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Encyclopedia > House of Lords
The Right Honourable the Lords Spiritual and Temporal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled
Type Upper House
Lord Speaker
Hélène Hayman, Baroness Hayman, PC, (Non-affiliated)
since July 4, 2006
Leader Catherine Ashton, Baroness Ashton of Upholland, (Labour)
since June 27, 2007
Opposition Leader Thomas Galbraith, 2nd Baron Strathclyde, PC, (Conservative)
since December 3, 1998
Members 731
Political groups Labour Party
cross benchers
Conservative Party
Liberal Democrats
Lords Spiritual
United Kingdom Independence Party
Green Party of England and Wales
12 Non-affiliated peers
Last elections December 3, 1998
Meeting place House of Lords Chamber
Palace of Westminster
Westminster
London
United Kingdom
Web site http://www.parliament.uk/lords/index.cfm

The House of Lords is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and is also commonly referred to as "the Lords". The Sovereign, the House of Commons (which is the lower house of Parliament and referred to as "the Commons"), and the Lords together comprise the Parliament. In Parliament the members of the 731 seat House of Lords currently outnumber the members of the 646 seat House of Commons. House of Lords refers to: House of Lords, the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom Irish House of Lords, the upper house of the former Parliament of Ireland Prussian House of Lords, the upper house of the former Parliament of Prussia House of Lords (band), American rock... Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For the demesne in The Keys to the Kingdom series, see The House An upper house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the lower house. ... The Lord Speaker (or Lady Speaker) will be a new position in the British Parliament created once the Constitutional Reform Acts provisions about the Speakership of the House of Lords comes into effect. ... Hélène Valerie Hayman, Baroness Hayman, PC, née Middleweek (born 26 March 1949 in Wolverhampton) is Lord Speaker of the House of Lords in the United Kingdom. ... Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. ... In politics, an independent is a politician who is not affiliated with any political party. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Leader of the House of Lords is a function in the British government that is always held in combination with a formal Cabinet position, most often Lord President of the Council, Lord Privy Seal or Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. ... Catherine Margaret Ashton, Baroness Ashton of Upholland PC (born 20 March 1956) is a Labour member of the House of Lords. ... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The frontbench of Her Majestys Loyal Opposition consists of the Shadow Cabinet and other official spokesmen of the political party currently serving as the Official Opposition. ... Categories: People stubs | 1960 births | Members of the Privy Council | Peers ... Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. ... The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), the largest in terms of public membership, and the oldest political party in the United Kingdom. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... A cross-bencher is a member of the British House of Lords who is not aligned to any particular party. ... The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), the largest in terms of public membership, and the oldest political party in the United Kingdom. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Lords Spiritual of the United Kingdom, also called Spiritual Peers, consist of the 26 clergymen of the established Church of England who serve in the House of Lords along with the Lords Temporal. ... The United Kingdom Independence Party (commonly known as UKIP, pronounced //) is a British political party. ... The Green Party of England and Wales (GPEW) is the principal Green political party in England and Wales. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... “Houses of Parliament” redirects here. ... Westminster is a district within the City of Westminster in London. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For the demesne in The Keys to the Kingdom series, see The House An upper house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the lower house. ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons Michael Martin MP Lord Speaker Hélène Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... This article is about the monarchy of the United Kingdom, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. For information about other Commonwealth realm monarchies, as well as other relevant articles, see... Type Lower House Speaker of the House of Commons Leader of the House of Commons Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Harriet Harman, QC, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader of the House of Commons Theresa May, PC, (Conservative) since December 6, 2005 Members 646 Political groups... A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house. ... Type Lower House Speaker of the House of Commons Leader of the House of Commons Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Harriet Harman, QC, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader of the House of Commons Theresa May, PC, (Conservative) since December 6, 2005 Members 646 Political groups...


The full, formal style of the House of Lords is The Right Honourable the Lords Spiritual and Temporal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled. The formal style of individual members of the House of Lords is The Right Honourable the Lord X (of Y). Lords who are Privy Counsellors place "PC" after their title: all Privy Counsellors are in any case entitled to the epithet The Right Honourable. Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. ... The Right Honourable (abbreviated Rt Hon, The Rt Hon, The Right Hon, Right Hon) is an honorific prefix that is traditionally applied to certain people in the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the Anglophone Caribbean and in other Commonwealth Realms, and elsewhere. ...


On March 7, 2007, the House of Commons voted, in principle, in favour of replacing the Lords with an elected chamber (either 100% elected or 80% elected, 20% appointed). This was another step towards legislation to that end. See Reform of the House of Lords. However, the House of Lords, being the upper legislative chamber, rejected this proposal and voted for an entirely appointed House of Lords. is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The House of Lords Chamber For almost a century, governments in the United Kingdom have attempted to find a way to undertake a comprehensive reform of the House of Lords, which is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ...

Contents

History

Parliament developed from the council that advised the King during medieval times. This royal council came to be composed of ecclesiastics, noblemen, and representatives of the counties (afterwards, representatives of the boroughs as well). The first Parliament is often considered to be the "Model Parliament" (held in 1295), which included archbishops, bishops, abbots, earls, barons, and representatives of the shires and boroughs. The power of Parliament grew slowly, fluctuating as the strength of the monarchy grew or declined. For example, during much of the reign of Edward II (1307–1327), the nobility was supreme, the Crown weak, and the shire and borough representatives entirely powerless. In 1322, the authority of Parliament was for the first time recognised not simply by custom or royal charter, but by an authoritative statute, passed by Parliament itself. Further developments occurred during the reign of Edward II's successor, Edward III. Most importantly, it was during this King's reign that Parliament clearly separated into two distinct chambers: the House of Commons (consisting of the shire and borough representatives) and the House of Lords (consisting of the senior clergy and the nobility). The authority of Parliament continued to grow, and, during the early fifteenth century, both Houses exercised powers to an extent not seen before. The Lords were far more powerful than the Commons because of the great influence of the aristocrats and prelates of the realm. Traditional counties are unofficial, informal and non-administrative divisions of the British Isles which are based on previous administrative divisions. ... Parliamentary boroughs are boroughs that are entitled to representation in a Parliament. ... Events Mongol leader Ghazan Khan is converted to Islam, ending a line of Tantric Buddhist leaders. ... Edward II, (25 April 1284 – 21 September 1327), of Caernarfon, was King of England from 1307 until deposed in January, 1327. ... Events September 27/September 28 - Battle of Ampfing, often called the last battle of knights, in which Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor defeats Frederick I of Austria Births January 11 - Emperor Komyo of Japan (died 1380) Deaths January 3 - King Philip V of France (born 1293) March 16 - Humphrey de... This article is about the King of England. ...


The power of the nobility suffered a decline during the civil wars of the late fifteenth century, known as the Wars of the Roses. Much of the nobility was killed on the battlefield or executed for participation in the war, and many aristocratic estates were lost to the Crown. Moreover, feudalism was dying, and the feudal armies controlled by the barons became obsolete. Hence, the Crown easily re-established its absolute supremacy in the realm. The domination of the Sovereign continued to grow during the reigns of the Tudor monarchs in the 16th century. The Crown was at the height of its power during the reign of Henry VIII (1509-1547). Lancaster York For other uses, see Wars of the Roses (disambiguation). ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ... For other uses, see Tudor (disambiguation). ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... “Henry VIII” redirects here. ...


The House of Lords remained more powerful than the House of Commons, but the Lower House did continue to grow in influence, reaching a zenith in relation to the House of Lords during the middle 17th century. Conflicts between the King and the Parliament (for the most part, the House of Commons) ultimately led to the English Civil War during the 1640s. In 1649, after the defeat and execution of King Charles I, a republic (the Commonwealth of England) was declared, but the nation was effectively under the overall control of Oliver Cromwell. The House of Lords was reduced to a largely powerless body, with Cromwell and his supporters in the Commons dominating the Government. On 19 March 1649, the House of Lords was abolished by an Act of Parliament, which declared that "The Commons of England [find] by too long experience that the House of Lords is useless and dangerous to the people of England." The House of Lords did not assemble again until the Convention Parliament met in 1660 and the monarchy was restored. It returned to its former position as the more powerful chamber of Parliament—a position it would occupy until the 19th century. For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation). ... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scotland and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ... Motto: PAX QUÆRITUR BELLO (English: Peace is sought through war) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Language(s) English Government Republic Lord Protector  - 1649-1658 Oliver Cromwell Legislature Rump Parliament Barebones Parliament History  - Declaration of Commonwealth May 19, 1649  - Declaration of Breda April 4, 1660 Area 130,395... For other uses, see Oliver Cromwell (disambiguation). ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ... The term Convention Parliament has been applied to three different English Parliaments, of 1399, 1660 and 1689. ...

