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Encyclopedia > House of Saud
Saudi Arabia

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Politics and government of
Saudi Arabia
Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_of_Saudi_Arabia. ... Politics of Saudi Arabia takes place in a framework of an absolute monarchy whereby the King of Saudi Arabia is not only head of state, but also the head of government. ...



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The House of Saud (آل سعود transliteration: Āl Suʿūd) is the royal family of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The modern nation of Saudi Arabia was established in 1932, though the roots and influence for the House of Saud had been planted in the Arabian peninsula several centuries earlier. Prior to the era of the Kingdom's founder, Abdul-Aziz ibn Saud, the family had ruled the Nejd and had conflicted on several occasions with the Ottoman Empire, the Sharifs of Mecca, and the Al Rashid family of Ha'il. The House of Saud has gone through three phases: the First Saudi State, the Second Saudi State, and the modern nation of Saudi Arabia. The King of Saudi Arabia is Saudi Arabias head of state and monarch. ... The Prime Minister of Saudi Arabia is formally the Head of government under the Malik (King), who is the rather absolute Head of State of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. ... U.S. Vice President Dick Cheney walks with newly crowned King Abdullah, former U.S. President George H.W. Bush, and former U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell during a retreat at King Abdullahs Farm in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, August 2005. ... Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques is a title given to the King of Saudi Arabia. ... A Crown Prince or Crown Princess is the heir or heiress apparent to the throne in a royal or imperial monarchy. ... The Prime Minister of Saudi Arabia is formally the Head of government under the Malik (King), who is the rather absolute Head of State of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. ... Crown Prince Sultan bin Abdul Aziz al-Saud (Arabic: ) (born January 5, 1928 in Riyadh) is the Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia, and First Deputy Prime Minister. ... Saudi Arabia has no parliament. ... Dr. Salih Bin Abdullah Bin Hemaid grew up in Buraidah (President of Saudi Majlis e Shura. ... The Basic Law of Saudi Arabia means, that you have to eat chocolate. ... Saudi Arabia is divided into 13 provinces (mintaqat, singular - mintaqah). ... Elections in Saudi Arabia gives information on election and election results in Saudi Arabia. ... // Human rights in Saudi Arabia are generally considered to be minimal to non-existent. ... For religious police in general, see Mutaween. ... The kingdom of Saudi Arabia is an Islamic theocratic monarchy in which Islam is the official religion; the law requires that all Saudi citizens be Muslims. ... Saudi foreign policy objectives are to maintain its security and its paramount position on the Arabian Peninsula, defend general Arab and Islamic interests, promote solidarity among Islamic governments, and maintain cooperative relations with other oil-producing and major oil-consuming countries. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... Due to the fact that the Arabic language has a number of phonemes that have no equivalent in English or other European languages, a number of different transliteration methods have been invented to represent certain Arabic characters, due to various conflicting goals. ... This article is about the monarchy-related concept. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Arabia redirects here. ... Ibn Saud Abdul Aziz bin Abdul Rahman ibn Faisal Al Saud (1880 - November 9, 1953), also known by several abbreviated forms of this name, or simply as Ibn Saud was first monarch of Saudi Arabia. ... Najd (Nejd) is a region in central Saudi Arabia and the location of the nations capital, Riyadh. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... The Sharif of Mecca (الشریف المکة) was the traditional steward of the holy cities of Mecca (Makkah) and Medina (Madinah). ... Al-Rashid was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 1135 to 1136. ... Hail (Arabic: ‎) is an oasis city in Najd in northwestern Saudi Arabia and is the capital of the Hail Province. ... The First Saudi State was established in the year 1744 (1157 H.) when the Wahhabi leader Sheikh Mohammed ibn Abd al Wahhab settled in Diriyah and Prince Mohammed Ibn Saud agreed to support and espouse his cause, with a view to cleansing the Islamic faith from distortions. ... The second state existed before the creation of Saudi Arabia and lasted from 1824 to 1899. ...


The history of the Al Saud has been marked by a desire to unify the Arabian Peninsula and to spread what it promotes as a more purified and simple, though often criticized as less tolerant, view of Islam embodied by Wahhabism which has gained international controversy since the events of 9/11. The House of Saud is also linked with Wahhabism (Saudis deprecate the term, preferring the term Salafi) through the marriage of the son of Muhammad bin Saud with the daughter of Muhammad Abd al Wahhab in 1744. The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... Wahhabism (Arabic: Al-Wahhābīyya الوهابية) or Wahabism is a conservative 18th century reform movement of Sunni Islam founded by Muhammad ibn Abd-al-Wahhab, after whom the movement is named. ... The date that commonly refers to the attacks on United States citizens on September 11, 2001 (see the September 11, 2001 Attacks). ... Wahhabism (Arabic: Al-Wahhābīyya الوهابية) or Wahabism is a conservative 18th century reform movement of Sunni Islam founded by Muhammad ibn Abd-al-Wahhab, after whom the movement is named. ... This article is on the beliefs of the followers of the Salaf. ... Muhammad bin Saud (d. ... Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab (b. ... // Events The third French and Indian War, known as King Georges War, breaks out at Port Royal, Nova Scotia The First Saudi State founded by Mohammed Ibn Saud Prague occupied by Prussian armies Ongoing events War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748) Births January 10 - Thomas Mifflin, fifth President...


Though some have put the family's numbers as high as 25,000,[1] most estimates place their numbers in the region of 7,000,[2] with most power and influence being wielded by the 200 or so descendants of King Abdul Aziz. `Abd al-`Azīz as-Sa`ūd ( 1880 - November 9, 1953) (Arabic:عبدالعزيز آل سعود) was the first monarch of Saudi Arabia. ...


The current head of the Al Saud and ruler of Saudi Arabia is King Abdullah bin Abdul Aziz who announced, on 20 October 2006, the creation of a committee of princes to vote on the viability of kings and the candidature of nominated crown princes - in effect, clarifying and further defining the Al Saud's line of succession process. The committee, to be known as the Bay'ah Council, or Allegiance Commission, would include all the sons and some grandsons of the late King Abdul-Aziz who would vote for one of three princes nominated by the king as Heirs Apparent. In the event that if either the sitting king or the crown prince were deemed unfit to rule, a five-member transitory council, appointed by the Council, would be empowered to run state affairs for a maximum of one week, before naming a successor. The intent is to prevent a situation as was the case with the late King Fahd, who after multiple strokes beginning in 1995, remained on the throne for 10 years, most of them without the faculties to rule. U.S. Vice President Dick Cheney walks with newly crowned King Abdullah, former U.S. President George H.W. Bush, and former U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell during a retreat at King Abdullahs Farm in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, August 2005. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The term prince, from the Latin root princeps, is used for a member of the highest ranks of the aristocracy or the nobility. ... A Crown Prince or Crown Princess is the heir or heiress apparent to the throne in a royal or imperial monarchy. ... The order of succession to the throne of Saudi Arabia is determined by, and within, the House of Saud. ... Ibn Saud Abdul Aziz bin Abdul Rahman ibn Faisal Al Saud (1880 - November 9, 1953), also known by several abbreviated forms of this name, or simply as Ibn Saud was first monarch of Saudi Arabia. ... Contrasting with heir presumptive, an heir apparent is one who cannot be prevented from inheriting by the birth of any other person. ... A Crown Prince or Crown Princess is the heir or heiress apparent to the throne in a royal or imperial monarchy. ... King Fahd of Saudi Arabia King Fahd bin Abdul Aziz (born in Riyadh in 1923) is the king and prime minister of Saudi Arabia and leader of the House of Saud. ...

Contents

Title

Genealogical table of the leaders of the Āl Saud.
Genealogical table of the leaders of the Āl Saud.

The House of Saud take their name from Muhammad ibn Saud ("Muhammad, son of Saud"), the ruler of Diriyah in central Arabia, and the founder of what came to be known as the First Saudi State, who died in 1765. Because Muhammad ibn Saud was commonly known as "Ibn Saud" (son of Saud), the name "Al Saud", came to signify his clan. Today, the surname "Al Saud" is carried by any descendent of Muhammad ibn Saud or his brothers, Farhan (Al Farhan, "sons of Farhan"), Thunayyan, and Mishari. Muhammad bin Saud (d. ... Diriyah (also Ad-Diriyah or Ad-Dariyah) is a town in Saudi Arabia located outside of Riyadh in Ar Riyad Province. ... The First Saudi State was established in the year 1744 (1157 H.) when the Wahhabi leader Sheikh Mohammed ibn Abd al Wahhab settled in Diriyah and Prince Mohammed Ibn Saud agreed to support and espouse his cause, with a view to cleansing the Islamic faith from distortions. ...


History

Origins and early history

The earliest recorded ancestor of the Al Saud was Mani' ibn Rabi'ah al-Muraydi, who, according to the chroniclers of Nejd, settled in Diriyah in 1446-7 with his clan, the Mrudah. Mani had been invited to settle there by a relative named Ibn Dir', who was then the ruler of a set of villages and estates that make up modern-day Riyadh. Mani's clan had been on a soujorn in east Arabia, near al-Qatif, from an unknown point in time. Ibn Dir' handed Mani' two estates called al-Mulaybeed and Ghusayba, which Mani' and his family settled and renamed "al-Diriyah", after their benefactor Ibn Dir'.[3][4] Najd (Nejd) is a region in central Saudi Arabia and the location of the nations capital, Riyadh. ... Diriyah (also Ad-Diriyah or Ad-Dariyah) is a town in Saudi Arabia located outside of Riyadh in Ar Riyad Province. ... Riyadh (Arabic: ar-Riyāḍ) is the capital and largest city of Saudi Arabia. ... Qatif is a coastal oasis located on the western bank of the Persian Gulf and covering large area consisting of many villages and cities like Saihat, Safwa, Tarut Island and many other towns. ...


