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Encyclopedia > Hovercraft
BHC SR-N4 The world's largest non-military hovercraft, carrying 418 passengers and 60 cars
BHC SR-N4 The world's largest non-military hovercraft, carrying 418 passengers and 60 cars

A Hovercraft, or Air-Cushion Vehicle (ACV), is an amphibious vehicle or craft, designed to travel over any sufficiently smooth surface supported by a cushion of slowly moving, high-pressure air, ejected downwards against the surface close below it. // Instrumental experimental rock group Hovercraft formed in 1993 in Seattle, Washington. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1756x1128, 581 KB) Summary SR.N4 Hovercraft (Mountbatten Class). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1756x1128, 581 KB) Summary SR.N4 Hovercraft (Mountbatten Class). ... SR.N4 Hovercraft arriving in Dover on its last commercial flight - 1st October 2000 The Mountbatten class hovercraft or SR-N4 was built by BHC, the British Hovercraft Corporation. ... An amphibious vehicle is a vehicle or craft, that is a means of transport, viable on land as well as on water - just like an amphibian. ... Look up craft in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Contents

History

In the mid-1950s, the British engineer Sir Christopher Cockerell built a number of ground effect machine test models based on his idea of using air between the hull of a boat and the water to reduce drag of chin.[citation needed] Although he filed a number of patents involving air-lubricated hulls in 1957, no practical applications were found. Over the years, various other people had tried various methods of using air to reduce the drag on ships. Aircraft may be affected by a number of Ground effects, aerodynamic effects due to a flying bodys proximity to the ground. ...


The first fully functional, rigid-walled hovercraft was designed by Austrian Dagobert Müller von Thomamühl[1] and built by the Imperial Austro-Hungarian Navy (Kaiserliche und Königliche Kriegsmarine) "Seearsenal" (Naval base) at Pola. The 'Versuchsgleitboot - System Thomamühl' was launched on 2 September 1915[2] and was 13 metres (43 ft) long, 4 metres (13 ft) wide, displaced about 6.5 tonnes (6.4 LT/7.2 ST), had a crew of five men, and had a top speed of over 32 knots (59 km/h/37 mph). By 1916 it was undergoing testing as a fast-torpedo boat and was equipped with two torpedoes, one Schwarzlose machine gun and several 6-kilogram (13 lb) "water-bombs", intended for anti-submarine use. It had two propellers, each of which was driven by two 6-cylinder 120-horsepower (89 kW) airplane engines, a fifth 4-cylinder 65-horsepower (48 kW) engine was used to blow air under the hull, creating the "air-cushion or hover" effect. After wide ranging full scale sea trials, the vessel was eventually scrapped in 1917 and the engines returned to the naval air-arm (Luftfahrttruppe); no further testing or research into hovercrafts was undertaking by the Imperial Austro-Hungarian navy during the period up to its eventual capitulation. This article is about the Royal Navy of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the metric tonne. ... A long ton is the name used in the US for the unit called the ton in the avoirdupois or Imperial system of measurements, as used (alongside the metric system) in the United Kingdom and to some extent in other Commonwealth countries. ... The short ton is a unit of mass equal to 907. ... A knot is a unit of speed abbreviated kt or kn. ... Kilometres per hour (American spelling: kilometers per hour) is a unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector). ... Miles per hour is a unit of speed, expressing the number of international miles covered per hour. ... This article is about a unit of measurement. ... The kilowatt (symbol: kW) is a unit for measuring power, equal to one thousand watts. ...


Finnish engineer Toivo J. Kaario, head inspector of Valtion Lentokonetehdas (VL) airplane engine workshop, began to design an air cushion craft in 1931. He constructed and tested his craft, dubbed pintaliitäjä (Surface Glider), and received its Finnish patents 18630 and 26122.[citation needed] Kaario is considered to have designed and built the first functional ground effect vehicle, but his invention did not receive sufficient funds for further development.


The first to give scientific description of the ground effect and to provide theoretical methods of calculation of air cushion vehicles was Konstantin Tsiolkovsky in his 1927 paper "Air Resistance and the Express Train".[3][4] Since then Soviet engineer Vladimir Levkov began to develop air cushion vehicles. In the mid 1930s, Levkov assembled about 20 experimental air-cushion boats (fast attack craft and high-speed torpedo boats). The first prototype, designated L-1, had a very simple design which consisted of two small wooden catamarans that were powered by three engines. Two M-11 radial aero-engines were installed horizontally in the funnel-shaped wells on the platform which connected the catamaran hulls together. The third engine, also an air-cooled M-11, was placed in the aft part of the craft on a removable four-strut pylon. An air cushion was produced by the horizontally-placed engines. During successful tests, one of Levkov's air-cushion craft, called fast attack L-5 boat, achieved a speed of 70 knots (130 km/h/81 mph). Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky (Константин Эдуардович Циолковский, Konstanty CioÅ‚kowski) (September 5, 1857 new style – September 19, 1935) was a Russian and Soviet rocket scientist and pioneer of cosmonautics who spent most of his life in a log house on the outskirts of the Russian town of Kaluga. ... CCCP redirects here. ... For other uses, see Boat (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Craft (disambiguation). ... The torpedo, historically called a locomotive torpedo, is a self-propelled explosive projectile weapon, launched above or below the water surface, propelled underwater toward a target, and designed to detonate on contact or in proximity to a target. ... For other uses, see Prototype (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Catamaran History be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Engine (disambiguation). ... For pylons of overhead lines, see Electricity pylon Pylon Noun from Greek πυλώνας gateway tower like structure, usually one of a series, used to support high voltage electricity cables. ...


The first technically and commercially viable hovercraft was invented and patented by the English inventor Christopher Cockerell in 1955.[citation needed] For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Sir Christopher Sydney Cockerell (June 4, 1910 – June 1, 1999) was an English engineer, inventor of the hovercraft. ...