An important vote: the House of Lords voting for the 1911 Parliament Act. From the Drawing by S. Begg

The 19th century was marked by several changes to the House of Lords. The House, once a body of only about 50 members, had been greatly enlarged by the liberality of George III and his successors in creating peerages. The individual influence of a Lord of Parliament was thus diminished. Moreover, the power of the House as a whole experienced a decrease, whilst that of the House of Commons grew. Particularly notable in the development of the Lower House's superiority was the Reform Bill of 1832. The electoral system of the House of Commons was not, at the time, democratic: property qualifications greatly restricted the size of the electorate, and the boundaries of many constituencies had not been changed for centuries. Entire cities such as Manchester were not represented by a single individual in the House of Commons, but the 11 voters of Old Sarum retained their ancient right to elect two Members of Parliament. A small borough was susceptible to bribery, and was often under the control of a patron, whose nominee was guaranteed to win an election. Some aristocrats were patrons of numerous "pocket boroughs", and therefore controlled a considerable part of the membership of the House of Commons. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 480 pixelsFull resolution (1554 × 932 pixel, file size: 169 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 480 pixelsFull resolution (1554 × 932 pixel, file size: 169 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Palace of Westminster, also known as the Houses of Parliament. ... “George III” redirects here. ... This article is about the City of Manchester in England. ... Woodcut of Old Sarum as it was during its height Old Sarum is the site of the earliest settlement of Salisbury, England, with evidence of human habitation as early as 3000 BC. It sits on a hill about two miles (3km) north of modern Salisbury on the west side of... The term rotten borough referred to a parliamentary borough or constituency in Great Britain and Ireland which, due to size and population, was controlled and used by a patron to exercise undue and unrepresentative influence within parliament. ...


When, in 1831, the House of Commons passed a Reform Bill to correct some of these anomalies, the House of Lords rejected the proposal. The popular cause of reform, however, was not abandoned by the ministry, despite a second rejection of the bill in the Lords in 1832. The Prime Minister, Earl Grey, then advised the King to overwhelm the opposition to the bill in the House of Lords by creating about 80 new pro-Reform peers. William IV originally baulked at the proposal, which effectively threatened the opposition of the House of Lords, but at length relented. Before the new peers were created, however, the Lords who opposed the bill admitted defeat, and abstained from the vote, allowing the passage of the bill. The crisis damaged the political influence of the House of Lords, but did not altogether end it. Over the course of the century, however, the power of the Upper House experienced further erosion, and the Commons gradually became the stronger House of Parliament. Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Right Honourable Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey, KG, PC (13 March 1764–17 July 1845), known as Viscount Howick between 1806 and 1807, was a British Whig statesman and Prime Minister. ... William IV (William Henry; 21 August 1765 – 20 June 1837) was King of the United Kingdom and of Hanover from 26 June 1830 until his death. ...

The rejection of the People's Budget, proposed by David Lloyd George (above), precipitated a political crisis in 1909.

The status of the House of Lords returned to the forefront of debate after the election of a Liberal Government in 1906. In 1909, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, David Lloyd George, introduced into the House of Commons the "People's Budget", which proposed a land tax targeting wealthy landowners. The popular measure, however, was defeated in the heavily Conservative House of Lords. Having made the powers of the House of Lords a primary campaign issue, the Liberals were narrowly re-elected in January 1910. Asquith then proposed that the powers of the House of Lords be severely curtailed. After a general election in December 1910, the Asquith Government secured the passage of a bill to curtail the powers of the House of Lords. The Parliament Act 1911 effectively abolished the power of the House of Lords to reject legislation, or to amend in a way unacceptable to the House of Commons: most bills could be delayed for no more than three parliamentary sessions or two calendar years. It was not meant to be a permanent solution; more comprehensive reforms were planned. Neither party, however, pursued the matter with much enthusiasm, and the House of Lords remained primarily hereditary. In 1949, the Parliament Act reduced the delaying power of the House of Lords further to two sessions or one year. David Lloyd George photo from uncopyrited 1920 pamphlet This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... David Lloyd George photo from uncopyrited 1920 pamphlet This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The Peoples Budget was proposed by the Chancellor of the Exchequer David Lloyd George in 1909, and was a key issue of contention between the Liberal government and the House of Lords, ultimately leading to two general elections in 1910 and the enactment of the Parliament Act 1911. ... David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd George of Dwyfor, OM, PC (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman who guided Britain and the British Empire through World War I and the postwar settlement as the Liberal Party Prime Minister, 1916-1922. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the title held by the British Cabinet minister responsible for all economic and financial matters. ... David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd George of Dwyfor, OM, PC (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman who guided Britain and the British Empire through World War I and the postwar settlement as the Liberal Party Prime Minister, 1916-1922. ... Type Lower House Speaker of the House of Commons Leader of the House of Commons Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Harriet Harman, QC, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader of the House of Commons Theresa May, PC, (Conservative) since December 6, 2005 Members 646 Political groups... The Peoples Budget was proposed by the Chancellor of the Exchequer David Lloyd George in 1909, and was a key issue of contention between the Liberal government and the House of Lords, ultimately leading to two general elections in 1910 and the enactment of the Parliament Act 1911. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Passing of the Parliament Bill, 1911, from the drawing by S. Begg The Parliament Acts are two Acts of Parliament of the United Kingdom, passed in 1911 and 1949. ...


In 1958, the predominantly hereditary nature of the House of Lords was changed by the Life Peerages Act 1958, which authorised the creation of life baronies, with no numerical limits. The number of Life Peers then gradually increased, though not at a constant rate. In 1968, the Labour Government of Harold Wilson attempted to reform the House of Lords by introducing a system under which hereditary peers would be allowed to remain in the House and take part in debate, but would be unable to vote. This plan, however, was defeated in the House of Commons by a coalition of traditionalist Conservatives (such as Enoch Powell) and Labour members who advocated the outright abolition of the Upper House (such as Michael Foot). When Michael Foot attained the leadership of the Labour Party, abolition of the House of Lords became a part of the party's agenda; under Neil Kinnock, however, a reformed Upper House was proposed instead. In the meantime, the creation of hereditary peerages (except for members of the Royal Family) has been arrested, with the exception of three creations during the administration of the Conservative Margaret Thatcher in the 1980s. Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Life Peerages Act 1958 established the modern standards for the creation of Life Peers by the monarch of the United Kingdom, and granted them non-hereditary voting status in the House of Lords. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... James Harold Wilson, Baron Wilson of Rievaulx, KG, OBE, FRS, PC (11 March 1916 – 24 May 1995) was one of the most prominent British politicians of the 20th century. ... John Enoch Powell, MBE (June 16, 1912 – February 8, 1998) was a British politician, linguist, writer, academic, soldier and poet. ... Michael Mackintosh Foot (born 23 July 1913) is an English politician and writer. ... Neil Gordon Kinnock, Baron Kinnock, PC (born 28 March 1942) is a British politician. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (née Roberts; born 13 October 1925) served as British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 until 1990, being the first and to date only woman to hold either post. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ...


The Labour Party's return to power in 1997 under Tony Blair finally heralded the reform of the House of Lords. The Labour Government introduced legislation to remove all hereditary peers from the Upper House as the first step in Lords reform. As a part of a compromise, however, it agreed to permit 92 hereditary peers to remain until the reforms were complete. The remainder of the hereditary peers were removed under the House of Lords Act 1999 (see below for its provisions), making the House of Lords predominantly an appointed house. For the band, see 1997 (band). ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency... The House of Lords Act 1999, an Act of Parliament passed by the British Parliament, was a major constitutional enactment as it reformed greatly one of the chambers of Parliament, the House of Lords (see Lords Reform). ...


Since 1999 however, reform has stalled (see Lords Reform). The Wakeham Commission proposed introducing a 20% elected element to the Lords, but this plan was widely criticised. A Joint Committee was established in 2001 to resolve the issue, but it reached no conclusion and instead gave Parliament seven options to choose from (fully appointed, 20% elected, 40% elected, 50% elected, 60% elected, 80%, and fully elected). In a confusing series of votes in February 2003, all of these options were defeated although the 80% elected option fell by just three votes in the Commons. MPs favouring outright abolition voted against all the options. Look up Lords Reform in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The House of Lords Chamber For almost a century, governments in the United Kingdom have attempted to find a way to undertake a comprehensive reform of the House of Lords, which is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... A Joint Committee of the Parliament of the United Kingdom is a Select Committee consisting of members of both the House of Commons and the House of Lords. ...


