FACTOID # 10: The total number of state executions in 2005 was 60: 19 in Texas and 41 elsewhere. The racial split was 19 Black and 41 White.
 
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Encyclopedia > Houston valve
Houston valve
Coronal section of rectum and anal canal.
Anatomy of the anus and rectum
Latin plicae transversae recti
Gray's subject #249 1183
Dorlands/Elsevier p_24/12649311

Although the term rectum means straight, the human rectum is not. There are certain permanent transverse folds, of a semilunar shape, known as Houston’s valves (or transverse folds of rectum). They project into the lumen of the rectum. Diagram of the rectum and anus. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Elseviers logo Elsevier, the worlds largest publisher of medical and scientific literature, forms part of the Reed Elsevier group. ... The rectum (from the Latin rectum intestinum, meaning straight intestine) is the final straight portion of the large intestine in some mammals, and the gut in others, terminating in the anus. ... Lumen can mean: Lumen (unit), the SI unit of luminous flux Lumen (anatomy), the cavity or channel within a tubular structure Thylakoid lumen, the inner membrane space of the chloroplast 141 Lumen, an asteroid discovered by the French astronomer Paul Henry in 1875 Lumen (band), an American post-rock band...


These folds are about 12 mm. in width, and contain some of the circular fibers of the gut.


In the empty state of the intestine they overlap each other, as Houston remarks, so effectually as to require considerable maneuvering to conduct a bougie or the finger along the canal. The name Bougie originally comes from France. ...


Their use seems to be, to support the weight of fecal matter, and prevent its urging toward the anus, where its presence always excites a sensation demanding its discharge. Feces (also spelled faeces in British English, or fæces) are semi-solid waste products from the digestive tract expelled through the anus (or cloaca) during defecation. ... Female Human Anatomy Male Human Anatomy Anal redirects here. ...


They are formed from circular muscle coat of the rectal wall.


Details on each fold

They are usually three in number; sometimes a fourth is found, and occasionally only two are present.

  • One is situated near the commencement of the rectum, on the right side.
  • A second extends inward from the left side of the tube, opposite the middle of the sacrum.
  • A third, the largest and most constant, projects backward from the forepart of the rectum, opposite the fundus of the urinary bladder.
  • When a fourth is present, it is situated nearly 2.5 cm. above the anus on the left and posterior wall of the tube.

This article or section may be confusing or unclear for some readers, and should be edited to rectify this. ... In the anatomy of mammals, the urinary bladder is the organ that collects urine excreted by the kidneys prior to disposal by urination. ...

Clinical significance

During sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy the scope is moved around to negotiate these folds. Sigmoidoscopy is the minimally invasive medical examination of the large intestine from the rectum through the last part of the colon. ... Colonoscopy is the minimally invasive endoscopic examination of the large colon and the distal part of the small bowel with a fiber optic camera on a flexible tube passed through the anus. ...


External links

  • Shafik A, Doss S, Ali Y, Shafik A (2001). "Transverse folds of rectum: anatomic study and clinical implications.". Clin Anat 14 (3): 196-203. PMID 11301467.

This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained herein may be outdated. Please edit the article if this is the case, and feel free to remove this notice when it is no longer relevant. The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... An illustration from the 1918 edition Henry Grays Anatomy of the Human Body, commonly known as Grays Anatomy, is an anatomy textbook widely regarded as a classic work on human anatomy. ...

Gastrointestinal tract
v  d  e
Upper gastrointestinal tract

Mouth | Pharynx (nasopharynx, oropharynx, hypopharynx) | Esophagus | Crop | Stomach (rugae, gastric pits, cardia, pylorus) The gastrointestinal tract or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal, (nourishment canal) or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste. ... Look up Mouth in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the neck and throat situated immediately posterior to the mouth and nasal cavity, and cranial to the esophagus, larynx, and trachea. ... The pharynx is the part of the digestive system of many animals immediately behind the mouth and in front of the esophagus. ... The pharynx is the part of the digestive system of many animals immediately behind the mouth and in front of the esophagus. ... In human anatomy, the hypopharynx is the bottom part of the pharynx, and is the part of the throat that connects to the esophagus. ... The esophagus (also spelled oesophagus/œsophagus), or gullet is an organ in vertebrates which consists of a muscular tube through which food passes from the mouth area to the stomach. ... The crop is a thin-walled expanded portion of the alimentary tract used for the storage of food prior to digestion that is found in many animals, including earthworms, leeches, insects, and birds. ... In anatomy, the stomach (in ancient Greek στόμαχος) is an organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ... Rugae are the mucus-covered ridges, or folds, located on the inside of the stomach wall. ... Gastric pits are indentations in the stomach which denote entrances to the glands. ... The cardia is the anatomical term for the junction orifice of the stomach and the esophagus. ... From Greek pylorus; pyl- = gate, -orus = guard. ...