Genealogically, the Mrudah are regarded as belonging to the ancient Arab tribal confederation of Rabi'a, through the branch of Wa'il. However, there is disagreement as to which branch of Wa'il they belong to. The dominant opinion in their native Nejd is that they are remnants of the now-extinct tribe of Bani Hanifa, who are credited with founding most of Nejd's settlements including Riyadh. The oldest written reference to the Mrudah, a short genealogical manuscript from the 17th century, supports this view. Others, including many members of the Al Saud themselves, however, insist that they are descendants of the large bedouin 'Anizzah confederation of northern Arabia and the Syrian desert. The earliest written reference to this view comes from the Swiss traveler Johann Ludwig Burckhardt, on the authority of Anizzah tribesmen whom he encountered in northwestern Arabia in the early 19th century. Both the 'Anizzah and the Bani Hanifa, however, are branches of the Bani Wa'il of Rabi'ah.[5] For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Rābiʻa al-ʻAdawiyya al-Qaysiyya (Arabic: رابعة العدوية القيسية) or simply Rabiʿa al-Basri (717–801 C.E.) was a female Sufi saint. ... Riyadh (Arabic: ar-Riyāḍ) is the capital and largest city of Saudi Arabia. ... A Bedouin man in Sinai Peninsula Bedouin, (from the Arabic (), pl. ... Anizzah (Arabic: , Anizah, Aniza) are a large Arab tribe with millions of nomadic and settled members across the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq, and the Levant. ... The Syrian Desert (Arabic: ), also known as the Syro-Arabian desert, is a combination of steppe and true desert that is located in parts of the nations of Syria, Jordan, and Iraq. ... Swiss may be: Related to Switzerland: the Swiss Confederation Swiss people Swiss cheese Swiss corporations Switzerland-related topics Named Swiss: Swiss, Missouri Swiss, North Carolina Swiss, West Virginia Swiss, Wisconsin Swiss International Air Lines Swiss Re SWiSS is also used as a disparaging nickname for the Socialist Workers Student Society. ... Johann Ludwig Burckhardt Johann Ludwig (a. ... Rabi`ah (Arabic: ) purported patriarch of one of the two main branches of the so-called North Arabian (Adnanite) tribes, the other branch being known as Mudhar. ...


The Mrudah became rulers of al-Diriyah, which propspered along the banks of Wadi Hanifa and became an important Nejdi settlement. As the clan grew larger, power struggles ensued, with one branch leaving to nearby Dhruma, while another branch (the "Al Watban") left for the town of az-Zubayr in southern Iraq. The Al Migrin ("House of Migrin") then became the ruling family among the Mrudah in Diriyah. After some initial struggles in the early 18th century, Muhammad ibn Saud, of the Al Migrin, became the undisputed amir ("prince", or ruler) of the town and its surrounding estates. In 1744, Muhammad ibn Saud took in a fugitive religious cleric named Muhammad ibn Abdel Wahhab, from nearby al-Uyayna. Ibn Saud agreed to provide political support to Ibn Abd al-Wahhab's project to reform Islamic practice, which Ibn Abd al-Wahhab believed had strayed far from the ideals set by the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his companions. This marked the beginning of the First Saudi State. Later on, Saudi loyalists came to refer to Muhammad ibn Saud and his successors by the title of "Imam", signifying that they saw the emir of Dir'iyyah as the temporal leader of an Islamic state, rather than simply another clan leader or village ruler. Wadi Hanifa (Arabic: ) is a wadi or valley in the Nejd region in central Saudi Arabia. ... Dhruma (Arabic: ) is a small town located some 40 km to the west of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. ... Az Zubayr is a town in Iraq. ... Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab at-Tamimi (1703AD – 1792AD) (Arabic:محمد بن عبد الوهاب التميمى) was an Arab theologian born in Najd, in present-day Saudi Arabia and the most famous scholar of the Wahhabi movement. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( ▶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... In Islam, the Ṣaḥābah (Arabic: ‎ companions) were the companions of Muhammad. ... The First Saudi State was established in the year 1744 (1157 H.) when the Wahhabi leader Sheikh Mohammed ibn Abd al Wahhab settled in Diriyah and Prince Mohammed Ibn Saud agreed to support and espouse his cause, with a view to cleansing the Islamic faith from distortions. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Entrance to the emirs palace in Bukhara. ...


First Saudi Dynasty

Main article: First Saudi State

The period beginning from 1744 is usually referred to by historians as the First Saudi State. This period was marked by conquest of neighboring areas and by religious zeal. At its height, the First Saudi State included most of the territory of modern-day Saudi Arabia, and raids by the Al Saud's allies and followers reached into Yemen, Oman, Syria, and Iraq. Islamic clergy, particularly Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab and his descendents, are believed to have played a significant role in Saudi rule during this period. The Saudis and their allies referred to themselves during this period as the Muwahhidun or Ahl al-Tawhid ("the monotheists"), while others often referred to them as the Wahhabis. The First Saudi State was established in the year 1744 (1157 H.) when the Wahhabi leader Sheikh Mohammed ibn Abd al Wahhab settled in Diriyah and Prince Mohammed Ibn Saud agreed to support and espouse his cause, with a view to cleansing the Islamic faith from distortions. ... The First Saudi State was established in the year 1744 (1157 H.) when the Wahhabi leader Sheikh Mohammed ibn Abd al Wahhab settled in Diriyah and Prince Mohammed Ibn Saud agreed to support and espouse his cause, with a view to cleansing the Islamic faith from distortions. ... Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab (b. ... Wahhabism (sometimes spelled Wahabbism or Wahabism) is a movement of Islam named after Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab (1703–1792). ...


Leadership of the Al Saud during the time of their first state passed from father to son without incident. The first imam, Muhammad ibn Saud, was succeeded by his eldest son Abdul Aziz in 1765. Abdul Aziz was killed in 1803 by an assassin, believed by some to have been a Shi'ite seeking revenge over the sacking of the Shi'ite holy city of Karbala by Saudi loyalists in 1802. Abdul Aziz was in turn succeeded by his son, Saud, under whose rule the Saudi state reached its greatest extent. By the time Saud died in 1814, his son and successor Abdullah had to contend with an Ottoman-Egyptian invasion seeking to retake lost Ottoman territory and destroy the Wahhabi movement. The mainly-Egyptian force succeeded in defeating Abdullah's forces, taking over the Saudi capital of Dir'iyyah in 1818. Abdullah was taken prisoner and was soon beheaded by the Ottomans in Constantinople, putting an end to the First Saudi State. The Egyptians sent many members of the Al Saud clan and other members of the local nobility as prisoners to Egypt and Constantinople, and proceeded to raze the Saudi capital of Dir'iyyah. 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... // Karbala (Arabic: ; BGN: Al-Karbalā’; also spelled Karbala al-Muqaddasah) is a city in Iraq, located about 100 km southwest of Baghdad at 32. ... Year 1802 (MDCCCII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Combatants First Saudi State Ottoman Empire Commanders Saud Al-Kabeer, Abdullah I Tusun Pasha, Mohammed Ali Pasha, Ibrahim Pasha Strength 20,000 50,000 Casualties 11,000 dead, 3,000 wounded, Hanging of Abdullah I, Destruction of Diriyah Unknown Ottoman-Saudi war in 1811-1818 was fought between Egypt under... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Wahhabism (Arabic: Al-WahhābÄ«yya الوهابية) or Wahabism is a conservative 18th century reform movement of Sunni Islam founded by Muhammad ibn Abd-al-Wahhab, after whom the movement is named. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ...


Second Saudi Dynasty

Main article: Second Saudi State

A few years after the fall of Dir'iyyah in 1818, the Saudis were able to re-establish their authority in Nejd, establishing what is now commonly known as the Second Saudi State, with its capital in Riyadh. The second state existed before the creation of Saudi Arabia and lasted from 1824 to 1899. ... Year 1818 (MDCCCXVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Najd (Nejd) is a region in central Saudi Arabia and the location of the nations capital, Riyadh. ... The second state existed before the creation of Saudi Arabia and lasted from 1824 to 1899. ... Riyadh (Arabic: ar-Riyāḍ) is the capital and largest city of Saudi Arabia. ...


Compared to the First Saudi State, the second Saudi period was marked by less territorial expansion (it never reconquered the Hejaz or 'Asir, for example) and less religious zeal, although the Saudi leaders continued to go by the title of imam and still employed Wahhabist religious scholars. The second state was also marked by severe internal conflicts within the Saudi family, eventually leading to the dynasty's downfall. In all but one instance succession occurred by assassination or civil war, the exception being the passage of authority from Faisal ibn Turki to his son Abdallah ibn Faisal ibn Turki. The First Saudi State was established in the year 1744 (1157 H.) when the Wahhabi leader Sheikh Mohammed ibn Abd al Wahhab settled in Diriyah and Prince Mohammed Ibn Saud agreed to support and espouse his cause, with a view to cleansing the Islamic faith from distortions. ... Map with the region outlined in red and the 1923 Kingdom in green “Hedjaz” redirects here. ... Asir(persian language)is a district in south of i. ... Wahhabism (sometimes spelled Wahabbism or Wahabism) is a movement of Islam named after Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab (1703–1792). ...


The first Saudi to attempt to regain power after the fall of Dir'iyyah in 1818 was Mishari ibn Saud, a brother of the last ruler in Dir'iyyah. Mishari was soon captured by the Egyptians and killed. In 1824, Turki ibn 'Abdallah, another Saudi who had managed to evade capture by the Egyptians, was able to expel Egyptian forces and their local allies from Riyadh and its environs. Turki, a grandson of the first Saudi imam Muhammad ibn Saud, is generally regarded as the founder of the second Saudi dynasty and is also the ancestor of the kings of modern-day Saudi Arabia. He made his capital in Riyadh and was able to enlist the services of many relatives who had escaped captivity in Egypt, including his son Faisal. Year 1818 (MDCCCXVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Riyadh (Arabic: ar-Riyāḍ) is the capital and largest city of Saudi Arabia. ... Muhammad bin Saud (d. ...