In 2005 a cross-party group of senior MPs (Ken Clarke, Paul Tyler, Tony Wright, Sir George Young and the late Robin Cook) published a report proposing that 70% of members of the House of Lords should be elected - each member for a single long term - by the single transferable vote system. Most of the remainder were to be appointed by a Commission to ensure a mix of "skills, knowledge and experience". This proposal was also not implemented. A cross-party campaign initiative called "Elect the Lords" was set up to make the case for a predominantly elected Second Chamber in the run up to the 2005 general election. This article is about Kenneth Clarke the politician, not Kenneth Clark the art historian. ... Paul Tyler, Baron Tyler (29 October 1941) is a politician in the United Kingdom. ... Dr. Anthony Wayland Tony Wright (born 11 March 1948) is a politician in the United Kingdom. ... The Right Honourable Sir George Samuel Knatchbull Young, 6th Baronet (born July 16, 1941) is an English politician, and Tory Member of Parliament for Hampshire North West. ... Robert Finlayson Cook (28 February 1946 – 6 August 2005) was a politician in the British Labour Party. ... This STV ballot for the Australian Senate illustrates group voting tickets. ... Elect The Lords is a campaign established in September 2004 by the New Politics Network and Charter88 calling for the UK House of Lords to be replaced by a predominantly elected Second Chamber. ... It has been suggested that Marginal constituencies in the United Kingdom be merged into this article or section. ...


At the 2005 election, the Labour Party proposed further reform of the Lords, but without specific details. The Conservative Party favoured an 80% elected Second Chamber, while the Liberal Democrats called for a fully elected Senate. During 2006, a cross-party committee discussed Lords reform, with the aim of reaching a consensus: its findings were published in early 2007. The seat of Roman Senate in the Roman Forum, Rome A senate is a deliberative body, often the upper house or chamber of a legislature. ... The House of Lords Chamber For almost a century, governments in the United Kingdom have attempted to find a way to undertake a comprehensive reform of the House of Lords, which is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ...


On 7 March 2007, Members of the House of Commons voted ten times on a variety of alternative compositions for the upper chamber. Outright abolition, a wholly appointed house, a 20% elected house, a 40% elected house, a 50% elected house and a 60% elected house were all defeated in turn. Finally the vote for an 80% elected chamber was won by 305 votes to 267, and the vote for a wholly elected chamber was won by an even greater margin: 337 to 224. Significantly this last vote represented an overall majority of MPs, giving it huge political authority. Furthermore, examination of the names of MPs voting at each division shows that, of the 305 who voted for the 80% elected option, 211 went on to vote for the 100% elected option. Given that this vote took place after the vote on 80% – whose result was already known when the vote on 100% took place – this shows a clear preference for a fully elected upper house among those who voted for the only other option that passed. But this was nevertheless only an indicative vote and many political and legislative hurdles remained to be overcome for supporters of an elected second chamber. is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


Lords Spiritual

United Kingdom

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
United Kingdom
Image File history File links Her_Majesty's_Government_Coat_of_Arms. ... The United Kingdom is a unitary state and a democratic constitutional monarchy. ...


Her Majesty's Government
Sovereign (Queen Elizabeth II)

The Crown
The Privy Council
Cabinet
A logo of Her Majestys Government. ... This article is about the monarchy of the United Kingdom, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. For information about other Commonwealth realm monarchies, as well as other relevant articles, see... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... This article refers to the Commonwealths concept of the monarchys legal authority. ... Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Prime Minister (Gordon Brown MP)
Chancellor (Alistair Darling MP)
Foreign Secretary (David Miliband MP)
Home Secretary (Jacqui Smith MP)
Justice Secretary (Jack Straw MP)
Full list of members
Parliament
State Opening of Parliament

House of Lords
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... For others with the same or similar names, see Gordon Brown (disambiguation). ... The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the title held by the British Cabinet minister responsible for all economic and financial matters. ... Alistair Maclean Darling (born November 28, 1953) is a British politician and Chancellor of the Exchequer since June 28, 2007. ... The Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (commonly referred to as Foreign Secretary) is a member of the British Government responsible for relations with foreign countries, heading the Foreign and Commonwealth Office (often called simply the Foreign Office). ... David Wright Miliband (born 15 July 1965) is a British politician who is the current Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs [1] and Member of Parliament for the constituency of South Shields, Tyne and Wear. ... The Secretary of State for the Home Department (the Home Secretary) is the chief United Kingdom government minister responsible for law and order in England and Wales; his or her remit includes policing, the criminal justice system, the prison service, internal security, and matters of citizenship and immigration. ... Jacqueline Jill Smith (born 3 November 1962) is a British politician who has been Home Secretary since 28 June 2007 and is the current Member of Parliament for Redditch, since 1997. ... The Secretary of State for Justice is a United Kingdom cabinet position. ... John Whitaker Straw (born August 3, 1946) is a British Labour Party politician. ... Gordon Brown is currently serving as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons Michael Martin MP Lord Speaker Hélène Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... In the United Kingdom, the State Opening of Parliament is an annual event held usually in October or November that marks the commencement of a session of Parliament. ...

Lord Speaker (Baroness Hayman)

House of Commons
The Lord Speaker (or Lady Speaker) will be a new position in the British Parliament created once the Constitutional Reform Acts provisions about the Speakership of the House of Lords comes into effect. ... Hélène Valerie Hayman, Baroness Hayman, PC, née Middleweek (born 26 March 1949) is a Labour policitian. ... Type Lower House Speaker of the House of Commons Leader of the House of Commons Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Harriet Harman, QC, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader of the House of Commons Theresa May, PC, (Conservative) since December 6, 2005 Members 646 Political groups...

Speaker (Michael Martin MP)
Prime Minister's Questions
Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition
Leader (David Cameron MP)
Shadow Cabinet
Bureaucracy
Government departments

The Civil Service In the United Kingdom, the Speaker of the House of Commons is the presiding officer of the House of Commons, and is seen historically as the First Commoner of the Land. ... Michael John Martin MP (born 3 July 1945) is the current Speaker of the House of Commons in the United Kingdom. ... Prime Ministers Questions (PMQs) (officially Questions to the Prime Minister) is a constitutional convention in the United Kingdom, where every Wednesday when the House of Commons is sitting the Prime Minister spends half an hour answering questions from Members of Parliament (MPs). In Canada, this convention is known as... Her Majestys Loyal Opposition, or the Official Opposition in the United Kingdom is the largest opposition party in the House of Commons. ... The Leader of the Opposition in the United Kingdom is the politician who leads Her Majestys Most Loyal Opposition. ... For the Canadian ice hockey player, see Dave Cameron. ... The Official Loyal Opposition Shadow Cabinet (normally referred to simply as The Shadow Cabinet) is, in British parliamentary practice, a group of members from Her Majestys Loyal Opposition whose job it is to scrutinise their opposite numbers in government and come up with alternative policies. ... Her Majestys Government of the United Kingdom contains a number of Ministers and Secretaries of State. ... Her Majestys Civil Service is the permanent bureaucracy of Crown employees that supports UK Government Ministers. ...

Judiciary
Courts of the United Kingdom
Courts of England and Wales
Courts of Northern Ireland
Courts of Scotland

Constitution
Human rights The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      In the law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ... The United Kingdom does not have a single unified judicial system: England and Wales have one system, Scotland another, and Northern Ireland another. ... Schematic of court system for England and Wales The Courts of England and Wales are the civil and criminal courts responsible for the administration of justice in England and Wales; they are constituted and governed by the Law of England and Wales and are subordinate to the Parliament of the... The United Kingdom does not have a single unified judicial system — England and Wales have one system, Scotland another, and Northern Ireland a third. ... The Courts of Scotland are the civil, criminal and heraldic courts responsible for the administration of justice in Scotland. ... The United Kingdom has a long and established tradition of respect for its citizens human rights. ...

Constituent countries
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Scottish Government
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National Assembly for Wales

Politics of Northern Ireland
Official logo of the Welsh Assembly Government The Welsh Assembly Government (WAG) (Welsh: , LlCC) was firstly an executive body of the National Assembly for Wales, consisting of the First Minister and his Cabinet from 1999 to 2007. ... Type Unicameral Presiding Officer Dafydd Elis-Thomas Members 60 Political groups Labour Plaid Cymru Conservative Liberal Democrats Last elections May 3, 2007 Meeting place Senedd, Cardiff, Wales Web site http://www. ... // Population 1,685,267 Place of birth Northern Ireland: 1,534,268 (91. ...

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Northern Ireland Assembly

Politics of England
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English Regional Assemblies

Reserved matters
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Greater London Authority Regional Assembly is a title which has universally been adopted by the English bodies established as regional chambers under the Regional Development Agencies Act 1998. ... In Scotland reserved matters, also referred to as reserved powers, are those subjects over which power to legislate is retained by Westminster, as explicitly stated in the Scotland Act 1998. ... There is no single system of local government in the United Kingdom. ... The Greater London Authority (GLA) administers the 1579 km² (610 sq. ...

