FACTOID # 2: Puerto Rico has roughly the same gross state product as Montana, Wyoming and North Dakota combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Housing cooperative
Part of the series on
Cooperatives
Types of Co-operatives

Housing cooperative
Building cooperative
Retailers' cooperative
Utility cooperative
Worker cooperative
Social cooperative
Consumers' cooperative
Agricultural cooperative
Credit union
Cooperative banking
Cooperative federation
Cooperative union
Cooperative wholesale society
Mutual insurance For cooperative as used in biochemistry, see cooperative binding. ... Building co-operatives are co-operative housing corporations where individuals or families work together to directly construct their own homes on a co-op basis. ... A retailers cooperative or consumer cooperative is a business entity which employs economies of scale on behalf of its members to get discounts from manufacturers and to pool marketing. ... A utility cooperative is a type of cooperative that is tasked with the delivery of a public utility such as electricity or telecommunications to its members. ... A worker cooperative is a cooperative owned and operated by its worker-owners. There are no outside, or consumer owners, in a workers cooperative - only the workers own shares of the business. ... An Italian social cooperative is a particularly successful form of multi-stakeholder cooperative, of which some 7,000 exist. ... A consumers cooperative is a business owned by its customers for their mutual gain. ... A cooperative (also co-operative or co-op) comprises a legal entity owned and democratically controlled by its members, with no passive shareholders. ... A credit union is a not-for-profit co-operative financial institution that is owned and controlled by its members, through the election of a volunteer Board of Directors elected from the membership itself. ... This article, image, template or category belongs in one or more categories. ... A Co-operative Federation is a Co-operative society in which all members are, in turn, Co-operatives. ... A Co-operative Union is Co-operative Federation (that is, a Co-operative in which all the members are Co-operatives). ... A Co-operative Wholesale Society, or CWS, is a form of Co-operative Federation (that is, a Co-operative in which all the members are Co-operatives), in this case, the members are usually Consumers Co-operatives. ... Mutual insurance is a type of insurance where those protected by the insurance (policyholders) also own the organization. ...

The Rochdale Principles

Voluntary and open membership
Democratic member control
Member economic participation
Autonomy and independence
Education, training, and information
Cooperation among cooperatives
Concern for community
The Rochdale Principles are a set of ideals for the operation of cooperatives. ... The first of the Rochdale Principles states that Co-operative societies must have an open and voluntary membership. ... The second of the Rochdale Principles states that Co-operative societies must have democratic member control. ... Member economic participation is one of the defining features of [[Cooperatives|Co-operative Soceities], and constitutes the third Rochdale Principle in the ICAs Statement on the Co-operative Identity. ... The fourth of the Rochdale Principles states that Co-operative societies must be autonomous and independent. ... The purpose of Co-operative education and Co-operative studies, according to the ICAs Statement on the Co-operative Identity, is that Co-operative societies provide education and training for their members, elected representatives, managers, and employees so they can contribute effectively to the development of their co-operatives. ... A Co-operative Federation is a Co-operative society in which all members are, in turn, Co-operatives. ... The seventh of the Rochdale Principles states that Co-operative societies must have concern for their communities. ...

Political and Economic Theories

Anarchism
Cooperative federalism
Cooperative individualism
Owenism
Third way
Socialism
Socially responsible investing
Social enterprise Co-operative economics is a field of economics, socialist economics, Co-operative studies, and political economy, which is concerned with co-operatives. ... Anarchism is a political philosophy or group of doctrines and attitudes centered on rejection of any form of compulsory government (cf. ... Co-operative Federalism is a school of thought in the field of Co-operative economics. ... Owenism is a term used to represent the Utopian socialist philosophy of Robert Owen, and deriviations thereof. ... The Third Way, or Radical Middle, is a centrist philosophy of governance that embraces a mix of market and interventionist philosophies. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to social control. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Social enterprises are organizations which trade in goods or services, and link that trade to a social mission. ...