However, there had been numerous previous experimental attempts to design vehicles using the ground-effect principle, including prototypes built by Russian and German naval designers in World War I. In the US during World War II, Charles J. Fletcher designed his "Glidemobile" while he was a United States Navy Reservist. The design worked on the principle of trapping a constant airflow against a uniform surface (either the ground or water), providing anywhere from ten inches to two feet (250–600 mm) of lift to free it from the surface, and control of the craft would be achieved by the measured release of air. Shortly after being tested on Beezer's Pond in Fletcher's home town of Sparta Township, New Jersey, the design was immediately appropriated by the United States Department of War and classified, denying Fletcher the opportunity to patent his creation. As such Fletcher's work was largely unknown until a case was brought (British Hovercraft Ltd v. The United States of America) in which the British corporation maintained that its rights, coming from to Sir Christopher Cockerell's patent, had been infringed. British Hovercraft's claim, seeking US$104,000,000 in damages, was unsuccessful. In a case brought in 1985, Patent agents BTG successfully sued the US Department of Defence, being awarded $6 million in damages in 1990. [1] “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Charles J. Fletcher is an American inventor and businessman, the original inventor of the Hovercraft and holder of over seventy patents. ... USN redirects here. ... Sparta Township is a Township in Sussex County, New Jersey, United States. ... Line drawing of the Department of Wars seal. ... Sir Christopher Sydney Cockerell (June 4, 1910 – June 1, 1999) was an English engineer, inventor of the hovercraft. ...


However, Colonel Melville W. Beardsley (1913-1998), an American inventor and aeronautical engineer, received $80,000 from Cockerell for his rights to American patents. Beardsley worked on a number of unique ideas in the 1950s and '60s which he patented. His company built craft based on his designs at his Maryland base for the US Government and commercial applications. Beardsley later worked for the US Navy on developing the hovercraft further for military use. Dr. W. Bertelsen also worked on developing early ACVs in the USA. Dr. Bertelsen built an early prototype of a hovercraft vehicle in 1959 (called Aeromobile 35-B), and was photographed for Popular Science magazine riding the vehicle over land and water in April on 1959. The article on his invention was the front page story for the July, 1959 edition of Popular Science. Melville Whitnel Beardsley (10 October 1913 in Kansas City, Missouri – 26 November 1982 in Carmel, California) was the American inventor and aeronautical engineer whose developments on Hovercraft technology and principles lead to his invention of the Air-Cushion Vehicle. ...


In 1952 the British inventor Christopher Cockerell worked with air lubrication with test craft on the Norfolk Broads. From this he moved on to the idea of a deeper air cushion. Cockerell used simple experiments involving a vacuum cleaner motor and two cylindrical cans to create his unique peripheral jet system, the key to his hovercraft invention, patented as the "hovercraft principle". He proved the workable principle of a vehicle suspended on a cushion of air blown out under pressure, making the vehicle easily mobile over most surfaces. The supporting air cushion would enable it to operate over soft mud, water, and marshes and swamps as well as on firm ground. He designed a working model vehicle based on his patent. Showing his model to the authorities led to it being put on the secret list as being of possible military use and therefore restricted. However, to keep Britain in the lead in developments, in 1958 the National Research and Development Corporation took on his design (paying £1,000 for the rights) and paid for an experimental vehicle, the SR-N1 to be built by Saunders-Roe to Cockerell's design. It was launched on 11 June 1959.[5] Shortly afterwards it made a crossing from France to the United Kingdom on the 50th anniversary of Bleriot's cross Channel flight. However, stability problems remained, and it was the invention of the segmented skirt by his close colleague and collaborator, engineer Denys Bliss in 1962 [6] [7] which solved these and made the hovercraft a commercial reality. According to patent agents BTG the Bliss patent was "the key factor for success". A further patent 1239745 "Anti-ditch shift of cushion C.P" was taken out jointly by Cockerell and Bliss in July 1967: [2] Sir Christopher Sydney Cockerell (June 4, 1910 – June 1, 1999) was an English engineer, inventor of the hovercraft. ... The Norfolk Broads are the northern part of The Broads National Park. ... Regular canister vacuum cleaner for home use. ... Saunders-Roe Princess G-ALUN History Saunders-Roe Limited was a British aircraft manufacturing company based in East Cowes, Isle of Wight. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Louis Blériot Louis Blériot (July 1, 1872 – August 2, 1936) was a French inventor and engineer, who performed the first flight over a large body of water in a heavier-than-air craft. ...


Cockerell was knighted for his services to engineering in 1969. Sir Christopher coined the word hovercraft to describe his invention.[8]


Design

1. Propellers2. Air3. Fan4. Flexible skirt
1. Propellers
2. Air
3. Fan
4. Flexible skirt
Passenger carrying hovercraft, off shore Ōita Airport.
Passenger carrying hovercraft, off shore Ōita Airport.

Hovercraft have one or more separate engines (some craft, such as the SR-N6, have one engine with a drive split through a gearbox). One engine drives the fan on the bottom of the hovercraft, (the impeller) which is responsible for lifting the vehicle by forcing high pressure air under the craft. The air therefore must exit throughout the "skirt", lifting the craft above the area on which the craft resides. One or more additional engines are used to provide thrust in order to propel the craft in the desired direction (these engines help push the hovercraft). Some hovercraft utilize ducting to allow one engine to perform both tasks by directing some of the air to the skirt, the rest of the air passing out of the back to push the craft forward. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Hovercraft-MVPP10. ... Image File history File links Hovercraft-MVPP10. ... Oita Airport. ...