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Main article: Lords Spiritual

Members of the House of Lords who sit by virtue of their ecclesiastical offices are known as Lords Spiritual. Formerly, the Lords Spiritual comprised a majority in the House of Lords, including the Church of England's archbishops, diocesan bishops, abbots, and priors. After 1539, however, only the archbishops and bishops continued to attend, for the Dissolution of the Monasteries suppressed the positions of abbot and prior. In 1642, during the English Civil War, the Lords Spiritual were excluded altogether, but they returned under the Clergy Act 1661. The number of Lords Spiritual was further restricted by the Bishopric of Manchester Act 1847, and by later acts. Now, there can be no more than 26 Lords Spiritual, always including the five most ancient dioceses of the Church: the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Archbishop of York, the Bishop of London, the Bishop of Durham, and the Bishop of Winchester. Membership of the House of Lords also extends to the 21 longest-serving other diocesan bishops of the Church of England. Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... The Lords Spiritual of the United Kingdom, also called Spiritual Peers, consist of the 26 clergymen of the established Church of England who serve in the House of Lords along with the Lords Temporal. ... The Church of England logo since 1998 The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... Abbots coat of arms The word abbot, meaning father, has been used as a Christian clerical title in various, mainly monastic, meanings. ... A priory is an ecclesiastical circumscription run by a prior. ... Events May 30 - In Florida, Hernando de Soto lands at Tampa Bay with 600 soldiers with the goal to find gold. ... For other uses of the term dissolution see Dissolution. ... The Clergy Act 1661 (13 Car. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... Arms of the Archbishop of York The Archbishop of York, Primate of England, is the metropolitan bishop of the Province of York, and is the junior of the two archbishops of the Church of England, after the Archbishop of Canterbury. ... Arms of the Bishop of London The Bishop of London is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of London in the Province of Canterbury. ... The Bishop of Durham is the officer of the Church of England responsible for the diocese of Durham, one of the oldest in the country. ... Arms of the Bishop of Winchester The diocese of Winchester is one of the oldest and most important in England. ...


The Church of Scotland is not represented by any Lords Spiritual; being a Presbyterian institution, it has no archbishops or bishops. The Church of Ireland did obtain representation in the House of Lords after the union of Ireland and Great Britain in 1801. Of the Church of Ireland's ecclesiastics, four (one archbishop and three bishops) were to sit at any one time, with the members rotating at the end of every parliamentary session (which normally lasted approximately one year). The Church of Ireland, however, was disestablished in 1871, and ceased to be represented by Lords Spiritual. The same is true for the Church in Wales which was disestablished in 1920. The current Lords Spiritual, therefore, represent only the Church of England. The Church of Scotland (CofS; Scottish Gaelic: ), known informally by its pre-Union Scots name, The Kirk, is the national church of Scotland. ... Presbyterianism is a tradition shared by a number of Christian denominations which is most prevalent within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity. ... The Church of Ireland (Irish: ) is an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion, operating seamlessly across the border between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. ... Flag of the Church in Wales The Church in Wales (Welsh: Yr Eglwys Yng Nghymru) is a member Church of the Anglican Communion, consisting of six dioceses in Wales. ...


Other ecclesiastics have sat in the House of Lords in recent times: Immanuel Jakobovits, was appointed to the House of Lords with the consent of the Queen, who acted on the advice of Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher while he was Chief Rabbi. In recognition of his work at reconciliation and in the Peace Process, the Archbishop of Armagh (the senior Anglican bishop in Northern Ireland), Lord Eames was appointed to the Lords by John Major. Other clergymen appointed include Reverend Donald Soper, Reverend Timothy Beaumont, and some Scottish clerics. There have been no Roman Catholic clergymen appointed, though it was rumoured that Cardinal Basil Hume was offered a peerage, but refused, and accepted instead the Order of Merit, a personal appointment of the Queen, shortly before his death. Immanuel Jakobovits, Baron Jakobovits, KBE (8 February 1921–31 October 1999) was the Orthodox Judaism Chief Rabbi of Great Britain and the Commonwealth from 1967 to 1991. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (née Roberts; born 13 October 1925) served as British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 until 1990, being the first and to date only woman to hold either post. ... // Chief rabbi is a title given in several countries to the recognised religious leader of that countrys Jewish community. ... The peace process describes efforts by interested parties to effect a lasting solution to long-running conflicts, such as in Northern Ireland (see Belfast Agreement) or the Arab-Israeli conflict. ... The Church of Ireland Archbishop of Armagh is the senior cleric of the Church of Ireland, the oldest and most wide-spread non-roman episcopal denomination in the island of Ireland. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: ) is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... The Most Reverend and Right Honourable Robin Henry Alexander Eames, Baron Eames (born April 27, 1937) is the Church of Ireland Archbishop of Armagh. ... For other persons named John Major, see John Major (disambiguation). ... Donald Oliver Soper (31st January, 1903 - 22nd December, 1998), later known as Lord Soper, was a prominent Methodist minister, socialist and pacifist. ... Categories: People stubs | 1928 births | Green politicians | UK Liberal Party politicians | UK Liberal Democrat politicians | Life peers ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... George Basil Cardinal Hume OSB, OM, MA, STL (March 2, 1923—June 17, 1999) was an English prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. ... The Order of Merit is a British and Commonwealth Order bestowed by the Monarch. ...


In practice, however, although the Free Churches have never been represented as of right in the Lords, some Methodist and other ministers sit as Lords Temporal. Other clerics such as the Chief Rabbi are also often elevated as Lords Temporal; and indeed the heads of various professions and learned societies, and notably the military, academic and legal professions, are customarily considered. The Methodist movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity. ... In the British system of government, Lords Temporal are those members of the House of Lords who are members of that body due to their secular status. ... // Chief rabbi is a title given in several countries to the recognised religious leader of that countrys Jewish community. ... In the British system of government, Lords Temporal are those members of the House of Lords who are members of that body due to their secular status. ...


Lords Temporal

Since the Dissolution of the Monasteries, the Lords Temporal have been the most numerous group in the House of Lords. Unlike the Lords Spiritual, they may be publicly partisan. Publicly non-partisan Lords are called cross-benchers. Originally, the Lords Temporal included several hundred hereditary peers (that is, those whose peerages may be inherited), who ranked variously as dukes, marquesses, earls, viscounts, and barons. Such hereditary dignities can be created by the Crown, in modern times on the advice of the Prime Minister of the day. Reforms enacted in 1999 (see above) caused several hundred hereditary peers to lose their seats in the House of Lords. The House of Lords Act 1999 provides that only 92 individuals may continue to sit in the Upper House by virtue of hereditary peerages. Two hereditary peers remain in the House of Lords because they hold hereditary offices connected with Parliament: the Earl Marshal and the Lord Great Chamberlain. Of the remaining 90 hereditary peers in the House of Lords, 15 are elected by the whole House. Seventy-five hereditary peers are chosen by fellow hereditary in the House of Lords, grouped by party. The number of peers to be chosen by a party reflects the proportion of hereditary peers that belongs to that party (see current composition below). When an elected hereditary peer dies, a by-election is held, with a variant of the Alternative Vote system being used. If the recently deceased hereditary peer was elected by the whole House, then so is his or her replacement; a hereditary peer elected by a specific party is replaced by a vote of elected hereditary peers belonging to that party (whether elected as part of that party group or by the whole house). For other uses of the term dissolution see Dissolution. ... A cross-bencher is a member of the British House of Lords who is not aligned to any particular party. ... This article is about the nobility title. ... This article is about a title of nobility. ... For people, see Earl (given name) and Earl (surname). ... A viscount is a member of the European nobility whose comital title ranks usually, as in the British peerage, above a baron, below an earl (in Britain) or a count (his continental equivalent). ... Baron is a specific title of nobility or a more generic feudal qualification. ... Earl Marshal (alternatively Marschal or Marischal) is an ancient chivalric title used separately in England, Ireland and the United Kingdom. ... The Lord Great Chamberlain of England is the sixth of the Great Officers of State, ranking beneath the Lord Privy Seal and above the Lord High Constable. ... When the single transferable vote voting system is applied to a single-winner election it is sometimes called instant-runoff voting (IRV), as it is much like holding a series of runoff elections in which the lowest polling candidate is eliminated in each round until someone receives majority vote. ...