Turki was assassinated in 1834 by Mishari ibn Abd al-Rahman, a distant cousin. Mishari was soon besieged in Riyadh and later executed by Turki's son, Faisal, who went on to become the most prominent ruler of the Saudis' second reign. Faisal, however, faced a re-invasion of Nejd by the Egyptians four years later. The local population was unwilling to resist, and Faisal was defeated and taken to Egypt as a prisoner for the second time in 1838. Year 1834 (MDCCCXXXIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Riyadh (Arabic: ar-Riyāḍ) is the capital and largest city of Saudi Arabia. ... | Jöns Jakob Berzelius, discoverer of protein 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


The Egyptians installed Khalid ibn Saud as ruler in Riyadh and supported him with Egyptian troops. Khalid was the last surviving brother of the last imam of the First Saudi State, and had spent many years in the Egyptian court. In 1840, however, external conflicts forced the Egyptians to withdraw all their presence in the Arabian Peninsula, leaving Khalid with little support. Seen by most locals as nothing more than an Egyptian governor, Khalid was toppled soon afterwards by Abdullah ibn Thuniyyan, of the collateral Al Thuniyyan branch. Faisal, however, had been released that year, and, aided by the Al Rashid rulers of Ha'il, was able to retake Riyadh and resume his rule. Faisal later appointed his son Abdallah as crown prince, and divided his dominions between his three sons Abdullah, Saud, and Muhammad. 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Arabia redirects here. ... Al-Rashid was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 1135 to 1136. ... Hail (Arabic: ‎) is an oasis city in Najd in northwestern Saudi Arabia and is the capital of the Hail Province. ... A Crown Prince or Crown Princess is the heir or heiress apparent to the throne in a royal or imperial monarchy. ...


Upon Faisal's death in 1865, Abdallah assumed rule in Riyadh but was soon challenged by his brother, Saud ibn Faisal. The two brothers fought a long civil war, in which they traded rule in Riyadh several times. Previously a vassal of the Saudis, Muhammad ibn Abdallah ibn Rashid of Ha'il took the opportunity to intervene in the conflict and increase his own power. Gradually, Ibn Rashid extended his authority over most of Nejd, including the Saudi capital, Riyadh. Ibn Rashid finally expelled the last Saudi leader, Abdul Rahman ibn Faisal, from Nejd after the Battle of Mulayda in 1891. Saud ibn Faisal was the second son of the seventh Imam of the Saudi state, Faisal ibn Turki, who ruled from 1834 to 1838, and 1843 to 1865. ... Hail (Arabic: ‎) is an oasis city in Najd in northwestern Saudi Arabia and is the capital of the Hail Province. ... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Third Saudi Dynasty

Main articles: Unification of Saudi Arabia and Saudi Arabia

After his defeat at Mulayda, Abdul Rahman ibn Faisal went with his family into exile in the deserts of eastern Arabia among the Al Murra bedouins. Soon afterwards, however, Abdul Rahman found refuge in Kuwait as a guest of the Kuwaiti emir, Mubarak Al Sabah. In 1902, Abdul Rahman's son, Abdul Aziz, took on the task of restoring Saudi rule in Riyadh. Supported by a few dozen followers and accompanied by some of his brothers and relatives, Abdul Aziz was able to capture Riyadh's Masmak fort and kill the governor appointed there by Ibn Rashid. Abdul Aziz, reported to have been barely 20 at the time, was immediately proclaimed ruler in Riyadh. As the new leader of the House of Saud, Abdul Aziz became commonly known from that time simply as "Ibn Saud" ("son of Saud"). The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... Bedouin resting at Mount Sinai Bedouin, derived from the Arabic badawi بدوي, a generic name for a desert-dweller, is a term generally applied to Sahara via the Western Desert, Sinai, and Negev to the eastern coast of the Arabian desert. ... Entrance to the emirs palace in Bukhara. ... `Abd al-`AzÄ«z Ä€l Sa`Å«d, King of Saudi Arabia, GCIE ( 1876 – November 9, 1953) (Arabic: عبدالعزيز آل سعود) was the first monarch of Saudi Arabia. ... Riyadh (Arabic: ar-Riyāḍ) is the capital and largest city of Saudi Arabia. ... The Rashidi (Arabic: آل رشيد) were a historic house of the Arabian Peninsula, the most formidable enemies of the House of Saud. ...


Ibn Saud spent the next three decades trying to re-establish his family's rule over as much of the Arabian Peninsula as possible, starting with his native Nejd. His chief rivals were the Al Rashid clan in Ha'il, the Sharifs of Mecca in the Hejaz, and the Ottoman Turks in al-Hasa. Ibn Saud also had to contend, however, with the descendents of his late uncle Saud ibn Faisal (later known as the "Saud al-Kabir" branch of the family), who posed as the rightful heirs to the throne. Though for a time acknowledging the sovereignty of the Ottoman Sultans and even taking the title of pasha, Ibn Saud allied himself to the British, in opposition to the Ottoman-backed Al Rashid. For the period between 1915 and 1927, Ibn Saud's dominions was a protectorate of the British Empire, pursuant to the 1915 Treaty of Darin. Najd (Nejd) is a region in central Saudi Arabia and the location of the nations capital, Riyadh. ... Al-Rashid was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 1135 to 1136. ... Hail (Arabic: ‎) is an oasis city in Najd in northwestern Saudi Arabia and is the capital of the Hail Province. ... The Sharif of Mecca (الشریف المکة) was the traditional steward of the holy cities of Mecca (Makkah) and Medina (Madinah). ... Map with the region outlined in red and the 1923 Kingdom in green “Hedjaz” redirects here. ... The Ottoman Turks were the ethnic subdivision of the Turkish people who dominated the ruling class of the Ottoman Empire. ... Ash Sharqiyah, known as Eastern Province is the largest province of Saudi Arabia, located in the east of the country on the coasts of the Persian Gulf, and has borders with Kuwait, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, Oman, and Yemen. ... Saud ibn Faisal was the second son of the seventh Imam of the Saudi state, Faisal ibn Turki, who ruled from 1834 to 1838, and 1843 to 1865. ... Pasha, pascha or bashaw (Turkish: paşa) was a high rank in the Ottoman Empire political system, typically granted to governors and generals. ... Al-Rashid was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 1135 to 1136. ... For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


By 1932, Ibn Saud had disposed of all his main rivals and consolidated his rule over much of the Arabian Peninsula. He declared himself king of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia that year. Previously, he had gone through several titles, starting with "Sultan of Nejd" ane ending with "King of Hejaz and Nejd and their dependencies." Ibn Saud's father, Abdul Rahman retained the honorary title of "imam." A few years later, in 1937, American surveyors discovered near Dammam what later proved to be Saudi Arabia's vast oil reserves. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a country on the Arabian Peninsula. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Dammam Corniche Dammam (Also Damman or Ad Dammām) is the capital of the Ash Sharqiyah province in Saudi Arabia. ... Petro redirects here. ...


Ibn Saud fathered dozens of sons and daughters by his many wives and concubines. He made sure to marry into many of the noble clans and tribes within his territory, including the chiefs of the Bani Khalid, Ajman, and Shammar tribes, as well as the Al al-Shaikh (descendents of Ibn Abd al-Wahhab). He also arranged for his sons and relatives to enter into similar marriages. He appointed his eldest surviving son, Saud as heir apparent, to be succeeded by the next eldest son, Faisal. The Saudi family became known as the "royal family," and each member, male and female, was accorded the title of amir or amira ("prince" or "princess"), respectively. Banu Khalid (Arabic: بنو خالد) the word Banu in Arabic means the sons of, or of the breed of, and Khalid is a name of one of the most powerful Islamic History warriors, Khalid ibn al-Walid who is said to be the great granfather of the Banu Khalid, there are other... The tribe of Shammar (Arabic: Šammar) is one of the largest tribes of Arabia, with over six million people in the Middle East. ... Saud bin Abdul Aziz (January 12, 1902 - February 23, 1969) was King of Saudi Arabia from 1953 to November 2, 1964. ... Contrasting with heir presumptive, an heir apparent is one who cannot be prevented from inheriting by the birth of any other person. ... Faisal ibn Abdelaziz Al Saud, King of Saudi Arabia (1324-1395 AH) (1903 or 1906—March 25, 1975) (Arabic: فيصل بن عبدالعزيز آل سعود) was King of Saudi Arabia from 1964 to 1975. ...


Ibn Saud died in 1953, but not after having cemented an alliance with the United States in 1945. He is still celebrated officially as the "Founder," and only his direct descendents may take on the title of "his or her Royal Highness." The date of his recapture of Riyadh in 1902 was chosen to mark Saudi Arabia's centennial in 1999 (according to the Islamic lunar calendar). Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... A lunar calendar is a calendar that is based on cycles of the moon phase. ...


Upon Ibn Saud's death, his son Saud assumed the throne without incident, but his lavish spending led to a power struggle between him and the new crown prince, Faisal. In 1964, the royal family forced Saud to abdicate in favor of Faisal, aided by an edict from the country's grand mufti. During this period, some of Ibn Saud's younger sons, led by Talal ibn Abdul Aziz defected to Egypt, calling themselves the "Free Princes" and calling for liberalization and reform, but were later induced to return by Faisal. They were fully-pardoned but were also barred from any future positions in government. A Mufti (Arabic: مفتى ) is an Islamic scholar who is an interpreter or expounder of Islamic law (Sharia), capable of issuing fataawa (plural of fatwa). // Role of a Mufti in governments In theocracies like Saudi Arabia and Iran, and in some countries where the constitution is based on sharia law, such... Talal bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud (Arabic: طلال بن عبد العزيز آل سعود ) (b. ... Free Princes(Arabic: الأمراء الأحرار) is a Saudi liberal-political movement founded on 1958 by Prince Talal bin Abdul Aziz al-Saud (Arabic: طلال بن عبدالعزيز) due to the tensions between King Faisal and King Saud . ...


Faisal was assassinated in 1975 by a nephew, Faisal ibn Musa'ad, who was then promptly executed. Another brother, Khalid assumed the throne. The next prince in line had actually been Muhammad, but Muhammad had relinquished his claim to the throne in favor of Khalid, who was his only full brother. Khalid bin Abdul Aziz (Arabic: خالد بن عبد العزيز ; b. ...