Key Theorists

Robert Owen
William King
The Rochdale Pioneers
G.D.H. Cole
Charles Gide
Beatrice Webb
Friedrich Raiffeisen
David Griffiths
Robert Owen (May 14, 1771 – November 17, 1858) was a Welsh socialist and social reformer. ... Dr. William King (1786-1865) was a British physician and philantropist from Brighton. ... The Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers, founded in 1844, is usually considered the first successful co-operative enterprise, forming the basis for the modern co-operative movement. ... George Douglas Howard Cole (September 25, 1889 - January 14, 1959) was an English journalist and economist, closely associated with the development of Fabianism. ... Charles Gide (1847–1932) was a French economist and notable ideologue of the cooperative movement in the first third of the 20th century. ... Beatrice Webb Martha Beatrice Potter Webb (January 2, 1858 - April 30, 1943) (also called Beatrice Webb) was a British socialist, economist and reformer, usually referred to in the same breath as her husband, Sidney Webb. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Raiffeisen (May 3, 1818, Hamm - May 11, 1888, Heddesdorf, currently known as Neuwied, Germany) was a German cooperative leader. ... David Griffiths is a Co-operative economist, who has contributed a number of books and articles on the subject of unemployment,[1] the history of Victorias Co-operative movement,[2] and social care co-operatives[3] amongst other subjects. ...

Organizations

List of cooperatives
List of cooperative federations
International Co-operative Alliance
Co-operative Party List of co-operative enterprises: // Canada Accessible Technologies (Westmount, NS) [1] Baseline Type and Graphics (Vancouver, BC) [2] BeaDazzled Bead Shop (Guelph, ON) [3] The Big Carrot (Toronto, ON) [4] Calgary Alternative Transportation Co-operative [5] Canadian Travel Co-op (Burlington, ON. Regina, SK) CFRO-FM (Vancouver, BC) [6] Circle... This is a list of Co-operative Federations. ... The International Co-operative Alliance (ICA) is a non-governmental association representing co-operatives and the co-operative movement worldwide. ... This article is about the British political party. ...

·  v  d  e 

A housing co-operative is a legal entity, usually a corporation, that owns real estate, one or more residential buildings. Each shareholder in the legal entity is granted the right to occupy one housing unit, sometimes subject to an Occupancy Agreement, which is similar to a lease. The Occupancy agreement specifies the co-op's rules. For cooperative as used in biochemistry, see cooperative binding. ... Corporate redirects here. ... Real estate is a legal term that encompasses land along with anything permanently affixed to the land, such as buildings. ...

Contents

Legal status

As a legal entity, a co-op can contract with other companies or hire individuals to provide it with services, such as a maintenance contractor or a building manager. It can also hire employees, such as a manager or a caretaker, to deal with specific things that volunteers may prefer not to do or may not be good at doing, such as electrical maintenance. However, as many housing cooperatives strive to run self-sufficiently (and recognize the economical efficiency of doing so), as much work as possible is completed by its members.


A shareholder in a co-op does not own real estate, but a share of the legal entity that does own real estate. Co-operative ownership is quite distinct from condominiums where people "own" individual units and have little say in who moves into the other units. Because of this, most jurisdictions have developed separate legislation, similar to laws that regulate companies, to regulate how co-ops are operated and the rights and obligations of shareholders. This article refers to a form of housing. ...


Ownership

Each resident or resident household has membership in the co-operative association. Members have occupancy rights to a specific suite within the housing co-operative as outlined in their "occupancy agreement", or "proprietary lease" which is essentially a lease.


In some cases, the co-op follows Rochdale rules where each shareholder has only one vote. Most cooperatives are incorporated as limited stock companies where the number of votes an owner has is tied to the number of shares owned by the person. Whichever form of voting is employed it is necessary to conduct an election among shareholders to determine who will represent them on the board of directors (if one exists), the governing body of the co-operative. The board of directors is generally responsible for the business decisions including the financial requirements and sustainability of the co-operative. Although politics vary from co-op to co-op and depend largely on the wishes of its members, it is a general rule that a majority vote of the board is necessary to make business decisions. The Rochdale Principles are a set of ideals for the operation of cooperatives. ... A shareholder or stockholder is an individual or company (including a corporation) that legally owns one or more shares of stock in a joint stock company. ... A limited liability company (denoted by L.L.C. or LLC) is a legal form of business company in the United States (and also in United Arab Emirates) offering limited liability to its owners. ...