The Lords Temporal also include the Lords of Appeal in Ordinary, a group of individuals appointed to the House of Lords so that they may exercise its judicial functions. Lords of Appeal in Ordinary, more commonly known as Law Lords, were first appointed under the Appellate Jurisdiction Act 1876. They are selected by the Prime Minister, but are formally appointed by the Sovereign. A Lord of Appeal in Ordinary must retire at the age of 70, or, if his or her term is extended by the government, at the age of 75; after reaching such an age, the Law Lord cannot hear any further legal cases. The number of Lords of Appeal in Ordinary (excluding those who are no longer able to hear cases because of age restrictions) is limited to twelve, but may be changed by statutory instrument. Lords of Appeal in Ordinary traditionally do not participate in political debates, so as to maintain judicial independence. Lords of Appeal in Ordinary hold seats in the House of Lords for life, remaining members even after reaching the retirement age of 70 or 75. Former Lord Chancellors and holders of other high judicial office may also sit as Law Lords under the Appellate Jurisdiction Act, although in practice this right is infrequently exercised. After the coming into force of the Constitutional Reform Act 2005, the Lords of Appeal in Ordinary will become judges of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom and will be barred from sitting or voting until they retire as judges. The House of Lords, in addition to having a legislative function, has a judicial function as a court of last resort within the United Kingdom. ... Statutory Instruments (SIs) are parts of United Kingdom law separate from Acts of Parliament which do not require full Parliamentary approval before becoming law. ...


The largest group of Lords Temporal, and indeed of the whole House, are life peers. Life peers with seats in the House of Lords rank only as barons or baronesses, and are created under the Life Peerages Act 1958. Like all other peers, life peers are created by the Sovereign, who acts on the advice of the Prime Minister. By convention, however, the Prime Minister allows leaders of other parties to select some life peers so as to maintain a political balance in the House of Lords. Moreover, some non-party life peers (the number being determined by the Prime Minister) are nominated by an independent House of Lords Appointments Commission. If an hereditary peer also holds a life peerage, he or she remains a member of the House of Lords without a need for an election. In 2000, the government announced it would set up an Independent Appointments Commission, under Lord Stevenson of Coddenham, to select fifteen so-called "People's Peers" for life peerages. However, when the choices were announced in April 2001, from a list of 3,000 applicants, the choices were treated with criticism in the media, as all were distinguished in their field, and none were "ordinary people" as some had originally hoped. In the United Kingdom, Life Peers are appointed members of the Peerage whose titles may not be inherited (those whose titles are inheritable are known as hereditary peers). ... The Life Peerages Act 1958 established the modern standards for the creation of Life Peers by the monarch of the United Kingdom, and granted them non-hereditary voting status in the House of Lords. ... Henry Dennistoun Stevenson, Baron Stevenson of Coddenham (born 19 July 1945) was created a life peer as Baron Stevenson of Coddenham, of Coddenham in the County of Suffolk in 1999 having previously been awarded a CBE (Commander of the British Empire) in 1981. ...


In many historical instances, some peers were not permitted to sit in the Upper House. When Scotland united with England to form Great Britain in 1707, it was provided that the Scottish hereditary peers would only be able to elect 16 representative peers to sit in the House of Lords; the term of a representative was to extend until the next general election. A similar provision was enacted in respect of Ireland when that kingdom merged with Great Britain in 1801; the Irish peers were allowed to elect 28 representatives, who were to retain office for life. Elections for Irish representatives ended in 1922, when most of Ireland became an independent state; elections for Scottish representatives ended with the passage of the Peerage Act 1963, under which all Scottish peers obtained seats in the Upper House. The Peerage Act 1963 (1963 c. ...


Qualifications

Several different qualifications apply for membership of the House of Lords. No person may sit in the House of Lords if under the age of 21. Furthermore, only Commonwealth citizens and citizens of the Republic of Ireland may sit in the House of Lords. The nationality restrictions were previously more stringent: under the Act of Settlement 1701, and prior to the British Nationality Act 1948, only natural-born subjects were qualified. The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2006 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Don McKinnon (since 1 April 2000) Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... Act of Settlement The Electress Sophia of Hanover The Act of Settlement (12 & 13 Wm 3 c. ...


Additionally, some bankruptcy-related restrictions apply to members of the Upper House. A person may not sit in the House of Lords if he or she is the subject of a Bankruptcy Restrictions Order (applicable in England and Wales only), or if he or she is adjudged bankrupt (in Northern Ireland), or if his or her estate is sequestered (in Scotland). A final restriction bars an individual convicted of high treason from sitting in the House of Lords until completing his or her full term of imprisonment. An exception applies, however, if the individual convicted of high treason receives a full pardon. Note that an individual serving a prison sentence for an offense other than high treason is not automatically disqualified. {{main|Treason}} High treason, broadly defined, is an action which is grossly disloyal to ones country or sovereign. ...


Finally, some qualifications apply only in the case of the Lords of Appeal in Ordinary. No person may be created a Lord of Appeal in Ordinary unless he or she has either held "high judicial office" for two years, or has been a practicing barrister for fifteen years. The term "high judicial office" encompasses membership of the Court of Appeal of England and Wales, of the Inner House of the Court of Session (Scotland), or of the Court of Appeal in Northern Ireland. Women were excluded from the House of Lords until the Life Peerages Act, passed in 1958 to address the declining number of active members, facilitated the creation of peerages for life. Women were immediately eligible and four were among the first life peers appointed. However, hereditary peeresses, whose existence had long been a constitutional anomaly, continued to be excluded until the passage of the Peerage Act 1963. Since the passage of the House of Lords Act 1999, hereditary peeresses remain eligible for election to the Upper House; there are three among the 92 hereditary who continue to sit. All women in the House of Lords are amongst the Lords Temporal; the Church of England does not permit the consecration of female bishops. // Artists impression of an English and Irish barrister A barrister is a lawyer found in many common law jurisdictions which employ a split profession (as opposed to a fused profession) in relation to legal representation. ... Her Majestys Court of Appeal is the second most senior court in the English legal system, with only the Judicial Committee of the House of Lords above it. ... The Court of Session is the supreme civil court in Scotland. ...


Officers

Traditionally the House of Lords did not elect its own speaker, unlike the House of Commons; rather, the ex officio presiding officer was the Lord Chancellor. With the passage of the Constitutional Reform Act 2005, the post of Lord Speaker was created, a position to which a peer is elected by the House and subsequently appointed by The Crown. The first Lord Speaker to be elected, on May 4, 2006, is Baroness Hayman, a former Labour peer. As the Speaker is expected to be an impartial presiding officer, Baroness Hayman has resigned from the Labour Party. The Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, or Lord Chancellor and prior to the Union the Chancellor of England and the Lord Chancellor of Scotland, is a senior and important functionary in the government of the United Kingdom, and its predecessor states. ... The Constitutional Reform Act 2005 (2005 c. ... The Lord Speaker (or Lady Speaker) will be a new position in the British Parliament created once the Constitutional Reform Acts provisions about the Speakership of the House of Lords comes into effect. ... This article refers to the Commonwealths concept of the monarchys legal authority. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hélène Valerie Hayman, Baroness Hayman, PC, née Middleweek (born 26 March 1949) is a Labour policitian. ...


This reform of the post of Lord Chancellor was made due to the perceived constitutional anomalies inherent in the role. The Lord Chancellor was not only the Speaker of the House of Lords, but also a member of the Cabinet; his or her department, formerly the Lord Chancellor's Department, is now called the Department for Constitutional Affairs. In addition, the Lord Chancellor is the head of the judiciary of England and Wales, serving as the president of the Supreme Court of England and Wales. Thus, the Lord Chancellor was part of all three branches of government: the legislative, the executive, and the judicial. The overlap of the legislative and executive roles is a characteristic of the Westminster system, as the entire cabinet consists of members of the House of Commons or the House of Lords; however, in June 2003, the Blair Government announced its intention to abolish the post of Lord Chancellor because of the office's mixed executive and judicial responsibilities. The abolition of the office was rejected by the House of Lords, and the Constitutional Reform Act 2005 was thus amended to preserve the office of Lord Chancellor. The Act no longer guarantees that the office holder of Lord Chancellor is the presiding officer of the House of Lords, and therefore allows the House of Lords to elect a speaker of their own. The Department for Constitutional Affairs (DCA) is a United Kingdom government department. ... Schematic of court system for England and Wales The Courts of England and Wales are the civil and criminal courts responsible for the administration of justice in England and Wales; they are constituted and governed by the Law of England and Wales and are subordinate to the Parliament of the... The Houses of Parliament, also known as the Palace of Westminster, in London. ...

The Lord Chancellor wore black and gold robes whilst presiding over the House of Lords.

The Lord Speaker may be replaced as presiding officer by one of his or her deputies. The Chairman of Committees, the Principal Deputy Chairman of Committees, and several Deputy Chairmen of Committees are all deputies to the Lord Speaker, and are all appointed by the House of Lords itself. By custom, the Crown appoints each Chairman, Principal Deputy Chairman, or Deputy Chairman to the additional office of Deputy Speaker of the House of Lords. There was previously no legal requirement that the Lord Chancellor or a Deputy Speaker be a member of the House of Lords, though the same has long been customary; thus the Woolsack upon which the Lord Chancellor sat was notionally not in the House of Lords, although situated in the middle of it. Lord Chancellor painting The image appears to be a coloured engraving by H. T. Ryall, after a painting by Charles Robert Leslie. ...


