically) Columbia—is a federal republic of 50 states located primarily in central North America (with the exception of two states: Alaska and Hawaii). ... == A geneticist is a scientist who studies genes, or a physician who diagnoses, treats, and counsels patients with genetic disorders or syndromes. ... In biochemistry, reverse transcriptase (EC 2. ... The University of Wisconsin was founded in 1848 and is the largest university in the U.S. state of Wisconsin. ... List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physiology or Medicine from 1901 to the present day. ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1975 calendar). ... Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ... Nobel, (Swedish pronunciation: nou´bell ), can mean: Nobel Prize - awarded annually since 1901, from the request of Swedish inventor Alfred Nobel Nobel Prize in Physics Nobel Prize in Chemistry Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine Nobel Prize for Literature Nobel Peace Prize Laureates/Winners of the Nobel Prize By Country... Professor Francis Harry Compton Crick, OM FRS (8 June 1916 – 28 July 2004) was a British physicist, molecular biologist and neuroscientist, most noted for being one of the co-discoverers of the structure of the DNA molecule in 1953, for which he, James D. Watson and Maurice Wilkins were... Space-filling model of a section of DNA molecule Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions specifying the biological development of all cellular forms of life (and most viruses). ... There is more than one person with the name James Watson: James Watson, participant in the Battle of the Little Bighorn James Watson, author of the novel Talking in Whispers James Watson, U.S. Senator from New York (1797-1801) James Watson, painter of 77 portraits held by the U... Rosalind Franklin by Elliott & Fry Rosalind Elsie Franklin (25 July 1920 - 16 April 1958) was a British physical chemist and crystallographer who made very important contributions to the understanding of the fine structures of coal and graphite, DNA and viruses. ... Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a nucleic acid polymer consisting of covalently bound nucleotides. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... David Baltimore (born March 7, 1938) is an American biologist and a winner of the 1975 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. ... The human immunodeficiency virus, commonly called HIV, is a retrovirus that primarily infects vital components of the human immune system such as CD4+ T cells, macrophages and dendritic cells. ... The Red Ribbon is the global symbol for solidarity with HIV-positive people and those living with AIDS. AIDS is an acronym for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome and is defined as a collection of symptoms and infections resulting from the depletion of the immune system caused... Originally known as serum hepatitis, Hepatitis B has only been recognized as such since World War II, and has caused current epidemics in parts of Asia and Africa. ...


A long-time advocate against smoking, Temin died at the age of 59 from lung cancer, although he himself was never a smoker. A bicycle/walking path on the campus of the UW-Madison is named in his honor. He received his bachelor's degree in Biology from Swarthmore College in 1955 and his doctorate from the California Institute of Technology in 1959. Swarthmore College is a private liberal arts college in the United States. ... 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The California Institute of Technology (commonly known as Caltech) is a private, coeducational university located in Pasadena, California, in the United States. ... 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


External links

  • Howard M. Temin - Autbiography
  • Homage to Howard Temin

  Results from FactBites:
 
Temin Howard Martin - Search Results - MSN Encarta (233 words)
Temin, Howard Martin (1934-1994), American virologist and winner of the 1975 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine, which he shared with American...
Howard Martin Temin (December 10, 1934 February 9, 1994) was a U.S. geneticist.
Temin, Howard Martin: U.S. virologist (Dec. 10, 1934, Philadelphia, Pa.--Feb. 9, 1994, Madison, Wis...
Howard Martin Temin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (310 words)
Howard Martin Temin (December 10, 1934 - February 9, 1994) was a U.S. geneticist.
The discovery of reverse transcriptase is one of the most important of the modern era of medicine, as reverse transcriptase is the central enzyme in several widespread human diseases, such as HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, and Hepatitis B.
A long-time advocate against smoking, Temin died at the age of 59 from lung cancer, although he himself was never a smoker.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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