Hovercraft

Civil commercial hovercraft

The British aircraft manufacturer Saunders-Roe which had aeronautical expertise developed the first practical man-carrying hovercraft, the SR-N1, which carried out several test programmes in 1959 to 1961 (the first public demonstration in 1959), including a cross-channel test run. The SR-N1 was powered by one (piston) engine, driven by expelled air. Demonstrated at the Farnborough Airshow in 1960, it was shown that this simple craft could carry a load of up to 12 marines with their equipment as well as the pilot and co-pilot with only a slight reduction in hover height proportional to the load carried. The SR.N1 did not have any skirt instead using the peripheral air principle that Sir Christopher has patented. It was later found that the craft's hover height was improved by the addition of a 'skirt' of flexible fabric or rubber around the hovering surface to contain the air. The skirt was an independent invention made by a Royal Navy officer, C.H. Latimer-Needham, who sold his idea to Westland (parent company of Saunders-Roe), and who worked with Sir Christopher to develop the idea further. Flying machine redirects here. ... Saunders-Roe Princess G-ALUN History Saunders-Roe Limited was a British aircraft manufacturing company based in East Cowes, Isle of Wight. ... Six F-16 Fighting Falcons with the U.S. Air Force Thunderbirds aerial demonstration team fly in delta formation in front of the Empire State Building. ... Photograph of a nude man by Wilhelm von Gloeden, ca. ... The Saunders-Roe Nautical One (SR-N1) was the first practical hovercraft. ... For the Thoroughbred racehorse of the same name, see English Channel (horse). ... For other uses, see Engine (disambiguation). ... Look up air in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... France Marines is the name of a commune in the département of Val dOise, France. ... For other uses, see Aviator (disambiguation). ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... Westland is the name of several places: Netherlands: Westland, South Holland New Zealand: Westland, New Zealand United Kingdom: Westland, Shetland United States of America: Westland, Michigan Westland, Ohio Westland, Oregon Westland, Pennsylvania Westland, Texas Westland, Virginia Fiction: Westland (Sword of Truth) Westland Aircraft is a British aircraft manufacturer and part...


The first passenger-carrying hovercraft to enter service was the Vickers VA-3, which in the summer of 1962 carried passengers regularly along the North Wales Coast from Moreton, Merseyside to Rhyl. It was powered by two turboprop aero-engines and driven by propellers. A passenger is a term broadly used to describe any person who travels in a vehicle, but bears little or no responsibility for the tasks required for that vehicle to arrive at its destination. ... Vickers was a famous name in British engineering that existed through many companies from 1828 until 2004. ... For other uses, see Summer (disambiguation). ... Compass rose with north highlighted and at top Look up North in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the country. ... Moreton is a town on north coast of the Wirral Peninsula, Merseyside,England. ... , Rhyl (IPA: Welsh: Y Rhyl) is a seaside town located on the Irish Sea, with a population of roughly 35,000 including the suburbs of Kinmel Bay and Rhuddlan, in the county of Denbighshire (formerly Flintshire), northeast Wales, at the mouth of the River Clwyd (Welsh: Afon Clwyd). ... A schematic diagram showing the operation of a turboprop engine. ... For other uses, see Propeller (disambiguation). ...


During the 1960s Saunders-Roe developed several larger designs which could carry passengers, including the SR-N2, which operated across the Solent in 1962 and later the SR-N6, which operated across the Solent from Southsea to Ryde on the Isle of Wight for many years. Operations by Hovertravel commenced on 24 July 1965 using the SR-N6 which carried just 38 passengers. Two modern 98 seat AP1-88 hovercraft now ply this route, and over 20 million passengers have used the service as of 2004. Satellite image showing the Solent, separating the Isle of Wight from mainland Britain The Solent is a stretch of sea separating the Isle of Wight from the mainland of Great Britain. ... Southsea is a seaside resort located in Portsmouth at the southern tip of Portsea Island in the county of Hampshire in England. ... Ryde, seen from Ryde Pier and showing the twin spires. ... For other uses, see Isle of Wight (disambiguation). ... Hovertravel is a ferry company operating from Southsea, Portsmouth to Ryde, Isle of Wight, UK. They are the last company operating in Britain with passenger hovercraft, after Hoverspeed stopped using their craft in favour of catamarans. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In 1966 two Cross Channel passenger hovercraft services were inaugurated using hovercraft. Hoverlloyd ran services from Ramsgate Harbour to Calais and Townsend Ferries also started a service to Calais from Dover, which was soon superseded by that of Seaspeed. One of Hoverlloyds four SR-N4 hovercraft (Sir Christopher) at the Ramsgate Pegwell Bay Hoverport in the 1970s Hoverlloyd operated a cross-Channel hovercraft service between Ramsgate, England to Calais, France. ... For other uses, see Ramsgate (disambiguation). ... Calais (Kales in Dutch) is a town in northern France, located at 50°57N 1°52E. It is in the département of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... Townsend Thoresen was a ferry operator based in the United Kingdom formed by the merger of Townsend Brothers Ferries with Thoresen Car Ferries in 1968. ... Calais (Kales in Dutch) is a town in northern France, located at 50°57N 1°52E. It is in the département of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... , Dover is a major channel port in the English county of Kent. ... Seaspeed was the hovercraft division of British Rail. ...


As well as Saunders-Roe and Vickers (which combined in 1966 to form the British Hovercraft Corporation (BHC)), other commercial craft were developed during the 1960s in the UK by Cushioncraft (part of the Britten-Norman Group) and Hovermarine (the latter being 'Sidewall Hovercraft', where the sides of the hull projected down into the water to trap the cushion of air with 'normal' hovercraft skirts at the bow and stern). British Hovercraft Corporation is the corporate entity created when Saunders Roe and Vickers Supermarine combined with the intention of creating viable commercial hovercraft. ... Cushioncraft Ltd was formed in 1960 as a division of Britten-Norman Ltd (manufacturer of aircraft) to develop/build hovercrafts. ... Britten-Norman (officially the Britten-Norman Group or BNG) is a British aircraft manufacturer owned by members of the Zawawi family from the Sultanate of Oman, making it one of the UKs two remaining independent commercial aircraft producers, the other being Slingsby Aviation of Kirkbymoorside in Yorkshire. ... A Surface Effect Ship (SES) is a class of ship that has both an air cushion (like a hovercraft) and twin hulls (like a catamaran). ... Bow of the Cruise ship Spirit of Endeavour The bows of lifeboat 17-31 (Severn class) in Poole Harbour, Dorset, England The bow (pronounced to rhyme with how) is a nautical term that refers to the forward part of the hull of a ship or boat, the point that is... {{dablink|For other meanings, see Stern (disambiguation). ...