See also Strata title

Strata Title is a form of ownership devised for multi-level apartment blocks, which have apartments at different levels or strata. Strata title was first introduced in New South Wales, Australia to better cope with apartment blocks. ...

Management

In larger co-ops, members of a co-op typically elect a board of directors from amongst the shareholders at a general meeting, usually the annual general meeting. In smaller co-ops, all members sit on the board. In relation to a company, a director is an officer of the company charged with the conduct and management of its affairs. ... An Annual General Meeting, commonly abbreviated as AGM, also known as the annual meeting, is a meeting that official bodies and associations involving the public are often required by law (In what country?) to hold. ...


The board typically elects its own officers, such as a president, vice-president and so on. Usually, the directors are volunteers, or are paid an honorarium. The board may then establish standing committees from among the shareholders, who usually also volunteer their time, to either handle the business affairs of the co-op or make recommendations to the full board on such issues as its finance, membership and maintenance of its housing units. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Love gift Man presents a cut of meat to a youth with a hoop. ...


Finance

A housing co-op is normally de facto non-profit, since usually most of its income comes from the rents paid by its residents, who are invariably its members. There is no point in creating a deliberate surplus—except for operational requirements such as setting aside funds for replacement of assets—since that simply means that the rents paid by members are set higher than the expenses. (Note, however, that it's quite possible for a housing co-op to own other revenue-generating assets, such as a subsidiary business which could produce surplus income to offset the cost of the housing, but in those cases the housing rents are usually reduced to compensate for the additional revenue.) De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... A non-profit organization (often called non-profit org or simply non-profit or not-for-profit) can be seen as an organization that doesnt have a goal to make a profit. ...


It is relatively difficult to start a housing co-op because if the idea is, for instance, to build a building or group of buildings to house the members, this usually takes a significant mortgage loan for which a financial institution will want assurances of responsibility. It may also take a year or more for the members to organize the design and construction, as well as time and foresight to establish even basic organizational policies. It is rare that these kinds of skills of organization are available in a random group of people who often have pressures on their existing housing. It may be somewhat easier to organize a group of closely related housing units. This opportunity may arise, for example, if an existing apartment building's owner is thinking about selling it. Mortgage loan is the generic term for a loan secured by a mortgage on real property; the mortgage refers to the legal security, but the terms are often used interchangeably to refer to the mortgage loan. ...


There are housing co-ops of the rich and famous: John Lennon, for instance, lived in a housing co-operative, and most apartments in New York City that are owned rather than rented are held through a co-operative rather than via a condominium arrangement. John Winston Ono Lennon, MBE (October 9, 1940 – December 8, 1980), (born John Winston Lennon, known as John Ono Lennon) was an iconic English 20th century rock and roll songwriter and singer, best known as the founding member of The Beatles. ... New York, NY redirects here. ... This article refers to a form of housing. ...


There are two main types of housing co-operative financing methods, market rate and limited equity. With market rate, the share price is allowed to rise on the open market and shareholders may sell at whatever price the market will bear when they want to move out. In many ways market rate is thus similar financially to owning a condominium, with the difference being that often the co-op carries a mortgage, resulting in a much higher monthly fee paid to the co-op than would be so in a condominium. The purchase price of a comparable unit in the co-op is typically much lower, however.


With limited equity, the co-op has rules regarding pricing of shares when sold. The idea behind limited equity is to maintain affordable housing. A sub-set of the limited equity model is the no-equity model, which looks very much like renting, with a very low purchase price (comparable to a rental security deposit) and a monthly fee in lieu of rent. When selling, all that is re-couped is that very low purchase price. Affordable housing is a dwelling where the total housing costs are affordable to those living in that housing unit. ...