Khalid died of a heart attack in 1982, and was succeeded by Fahad, the eldest of the powerful "Sudairi Seven", so-called because they were all sons of Ibn Saud's wife, Hassa al-Sudairi. Fahad did away with the previous royal title of "his Majesty" and replaced it with the honorific "Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques," in reference to the two Islamic holy sites in Mecca and Medina. King Fahd of Saudi Arabia King Fahd bin Abdul Aziz (born in Riyadh in 1923) is the king and prime minister of Saudi Arabia and leader of the House of Saud. ... The Al Sudairi Clan, better known as the Sudairi Seven (also spelled Sudeiri Seven, Sudayri Seven, and sometimes Sudairy Seven) are seven full brothers, all sons of Ibn Saud and Hussa bint Ahmad Al Sudairi, where the name comes from. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ...


A stroke in 1993 left Fahad largely incapacitated, and the crown prince, Abdallah gradually took over most of the king's responsibilities until Fahad's death in August of 2005. Abdallah was proclaimed king on the day of Fahad's death and promptly appointed his younger brother Sultan ibn Abdul Aziz, the minister of defense and Fahad's "second deputy prime minister," as the new heir apparent. Unlike Fahad, however, Abdallah declined to name a "second deputy," who would presumably be the next crown prince. Instead, Abdallah later announced the formation of a "Council of Allegiance" to select future kings. Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... The Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques King Abdullah bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud (Arabic: , born 1924) is the King of Saudi Arabia. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sultan bin Abdul Aziz al-Saud, Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia (Arabic: ‎) (born 1926 in Riyadh) is the Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia, and First Deputy Prime Minister. ...


Branches

Sons of Abdul Aziz (Ibn Saud, the founder of the modern Saudi state) have been, thus far, the only eligible candidates allowed to serve as King or Crown Prince. As a result of the aging of this pool (there are an estimated 22 surviving sons, the oldest being in their mid 80s and the youngest in their 60s), a decree by the late King Fahd expanded the candidates to include the male progeny of King Abdul Aziz's sons. This decree has expanded the pool to over 150 eligibles, though consensus and competency would limit this number. `Abd al-`Azīz as-Sa`ūd ( 1880 - November 9, 1953) (Arabic:عبدالعزيز آل سعود) was the first monarch of Saudi Arabia. ... `Abd al-`Azīz as-Sa`ūd ( 1880 - November 9, 1953) (Arabic:عبدالعزيز آل سعود) was the first monarch of Saudi Arabia. ...


Sons and grandsons of King Abdul Aziz are referred to in the style "His Royal Highness," differing from the royals belonging to the Cadet line which are given the "His Highness" (HH) honorific. A style of office, or honorific, is a form of address which by tradition or law precedes a reference to a person who holds a title or post, or to the political office itself. ... Royal Highness (abbreviation HRH) is a style (His Royal Highness or Her Royal Highness); plural Royal Highnesses (abbreviation TRH, Their Royal Highnesses). ... In noble families, the title of nobility is usually passed to the first-born son, although more recently it has often passed to the eldest offspring regardless of gender, e. ...


The Cadet line includes the Saud al-Kabir, the Al Jiluwi, the Al Thunayan,and the Al Farhan, all of which are branches of the Al Saud. Many of the Cadet Line royals hold senior government and military positions, or are in business. Intermarriage between branches is a common way of establishing alliances and reinforcing influence. Though members of the Cadet line are not in contention for the throne, there are some with seniority who command respect and often wield tremendous power. The House of Saud ( translit: ) is the royal family of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. ...


Political Power

The Head of the House of Saud is the King of Saudi Arabia who serves as Head of State and monarch of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The King holds almost absolute political power. The King appoints ministers to his cabinet who supervise their respective ministries in his name. The key ministries of Defence, the Interior, and Foreign Affairs are reserved for the Al Saud, as are most of the thirteen regional governorships. Most portfolios, however, such as Finance, Labor, Information, Planning, Petroleum Affairs and Industry, have traditionally been given to commoners, often with junior Al Saud members serving as their deputies. House of Saud family members also hold many of the Kingdom's critical military and governmental departmental posts. Ultimate power in the Kingdom has always rested upon the Al Saud though support from the Ulema, the merchant community, and the population-at-large has been a key to the maintenance of the royal family's political status quo. This is a list of kings of Saudi Arabia: King Abdul Aziz (Ibn Saud) (1902/1932-1953) King Saud, son of King Abdul Aziz (1953-1964) King Faisal, son of King Abdul Aziz (1964-1975) King Khalid, son of King Abdul Aziz (1975-1982) King Fahd, son of King Abdul... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... For other uses, see Monarch (disambiguation). ... The House of Saud ( translit: ) is the royal family of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. ... Ulema (, transliteration: , singular: , transliteration: , scholar) (The people of Islamic Knowledge) refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. ...


Long term political and government appointments, such as those of King Abdullah, who has been Commander of the National Guard since 1963, Crown Prince Sultan, Minister of Defence & Aviation since 1962, Prince Mutaib Minister of Municipal & Rural Affairs since 1975, Prince Nayef who has been the Minister of Interior since 1975, and Prince Salman, who has been Governor of the Riyadh Region since 1962, have perpetuated the creation of fiefdoms where senior princes have, often, though not exclusively, co-mingled their personal wealth with that of their respective domains. They have often appointed their own sons to senior positions within their own fiefdom. Examples of these include Prince Mutaib bin Abdullah as Assistant Commander in the National Guard; Prince Khalid bin Sultan as Assistant Minister of Defence; Prince Mansour bin Mutaib as Assistant Minister for Municipal & Rural Affairs; and Prince Mohammed bin Nayef as Assistant Minister in the Interior Ministry. In cases, where portfolios have notably substantial budgets, appointments of younger, often full, brothers have been necessary, as deputies or vice ministers, ostensibly to share the wealth and the burdens of responsibility, of each fiefdom. Examples of these include Prince Abd-al Rahman who is Vice Minister of Defence & Aviation under Prince Sultan; Prince Badr, Deputy to King Abdullah in the National Guard; Prince Sattam, who is Deputy to Riyadh Governor, Prince Salman; and Prince Ahmed, who holds the Deputy Minister's portfolio in Prince Nayef 's Interior Ministry. Official portrait of Crown Prince Abdullah of Saudi Arabia Abdullah bin Abdulaziz al-Saud (born 1924) is the King of Saudi Arabia. ... The Saudi Arabian National Guard or SANG (aka White Army) is one of five branches or services of the Saudi Arabian Defence Forces/military. ... His Royal Highness Prince Sultan bin Abdul Aziz al Saud (Arabic: صاحب السمو الملكي الأمير سلطان بن عبدالعزيز آل سعود) (born January 5, 1928 in Riyadh) is one of the most powerful members of House of Saud. ... Mutaib bin Abdul Aziz (1931-) is the member of the Saudi Arabias ruling Al Saud family. ... Prince Nayef bin Abdul Aziz is one of the six surviving members of the Sudairi Seven, all sons of Ibn Saud and Hussa bint Ahmad Al Sudairi, making him one of the most powerful members of the ruling family of Saudi Arabia, the House of Saud. ... Prince Salman bin Abdul Aziz (Arabic: سلمان بن عبد العزيز ) is one of the Sudairi Seven, a son of Ibn Saud and Hussa bint Ahmad Al-Sudairi. ... Riyadh (Arabic: ar-Riyāḍ) is the capital and largest city of Saudi Arabia. ... Under the system of feudalism, a fiefdom, fief, feud, feoff, or fee, often consisted of heritable lands or revenue-producing property granted by a liege lord in return for a form of allegiance, originally often to give him the means to fulfill his military duties when called upon. ... Fief depiction in a book of hours Under the system of feudalism, a fiefdom, fief, feud, feoff, or fee, often consisted of inheritable lands or revenue-producing property granted by a liege lord, generally to a vassal, in return for a form of allegiance, originally to give him the means... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Khalid bin Sultan (1949-), eldest son of Saudi Crown Prince Sultan, attended the Royal Military Academy in Sandhurst and the US Armys Command and General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth in Kansas. ... Abd al-Rahman bin Abdul Aziz (* 1931) is Saudi Arabias Vice Minister of Defence & Aviation and a member of the Sudairi Seven faction of the Al Saud. ... His Royal Highness Prince Sultan bin Abdul Aziz al Saud (Arabic: صاحب السمو الملكي الأمير سلطان بن عبدالعزيز آل سعود) (born January 5, 1928 in Riyadh) is one of the most powerful members of House of Saud. ... Badr bin Abdul Aziz (1933-), a member of Saudi Arabias royal family, is Deputy Commander of the Saudi Arabian National Guard (SANG). ... Official portrait of Crown Prince Abdullah of Saudi Arabia Abdullah bin Abdulaziz al-Saud (born 1924) is the King of Saudi Arabia. ... Sattam bin Abdul Aziz(1942-) is a son of Abdul Aziz Ibn Saud, the founder of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. ... Riyadh (Arabic: ar-Riyāḍ) is the capital and largest city of Saudi Arabia. ... Prince Salman bin Abdul Aziz (Arabic: سلمان بن عبد العزيز ) is one of the Sudairi Seven, a son of Ibn Saud and Hussa bint Ahmad Al-Sudairi. ... Ahmed bin Abdul Aziz (born 1940) (Arabic: احمد بن عبد العزيز ) is the youngest brother of the what is commonly referred to as the Sudairi Seven or the Al Fahd faction of Saudi Arabias royal family. ... Prince Nayef bin Abdul Aziz is one of the six surviving members of the Sudairi Seven, all sons of Ibn Saud and Hussa bint Ahmad Al Sudairi, making him one of the most powerful members of the ruling family of Saudi Arabia, the House of Saud. ...


Unlike Western royal families, the Saudi Monarchy has not had a clearly defined order of succession. Historically, upon becoming King, the monarch has designated an heir apparent to the throne who serves as Crown Prince of the Kingdom. Upon the King's death the Crown Prince becomes King, and during the King's incapacitation the Crown Prince, likewise, assumes power as regent. Though other members of the Al Saud hold political positions in the Saudi government, technically it is only the King and Crown Prince who legally constitute the political institutions. A royal family is the extended family of a monarch. ... The order of succession to the throne of Saudi Arabia is determined by, and within, the House of Saud. ... Contrasting with heir presumptive, an heir apparent is one who cannot be prevented from inheriting by the birth of any other person. ... A Crown Prince or Crown Princess is the heir or heiress apparent to the throne in a royal or imperial monarchy. ... Regent, from the Latin, a person selected to administer a state because the ruler is a minor or is not present or debilitated. ...