The world's first car-carrying hovercraft made their debut in 1968, the BHC Mountbatten class (SR-N4) models, each powered by four Rolls-Royce Proteus gas turbine engines. These were both used by rival operators Hoverlloyd and Seaspeed to operate regular car and passenger carrying services across the English Channel. Hoverlloyd operated from Ramsgate, where a special hoverport had been built at Pegwell Bay, to Calais. Seaspeed operated from Dover, England to Calais and Boulogne in France. The first SR-N4 had a capacity of 254 passengers and 30 cars, and a top speed of 83 knots (154 km/h/96 mph). The Channel crossing took around 30 minutes and was run rather like an airline with flight numbers. The later SR-N4 MkIII had a capacity of 418 passengers and 60 cars. The French-built SEDAM N500 Naviplane with a capacity of 385 passengers and 45 cars,[9] of which only one example entered service, and was used intermittently for a few years on the cross-channel service due to technical problems. The service ceased in 2000 after 32 years, due to competition with traditional ferries, catamaran, the advancing age of the SR-N4 hovercraft and the opening of the Channel Tunnel. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... SR.N4 Hovercraft arriving in Dover on its last commercial flight - 1st October 2000 The Mountbatten class hovercraft or SR-N4 was built by BHC, the British Hovercraft Corporation. ... Bristol Proteus engine The Proteus was the Bristol Aeroplane Companys first successful gas-turbine engine design, a turboprop that delivered just over 4,000 hp (3,000 kW). ... This machine has a single-stage centrifugal compressor and turbine, a recuperator, and foil bearings. ... One of Hoverlloyds four SR-N4 hovercraft (Sir Christopher) at the Ramsgate Pegwell Bay Hoverport in the 1970s Hoverlloyd operated a cross-Channel hovercraft service between Ramsgate, England to Calais, France. ... Seaspeed was the hovercraft division of British Rail. ... For the Thoroughbred racehorse of the same name, see English Channel (horse). ... For other uses, see Ramsgate (disambiguation). ... Pegwell Bay is a shallow inlet in the Channel coast being the outlet of the estuary of the River Stour between Ramsgate and Sandwich, Kent. ... Calais (Kales in Dutch) is a town in northern France, located at 50°57N 1°52E. It is in the département of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... Arms of Dover Borough Council This article is about the English port. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Boulogne-sur-Mer is a city and commune in northern France, in the Pas-de-Calais département of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... An Airbus A380 of Emirates Airline An airline provides air transport services for passengers or freight. ... The N500 Naviplane was a French hovercraft built by SEDAM (Société dEtude et de Développement des Aéroglisseurs Marins) in Pauillac, Gironde. ... Two Hobie catamarans, showing the typical Hobie raised platform joining the two hulls, and tall mast. ... The British terminal at Cheriton in west Folkestone, from the Pilgrims Way. ...


In 1998, the US Postal Service began using the British built Hoverwork AP.1-88 to haul mail, freight, and passengers from Bethel, Alaska to and from eight small villages along the Kuskokwim River. Bethel is far removed from the Alaska road system, thus making the hovercraft an attractive alternative to the air based delivery methods used prior to introduction of the hovercraft service. Hovercraft service is suspended for several weeks each year while the river is beginning to freeze to minimize damage to the river ice surface. The hovercraft is perfectly able to operate during the freeze-up period; however, this could potentially break the ice and create hazards for villagers using their snowmobiles along the river during the early winter. A USPS Truck at Night A U.S. Post Office sign The United States Postal Service (USPS) is the United States government organization responsible for providing postal service in the United States and is generally referred to as the post office. ... For other uses, see Mail (disambiguation). ... Freight is a term used to classify the transportation of cargo and is typically a commercial process. ... Bethel (Mamterilleq in Central Alaskan Yupik) is a city located in Bethel Census Area in the U.S. state of Alaska, 340 miles (540 km) west of Anchorage. ... The Kuskokwim River (Kusquqvak in Central Yupik) is a river, approximately 724 mi (1,165 km) long, in southwest Alaska in the United States. ... For other uses, see River (disambiguation). ... In physics and chemistry, freezing is the process whereby a liquid turns to a solid when cold enough. ... This article is about water ice. ... A snowmobile tour at Yellowstone National Park. ... For other uses, see Winter (disambiguation). ...


The commercial success of hovercraft suffered from rapid rises in fuel prices during the late 1960s and 1970s following conflict in the Middle East. Alternative over-water vehicles such as wave-piercing catamarans (marketed as the SeaCat in Britain) use less fuel and can perform most of the hovercraft's marine tasks. Although developed elsewhere in the world for both civil and military purposes, except for the Solent Ryde to Southsea crossing, hovercraft disappeared from the coastline of Britain until a range of Griffon Hovercraft were bought by the Royal National Lifeboat Institution. For other uses, see Fuel (disambiguation). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... It has been suggested that Catamaran History be merged into this article or section. ... Sea Cat is a surface to air missile system intended for use aboard small warships. ... Satellite image showing the Solent, separating the Isle of Wight from mainland Britain The Solent is a stretch of sea separating the Isle of Wight from the mainland of Great Britain. ... Griffon Hovercraft is a British hovercraft producer, founded in 1976, and based in Southampton, UK. External links Griffon Hovercraft official website ... Swanage lifeboat being winched up its slipway The Royal National Lifeboat Institution (RNLI) is a charity based in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland dedicated to saving lives at sea around the coasts of Great Britain and Ireland. ...