Lower gastrointestinal tract


Small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum) | Vermiform appendix In biology the small intestine is the part of the gastrointestinal tract (gut) between the stomach and the large intestine. ... In anatomy of the digestive system, the duodenum is a hollow jointed tube connecting the stomach to the jejunum. ... Diagram of the Human Intestine In anatomy of the digestive system, the jejunum is the central of the three divisions of the small intestine and lies between the duodenum and the ileum. ... Grays Fig. ... In human anatomy, the vermiform appendix (or appendix, pl. ...


Large intestine: Cecum | Colon (ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon) | Rectum (Houston valve, rectal ampulla, pectinate line) | Anal canal (anal valves, anal sinuses, anal columns) The large intestine, or colon is the last part of digestive system: the final stage of the alimentary canal in vertebrate animals. ... In anatomy of the digestive system, the cecum or caecum is a pouch connected to the large intestine between the ileum. ... In the anatomy of the digestive system, the colon (> Greek ) is the part of the intestine from the caecum to the rectum. ... In anatomy of the digestive system, the colon or large intestine or large bowel is the part of the intestine from the cecum to the rectum. ... In anatomy of the digestive system, the colon is the part of the intestine from the cecum to the rectum. ... The Descending Colon passes downward through the left hypochondriac and lumbar regions along the lateral border of the left kidney. ... The sigmoid colon is the part of the large intestine after the descending colon and before the rectum. ... The rectum (from the Latin rectum intestinum, meaning straight intestine) is the final straight portion of the large intestine in some mammals, and the gut in others, terminating in the anus. ... The anal canal is the terminal part of the large intestine. ... The rectal sinuses, end in small valve-like folds, termed anal valves, which join together the lower ends of the rectal columns. ... The rectal columns are separated from one another by furrows, or rectal sinuses, which end below in small valve-like folds, termed anal valves. ... The lumen of the anal canal presents, in its upper half, a number of vertical folds, produced by an infolding of the mucous membrane and some of the muscular tissue. ...


Anus: Sphincter ani internus muscle | Sphincter ani externus muscle Female Human Anatomy Male Human Anatomy Anal redirects here. ... The Sphincter ani internus muscle is a muscle of the human body. ... The Sphincter ani externus muscle is a muscle of the human body. ...


Enteric nervous system: Meissner's plexus | Auerbach's plexus The enteric nervous system (ENS) is an interdependent part of the autonomic nervous system. ... The nerves of the small intestines are derived from the plexuses of sympathetic nerves around the superior mesenteric artery. ... Part of the enteric nervous system, Auerbachs plexus exists between the longitudinal and circular layers of muscle in the gastrointestinal tract and provides motor innervation to both layers and secretomotor innervation to the mucosa. ...


Enteroendocrine cells: G cells | Enterochromaffin cells | Enterochromaffin-like cell Enteroendocrine cells are specialized endocrine cells of the gastrointestinal tract. ... In medicine, the G cell is a type of cell in the stomach that secrets gastrin. ... Serotonin Enterochromaffin (EC) cells (Kulchitsky cells) are a type of enteroendocrine cell[1] occuring in the epithelia lining the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract. ... Enterochromaffin-like cells or ECL cells are a type of neuroendocrine cells found in the gastric mucosa beneath the epithelium, particularly in the vicinity of parietal cells. ...


GALT: Peyer's patches | M cells Overview About 70% of the bodys immune system is found in the digestive tract. ... Peyers patches are secondary lymphoid organs named after the 17th-century Swiss anatomist Hans Conrad Peyer. ...


parietal cells | chief cells | goblet cells | Brunner's glands | Paneth cells | enterocytes Parietal cells (also called oxyntic cells) are cells located in the stomach epithelium. ... A gastric chief cell (or peptic cell, or gastric zymogenic cell) is a cell in the stomach that releases pepsinogen and rennin. ... Goblet cells are glandular simple columnar epithelial cells whose sole function is to secrete mucus. ... Brunners glands are submucosal glands located throughout the duodenum. ... Paneth cells provide host defense against microbes in the small intestine. ... Enterocyte is a type of epithelial cell of the superficial layer of the small and large intestine tissue. ...


intestinal villus/microvillus | crypts of Lieberkühn | circular folds | taenia coli | haustra | epiploic appendix A microvillus (usually not occurring alone, so usually referred to as the plural microvilli) is a small (0. ... The crypts of Lieberkühn are glands found in the epithelial lining of the small intestine. ... The circular folds (valves of Kerkring) are large valvular flaps projecting into the lumen of the bowel. ... The haustra of the colon are the small pouches caused by sacculation, which give the colon its segmented appearance. ... The epiploic appendices (or epiploic appendages) are small pouches of the peritoneum filled with fat and situated along the colon and upper part of the rectum. ...


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