Succession

Succession to the throne has traditionally been by consensus and, although age remains an influential factor within the family, senior princes have been bypassed, either by their own unwillingness or inability to rule, to build the consensus necessary primarily from within the royal family, but also from the clerical and merchant communities. The Bay'ah Council, whose membership is restricted to the surviving sons and senior grandsons of the late King Abdul-Aziz, ushers in a public face to this well-tried traditional process. The order of succession to the throne of Saudi Arabia is determined by, and within, the House of Saud. ... Abdul Aziz is a common Muslim male name. ...


Though nominally head of the royal family, both Kings Khalid and Fahd respected and often deferred family matters (which often had intricate links to broader government procedures and policies) to their older brother, Muhammad bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud (who had stepped aside from succession) during Mohammed's lifetime. This tradition continues today; neither Princes Bandar bin Abdul Aziz nor Mishaal bin Abdul Aziz (both older than Crown Prince Sultan) hold any official role in government but both are key players in the Kingdom's political hierarchy. Sons of former kings Faisal, Khalid, Fahd, and, to a lesser extent, Saud, including those not in government, also maintain significant political & family influence, and are expected to participate on the Bay'ah Council. In contradiction to widely held opinions, senior princesses also wield significant, albeit private, influence in royal family politics. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The name Fahd (), also transliterated Fahad or Fahed, can refer to: Fahad means either lynx, cheetah or panther. ... Muhammad bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud (1910 - 1988) (Arabic: محمد بن عبد العزيز ال سعود) was a member of the House of Saud and - as son to the Kingdoms founder, King Abdul Aziz Ibn Saud, a brother to all of Saudi Arabias recent kings. ... Bandar bin Abdul Aziz (born 1923) is, after Saudi Arabian King Abdullah, the oldest living son of the late King Abdul Aziz ibn Saud. ... Mishaal ibn Abdulaziz(1923-) is a senior member of the Saudi Royal Family. ... His Royal Highness Prince Sultan bin Abdul Aziz al Saud (Arabic: صاحب السمو الملكي الأمير سلطان بن عبدالعزيز آل سعود) (born January 5, 1928 in Riyadh) is one of the most powerful members of House of Saud. ... Faisal can refer to: Faisal Bin Turki Faisal I of Iraq Faisal II of Iraq Faisal of Saudi Arabia This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The name Fahd (), also transliterated Fahad or Fahed, can refer to: Fahad means either lynx, cheetah or panther. ... The House of Saud refers to the royal family of Saudi Arabia. ...


Wealth

The sharing of family wealth has been a critical component in maintaining the semblance of a united front within the royal family. An essential part of family wealth is the Kingdom in its entirety, which the Al Saud view as a totally owned family asset. Whether through the co-mingling of personal & state funds from lucrative government positions, huge land allocations, direct allotments of crude oil to sell in the open market, segmental controls in the economy, special preferences for the award of major contracts, outright cash handouts, and astronomical monthly allowances, - all billed to the national exchequer - all told, the financial impact may have exceeded 40% of the Kingdom's annual budget during the reign of King Fahd. Over decades of oil revenue-generated expansion, estimates of royal receipts have varied, ranging as low as an unlikely $50 billion and as high as over $1 trillion.[citation needed] Be it what it may, wealth-sharing of this sort has allowed many of the senior princes & princesses to accumulate largely unauditable wealth and, in turn, pay out, in cash or kind, to lesser royals and commoners, and thereby gaining political influence through their own largesse. King Fahd of Saudi Arabia King Fahd bin Abdul Aziz (born in Riyadh in 1923) is the king and prime minister of Saudi Arabia and leader of the House of Saud. ...


During periods of high oil prices as were the late 70s, early 80s, and immediately after the 2003 US invasion of Iraq, national income has outpaced the developmental needs & social obligations of the Saudi government and the effects of royal skimming were diminished. From the mid 80s through the 90s, when international crude oil prices dropped to the teens and below, the subsequent shortfall in income, and the availability of surprisingly limited financial reserves (when compared to such countries as Kuwait and the United Arab Emirates which continued to grow during crude price droughts because of dividends generated from years of prudent investments) may have contributed to growing national discontent with the Al Saud and planted the seeds for the growth of Al-Qaeda sympathizers in the Kingdom. According to well-publicized but unsubstantiated reports, King Abdullah has intentions to reduce the Al Saud share of the budget, an act which may sow discontent within the royal family, but would be popular with the Kingdom's citizenry. Official portrait of Crown Prince Abdullah of Saudi Arabia Abdullah bin Abdulaziz al-Saud (born 1924) is the King of Saudi Arabia. ...


Opposition to the House of Sa'ud

Internal opposition

Due to its authoritarian and theocratic rule, the House of Saud has attracted much criticism during its rule of Saudi Arabia. Its opponents generally refer to the Saudi monarchy as totalitarians or dictators. A dictator is an authoritarian, often totalitarian ruler (e. ...


There have been numerous incidents of demonstrations and other forms of resistance against the House of Saud. These range from the Ikhwan uprising during the reign of Ibn Saud, to numerous coup attempts by the different branches of the Kingdom's military. On November 20, 1979 the Holy Sanctuary in Mecca was violently seized by a group of dissidents. The Seizure was carried out by 500 heavily armed and provisioned Saudi Dissidents, consisting mostly of members of the former Ikhwan tribe of Utayba[6] but also of other peninsular Arabs and a few Egyptians enrolled in Islamic studies at the Islamic University of Medina. Ikhwan on the move The Ikhwan was the Wahhabi religious militia which formed the main military force of the Arabian ruler Ibn Saud and played a key role in establishing him as ruler of most of the Arabian Peninsula, in his new state of Saudi Arabia. ... `Abd al-`Azīz as-Sa`ūd ( 1880 - November 9, 1953) (Arabic:عبدالعزيز آل سعود) was the first monarch of Saudi Arabia. ... The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a country on the Arabian Peninsula. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Masjid al Haram The Masjid al Haram is a mosque in the city of Mecca (or Makkah). It is considered by Muslims to be the holiest place on Earth and is the focal point of the hajj pilgrimage required of all able-bodied Muslims as one of the Five Pillars... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ikhwan on the move The Ikhwan was the Wahhabi religious militia which formed the main military force of the Arabian ruler Ibn Saud and played a key role in establishing him as ruler of most of the Arabian Peninsula, in his new state of Saudi Arabia. ... Utaybah (Arabic: ‎, also spelled Uteibah, Otaybah, and Oteibah) is a large tribe of the Arabian Peninsula. ...


The seizure was led by Juhaiman ibn Muhammad ibn Saif al-Utaybi and Muhammad bin 'Abdallah al-Qahtani who cited the corruption and ostentatiousness of the ruling house of Saud. Utaybi and his group spoke against the socio–technological changes taking place in Saudi Arabia. Utaybi demanded that oil should not be sold to the United States. Utaybi also spoke against the stranglehold on the interpretation and development of Wahhabi Islam placed on it by the Saudi regime in a corrupt alliance with the Ulema of Saudi Arabia.[7] The House of Saud refers to the royal family of Saudi Arabia. ... Wahhabism (sometimes spelled Wahabbism or Wahabism) is a movement of Islam named after Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab (1703–1792). ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a country on the Arabian Peninsula. ... Ulema (, transliteration: , singular: , transliteration: , scholar) (The people of Islamic Knowledge) refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. ...


Utaybi received little mass support outside of small circles of manual workers and students of tribal origin, of the lower classes and foreign labourers (from Egypt, Yemen and Pakistan.) The Saudi Royal family turned to the Ulema who duly issued a fatwa permitting the storming of the holy sanctuary. Saudi forces, aided by French commandos, took two weeks to flush the rebels out of the holy sanctuary; the use of foreign commandos was particularly surprising since, officially, non-Muslims cannot enter the city of Mecca.[8] The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a country on the Arabian Peninsula. ... Ulema (, transliteration: , singular: , transliteration: , scholar) (The people of Islamic Knowledge) refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. ...


Saudi forces with the aid of French Commandos ejected Utaybi’s Group. All surviving males (including Juhaiman ibn Muhammad ibn Saif al-Utaybi) were beheaded publicly in four cities of Saudi Arabia.[9] Decapitation (from Latin, caput, capitis, meaning head), or beheading, is the removal of a living organisms head. ...


International opposition

The Saudi monarchy has been a reliable ally of the United States for over five decades. Since the September 11, 2001 attacks, however, there has been a large anti-Saudi shift in U.S. public opinion, as well as a call to review the relationship. American politicians on both side of the aisle have questioned the relationship; and the US media have raised doubts about the Kingdom's reliability. As the world's largest producer of crude oil, Saudi Arabia has received the brunt of the public's ire, particularly when gasoline prices fluctuate upwards. Lucrative oil and business ventures and contracts that have recently been awarded to non-US firms have also raised the question of whether Saudi Arabia is committed to the United States. A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly...