In Finland small hovercraft are widely used in maritime rescue and during the rasputitsa ("mud season") as archipelago liaison vehicles. In England, hovercraft of the Burnham-on-Sea Area Rescue Boat (BARB) are used to rescue people from thick mud in Bridgwater Bay. The rasputitsa (Russian: распу́тица) is the twice annual flooding of Belarus, western Russia and the Ukraine. ... The Mergui Archipelago The Archipelago Sea, situated between the Gulf of Bothnia and the Gulf of Finland, the largest archipelago in the world by the number of islands. ... This article should be translated from material at fr:Liaison. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Burnham-on-Sea is a town in Somerset, England, at the mouth of the River Parrett. ... Bridgwater Bay is on the estuary of the River Severn, near Bridgwater in Somerset, United Kingdom at the mouth of the River Parrett. ...


The Scandinavian airline SAS used to charter an AP. 1-88 Hovercraft for regular passengers between Copenhagen Airport, Denmark and the SAS Hovercraft Terminal in Malmö, Sweden. For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... Scandinavian Airlines System or SAS is a multi-national airline for Denmark, Norway and Sweden, and the leading carrier in the Scandinavian countries, based in Stockholm, Sweden and owned by SAS AB. It is a founding member of the Star Alliance. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... Copenhagen Airport (Danish: , Swedish: ) (IATA: CPH, ICAO: EKCH) is the major airport serving Copenhagen, Denmark, though also serving Malmö, Sweden. ... Look up Terminal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Motto: FrÃ¥n arbetarstad till kunskapsstad (eng: From industrial city to knowledge city) Location of Malmö in northern Europe Coordinates: , Country  Sweden Municipality Malmö Municipality County SkÃ¥ne County Province Scania (SkÃ¥ne) Charter 13th century Government  - Mayor Illmar Reepalu Area  - City 335. ...


An experimental service was operated in Scotland across the Firth of Forth (between Kirkcaldy and Portobello, Edinburgh), 16-28 July 2007. Marketed as Forthfast, the service used a craft chartered from Hovertravel Ltd and achieved 85% loadings. The possibility of establishing a permanent service is now under consideration. [3] This article is about the country. ... The Firth of Forth from Calton Hill The Forth Bridges cross the Firth Satellite photo of the Firth and the surrounding area Map of the Firth Firth of Forth (Scottish Gaelic: Linne Foirthe) is the estuary or firth of Scotlands River Forth, where it flows into the North Sea... , Kirkcaldy (IPA pronunciation: ) is the largest town in Fife, Scotland. ... Portobello Beach Portobello Police Station, built in 1878 as the Town Hall Portobello is a beach resort 3 miles (5 km) to the east of Edinburgh city centre along the coast of the Firth of Forth from Leith, in Scotland. ... Hovertravel is a ferry company operating from Southsea, Portsmouth to Ryde, Isle of Wight, UK. They are the last company operating in Britain with passenger hovercraft, after Hoverspeed stopped using their craft in favour of catamarans. ...


From 1960s, several commercial lines were operated in Japan, without much success. In the country, the only commercial line still available is the one that links Ōita Airport and the central Ōita. Oita Airport. ... ÅŒita ) is the capital city of ÅŒita Prefecture on the Kyushu island of Japan. ...


Military hovercraft

See also: Air-cushioned landing craft
A US Navy LCAC hovercraft attached to the Amphibious assault ship USS Kearsarge
A US Navy LCAC hovercraft attached to the Amphibious assault ship USS Kearsarge

First applications of the hovercraft in military use was with the SR.N1 through SR.N6 craft built by Saunders-Roe in the Isle of Wight in the UK and used by the UK joint forces. To test the use of the hovercraft in military applications the UK set up the Interservice Hovercraft Trials Unit (IHTU) base at Lee-on-the-Solent in the UK (now the site of the Hovercraft Museum). This unit carried out trials on the SR.N1 from Mk1 through Mk5 as well as testing the SR.N2, 3, 5 and 6 craft. Currently the Royal Marines use the Griffon 2000TDX as an operational craft. This craft was recently deployed by the UK in Iraq. A U.S. Navy LCAC hovercraft attached to the Amphibious assault ship USS Kearsarge Copyright status public domain photo from navy. ... A U.S. Navy LCAC hovercraft attached to the Amphibious assault ship USS Kearsarge Copyright status public domain photo from navy. ... Landing craft Rapière A landing craft is a type of boat used to convey infantry and vehicles on to a shore during an assault from sea to land. ... USS Kearsarge (LHD-3), the third Wasp-class amphibious assault ship, was the fifth ship of the United States Navy to be named (the fourth actually commissioned) in honor of the sloop Kearsarge, of American Civil War fame. ... The Royal Marines (RM) are the marines and amphibious infantry of the United Kingdom and, along with the Royal Navy and Royal Fleet Auxiliary, form the Naval Service [2]. They are also the United Kingdoms amphibious force and specialists in mountain and Arctic warfare. ... Griffon Hovercraft is a British hovercraft producer, founded in 1976, and based in Southampton, UK. External links Griffon Hovercraft official website ...