In the USA

In the United States, housing co-ops are usually categorized as corporations or LLC's and are found in abundance in the Greater New York metropolitan area, and more precisely within New York City itself, Westchester County, New York (which borders the city to the north) and towns in New Jersey that are immediately across the Hudson River from Manhattan, such as Fort Lee, Edgewater, or Weehawken. Unlike in other parts of the world, most of these housing co-ops did not develop as a result of social engineering. Apartment buildings and multiple-family housing simply make up a more significant share of the housing stock in the New York City area than in most other US cities, and the cooperative form of ownership has dominated over the condominium form. Reasons suggested why cooperatives are relatively more common than condominiums in the New York City area are[1]: The New York metropolitan area is the most populous in the United States and the fourth most populous in the world (after Tokyo, Seoul, and Mexico City). ... New York, NY redirects here. ... Westchester County is a suburban county with about 940,000 residents located in the U.S. state of New York. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... Manhattan is a borough of New York City, USA, coterminous with New York County. ... Fort Lee is the name of two places in the United States of America: Fort Lee, New Jersey Fort Lee, Virginia This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Edgewater is the name of some places in the United States of America: Edgewater, Colorado Edgewater, Florida Edgewater, Maryland Edgewater, New Jersey Edgewater is the name of smaller communities in the United States of America: Edgewater, Chicago In Australia: Edgewater, Western Australia The Edgewater Hotel & Casino is located in Laughlin... Weehawken Township is a township located in Hudson County, New Jersey. ...

  1. Inspired by Abraham Kazan, Cooperatives appeared at least as far back as the 1920's while a legal basis for condominium form of ownership was not available in New York State until 1946.1 (Passage of the Condominium Act then opened a wave of construction of condominium buildings.2)
  2. The cooperative form can be advantageous as a building mortgage can be carried by the cooperative corporation, leaving less financing to be obtained by each co-op owner. Under condominium ownership only the separate condo owners provide financing. Particularly when interest rates are high, a conversion sponsor may find unit buyers more easily under the cooperative arrangement as buyers will have less financing to arrange on their own; the apparent purchase price of a unit in a cooperative building holding an underlying mortgage is lower than a condo purchase. Cooperative unit buyers may not accurately weigh their share of the building's mortgage.3
  3. Also, later in a building's life after conversion, major new investments required to repair or replace building systems can be raised by a new central mortgage in a cooperative, while in a condominium funds could only be raised by onerous assessments being required of each individual unit owner.4 However, the New York State's condominium law was amended in 1997 to allow condominium associations to carry building mortgages.5
  4. A co-op building's board can impose restrictions and legally discriminate in their selection of new tenant owners.6

In New York City, another significant factor in the rise of co-op or condominium ownership is strict and complicated rent control laws that have made many landlords want to get out of the rental property market. Abraham E. Kazan Abraham E. Kazan (1889-1971) is considered the father of U.S. cooperative housing[1]. // Abraham Kazan was among the pioneers of the idea of cooperative housing. ... This article refers to a form of housing. ... Rent control refers to laws or ordinances that set price controls on residential housing. ...


Most of the housing cooperatives in the Greater New York area were converted to that status during the 1980s; generally they were large buildings built between the 1920s and 1950s that a single landlord or corporation owned and rented out that were now unprofitable as rental units. To encourage individual ownership of units, the initial buyers buying units from the seller (in this case the owner of the entire building) do not have to be approved by a board. Also, the rental tenants living in the building at the time of the conversion were usually given an option to buy at a discount. Many of these buildings, especially in Manhattan, are actually quite luxurious and exclusive; many celebrities live in them and some famous people are even rejected by the board. In the 1990s and 2000s some rental buildings in the Chicago, Washington, DC, and Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach areas went through a similar conversion process, though not to the degree of New York. NY redirects here. ... Manhattan is a borough of New York City, USA, coterminous with New York County. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in Chicagoland and Illinois Coordinates: Country United States State Illinois County Cook & DuPage Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... This article is about the city in Florida. ... Fort Lauderdale, known as the Venice of America, is a city located in Broward County, Florida. ... West Palm Beach is a city located in Palm Beach County, Florida. ... NY redirects here. ...