Opponents of the regime accuse the US government of backing or propping-up "Saudi tyranny," but supporters point out that the House of Saud's consistent reliability to US administrations since Franklin D. Roosevelt's presidency has been key to US influence in the region and amongst Muslim nations, where the Saudis, as hosts of the Holy Cities of Mecca & Medina and a donor of significance, garner respect and influence. Financially, the largest beneficiaries of the Kingdom's hydrocarbon-fueled growth included US corporations, such as Exxon-Mobil, Chevron, Bechtel, Fluor Corp., Raytheon, Northrop Grumman, Boeing, JP Morgan Chase, Citicorp, IBM, Procter & Gamble, Kraft, and General Foods. Opponents of the Saudi regime question whether Saudi Arabia's internal policy, developed on a foundation of the very conservative Wahhabi Islamic tradition, is the root cause for the September 11, 2001 attacks. Supporters argue that political stability in the Kingdom, its moderate international stance, and the subsequent unrestricted flow of crude oil, is an essential component to the international community's continued financial well-being. Internal strife and international doubts aside, supporters argue, the rulers in Riyadh have reliably offered this stability for decades. FDR redirects here. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Exxon-branded gas station in California (actually operated by Valero) Greenpeace protest against Exxon Mobil Exxon Mobil Corporation or ExxonMobil (NYSE: XOM), headquartered in Irving, Texas, is an oil producer and distributor formed on November 30, 1999, by the merger of Exxon and Mobil. ... Chevron Corporation (NYSE: CVX) is one of the worlds largest global energy companies. ... Bechtel Corporation (Bechtel Group) is the largest engineering company in the United States, ranking as the 9th-largest privately owned company in the U.S. With headquarters in San Francisco, Bechtel had 40,000 employees as of 2006 working on projects in nearly 50 countries with $20. ... Fluor Corporation NYSE: FLR, is an international construction and maintenance contractor for petrochemical, infrastructure, and environmental projects. ... Raytheon Company (NYSE: RTN) is a major American defense contractor and industrial corporation with core manufacturing concentrations in defense systems and defense and commercial electronics. ... The Northrop Grumman Corporation (NYSE: NOC) is an aerospace and defense conglomerate that is the result of a 1994 merger between Northrop and Grumman. ... The Boeing Company (NYSE: BA, TYO: 7661) is a major aerospace and defense corporation, originally founded by William Edward Boeing. ... J.P. Morgan Chase & Co. ... Citibank was founded in 1812 as City Bank of New York. ... For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ... Procter & Gamble Co. ... Kraft has more than one meaning: Kraft Foods, the worlds second largest food and beverage company Kraft process, a paper pulp production method Kraft (Mega Man Zero), a video game character Kraft (Catch-22), a character in Joseph Hellers novel Catch-22 Team Kraft, Toyota semi-works Super... General Foods, formerly shorthand for the General Foods Corporation, is now a brand of Kraft Foods. ... Wahhabism (sometimes spelled Wahabbism or Wahabism) is a movement of Islam named after Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab (1703–1792). ...


Heads of the House of Sa'ud

First Saudi state

Muhammad bin Saud (d. ... Abdullah bin Saud succeeded his father Saud bin Abdul Aziz bin Muhammad al Saud in 1814 and ruled until 1818. ...

Second Saudi state

Turki ibn Abdullah (ترکی بن عبدللہ) was the founder of the Second Saudi State and ruled the area of Najd during the period from 1821-1834 following occupation by the Ottoman Empire. ... Faisal bin Turki bin Abdullah al-Saud (Arabic: فيصل بن تركي بن عبد الله آل سعود) (d. ... Saud ibn Faisal was the second son of the seventh Imam of the Saudi state, Faisal ibn Turki, who ruled from 1834 to 1838, and 1843 to 1865. ... Abd al-Rahman ibn Faisal (1850-1928) (Arabic: عبد الرحمن بن فيصل) was the youngest son of Faisal ibn Turki and father of King Abd al Aziz Al Saud, who founded the modern nation of Saudi Arabia. ...

Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

King Abdullah bin Abdul Aziz. (2002 photo)
King Abdullah bin Abdul Aziz. (2002 photo)

Image File history File links Cropped version of http://commons. ... Image File history File links Cropped version of http://commons. ... `Abd al-`Azīz as-Sa`ūd ( 1880 - November 9, 1953) (Arabic:عبدالعزيز آل سعود) was the first monarch of Saudi Arabia. ... Saud bin Abdul Aziz (January 12, 1902 - February 23, 1969) was King of Saudi Arabia from 1953 to November 2, 1964. ... Faisal ibn Abdelaziz Al Saud, King of Saudi Arabia (1324-1395 AH) (1903 or 1906—March 25, 1975) (Arabic: فيصل بن عبدالعزيز آل سعود) was King of Saudi Arabia from 1964 to 1975. ... King Khalid Khalid bin Abdul Aziz (1912 - June 13, 1982) was King of Saudi Arabia from the assassination of King Faisal in 1975 until his own death in 1982. ... King Fahd bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud (Arabic: ‎, 1921 – August 1, 2005) was the king and prime minister of Saudi Arabia and leader of the House of Saud. ... U.S. Vice President Dick Cheney walks with newly crowned King Abdullah, former U.S. President George H.W. Bush, and former U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell during a retreat at King Abdullahs Farm in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, August 2005. ...

Most notable current members

Sons of Abdul Aziz ibn Sa'ud

  • Bandar bin Abdul Aziz (1923-) - Has never held a government post but considered close to King Abdullah. Reputed to be religious, and possibly a recluse.
  • Musa'id bin Abdul Aziz (1923-) - Older son, Khalid, was killed in a shootout with police in the early 1960s while demonstrating against the Kingdom's introduction of television. Younger son, Faisal, was King Faisal's assassin a decade later, for which he was beheaded. Mus'aid is reported to be religious, eccentric and a recluse.
  • Mishaal bin Abdul Aziz (1926-)- Former Minister of Defence. Highly influential and close confidant of King Abdullah, Mishaal is one of the Kingdom's wealthiest royals with extensive interests in real estate and a wide range of business interests.
  • Crown Prince Sultan bin Abdul-Aziz (1926-)
  • Abd al-Rahman bin Abdul Aziz (1931-) - Appointed Vice-Minister of Defence on 1978 replacing younger brother, Turki, who was reportedly unfit for the position. Extremely wealthy with extensive business interests. With full brother, Crown Prince Sultan's impaired health and waning desire for greater power, Abd al-Rahman has reinforced his influence in the royal family, emerging as the preeminent persona in the royal family's Sudairi faction.
  • Mutaib bin Abdul Aziz (1931-) - Long time Minister for Municipal & Rural Affairs, and former Governor of Makkah. His profile and influence have greatly increased due to a lengthy tenure in government and a long standing family alliance with King Abdullah and his only surviving full brother, Mishaal.
  • Talal bin Abdul Aziz (1931-) - Has held the ministerial portfolios for Finance and Communications. Major businessman, special envoy to UNESCO and Chairman of AGFUND. May not be a contender for the throne for his leading role in the Free Princes movement of 1958 which sought government reform. Father of Al-Waleed bin Talal.
  • Badr bin Abdul Aziz (1933-) - Long time Deputy Commander of National Guard. Participated in the Free Princes movement in 1958 and rehabilitated by King Faisal a decade later.
  • Nawwaf bin Abdul Aziz (1933-) - Senior advisor of King Abdullah, former Minister of Finance and, briefly, Director General of the General Intelligence Directorate. Has substantial business holdings.
  • Nayef bin Abdul Aziz (1933-) - Powerful Minister of Interior who may not be as strong a contender for the throne as previously believed. Nayef's inability to muster the necessary consensus to attain the hitherto vacant Second Deputy Prime Minister's position, may portend his diminishing influence and strong objections from other royals.
  • Turki bin Abdul Aziz (1934-) - Businessman after he was forced to resign as Deputy Minister of Defence in 1978.
  • Fawwaz bin Abdul Aziz (1934-) -Participated in the Free Princes movement in 1958 and rehabilitated by King Faisal as Governor of Makkah. Forced to resign by King Khalid following the seizure of the Grand Mosque in Makkah of 1979.
  • Abdulilah bin Abdul Aziz (1935-) - Former Governor of Al Jawf Province. Resigned.
  • Salman bin Abdul Aziz (1936-) - Powerful Governor of Riyadh Region. Is considered a mediator between differing Royal Family factions. Diminishing health and the death of his two oldest sons within a 12 month period has, reportedly, dampened a desire for the throne.
  • Ahmed bin Abdul Aziz (1940-) - Deputy Minister of Interior, with a reputation for 'getting the job done,' since 1975. He has remained in the shadow of brother,Prince Nayef, though Ahmed may be the stronger candidate for succession.
  • Mamdouh bin Abdul Aziz (1940-) - Former Governor of Tabuk region who was removed from the post by King Fahd for insubordination. Later Director of Saudi Center of Strategic Studies.
  • Sattam bin Abdul Aziz (1943-) - Deputy Governor of Riyadh region since 1968.
  • Muqran bin Abdul Aziz (1945-) - Director General of the General Intelligence Directorate. Former Governor for Ha'il & Madinah regions.