Whilst presiding over the House of Lords, the Lord Chancellor traditionally wore ceremonial black and gold robes. This is no longer a requirement for the Speaker except for State occasions outside of the chamber. The Speaker or Deputy Speaker sits on the Woolsack, a large red seat stuffed with wool, at the front of the Lords Chamber. When the House of Lords resolves itself into committee (see below), the Chairman or a Deputy Chairman presides, not from the Woolsack, but from a chair at the Table of the House. The presiding officer has little power compared to the Speaker of the House of Commons. He or she only acts as the mouthpiece of the House, performing duties such as announcing the results of votes. This is because, unlike in the House of Commons where all statements are directed to "Mr/Madam Speaker", in the House of Lords they are directed to "My Lords", i.e. the entire body of the House. The Lord Speaker or Deputy Speaker cannot determine which members may speak, or discipline members for violating the rules of the House; these measures may be taken only by the House itself. Unlike the politically neutral Speaker of the House of Commons, the Lord Chancellor and Deputy Speakers originally remained members of their respective parties, and may participate in debate, however this is no longer true of the new role of Lord Speaker. The woolsack in the former Irish House of Lords. ... In the British House of Commons the Speaker of the House of Commons controls the day to day running of the house. ...


Another officer of the body is the Leader of the House of Lords, a peer selected by the Prime Minister. The Leader of the House is responsible for steering Government bills through the House of Lords, and is a member of the Cabinet. The Leader also advises the House on proper procedure when necessary, but such advice is merely informal, rather than official and binding. A Deputy Leader is also appointed by the Prime Minister, and takes the place of an absent or unavailable Leader. Leader of the House of Lords is a function in the British government that is always held in combination with a formal Cabinet position, most often Lord President of the Council, Lord Privy Seal or Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. ...


The Clerk of the Parliaments is the chief clerk and officer of the House of Lords (but is not a member of the House itself). The Clerk, who is appointed by the Crown, advises the presiding officer on the rules of the House, signs orders and official communications, endorses bills, and is the keeper of the official records of both Houses of Parliament. Moreover, the Clerk of the Parliaments is responsible for arranging by-elections of hereditary peers when necessary. The deputies of the Clerk of the Parliaments (the Clerk Assistant and the Reading Clerk) are appointed by the Lord Speaker, subject to the House's approval. The Clerk of the Parliaments is the chief clerk of the House of Lords in the parliament of the United Kingdom. ...


The Gentleman Usher of the Black Rod is also an officer of the House; he takes his title from the symbol of his office, a black rod. Black Rod (as the Gentleman Usher is normally known) is responsible for ceremonial arrangements, is in charge of the House's doorkeepers, and may (upon the order of the House) take action to end disorder or disturbance in the Chamber. Black Rod also holds the office of Serjeant-at-Arms of the House of Lords, and in this capacity attends upon the Lord Speaker. The Gentleman Usher of the Black Rod's duties may be delegated to the Yeoman Usher of the Black Rod or to the Assistant Sergeant-at-Arms. The Gentleman Usher of the Black Rod, generally shortened to just Black Rod, is an official in the parliaments of a number of Commonwealth countries. ... A Serjeant at Arms (also spelt Sergeant at Arms, and sometimes Serjeant-at-Arms) is an officer appointed by a deliberative body, usually a legislature, to keep order during its meetings. ...


Procedure

Benches in the House of Lords Chamber are coloured red. In contrast, the House of Commons is decorated in green.
Benches in the House of Lords Chamber are coloured red. In contrast, the House of Commons is decorated in green.

The House of Lords and the House of Commons assemble in the Palace of Westminster. The Lords Chamber is lavishly decorated, in contrast with the more modestly furnished Commons Chamber. Benches in the Lords Chamber are coloured red; thus, the House of Lords is sometimes referred to as the "Red Chamber". The Woolsack is at the front of the Chamber; supporters of the Government sit on benches on the right of the Woolsack, whilst members of the Opposition sit on the left. Neutral members, known as Cross-benchers, sit on the benches immediately opposite the Woolsack. Image File history File links House_of_Lords. ... Image File history File links House_of_Lords. ... Type Lower House Speaker of the House of Commons Leader of the House of Commons Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Harriet Harman, QC, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader of the House of Commons Theresa May, PC, (Conservative) since December 6, 2005 Members 646 Political groups... “Houses of Parliament” redirects here. ... A cross-bencher is a member of the British House of Lords who is not aligned to any particular party. ...


The Lords Chamber is the site of many formal ceremonies, the most famous of which is the State Opening of Parliament, held at the beginning of each new parliamentary session. During the State Opening, the Sovereign, seated on the Throne in the Lords Chamber and in the presence of both Houses of Parliament, delivers a speech outlining the Government's agenda for the upcoming parliamentary session. In the United Kingdom, the State Opening of Parliament is an annual event held usually in October or November that marks the commencement of a session of Parliament. ... This article is about the monarchy of the United Kingdom, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. For information about other Commonwealth realm monarchies, as well as other relevant articles, see...


In the House of Lords, members need not seek the recognition of the presiding officer before speaking, as is done in the House of Commons. If two or more Lords simultaneously rise to speak, the House decides which one is to be heard by acclamation, or, if necessary, by voting on a motion. Often, however, the Leader of the House will suggest an order, which is thereafter generally followed. Speeches in the House of Lords are addressed to the House as a whole ("My Lords") rather than to the presiding officer alone (as is the custom in the Lower House). Members may not refer to each other in the second person (as "you"), but rather use third person forms such as "the noble Duke", "the noble Earl", "the noble Lord", "my noble friend", etc.


Each member may make no more than one speech on a motion, except that the mover of the motion may make one speech at the beginning of the debate and another at the end. Speeches are not subject to any time limits in the House; however, the House may put an end to a speech by approving a motion "that the noble Lord be no longer heard". It is also possible for the House to end the debate entirely, by approving a motion "that the Question be now put". This procedure is known as Closure, and is extremely rare. In parliamentary procedure, cloture (pr: KLO-cher) (also called closure, and sometimes a guillotine) is a motion or process aimed at bringing debate to a quick end. ...


Once all speeches on a motion have concluded, or Closure invoked, the motion may be put to a vote. The House first votes by voice vote; the Lord Speaker or Deputy Speaker puts the question, and the Lords respond either "Content" (in favour of the motion) or "Not-Content" (against the motion). The presiding officer then announces the result of the voice vote, but if his assessment is challenged by any Lord, a recorded vote known as a division follows. Members of the House enter one of two lobbies (the "Content" lobby or the "Not-Content" lobby) on either side of the Chamber, where their names are recorded by clerks. At each lobby are two Tellers (themselves members of the House) who count the votes of the Lords. The Lord Speaker may not take part in the vote. Once the division concludes, the Tellers provide the results thereof to the presiding officer, who then announces them to the House. If there is an equality of votes, the motion is decided according to the following principles: legislation may proceed in its present form, unless there is a majority in favour of amending or rejecting it; any other motions are rejected, unless there is a majority in favour of approving it. The quorum of the House of Lords is just three members for a general or procedural vote, and 30 members for a vote on legislation. If fewer than three or 30 members (as appropriate) are present, the division is invalid. A voice vote in a legislative body refers to a vote taken on a topic where the participants respond to a question with yea (yes), nay (no), or present (abstain). ... It has been suggested that Division of the house be merged into this article or section. ... Look up quorum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Committees

The Parliament of the United Kingdom uses committees for a variety of purposes; one common use is for the review of bills. Committees of both Houses consider bills in detail, and may make amendments. In the House of Lords, the committee most commonly used for the consideration of bills is the Committee of the Whole House, which, as its name suggests, includes all members of the House. The Committee meets in the Lords Chamber, and is presided over not by the Lord Speaker, but by the Chairman of Committees or a Deputy Chairman. Different procedural rules apply in the Committee of the Whole House than in normal sessions of the Lords; in particular, members are allowed to make more than one speech each on a motion. Similar to the Committee of the Whole House are the Grand Committees, bodies in which any member of the House may participate. A Grand Committee does not meet in the Lords Chamber, but in a separate committee room. No divisions are held in Grand Committees, and any amendments to the bill require the unanimous consent of the body. Hence, the Grand Committee procedure is used only for uncontroversial bills.


Bills may also be committed to Public Bill Committees, which consist of between twelve and sixteen members each. A Public Bill Committee is specifically constituted for a particular bill. A bill may also be referred to a Special Public Bill Committee, which, unlike the Public Bill Committee, has the power to hold hearings and collect evidence. These committees are used much less frequently than the Committee of the Whole House and Grand Committees.