Many of the cooperatives originally built as co-ops were sponsored by trade unions, such as the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. One of the largest projects was Cooperative Village in Lower East Side of Manhattan. The United Housing Foundation was set up in 1951 and built the Co-op City in Bronx, and were built by architect Herman Jessor. A trade union or labor union is a continuous association of wage-earners for the purpose of maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment. ... The Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America was a United States labor union known for its support for social unionism and progressive political causes. ... View of Grand Street showing 26 years of cooperative development: Amalgamated Dwellings (1930) in the foreground with two of the Hillman Housing buildings (1947-50) behind it. ... Categories: Manhattan neighborhoods | Stub ... Manhattan is a borough of New York City, USA, coterminous with New York County. ... The United Housing Foundation (UHF) // In 1951, the United Housing Foundation (UHF) was organized to provide broader sponsorship for cooperative housing formalizing the success of Abraham Kazan and his associates. ... 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... Co-Op City as viewed from the east over the Hutchinson River. ... The Bronx is one of the five boroughs of United States. ... Herman J. Jessor (1895-1990) was an American architect who helped build more than 40,000 units of cooperative housing in New York City. ...


Student housing cooperatives

However, multiple person cooperative models exist all over the country. Artist, student and community co-operatives are common in the San Francisco Bay Area, for example. Many of these housing co-operatives are members of organizations such as NASCO. The North American Students of Cooperation (NASCO) is an association of cooperatives in Canada and the U.S., started in 1968. ...


Student-owned and -operated housing co-operatives exist to provide low-cost housing to university students. One of the first was Michigan Socialist House founded in 1932 near the University of Michigan campus in Ann Arbor, Michigan. Examples of such cooperatives exist in Berkeley, California; Irvine, California; Santa Cruz; Chicago, Illinois; Minneapolis, Minnesota; Oberlin, Ohio; East Lansing, Michigan; Stanford; Ann Arbor, Michigan; Austin, Texas; Providence, Rhode Island; Olympia, Washington; Eugene, Oregon; Ithaca, New York; West Lafayette, IN; Worcester, MA; Princeton, New Jersey; and Buffalo,NY. Michigan Cooperative House, founded in 1932 as Michigan Socialist House, is believed to be the oldest independent housing cooperative in North America. ... The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (UM, U of M or U-M) is a coeducational public research university in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... For the railroad company, see Ann Arbor Railroad. ... The University Students Cooperative Association or USCA is a student housing cooperative serving primarily the University of California, Berkeley but open to any student living in or near Berkeley, California. ... The Santa Cruz Student Housing Co-operative (SCSHC) is a 501(c)(3) non-profit that helps to manage two housing co-operatives in Santa Cruz, California. ... Flag Seal Nickname: The Windy City Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location Location in Chicagoland and northern Illinois Coordinates , Government Country State Counties United States Illinois Cook, DuPage Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 606. ... The University of Minnesota Students Coop is one of the oldest student housing co-operatives in the United States. ... Oberlin is a city in Lorain County, Ohio, to the south and west of Cleveland. ... The Leland Stanford Junior University, commonly known as Stanford University (or simply Stanford), is a private university located approximately 37 miles (60 kilometers) southeast of San Francisco and approximately 20 miles northwest of San José in an unincorporated area of Santa Clara County. ... The Inter-Cooperative Council at the University of Michigan (ICC) is a student owned and operated housing cooperative serving students and community members in the Ann Arbor, Michigan area. ... Nickname: Live Music Capital of the World Location in the state of Texas Coordinates: Country United States State Texas Counties Travis County, Williamson County Government  - Mayor Will Wynn Area  - City  296. ... The Brown Association for Cooperative Housing is a non-profit student housing cooperative in Providence, Rhode Island. ... Coordinates: County Thurston County Incorporated January 28, 1859  - Mayor Mark Foutch Area    - City 48. ... Nickname: The Emerald City Motto: The Worlds Greatest City of the Arts & Outdoors Coordinates: Country United States State Oregon County Lane Founded 1846 Incorporated 1862 Government  - Mayor Kitty Piercy Area  - City  40. ... The City of Ithaca (named for the Greek island of Ithaca) sits on the southern shore of Cayuga Lake, in Central New York State. ... West Lafayette is a city located in Tippecanoe County, Indiana. ... Downtown Worcester, with City Hall at the right Worcester is a city in Worcester County in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States of America. ... Dickinson St. ...