Bandar bin Abdul Aziz (born 1923) is, after Saudi Arabian King Abdullah, the oldest living son of the late King Abdul Aziz ibn Saud. ... King Abdullah can refer to: Abdullah bin Abdul Aziz, current king of Saudi Arabia Abdullah II, current king of Jordan Abdullah I, Emir of Transjordan (1921–1946) and King of Transjordan (1946–1949) This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Musaid bin Abdul Aziz al-Saud (1923 - ) is a son of Ibn Saud, the founder of Saudi Arabia. ... Faisal ibn Abdelaziz Al Saud, King of Saudi Arabia (1324-1395 AH) (1903 or 1906—March 25, 1975) (Arabic: فيصل بن عبدالعزيز آل سعود) was King of Saudi Arabia from 1964 to 1975. ... Mishaal ibn Abdulaziz(1923-) is a senior member of the Saudi Royal Family. ... King Abdullah can refer to: Abdullah bin Abdul Aziz, current king of Saudi Arabia Abdullah II, current king of Jordan Abdullah I, Emir of Transjordan (1921–1946) and King of Transjordan (1946–1949) This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Crown Prince Sultan bin Abdul Aziz al-Saud (Arabic: ) (born January 5, 1928 in Riyadh) is the Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia. ... Abd al-Rahman bin Abdul Aziz (* 1931) is Saudi Arabias Vice Minister of Defence & Aviation and a member of the Sudairi Seven faction of the Al Saud. ... His Royal Highness Prince Sultan bin Abdul Aziz al Saud (Arabic: صاحب السمو الملكي الأمير سلطان بن عبدالعزيز آل سعود) (born January 5, 1928 in Riyadh) is one of the most powerful members of House of Saud. ... Among the oldest and most prominent tribal leaders in the Arabian peninsula, the Sudairi were considered nobility until their stature was heightened by intermarriage with the ruling Al Saud family. ... Mutaib bin Abdul Aziz (1931-) is the member of the Saudi Arabias ruling Al Saud family. ... Mecca or Makkah (in full: Makkah al-Mukkaramah; Arabic مكة المكرمة) is revered as the holiest site of Islam, and a pilgrimage to it is required of all Muslims who can afford to go. ... King Abdullah can refer to: Abdullah bin Abdul Aziz, current king of Saudi Arabia Abdullah II, current king of Jordan Abdullah I, Emir of Transjordan (1921–1946) and King of Transjordan (1946–1949) This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Mishaal ibn Abdulaziz(1923-) is a senior member of the Saudi Royal Family. ... Talal bin Abdul Aziz al-Saud (Arabic: طلال بن عبد العزيز آل سعود ) (b. ... Free Princes(Arabic: الأمراء الأحرار) is a Saudi liberal-political movement founded on 1958 by Prince Talal bin Abdul Aziz al-Saud (Arabic: طلال بن عبدالعزيز) due to the tensions between King Faisal and King Saud . ... Prince Al-Walid bin Talal bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud, born 7 March 1955 (Arabic: الوليد بن طلال بن عبد العزيز آل سعود) and commonly known as Prince Al-Walid, is a member of the Saudi Royal Family, and an entrepreneur and international investor. ... Badr bin Abdul Aziz (1933-), a member of Saudi Arabias royal family, is Deputy Commander of the Saudi Arabian National Guard (SANG). ... Free Princes(Arabic: الأمراء الأحرار) is a Saudi liberal-political movement founded on 1958 by Prince Talal bin Abdul Aziz al-Saud (Arabic: طلال بن عبدالعزيز) due to the tensions between King Faisal and King Saud . ... There were numerous monarchs known as King Faisal, including: King Faisal of Saudi Arabia King Faisal I of Iraq King Faisal II of Iraq This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Nawwaf bin Abdul Aziz is a close ally, senior advisor to, and half brother of, Saudi Arabias King Abdullah. ... King Abdullah can refer to: Abdullah bin Abdul Aziz, current king of Saudi Arabia Abdullah II, current king of Jordan Abdullah I, Emir of Transjordan (1921–1946) and King of Transjordan (1946–1949) This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Al Mukhabarat Al Aamah is the agency responsible for gathering intelligence for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. ... Prince Nayef bin Abdul Aziz is one of the six surviving members of the Sudairi Seven, all sons of Ibn Saud and Hussa bint Ahmad Al Sudairi, making him one of the most powerful members of the ruling family of Saudi Arabia, the House of Saud. ... Turki bin Abdul Aziz (* 1934) is a member of the Sudairi faction of the Al Saud and Saudi Arabias former Deputy Minister for Defence & Aviation. ... Fawwaz bin Abdul Aziz (1934-) is a former Governor of Riyadh (1960-1961) who joined the Free Princes movement in in 1962-1964. ... Free Princes(Arabic: الأمراء الأحرار) is a Saudi liberal-political movement founded on 1958 by Prince Talal bin Abdul Aziz al-Saud (Arabic: طلال بن عبدالعزيز) due to the tensions between King Faisal and King Saud . ... There were numerous monarchs known as King Faisal, including: King Faisal of Saudi Arabia King Faisal I of Iraq King Faisal II of Iraq This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Mecca or Makkah (in full: Makkah al-Mukkaramah; Arabic مكة المكرمة) is revered as the holiest site of Islam, and a pilgrimage to it is required of all Muslims who can afford to go. ... King Khalid Khalid bin Abdul Aziz (1912 - June 13, 1982) was King of Saudi Arabia from the assassination of King Faisal in 1975 until his own death in 1982. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Categories: Stub | Provinces of Saudi Arabia ... Prince Salman bin Abdul Aziz (Arabic: سلمان بن عبد العزيز ) is one of the Sudairi Seven, a son of Ibn Saud and Hussa bint Ahmad Al-Sudairi. ... Riyadh (Arabic: ar-Riyāḍ) is the capital and largest city of Saudi Arabia. ... Ahmed bin Abdul Aziz (born 1940) (Arabic: احمد بن عبد العزيز ) is the youngest brother of the what is commonly referred to as the Sudairi Seven or the Al Fahd faction of Saudi Arabias royal family. ... Prince Nayef bin Abdul Aziz (Arabic: الأمير نايف بن عبد العزيز آل سعود) is one of the six surviving members of the Sudairi Seven, all sons of King Ibn Saud and Hussa bint Ahmad Al Sudairi, making him one of the most powerful members of the ruling family of Saudi Arabia, the House of Saud. ... Tabuk (also spelled Tabouk) is the capital city of the Tabuk province in north western Saudi Arabia. ... King Fahd of Saudi Arabia King Fahd bin Abdul Aziz (born in Riyadh in 1923) is the king and prime minister of Saudi Arabia and leader of the House of Saud. ... Sattam bin Abdul Aziz(1942-) is a son of Abdul Aziz Ibn Saud, the founder of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. ... Riyadh (Arabic: ar-Riyāḍ) is the capital and largest city of Saudi Arabia. ... Prince Muqran [Spelling: Muqrin??] bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud (born September 15, 1945, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia) is a member of the House of Saud and the third youngest son of the founder of Saudi Arabia, `Abd al-`AzÄ«z Ä€l Sa`Å«d. ... Al Mukhabarat Al Aamah is the agency responsible for gathering intelligence for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. ... Hail (Arabic: ‎) is an oasis city in Najd in northwestern Saudi Arabia and is the capital of the Hail Province. ... This article is about the Saudi city of Medina. ...

Grandsons of Abdul Aziz ibn Sa'ud

  • Muhammed bin Saud (1934-) - Governor of Baha Province.
  • Abdallah al-Khalid(1935-) - Chairman of the King Khalid Foundation.
  • Mohammed al Faisal (1937-) - Former Deputy minister for Agriculture. Founder and Chairman of DMI Trust and the Faisal Islamic Bank Group, the world's largest Islamic financial organizations; member of the Board of Trustees for the prestigious King Faisal Foundation.
  • Khalid al Faisal (1941-) - poet, Governor of the Makkah Province and Managing Director of the King Faisal Foundation.
  • Saud al Faisal (1941-) - Long serving Foreign Minister and close confidant of King Abdullah. May have stepped aside as a succession candidate due to possibly, debilitating health concerns but is highly respected both inside the kingdom and internationally. Member of the Board of Trustees for the prestigious King Faisal Foundation.
  • Mutaib bin Abdullah (1943-) Competent Assistant Commander of the National Guard.
  • Faisal bin Bandar (1943-)- Governor of Qasim Province.
  • Turki al Faisal (1945-)- Adept Ambassador to Washington D.C. until his surprise resignation on December 12, 2006. Has received intense western media criticism for allegedly mishandling the growth of Al Qaeda during his long tenure as the head of Saudi Arabia's General Intelligence Directorate, where he oversaw Saudi Arabia's official and non official aid to the Mujahideen fighters during the Afghan Civil War. His short tenure as Ambassador to Britain received wide accolades for his professionalism. Member of the Board of Trustees for the King Faisal Foundation.
  • Saud bin Abdul Mohsin (1947-)- Low profiled well regarded Governor of Ha'il Province. Father was late Prince Abdul Mohsin bin Abdul Aziz (1925-1985), much loved and repected Governor of Madinah.
  • Khalid bin Sultan (1949-)- Assistant Minister of Defence. Led Saudi military forces during first Gulf War. Considered both competent and arrogant but accumulation of extensive assets and wealth through his positions in government may hinder political future.
  • Mohammed bin Fahd (1950-)- Competent Governor of the Eastern Province and son of late King Fahd. His vast business interests, much of it acquired from his position, may be a negative factor for future roles.
  • Bandar bin Sultan (1950-)- Long serving Ambassador to US, maintaining close relations with the Bush Family and others across the political spectrum. Reportedly used his position to accumulate great wealth which, in addition to Bandar's lack of in-country popularity, may deter family consensus supporting future roles. King Abdullah, whose support he enjoys, appointed Bandar Secretary-General of the newly created National Security Council in October of 2005.
  • Mohammed bin Nawwaf (1953-) - Saudi Ambassador to London. Gained kudos as competent former Ambassador to Italy. His growing prominence is closely connected to King Abdullah's trust & confidence with his father, Prince Nawwaf.
  • Al-Walid ibn Talal (1955-) - Has gained stature as a world class investor and is consistently ranked among Forbes magazine's wealthiest billionaires. Source of wealth reported to include private investments from other royals.
  • Saud bin Nayef (1956-) - Saudi Ambassador to Spain. Former Deputy Governor of the Eastern Province.
  • Sultan bin Salman (1956-)- Former astronaut and Secretary General of Supreme Commission for Tourism.
  • Mohammed bin Nayef (1959-) - Assistant Minister for Security Affairs in the Interior Ministry. He has taken over many of his father's (Prince Nayef's) duties including the day to day operations against Al Qaeda.
  • Faisal bin Salman (1960-) - Chairman of Saudi Research and Marketing Group, the Middle East's largest vertically integrated publishing group.
  • Abdulaziz bin Fahd (1973-)- Youngest, and reportedly, favorite son of late King Fahd. Minister of State and Cabinet Member though his power & political potential are in decline since his father's death in August 2005 - his finances remain controversial and substantial.