The House of Lords also has several Select Committees. The members of these committees are appointed by the House at the beginning of each session, and continue to serve until the next parliamentary session begins. The House of Lords may appoint a chairman for a committee; if it does not do so, the Chairman of Committees or a Deputy Chairman of Committees may preside instead. Most Select Committees are permanent, but the House may also establish ad hoc committees, which cease to exist upon the completion of a particular task (for instance, investigating the reform of the House of Lords). The primary function of Select Committees is to scrutinise and investigate Government activities; to fulfil these aims, they are permitted to hold hearings and collect evidence. Bills may be referred to Select Committees, but are more often sent to the Committee of the Whole House and Grand Committees.


The committee system of the House of Lords also includes several Domestic Committees, which supervise or consider the House's procedures and administration. One of the Domestic Committees is the Committee of Selection, which is responsible for assigning members to many of the House's other committees.


Legislative functions

The House of Lords meets in a lavishly decorated chamber in the Palace of Westminster (above).
The House of Lords meets in a lavishly decorated chamber in the Palace of Westminster (above).

Most legislation may be introduced in either House, but, most commonly, is introduced in the House of Commons. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3200x1261, 1005 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): House of Lords Parliament of the United Kingdom London City of Westminster User talk:Diliff User:Diliff Wikipedia... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3200x1261, 1005 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): House of Lords Parliament of the United Kingdom London City of Westminster User talk:Diliff User:Diliff Wikipedia...

Further information: Act of Parliament

The power of the Lords to reject a bill passed by the House of Commons is severely restricted by the Parliament Acts. Under those Acts, certain types of bills may be presented for the Royal Assent without the consent of the House of Lords. The House of Lords cannot delay a money bill (a bill that, in the view of the Speaker of the House of Commons, solely concerns national taxation or public funds) for more than one month. Other public bills cannot be delayed by the House of Lords for more than two parliamentary sessions, or one calendar year. These provisions, however, only apply to public bills that originate in the House of Commons, and cannot have the effect of extending a parliamentary term beyond five years. A further restriction is a constitutional convention known as the Salisbury Convention, which means that the House of Lords does not oppose legislation promised in the Government's election manifesto. An Act of Parliament or Act is law enacted by the parliament (see legislation). ... // The granting of Royal Assent is the formal method by which a constitutional monarch completes the legislative process of lawmaking by formally assenting to an Act of Parliament. ... A constitutional convention is an informal and uncodified procedural agreement that is followed by the institutions of a state. ... The Salisbury Convention is a constitutional convention in the United Kingdom that means that the House of Lords will not oppose any government legislation promised by its election manifesto. ... Look up manifesto in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


By a custom that prevailed even before the Parliament Acts, the House of Lords is further restrained insofar as financial bills are concerned. The House of Lords may neither originate a bill concerning taxation or Supply (supply of treasury or exchequer funds), nor amend a bill so as to insert a taxation or Supply-related provision. (The House of Commons, however, often waives its privileges and allows the Upper House to make amendments with financial implications.) Moreover, the Upper House may not amend any Supply Bill. The House of Lords formerly maintained the absolute power to reject a bill relating to revenue or Supply, but this power was curtailed by the Parliament Acts, as aforementioned.


Hence, as the power of the House of Lords has been severely curtailed by statute and by practice, the House of Commons is clearly the more powerful chamber of Parliament.


In March 2006, it was reported that, among other reforms, the Government are considering removing the ability of the Lords to delay legislation that arises as a result of manifesto commitments, and reducing their ability to delay other legislation to a period of 60 days [1].


Judicial functions

The judicial functions of the House of Lords originate from the ancient role of the Curia Regis as a body that addressed the petitions of the King's subjects. The House of Lords, in addition to having a legislative function, has a judicial function as a court of last resort within the United Kingdom. ... Curia Regis is a Latin term meaning Royal Council or Kings court. The Curia Regis in England was a council of tenants-in-chief and ecclesiastics that advised the king of England on legislative matters. ...


The judicial functions of the House of Lords are exercised not by the whole House, but by a committee of "Law Lords". The bulk of the House's judicial business is conducted by the twelve Lords of Appeal in Ordinary, who are specifically appointed for this purpose under the Appellate Jurisdiction Act 1876. The judicial functions may also be exercised by Lords of Appeal (other members of the House who happen to have held high judicial office). No Lord of Appeal in Ordinary or Lord of Appeal may sit judicially beyond the age of seventy-five. The judicial business of the Lords is supervised by the Senior Lord of Appeal in Ordinary and his or her deputy, the Second Senior Lord of Appeal in Ordinary. The House of Lords, in addition to having a legislative function, has a judicial function as a court of last resort within the United Kingdom. ...


The jurisdiction of the House of Lords extends, in civil and in criminal cases, to appeals from the courts of England and Wales, and of Northern Ireland. From Scotland, appeals are possible only in civil cases; Scotland's High Court of Justiciary is the highest court in criminal matters. The House of Lords is not the United Kingdom's only court of last resort; in some cases, the Privy Council performs such a function. The jurisdiction of the Privy Council in the United Kingdom, however, is narrower than that of the House of Lords; it encompasses appeals from ecclesiastical courts, issues related to devolution, disputes under the House of Commons Disqualification Act 1975, and a few other minor matters. Seal of the High Court of Justiciary © Crown Copyright The High Court of Justiciary is Scotlands supreme criminal court. ... Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. ... This article should be transwikied to wiktionary Ecclesiastical means pertaining to the Church (especially Christianity) as an organized body of believers and clergy, with a stress on its juridical and institutional structure. ... Look up Devolution in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The House of Commons Disqualification Act 1975 was an Act of the British Parliament which prohibited certain groups of people from becoming members of the House of Commons. ...


Not all Law Lords sit to hear cases; rather, since World War II cases have been heard by panels known as Appellate Committees, each of which normally consists of five members (selected by the Senior Lord). An Appellate Committee hearing an important case may consist of even more members. Though Appellate Committees meet in separate committee rooms, judgement is given in the Lords Chamber itself. No further appeal lies from the House of Lords, although the House of Lords may refer a "preliminary question" to the European Court of Justice in cases involving an element of European Union law, and a case can be brought at the European Court of Human Rights if the House of Lords does not provide a satisfactory remedy in cases where the European Convention on Human Rights is relevant. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Official emblem of the ECJ The Court of Justice of the European Communities, usually called the European Court of Justice (ECJ), is the highest court in the European Union (EU). ... European Union law is the unique legal system which operates alongside the laws of Member States of the European Union (EU). ... European Court of Human Rights building in Strasbourg The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), often referred to informally as the Strasbourg Court, was created to systematise the hearing of human rights complaints against States Parties to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, adopted by... “ECHR” redirects here. ...


A distinct judicial function—one in which the whole House, rather than just the Law Lords, may participate—is that of trying impeachments. Impeachments were brought by the House of Commons, and tried in the House of Lords; a conviction required only a majority of the Lords voting. Impeachments, however, are to all intents and purposes obsolete; the last impeachment was that of Henry Dundas, 1st Viscount Melville in 1806. Depiction of the impeachment trial of Andrew Johnson, then President of the United States, in 1868. ... Henry Dundas, 1st Viscount Melville (April 28, 1742 - May 28, 1811) was a British statesman. ...


Similarly, the House of Lords was once the court that tried peers charged with high treason or felony. The House would be presided over not by the Lord Chancellor, but by the Lord High Steward, an official especially appointed for the occasion of the trial. If Parliament was not in session, then peers could be tried in a separate court, known as the Lord High Steward's Court. Only peers, their wives, and their widows (unless remarried) were entitled to trials in the House of Lords or the Lord High Steward's Court; the Lords Spiritual were tried in Ecclesiastical Courts. In 1948, the right of peers and peeresses to be tried in such special courts was abolished; now, they are tried in the regular courts. The last such trial in the House was of Edward Southwell Russell, 26th Baron de Clifford in 1935. For other uses, see Treason (disambiguation) or Traitor (disambiguation). ... For the record label, see Felony Records The term felony is a term used in common law systems for very serious crimes, whereas misdemeanors are considered to be less serious offenses. ... The Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, or Lord Chancellor and prior to the Union the Chancellor of England and the Lord Chancellor of Scotland, is a senior and important functionary in the government of the United Kingdom, and its predecessor states. ... The position of Lord High Steward of England, not to be confused with the Lord Steward, a court functionary, is the first of the Great Officers of State. ... Lieutenant-Colonel Edward Southwell Russell, 26th Baron de Clifford OBE (31 January 1907 – 3 January 1982) was the only son of Jack Southwell Russell, 25th Baron de Clifford, and the last peer to be tried for a crime in the House of Lords. ...