In the US, during the 1960s, Bell licenced and sold the Saunders-Roe SRN-5 as the Bell SK-5. They were deployed on trial to the Vietnam War by the Navy as PACV patrol craft in the Mekong Delta where their mobility and speed was unique. This was used in both the UK SR.N5 curved deck configuration and later with modified flat deck, gun turret and grenade launcher designated the 9255 PACV. The United States Army also experimented with the use of SR.N5 hovercraft in Vietnam. Three hovercraft with the flat deck configuration were deployed to Dong Tam in the Mekong delta region and later to Ben Luc. They saw action primarily in the Plain of Reeds. One was destroyed in early 1970 and another in August of that same year after which the unit was disbanded. The only remaining U.S. Army SR.N5 hovercraft is currently on display in the Army Transport Museum in Virginia. Experience led to the proposed Bell SK-10 which was the basis for the LCAC-class air-cushioned landing craft now deployed. Look up bell, Bell in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... USN redirects here. ... The PACV is the term for the United States Navys Patrol Air Cushion Vehicle or Hovercraft. ... River Class patrol boat of the Royal Navy LÉ Róisín patrol boat of the Irish Naval Service HMCS Moncton, a Kingston-class patrol vessel of the Canadian Navy A patrol boat is a small naval vessel generally designed for coastal defence duties. ... Mekong River Delta from space, February 1996 Mekong Delta, February 2005. ... Mobility is the ability and willingness to move or change; this can depend on motor skills; mobility aids may be needed such as a walking stick, walker, mobile standing frame, power operated vehicle/scooter, wheelchair or white cane for visual impairment. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up deck in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Turret (highlighted) attached to a tower on a baronial building in Scotland In architecture, a turret is a small tower that projects from the wall of a building, such as a medieval castle or baronial house. ... A grenade launcher is weapon that fires or launches a grenade to longer distances than a soldier could throw by hand. ... Fort Eustis is a military base facility of the United States military located in Newport News, Virginia. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Landing craft Rapière A landing craft is a type of boat used to convey infantry and vehicles on to a shore during an assault from sea to land. ...


The Soviet Union was one of the first few nations to use a hovercraft, the Bora, as a guided missile corvette. For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ... A Bora Class missile side-wall hovercraft on maneuvres in the Black Sea. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Missile. ... French steam corvette Dupleix (1856-1887) Canadian corvettes on antisubmarine convoy escort duty during World War II. A corvette is a small, maneuverable, lightly armed warship, smaller than a frigate and larger than a coastal patrol craft. ...


The Finnish Navy designed an experimental missile attack hovercraft class, Tuuli class hovercraft, in the late 1990s. The prototype of the class, Tuuli, was commissioned in 2000. It proved an extremely successful design for a [littoral] fast attack craft, but due to fiscal reasons and doctrinal change in the Navy, the hovercraft was soon withdrawn. The Finnish Navy (Finnish: Suomen merivoimat, Swedish: Finländska marinen) is one of the branches of the Finnish Defence Forces. ... Tuuli class Tuuli class // Introduction The Tuuli(wind) class hovercraft (ACV) (Finnish: Tuuli-luokan ilmatyynyalus) is a type of vessel in use by the Finnish Navy. ...


The Hellenic Navy operates four Russian-designed Zubr class LCAC. This is the world’s largest military air-cushioned landing craft. The Hellenic Navy (Greek: , Polemikón Nautikón) is the naval force of the modern nation of Greece (Hellenic Republic). ... Zubr Hovercraft docked in St. ...


Other ACVs

Hoverbarge

A real benefit of air cushion vehicles in moving heavy loads over difficult terrain, such as swamps, was overlooked by the excitement of the Government funding to develop high-speed hovercraft. It was not until the early 1970s that the technology was used for moving a modular marine barge with a dragline on board for use over soft reclaimed land.


Mackace (Mackley Air Cushion Equipment) produced a number of successful Hoverbarges, such as the 250 ton payload “Sea Pearl” which operated in Abu Dhabi and the twin 160 ton payload "Yukon Princesses" which ferried trucks across the Yukon river to aid the pipeline build. Hoverbarges are still in operation today. In 2006, Hovertrans (formed by the original managers of Mackace) launched a 330 ton payload drilling barge in the swamps of Suriname.


The Hoverbarge technology is somewhat different to high-speed hovercraft, which has traditionally been constructed using aircraft technology. The initial concept of the air cushion barge has always been to provide a low-tech amphibious solution for accessing construction sites using typical equipment found in this area, such as diesel engines, ventilating fans, winches and marine equipment. The load to move a 200 ton payload ACV barge at 5 knots would only be 5 tons. The skirt and air distribution design on the high-speed craft again is more complex as they have to cope with the air cushion being washed out by a wave and wave impact. The slow speed and large mono chamber of the hover barge actually helps reduce the effect of wave action giving a very smooth ride.


Hovertrain

Several attempts have been made to adopt air cushion technology for use in fixed track systems, in order to take advantage of the lower frictional forces so as to deliver high speeds. The most advanced example of this was the Aérotrain, an experimental high speed hovertrain built and operated in France between 1965 and 1977. The project was abandoned in 1977 due to lack of funding, the death of its main protagonist and the adoption of TGV by the French government as its high-speed ground transport solution. Aérotrain prototype #02 The Aérotrain was a hovercraft train developed in France from 1965 to 1977. ... A ground effect train is an alternative to a Magnetic levitation train. ... For the group of heart conditions referred to as TGV, see Transposition of the great vessels. ...


A test track for a tracked hovercraft system was built at Earith near Cambridge, England, managed by Tracked Hovercraft Ltd., with Denys Bliss as Director in the early 1970's, only to be axed by the Aerospace Minister, Michael Heseltine. Records of this project are available from the correspondence and papers of Sir Harry Legge-Bourke, MP at Leeds University Library.[10] [11] Heseltine was accused by Airey Neave and others of misleading the House of Commons when he stated that the government was still considering giving financial support to the Hovertrain, when the decision to pull the plug had already been taken by the Cabinet. Earith is a village in the Fens of Huntingdonshire, England, south of Chatteris and east of Huntingdon. ... This article is about the city in England. ... Michael Ray Dibdin Heseltine, Baron Heseltine, CH, PC (born 21 March 1933) is a British businessman and Conservative Party politician. ... Sir Edward Alexander Henry Legge-Bourke, KBE (1914-1973) was a British politician. ... Airey Middleton Sheffield Neave, DSO, OBE, MC, (23 January 1916 – 30 March 1979) was a British soldier, barrister and politician. ...