, Coordinates: , Country Province Established 1600 Joined Saudi Arabia 1923 Population (2005)  - Total 533,001   Al Baha Municipality estimate Time zone EAT (UTC+3)  - Summer (DST) EAT (UTC+3) Postal Code Area code(s) +966-7 Website: www. ... Prince Abdallah is the second son of the late King Khalid of Saudi Arabia, who ruled from 1975 until his death in 1982. ... The King Khalid Foundation is a charitable organization established in 2001 by the family of the late King Khalid of Saudi Arabia, who ruled from 1975 until his death in 1982. ... Dar al-Maal al-Islami Trust (The House of Islamic Money in English), founded in 1981, is a leading Islamic financial institution with affiliates four continents and assets under management of over US$3. ... The King Faisal Foundation was established in 1976 by the sons of King Faisal of Saudi Arabia. ... His Royal Highness Prince Khalid Al-Faisal bin Abdul Aziz Al-Saud Prince Khalid Al-Faisal bin Abdul Aziz Al-Saud (* 1941) is the son of His late Majesty King Faisal bin Abdul Aziz and the governor of Makkah Province in western Saudi Arabia, which includes Islams holiest city... Mecca or Makkah (in full: Makkah al-Mukkaramah; Arabic مكة المكرمة) is revered as the holiest site of Islam, and a pilgrimage to it is required of all Muslims who can afford to go. ... The King Faisal Foundation was established in 1976 by the sons of King Faisal of Saudi Arabia. ... His Royal Highness Prince Saud bin Faisal bin Abdul Aziz al-Saud (Arabic: سعود بن فيصل بن عبد العزيز آل سعود ) (born 1940 in Taif ,Saudi Arabia) more commonly referred to as Saud al Faisal, is the Foreign Minister of Saudi Arabia, appointed to the position in 1975 by King Khalid. ... The confidant character is usually someone the lead character confides in and trusts. ... King Abdullah can refer to: Abdullah bin Abdul Aziz, current king of Saudi Arabia Abdullah II, current king of Jordan Abdullah I, Emir of Transjordan (1921–1946) and King of Transjordan (1946–1949) This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... The King Faisal Foundation was established in 1976 by the sons of King Faisal of Saudi Arabia. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Qasim can refer to: Qasím (town) Qasím khan This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Prince Turki bin Faisal al Saud (born February 15, 1945) is the former Saudi Head of Intelligence, Saudi Ambassador to the United Kingdom, Ireland and as of July 2005, the Saudi ambassador to the United States. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of major attacks attributed to al-Qaeda Al-Qaeda (also al-Qaida or al-Qaida or al-Qaidah) (Arabic: ‎ , translation: The Base) is an international alliance of terrorist organizations founded in 1988[4] by Osama bin Laden and other veteran Afghan Arabs after the Soviet War in... Al Mukhabarat Al Aamah is the agency responsible for gathering intelligence for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. ... Mujahideen (Arabic: ‎, , literally strugglers) is a term for Muslims fighting in a war or involved in any other struggle. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The King Faisal Foundation was established in 1976 by the sons of King Faisal of Saudi Arabia. ... Saud bin Abdul Mohsin (1947-) is the eldest son of the late Prince Abdul Mohsin bin Abdul Aziz (1925-1985), the highly regarded former Governor of Madinah. ... Hail (Arabic: ‎) is an oasis city in Najd in northwestern Saudi Arabia and is the capital of the Hail Province. ... This article is about the Saudi city of Medina. ... Khalid bin Sultan (1949-), eldest son of Saudi Crown Prince Sultan, attended the Royal Military Academy in Sandhurst and the US Armys Command and General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth in Kansas. ... Prince Muhammad bin Fahd bin Abdul Aziz al-Saud (born c. ... The East Province (French Province de lEst) occupies the southeastern portion of the Republic of Cameroon. ... King Fahd of Saudi Arabia King Fahd bin Abdul Aziz (born in Riyadh in 1923) is the king and prime minister of Saudi Arabia and leader of the House of Saud. ... Prince Bandar bin Sultan bin Abdul Aziz Al-Saud (Arabic: ‎, born March 2, 1949) is a highly influential Saudi politician and was Saudi ambassador to the United States from 1983 to 2005. ... The Bush family: President George W. Bush, First Lady Laura Bush, former First Lady Barbara Bush, and former President George H. W. Bush sit surrounded by family in the Red Room (White House) on January 6, 2005, together to celebrate the senior couples 60th wedding anniversary. ... King Abdullah can refer to: Abdullah bin Abdul Aziz, current king of Saudi Arabia Abdullah II, current king of Jordan Abdullah I, Emir of Transjordan (1921–1946) and King of Transjordan (1946–1949) This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Mohammed bin Nawwaf bin Abdul Aziz Al-Saud is a member of the Saudi royal family and is currently serving as Saudi Arabias ambassador to the United Kingdom and Ireland. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... King Abdullah can refer to: Abdullah bin Abdul Aziz, current king of Saudi Arabia Abdullah II, current king of Jordan Abdullah I, Emir of Transjordan (1921–1946) and King of Transjordan (1946–1949) This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Nawwaf bin Abdul Aziz is a close ally, senior advisor to, and half brother of, Saudi Arabias King Abdullah. ... For other uses, see Forbes (disambiguation). ... The East Province (French Province de lEst) occupies the southeastern portion of the Republic of Cameroon. ... Sultan bin Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud (Arabic: سلطان بن سلمان بن عبد العزيز آل سعود ) is an officer in the Royal Saudi Air Force and a former astronaut. ... Prince Nayef bin Abdul Aziz (Arabic: الأمير نايف بن عبد العزيز آل سعود) is one of the six surviving members of the Sudairi Seven, all sons of King Ibn Saud and Hussa bint Ahmad Al Sudairi, making him one of the most powerful members of the ruling family of Saudi Arabia, the House of Saud. ... Map of major attacks attributed to al-Qaeda Al-Qaeda (also al-Qaida or al-Qaida or al-Qaidah) (Arabic: ‎ , translation: The Base) is an international alliance of terrorist organizations founded in 1988[4] by Osama bin Laden and other veteran Afghan Arabs after the Soviet War in... Prince Faisal bin Salman bin Abdulaziz (born 1970) is a member of the Saudi Arabia royal family and a media executive. ... King Fahd of Saudi Arabia King Fahd bin Abdul Aziz (born in Riyadh in 1923) is the king and prime minister of Saudi Arabia and leader of the House of Saud. ...

Bibliography

  • The House of Saud by David Holden and Richard Johns. Contains 538 pages, plus bibliography, index, and family history, also sections of Black and White plates.[10]

There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

See also

The Al Sudairi Clan, better known as the Sudairi Seven (also spelled Sudeiri Seven, Sudayri Seven, and sometimes Sudairy Seven) are seven full brothers, all sons of Ibn Saud and Hussa bint Ahmad Al Sudairi, where the name comes from. ... This is a list of kings of Saudi Arabia: King Abdul Aziz (Ibn Saud) (1902/1932-1953) King Saud, son of King Abdul Aziz (1953-1964) King Faisal, son of King Abdul Aziz (1964-1975) King Khalid, son of King Abdul Aziz (1975-1982) King Fahd, son of King Abdul... The Saudi Arabian Royal Guard Regiment is one of the more visible units in the Royal Land Forces. ...

References

  1. ^ english.aljazeera.net. Retrieved on 2007-06-19.
  2. ^ See for example: [1] [2] [3] [4]
  3. ^ Rentz, G. "al- Diriyya (or al-Dariyya)." Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by: P. Bearman , Th. Bianquis , C.E. Bosworth , E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2007. Brill Online. 08 September 2007 [5]
  4. ^ H. St. John Philby, Saudi Arabia, Ernest Benn. Place of Publication: London, 1955. p. 8 (retrieved through questia)
  5. ^ For information on the Al Sauds' genealogy see:
    Hamad al-Jasir, Jamharah (Compendium of the lineages of the Settled Families of Nejd) (Arabic)
    Rentz, G. "al- Diriyya (or al-Dariyya)." Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by: P. Bearman , Th. Bianquis , C.E. Bosworth , E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2007. Brill Online. 08 September 2007 [6]
    C.M. Doughty, Travels in Arabia Deserta, glossary
  6. ^ The Middle East Review of International Affairs State, Islam and 0pposition in Saudi Arabia: The Post Desert-Storm Phase. Retrieved on 2006-12-29
  7. ^ J.A. Kechichican, "Islamic Revivalism and Change in Saudi Arabia: Juhayman al-'Utaybi's 'Letters to the Saudi People'", The Muslim World, Vol.50 (1990) pp. 1-16.
  8. ^ NPR: Did 'Siege of Mecca' Give Birth to Al-Qaida?
  9. ^ Global Security Org; Mecca globalsecurity.org Retrieved on 2006-12-29
  10. ^ Detail taken from The House of Saud, a reprint. First published by Sidgwick and Jackson in 1981 with an ISBN 0 283 98436 8
  • Alexei Vassiliev, The History of Saudi Arabia, London, UK: Al Saqi Books, 1998
  • David Holden & Richard Johns, The House of Saud, Pan, 1982, 0-330-26834-1
  • Madawi Al-Rasheed, A History of Saudi Arabia, Cambridge University Press, 2002, ISBN 0-521-64412-7

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Dr Madawi Al-Rasheed is a Saudi-Arabian-born professor of Social Anthropology at the department of Theology and Religious Studies in Kings College London since 1994. ...

External links

  • A Chronology: The House of Saud |PBS
  • The House of Saud - A View of the Modern Saudi Dynasty: A Royal Family Tree |PBS
  • A PDF file showing the structure of the House from globalsecurity.org (requires Adobe Acrobat)
  • Saudi Royal Family Directory > Family Tree

  Results from FactBites:
 
House of Bush, House of Saud, Craig Unger, ThinkingPeace (4215 words)
For decades, the House of Saud had somehow maintained control of Saudi Arabia and the world's richest oil reserves by performing a seemingly untenable balancing act with two parties who had vowed to destroy each other.
On the one hand, the House of Saud was an Islamic theocracy whose power grew out of the royal family's alliance with Wahhabi fundamentalism, a strident and puritanical Islamic sect that provided a fertile breeding ground for a global network of terrorists urging a violent jihad against the United States.
They had received tips that one of the people in the house was Abu Zubaydah, the 30-year-old chief of operations for al-Qaida who had been head of field operations for the USS Cole bombing and who was a close confidant of Osama bin Laden's.
House of Saud - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (615 words)
The House of Saud (Arabic: آل سعود‎ translit: Al-Sa‘ūd) is the royal family of Saudi Arabia.
The House of Saud is also linked with so-called Wahhabism (Saudis deprecate the term) through the marriage of the son of Muhammad ibn Saud with the daughter of Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab in 1744.
The Head of the House of Saud is the King of Saudi Arabia who serves as Head of State and monarch of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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