The Constitutional Reform Act 2005 will lead to the creation of a separate Supreme Court of the United Kingdom, to which the judicial function of the House of Lords, and some of the judicial functions of the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, will be transferred. In addition, the office of Lord Chancellor has been reformed by the act, to remove his ability to act as both a government minister and a judge. This is motivated in part by concerns that the historical admixture of legislative, judicial, and executive power, may not be in conformance with the requirements of the European Convention on Human Rights (a judicial officer having legislative or executive power not being likely to be considered sufficiently impartial to provide a fair trial), and in any case are considered undesirable according to modern constitutional theory concerning the separation of powers. The new Supreme Court will be located in Middlesex Guildhall. The Constitutional Reform Act 2005 (2005 c. ... The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom will be created under the provisions of the Constitutional Reform Act 2005 to take over the judicial functions of the Law Lords in the House of Lords and from the Judicial committee of the Privy Council. ... The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council is one of the highest courts in the United Kingdom. ... “ECHR” redirects here. ... The Middlesex Guildhall The Middlesex Guildhall is a building on the south-west corner of Parliament Square in London. ...


Relationship with the Government

Unlike the House of Commons, the House of Lords does not control the term of the Prime Minister or of the Government. Only the Lower House may force the Prime Minister to resign or call elections by passing a motion of no-confidence or by withdrawing supply. Thus, the House of Lords' oversight of the government is limited. Loss of Supply occurs where a government in a parliamentary democracy is denied a supply of treasury or exchequer funds, by whichever house or houses of parliament or head of state is constitutionally entitled to grant and deny supply. ...


Most Cabinet ministers are from the House of Commons, rather than the House of Lords. In particular, all Prime Ministers since 1902 have been members of the Lower House. (Alec Douglas-Home, who became Prime Minister in 1963 whilst still an Earl, disclaimed his peerage and was elected to the Commons soon after his term began.) No major cabinet position (except Lord Chancellor and Leader of the House of Lords) has been filled by a peer since 1982, when Lord Carrington was the Foreign Secretary (Though Baroness Amos was briefly International Development Secretary until the death of Lord Williams of Mostyn in 2003). Alexander Frederick Douglas-Home, Baron Home of the Hirsel,[1] KT, PC (2 July 1903 - 9 October 1995) 14th Earl of Home from 1951 to 1963, was a British Conservative (actually SUP) politician, and served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom for a year from October 1963 to October... The Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, or Lord Chancellor and prior to the Union the Chancellor of England and the Lord Chancellor of Scotland, is a senior and important functionary in the government of the United Kingdom, and its predecessor states. ... Leader of the House of Lords is a function in the British government that is always held in combination with a formal Cabinet position, most often Lord President of the Council, Lord Privy Seal or Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. ... Lord Carrington wearing his robes as a Knight Companion of the Order of the Garter, in procession to St Georges Chapel, Windsor Castle for the annual service of the Order of the Garter. ... The Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (commonly referred to as Foreign Secretary) is a member of the British Government responsible for relations with foreign countries, heading the Foreign and Commonwealth Office (often called simply the Foreign Office). ... Valerie Ann Amos, Baroness Amos, PC (born 13 March 1954), is a British Labour Party politician and life peer, currently serving as Leader of the House of Lords and Lord President of the Council. ... In the United Kingdom, the Secretary of State for International Development is a Cabinet minister responsible for promoting development overseas, particularly in the third world. ... For the American actor of the same name, please see Gareth Williams. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The House of Lords does remain a source for junior ministers, such as Lord Hunt of Kings Heath (Department of Health). The Attorney-General is usually a Lord; currently it is Baroness Scotland of Asthal. The House of Lords also has a Chief Whip - currently Lord Grocott. Philip Hunt, Baron Hunt of Kings Heath, OBE (born 1949) has been Minister of State at the Department of Health since January 2007. ... The Department of Health headquarters in Whitehall The Department of Health is a department of the United Kingdom government. ... Her Majestys Attorney General for England and Wales, usually known simply as the Attorney General, is the chief legal adviser of the Crown in England and Wales. ... Patricia Scotland, Baroness Scotland of Asthal, PC, is a barrister and junior minister in the United Kingdom. ... The Chief Whip is a political office in some legislatures assigned to an elected member whose task is to administer the whipping system that ensures that members of the party attend and vote as the party leadership desires. ... Bruce Grocott, Baron Grocott, PC (born November 1, 1940), is a politician in the United Kingdom. ...


Current composition

The House of Lords, as of 1 July 2007:[1] is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

Affiliation Life peers Hereditary peers Lords spiritual Total
Elected by party Elected by whole house Royal office-holders
  Labour 207 2 2 0 - 211
  Conservative 156 39 9 0 - 204
  Liberal Democrats 72 3 2 0 - 77
  UKIP 1 1 0 0 - 2
  Green 1 0 0 0 - 1
  Cross-benchers 172 29 2 2 - 205
  Non-affiliated 8 1 0 0 - 9
  Lords Spiritual - - - - 26 26
Total 617 75 15 2 26 735

Note: These figures exclude twelve peers who are on leave of absence. The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), the largest in terms of public membership, and the oldest political party in the United Kingdom. ... The Liberal Democrats, often shortened to Lib Dems, are a liberal political party based in the United Kingdom. ... The United Kingdom Independence Party (commonly known as UKIP, pronounced //) is a British political party. ... The Green Party of England and Wales (GPEW) is the principal Green political party in England and Wales. ... A cross-bencher is a member of the British House of Lords who is not aligned to any particular party. ... The Lords Spiritual of the United Kingdom, also called Spiritual Peers, consist of the 26 clergymen of the established Church of England who serve in the House of Lords along with the Lords Temporal. ...


†The number of hereditary peers "allocated" to each party, which is based on the proportion of hereditary peers that belongs to that party, is:

  • Conservative Party: 42 peers
  • Labour Party: 2 peers
  • Liberal Democrats: 3 peers
  • Cross-benchers: 28 peers

Of the initial 42 hereditary peers elected as Conservatives, one (Lord Brabazon of Tara) now sits as a Cross-bencher, having become the House of Lords' Chairman of Committees, and another (Lord Willoughby de Broke) now sits as a UKIP member. The Peerage in the United Kingdom includes several hereditary peers, as well as life peers. ... Ivan Anthony Moore-Brabazon, 3rd Baron Brabazon of Tara (born 1946) is the current Baron Brabazon of Tara and has been since the death of his father in 1974. ... Leopold David Verney, 21st Baron Willoughby de Broke FRSA, FRGS (born 14 September 1938) is a British peer. ...


A report in 2007 stated that many members of the Lords do not attend regularly - the average attendance was around 408.[2]


Current political leaders in the Lords

Catherine Margaret Ashton, Baroness Ashton of Upholland PC (born 20 March 1956) is a Labour member of the House of Lords. ... Leader of the House of Lords is a function in the British government that is always held in combination with a formal Cabinet position, most often Lord President of the Council, Lord Privy Seal or Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. ... The Office of Lord President of the Council is a British cabinet position, the holder of which acts as presiding officer of the Privy Council. ... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... Categories: People stubs | 1960 births | Members of the Privy Council | Peers ... The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), the largest in terms of public membership, and the oldest political party in the United Kingdom. ... The Right Honourable Thomas McNally, Baron McNally (born 20 February 1943) is a British politician and the current Leader of the Liberal Democrats in the House of Lords. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

See also

Wikibooks
Wikibooks has a book on the topic of

Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... The Lord Speaker will be a new position in the Parliament of the United Kingdom created once the Constitutional Reform Acts provisions about the Speakership of the House of Lords comes into effect. ... In the House of Lords, certain new members must, before sitting, be ceremonially introduced, the ceremony being known as Introduction. ... This is a list of members of the House of Lords in the United Kingdom. ... This is a list of topics related to the United Kingdom. ... The House of Lords Chamber For almost a century, governments in the United Kingdom have attempted to find a way to undertake a comprehensive reform of the House of Lords, which is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... The Wakeham Report, published in 2000, was the report of a Royal Commission headed by Baron Wakeham, concerning reform of the United Kingdoms House of Lords. ... For the demesne in The Keys to the Kingdom series, see The House An upper house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the lower house. ... The Constitution Committee is a cross-party select committee of the House of Lords, the upper chamber of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ...

References

  1. ^ House of Lords: Analysis of Composition in the House of Lords (1 May, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-05-29.
  2. ^ Government White Paper, February 2007, The House of Lords: Reform, page 44

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Sources

  • Longford, Frank Pakenham, 7th Earl of. (1999). A History of the House of Lords. New edition. Gloucestershire: Sutton Publishing.
  • "Parliament" (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th ed. London: Cambridge University Press.
  • Raphael, D. D., Donald Limon, and W. R. McKay. (2004). Erskine May: Parliamentary Practice, 23rd ed. London: Butterworths Tolley.

Further reading

  • Harry Jones (1912). Liberalism and the House of Lords: The Story of the Veto Battle, 1832-1911. London: Methuen. 

External links


Coordinates: 51°29′55.7″N, 0°07′29.5″W For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


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