In Canada

Housing co-ops in Canada take on many different forms. In Ontario, there are co-ownership, equity and occupant-run co-ops. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


Co-ownership co-ops are generally older apartment buildings, incorporated before the Ontario Condominium Act, 1973 came into existence, where shareholders each own one voting share in the corporation that owns the building and have a registered right to occupy individual units as described on their share certificate. Most of these types of co-ops date from the thirties, forties and fifties and are in the city of Toronto. They are similar to condominiums, in that units may be bought and sold by private sale or on the open market. Until relatively recently, these units tended to be bought by older people with home equity who could buy the unit outright, as it was difficult to get a mortgage against these units. However, a number of Ontario credit unions are now offering limited financing, provided that that individual co-op corporations meet their fiscal standards, making these units affordable housing options for younger buyers. Incoming owners must be approved by the building's Board of Directors, and agree to abide by building bylaws and Occupancy Agreements. A credit union is a co-operative financial institution that is owned, controlled and administered by its members. ...


Equity co-ops are buildings in which individuals purchase a percentage share tied to the square footage of their unit. More credit unions will offer financing against them than against co-ownerships. They are a relatively new form of construction, designed to encourage owner occupancy by having the building's corporation hold back a percentage of the unit's share equity to ensure owner occupancy.


Then there are co-ops that provide all the privileges of ownership except for the right to make (or lose) money on a primary residence and are run by the people who live there.


The federal and provincial governments in Canada developed legislation in the 1970s that aided potential co-ops by providing start-up funding and financing through mortgages via an agency called the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC). The government simultaneously began to encourage the development of resource groups to contract with fledgling boards of directors of housing co-ops to develop co-operatives either in turnkey buildings or buildings designed and constructed by architects and builders with which the board contracted to deliver the service. Supervised by the board, the resource groups marketed the units to suitable members, educated them about their rights and obligations as co-operators, and established a management structure which usually included paid staff. These organizations helped in forming initial policies and holding the organization together while all the necessary work is done. The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, inclusive. ... Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC) is a Canadian government agency. ...


The federal government tied its loan assistance to requirements that these housing co-ops provide a percentage of their units, usually at least 15 to 20 per cent, for what are termed income-tested residents. These people voluntarily provide information to the co-op on a confidential basis about their gross income, and their rent is calculated according to a formula. If the calculated rent is less than the market rent of the units, then the federal government, through another formula, would provide funding to those units to bring their unit revenue up to the market rate. This produced mixed-income co-op housing, in which relatively well-off people lived side-by-side with relatively low-income people and worked with them on committees. This often had the ripple effect of improving the financial health of those less well-off. (It's interesting to note that, depending on your political point of view, such government payments for offsetting the rent could be considered subsidy of the low-income people, or a contractual business arrangement between the government and the co-op which helps to stabilize revenue to the co-op in exchange for accomplishing a social goal for the government for a specific period. This dichotomy is typical of the fact that a housing co-op is somewhere between a corporation and a social agency, and where one places it depends on one's viewpoint -- and the collective viewpoint of each housing co-op.)


Political will dissipated in Canada in the 1990s, however, as other issues occupied politicians and financial belt-tightening by the governments reduced the funds available for the mortgages. In 2004 and 2005, however, the political winds shifted back towards the idea of developing more low-income housing. However, not-for-profit housing co-operatives are committed to the mixed-income concept and have not been able to make much use of the few opportunities that have come available in recent years. The 1990s decade refers to the years from the start of 1990 to the end of 1999. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In Canada, there are associations of housing co-operatives. The major one is the Co-operative Housing Federation of Canada (CHF Canada). Most provinces have similar organizations for their area, but many are stand-alone members of the CHF Canada, as opposed to being branches of it. Each such organization charges its member co-operatives a fee based on the number of housing units in the co-op to pay for staff to do its work. This includes lobbying governments, setting up self-help funding and the like. In most jurisdictions there are no organizations for members of housing co-operatives, although there can often arise conflicts between the co-op board and individual members or groups of members.


In Ontario, the eviction of members of a housing co-operative is governed by special rules set out in the Co-operative Corporations Act. The Board of Directors of the co-operative initiates the process by sending the member a notice to appear, requiring her to attend at a Board meeting at which her eviction will be considered. If the Board votes to evict, the member has a right of appeal to the membership as a whole. In order to enforce the eviction, the Board must bring an application to a judge of the Superior Court, on which occasion the member has the opportunity to present her case to the judge; the judge considers whether the eviction process was conducted fairly and in accordance with due process, and has a residual discretion to refuse the eviction should the judge consider it fair to do so, notwithstanding the decision of the Board. This process is different from evictions of rental tenants, which proceed in Ontario before a specialized tribunal. The standard of deference that judges should show to the decisions of Boards is a controversial and unresolved issue in the law, with various cases taking seemingly inconsistent positions on the issue.