Despite promising early results, the Cambridge project was abandoned in 1973 due to financial constraints, but parts of the project were picked up by the engineering firm McAlpine, only to be finally abandoned in the mid 1980's. The Tracked Hovercraft project and Professor Laithwaite's Maglev train system were contemporaneous, and there was intense competition between the two prospective British systems for funding and credibility. Alfred McAlpine plc is a British construction firm headquartered in London. ... Eric Roberts Laithwaite (14 June 1921 – 27 November 1997) was an English engineer, principally known for his development of the linear induction motor and Maglev rail system. ... Transrapid Shanghai Maglev Train stopping at terminus Longyang Road station Transrapid Shanghai Maglev Train Inside the Shanghai Transrapid maglev Inside the Shanghai Transrapid maglev VIP section Magnetic levitation transport, or maglev, is a form of transportation that suspends, guides and propels vehicles (especially trains) using electromagnetic force. ...


At the other end of the speed spectrum, the Dorfbahn Serfaus has been in continuous operation since 1985. This is an unusual underground air cushion funicular rapid transit system, situated in the Austrian ski resort of Serfaus. Only 1,280 m (4,200 ft) long, the line reaches a maximum speed of 25 mph (40 km/h). A similar system also exists in Narita International Airport near Tokyo, Japan. Dorfbahn Serfaus is a subway system in Tyrolian village of Serfaus in Austria built in 1985 by Freissler-Otis company. ... Angels Flight, Los Angeles, California with gantlet track configuration Duquesne Incline, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania with full length parallel tracks The Gütschbahn in Lucerne, Switzerland – from an 1893 guidebook A funicular, also called funicular railway, inclined railway, inclined plane, or, in the United Kingdom, a cliff railway, is a system of... “Mass Transit” redirects here. ... St. ... Serfaus is a village in the Tyrol, Austria best known for its tiny subway system, the Serfaus Dorfbahn, which allowed for a complete ban of cars within the town, while at the same time maintaining the villages attractivity to tourists, particularly skiers. ... Narita Airport Terminal 2 Shuttle The Narita Airport Terminal 2 Shuttle System ) is an airport circulator system used in Narita International Airport, Narita, Japan. ... Narita International Airport ) (IATA: NRT, ICAO: RJAA) is an international airport located in Narita, Chiba, Japan, in the eastern portion of the Greater Tokyo Area. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ...


Records

  • World's Largest Civil Hovercraft - The BHC SRN4 Mk III at 56.4 m (185 ft) length and 310 metric tons (305 tons) weight, can accommodate 418 passengers and 60 cars.
  • English Channel crossing - 22 minutes by Princess Anne MCH SR-N4 Mk3 on 14 September 1995
  • World's Hovercraft Speed Record - 18 September 1995 - Speed Trials, Bob Windt (USA) 137.4 km/h (85.87 mph), 34.06 secs measured kilometre

For the Thoroughbred racehorse of the same name, see English Channel (horse). ... SR.N4 Hovercraft arriving in Dover on its last commercial flight - 1st October 2000 The Mountbatten class hovercraft or SR-N4 was built by BHC, the British Hovercraft Corporation. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ...

Hobbyists

There are an increasing number of small homebuilt and kit-built hovercraft used for fun and racing purposes, mainly on inland lakes and rivers but also in marshy areas and in some estuaries.


The Hovercraft Club of Great Britain organises inland and coastal cruising hovercraft races in various venues across the United Kingdom.


Modern Hovercraft Development

The real innovation in hovercraft development occurred in 1957, and was revealed to the public in 1960. It was the invention of the "Double-Walled Flexible Skirt" by Mr. Norman B. McCreary in Little Rock, Arkansas, USA (Patent No. 3,532,179) and was published in the Arkansas Gazette Newspaper on Jan. 25, 1960 and in Science and Mechanics Magazine in June, 1960. This was the conception and technological development that enabled hovercraft to travel over uneven terrain or waves of the sea. It later became known as the "Bag Skirt" as it inflated around the edge of the hovercraft. It would raise and lower the hovercraft off the ground by inflation and deflation of the "Double-Walled Flexible Skirt". Later fingers were added to the bottom of the skirt to compensate for wear and reduce drag. After this concept was made public in 1960, all hovercraft utilized a "Double-Walled Flexible Skirt" system for practical hovercraft operations, (see time line Naval Engineering Journal, February 1985, page 261).


See also

Air Car 1# The Air Car (or called Space Craft) is a hovercraft that can be built on a weekend. ... The Airboard is the first commercially-marketed single-person hovercraft/hoverboard. ... The Avrocar. ... A Bora Class missile side-wall hovercraft on maneuvres in the Black Sea. ... Coanda effect as demonstrated with a spoon and a water stream. ... An ekranoplan (Russian: , literally screen plane) is a vehicle resembling an aircraft but that operates solely on the principle of ground effect (in Russian эффект экрана effekt ekrana - from which the name derived). ... The Flymo hover mower was invented by Karl Dahlmen in 1964 after seeing Sir Christopher Cockerells Hovercraft machine. ... The term Ground effect (or Wing In Ground effect) refers to the increase in lift experienced by an aircraft as it approaches within roughly 1/4 of a wingspans length of the ground or other level surface (such as the sea). ... A Hoverboard (or hover board) is a fictional futuristic hovering deck, resembling a skateboard without wheels or trucks. ... A hovercar is a transport vehicle appearing in works of science fiction. ... The Hovercraft Museum, located in Hampshire, England, is dedicated to hovercraft. ... This article is about marine engineering. ... Landing craft Rapière A landing craft is a type of boat used to convey infantry and vehicles on to a shore during an assault from sea to land. ... A completed Pegasus Hovercraft The Pegasus is a hovercraft vehicle made for educational purposes. ... A Surface Effect Ship (SES) is a class of ship that has both an air cushion (like a hovercraft) and twin hulls (like a catamaran). ... Zubr Hovercraft docked in St. ...