A co-operative housing project can resemble a traditional apartment building, or it can be the basis of an intentional community. An intentional community is a planned residential community designed to promote a much higher degree of social interaction than other communities. ...


"Building co-operatives" ("self-build housing co-operatives" in British parlance, which distinguishes them from worker co-operatives in the building trade) are formed by members who cooperate to build their homes but own their houses on completion. Building co-ops were extremely popular across Canada from the 1930s to the 1960s. This article needs cleanup. ...


In the UK

There are several hundred housing co-operatives in Britain, and most are "par value" rental co-operatives, meaning that the tenants have no equity share in their house or flat. They may or may not be "fully mutual" meaning that all tenants are members and vice versa. They are normally incorporated as industrial and provident societies. While many housing co-operatives occupy permanent accommodation, there has also been a significant sector of "short life" housing co-operatives, especially in London where rents are high. These are formed to alleviate homelessness by making use of empty housing while it is waiting for redevelopment - akin to a form of legalised squatting. Mutual describes a form of business enterprise which is owned by those who do business with it. ... An Industrial and Provident Society (IPS) is a legal entity for a trading business in the United Kingdom. ... The Chien Rouge in Lausanne, a squat held in the old hospital. ...


A registering body and support network for housing co-ops, workers co-ops, social centres and land co-ops is Radical Routes. Radical Routes also produce a booklet called 'How to set up a housing co-op' which is free to download from their website or can by purchased by mail order. Radical Routes is a United Kingdom based co-operative of co-operatives. ...


A representative body for Britain's housing co-operatives is the Confederation of Co-operative Housing (CCH).


The government grant aids some housing co-operatives via its social housing agency the Housing Corporation. The Housing Corporation is the Non-departmental public body that funds and regulates housing associations in England. ...


Secondary housing co-operatives - co-operatives of co-operatives - may be formed to help with the legal procedures of buying and renovating property.


In Finland

In Finland co-op membership is the prime form of real estate and home ownership.


Except for a very limited number of co-ops that follow the strict Rochdale Principles of one vote, all Finnish co-ops are incorporated as (non-profit) limited-liability companies (asunto-osakeyhtiö). The Rochdale Principles are a set of ideals for the operation of cooperatives. ... The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view. ... Osakeyhtiö, directly translated as share corporation, is the Finnish equivalent of Limited company (Ltd or LLC) or Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung (GmbH). ...


Membership of a co-op is obtained by buying the shares on the open market, most often through a real estate agent. No board approval is needed to buy shares. In some older co-operatives old members have the right of pre-emption, i.e. the right to buy the shares at the set market price.


Neither is there any requirement for members to live in the co-operative. Owning of apartments for rent is a common form of saving and private investment.


The first housing cooperatives were built around 1900, many of them in the Helsinki neighborhood of Katajanokka, in the national romantic Jugend style. Initially many co-ops were set up by the future members themselves, often workers or artisans in the same trade. By the 1920s co-op founding was the business of professional real estate developers. After WW II nationwide non-profit developer organizations were formed and a system of government provided loans (ARAVA) was introduced. Sale of shares in co-ops with state loans were restricted by limited equity rules for 50 years, the price of the shares was limited by an index. Year 1900 (MCM) was an exceptional common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar, but a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. ... Founded 1550 Country Finland Province Southern Finland Region Uusimaa Sub-region Helsinki Area[1] - Of which land - Rank 185. ... Katajanokka (Skatudden in Swedish) is a district of Helsinki, Finland, with around 4,000 inhabitants in 2005. ... Liberty leading the people, embodying the Romantic view of the French Revolution of 1830; its painter Eugène Delacroix also served as an elected deputy Romantic nationalism (also organic nationalism, identity nationalism) is the form of nationalism in which the state derives its political legitimacy as an organic consequence of... Alfons Mucha, lithographed poster Dancel (1898). ... An artisan is a skilled manual worker. ... The 1920s is a decade sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ... German soldiers at the Battle of Stalingrad World War II was the most extensive and costly armed conflict in the history of the world, involving the great majority of the worlds nations, being fought simultaneously in several major theatres, and costing tens of millions of lives. ...


The Finnish model of the housing co-op was also the basis of the modern U.S. co-ops, as the first cooperative the Finnish Home Building Association in Brooklyn was started in 1918 by Finnish immigrants. [1] [2] 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...


Sweden

Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... Tenant-owners association (Swedish: Bostadsrättsförening) is a legal term used in Nordic countries (Sweden, Finland and Norway) for a type of joint ownership of property in which the whole property is commonly owned by all members by each having an individual stake. The requirement to be a...

Notes and References

  • Note 1: ,Note 3: ,Note 6: "Q and A", by Shawn G. Kennedy, New York Times, May 21, 1986
  • Note 2: "Residential Real Estate; New Financial Option for Condo Boards", by Rachelle Garbarine, New York Times, September 26, 1997
  • Note 4: ,Note 5: "Condo Boards and Loans", by Jay Romano, New York Times, June 1, 1997
  1. ^ University of Connecticut Dept. of Economics Paper on Housing Cooperative History

See also

Affordable housing is a dwelling where the total housing costs are affordable to those living in that housing unit. ... Section 8 is an American sponsored public housing program divided into two programs, tenant-based and project-based. ... A cohousing community is a kind of intentional community composed of private homes with full kitchens, supplemented by extensive common facilities. ... The North American Students of Cooperation (NASCO) is an association of cooperatives in Canada and the U.S., started in 1968. ... An intentional community is a planned residential community designed to promote a much higher degree of social interaction than other communities. ... The University Students Cooperative Association or USCA is a student housing cooperative serving primarily the University of California, Berkeley but open to any student living in or near Berkeley, California. ... Tenant-owners association (Swedish: Bostadsrättsförening) is a legal term used in Nordic countries (Sweden, Finland and Norway) for a type of joint ownership of property in which the whole property is commonly owned by all members by each having an individual stake. The requirement to be a... An Apartment Hotel (also ApartHotel, Apart Hotel and Apart-Hotel) is a type of accommodation, described as a serviced apartment complex that uses a hotel style booking system. It is similar to renting an apartment, but with no fixed contracts and occupants can check-out whenever they wish. ...

External links

  • Co-op Housing (PDF)
  • Guide to Co-operative Housing (Canada)
  • Ontario Co-oporative Association (Canada)
  • Confederation of Co-operative Housing, UK
  • Housing Corporation
  • Communities Directory
  • National Association of Housing Cooperatives (US)
  • Minneapolis, Minnesota
  • UHAB (Urban Homesteading Assistance Board), New York
  • International Co-operative Alliance
  • New York City Co-op Guide
  • Inter Cooperative Council (Ann Arbor, Michigan)
  • Michigan State University Student Housing Cooperative
  • North American Students of Cooperation (NASCO)
  • Radical Routes

  Results from FactBites:
 
Cooperative - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2643 words)
Cooperatives may be generally classified as either consumer or producer cooperatives, depending largely on the mutual interest (see mutual organizations) that their membership shares.
In for-profit cooperatives any surplus may be returned to members by way of a rebate or bonus on their activity with the cooperative, or a dividend on their shareholding in the cooperative.
A housing cooperative is a legal mechanism for ownership of housing where residents either own shares (share capital co-op) reflecting their equity in the co-operative's real estate, or have membership and occupancy rights in a not-for-profit co-operative (non-share capital co-op), and they underwrite their housing through paying subscriptions or rent.
Housing cooperative - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2523 words)
It is relatively difficult to start a housing co-op because if the idea is, for instance, to build a building or group of buildings to house the members, this usually takes a significant mortgage for which a financial institution will want assurances of responsibility.
Most of the housing cooperatives in the Greater New York area were converted to that status during the 1980's; generally they were large buildings built between the 1920's and 1950's that a single landlord or corporation owned and rented out that were now unprofitable as rental units.
The first housing cooperatives were built around 1900, many of them in the Helsinki neighborhood of Katajanokka, in the national romantic Jugend style.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m