References

  1. ^ The first hovercraft of the world
  2. ^ Doppeladler
  3. ^ Charles Coulston Gillispie, Dictionary of Scientific Biography, Published 1980 by Charles Scribner's Sons, ISBN 0684129256, p.484
  4. ^ Template:Ru"" icon Air cushion vehicle history
  5. ^ On this day 11 June. BBC News. Retrieved on 2007-07-09.
  6. ^ Template:Cite"" web
  7. ^ [http://books.google.com/books?id=T3hPcUQdurwC&dq=theory+and+design+of+air+cushion+craft&printsec=frontcover&source=web&ots=Oc_O5muWOe&sig=HZ7I4F5FpkTU24x3z-gCvSheXHM Theory and Design of Air Cushion Craft By Liang Yun, Alan Bliault]. Theory and design. Retrieved on 2007-11-26.
  8. ^ Template:Cite"" web
  9. ^ In 1965 Sweden become the pioneers of commercial hovercraft services. Hoverline Scandinavia. Retrieved on 2007-07-09.
  10. ^ http://www.leeds.ac.uk/library/spcoll/handlists/080MS742_LBourke.pdf
  11. ^ http://www.leeds.ac.uk/library/spcoll/handlists/084670M42_cambridge.pdf

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

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Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ... Autobus redirects here. ... This article is about high-capacity bus transit systems. ... An express bus is a bus service that is intended to run faster than normal bus lines. ... Paratransit is an alternative mode of flexible passenger transportation that does not follow fixed routes or schedules. ... A green public minibus awaiting at the station at Tsim Sha Tsui. ... Bogie from an MP 89 Paris Métro rolling stock An MP 73 Paris Métro rolling stock Rubber tracks between Pont de Neuilly and Esplanade de la Défense Rubber-tyred metro is a form of rail transport, but using some road technology: the vehicles have wheels with rubber... A trolleybus (also known as trolley bus, trolley coach, trackless trolley, trackless tram or simply trolley) is an electric bus powered by two overhead wires, from which it draws electricity using two trolley poles. ... railroads redirects here. ... Cable railways are railways with very steep gradients and use stationary engines to haul the wagons up and down the hills. ... A Connex commuter train stands by the platform in Melbourne, Australia Regional rail systems, or commuter rail systems, usually provide a rail service through a central business district area into suburbs or other locations that draw large numbers of people on a daily basis. ... The term heavy rail is often used for regular railways, to distinguish from systems such as trams/light rail and metro. ... A scene on a heritage railway. ... A scene on a heritage railway. ... French-designed Eurostar and Thalys TGVs side-by-side in the Paris-Gare du Nord. ... Inter-city rail services are express train passenger services which cover longer distances than commuter trains. ... An interurban, also called a radial railway in parts of Canada, is a streetcar line running between urban areas or from urban to rural areas. ... This article is about light rail systems in general. ... Judging by the capacity, Ma On Shan Rail, KCR can also be considered as a medium capacity system. ... The KL Monorail in Kuala Lumpur, a colorful straddle-beam monorail A monorail is a single rail serving as a track for a wheeled vehicle; also, a vehicle traveling on such a track. ... A people mover is a fully-automated light rail or tram system. ... Personal rapid transit (PRT), also called personal automated transport (PAT) or podcar is a public transportation concept that offers automated on-demand non-stop transportation, on a network of specially-built guideways. ... “Mass Transit” redirects here. ... A Connex commuter train stands by the platform in Melbourne, Australia Regional rail systems, or commuter rail systems, usually provide a rail service through a central business district area into suburbs or other locations that draw large numbers of people on a daily basis. ... This article refers to public transport vehicles running on rails. ... This article is about trams sharing tracks with main-line railways. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Catherine IIs carved, painted and gilded Coronation Coach (Hermitage Museum) George VI and Queen Elizabeth in a landau with footmen and an outrider, Canada 1939 The classic definition of a carriage is a four-wheeled horse drawn private passenger vehicle with leaf springs (elliptical springs in the 19th century... Passengers and drivers meet at this auto rickshaw stand in Chennai. ... Carsharing is a system where a fleet of cars (or other vehicles) is owned and operated/overseen by a company, public agency, cooperative, ad hoc grouping, or even a single individual, and made available for use by members of the carshare group in a wide variety of ways. ... A betchak and its driver wait for a fare in Bandung, Indonesia Rickshaw in Hamburg. ... In the United Kingdom, the name hackney carriage refers to a taxicab licensed by the Public Carriage Office in Greater London or by the local authority (non-metropolitan district councils or unitary authorities) in other parts of England, Wales, and Scotland, or by the Department of the Environment in Northern... Rapid Transit in San Diego: An original 1886 horse-drawn trolley and its driver participate in a parade celebrating the groundbreaking of the Panama-California Exposition Center in 1911. ... Horse-drawn vehicles were once prominent throughout the world, but they have moslty been replaced by automobiles and other forms of self-propelled transport. ... Motorcycle taxi: Motorcycles are a licensed form of taxi in Goa. ... Japanese rickshaw (jinrikisha), 1886. ... A share taxi is a mode of transport that falls between private transport and conventional bus transport, with a fixed route, but the convenience of stopping anywhere to pick or drop passengers, etc. ... For specific countries see Taxicabs around the world. ... A vehicle for hire is a vehicle providing public transportation, which transports one or more passengers between locations of the passengers choice. ... A container ship // Water transport redirects here. ... Coin operated cable ferry at Espevær in Bømlo, Norway A cable ferry or chain ferry is a means of water transportation by which a ferry or other boat is guided and in many cases propelled across a river or other larger body of water by means of cables... The ferryboat Dongan Hills, filled with commuters, about to dock at a New York City pier, circa 1945. ... This article is about marine engineering. ... A New York Water Taxi docks at Pier 11 near Wall Street. ... Categories: Stub ... A bus garage or bus depot is a type of garage where buses are stored. ... A bus lane in Mannheim, Germany A bus lane in Athens, Greece. ... For other meanings, see Bus stop (disambiguation). ... 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