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Encyclopedia > House of Bourbon
Ancien Régime
Structure
Estates of the realm
Parlements
French nobility
Taille
Gabelle
Seigneurial system
Also see:  Early Modern France

The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. Bourbon kings first ruled Navarre and France in the 16th century. By the 18th century, members of the Bourbon dynasty also held thrones in Spain, Naples & Sicily, and Parma. Spain and Luxembourg currently have Bourbon monarchs. For other uses of the term, see Ancien Régime. ... In several different regions of medieval Europe, and continuing in some countries[] down to the present day, the estates of the realm were broad divisions of society, usually distinguishing nobility, clergy, and commoners; this last group was, in some regions, further divided into burghers (also known as bourgeoisie) and peasants. ... This article is for the Ancien Régime institution. ... The nobility (la noblesse) in France in the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period had specific legal and financial rights and prerogatives (the first official list of these prerogatives was established relatively late, under Louis XI of France after 1440), including exemption from paying the taille (except for non... The taille was a direct land tax on the French peasantry in ancien régime France (since the nobles refused to pay taxes). ... The gabelle was a very unpopular tax on salt in France before 1790. ... Generic plan of a mediaeval manor; open-field strip farming, some enclosures, triennial crop rotation, demesne and manse, common woodland, pasturage and meadow Manorialism or Seigneurialism is the organization of rural economy and society in medieval western and parts of central Europe, characterised by the vesting of legal and economic... Early Modern France is the portion of French history that falls in the early modern period from the end of the 15th century to the end of the 18th century (or from the French Renaissance to the eve of the French Revolution). ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... A Royal House or Dynasty is a sort of family name used by royalty. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with House of Capet. ... The Kingdom of Navarre (Basque: Nafarroako Erresuma) was a European state which occupied lands on either side of the Pyrenees alongside the Atlantic Ocean. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... // For other uses, see Dynasty (disambiguation). ... Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Parma is a city in the Italian region of Emilia-Romagna, famous for its architecture and the fine countryside around it. ...


Bourbon monarchs ruled Navarre (from 1555) and France (from 1589) until the 1792 overthrow of the monarchy during the French Revolution. Restored briefly in 1814 and definitively in 1815 after the fall of the First French Empire, the senior line of the Bourbons was finally overthrown in the July Revolution of 1830. A cadet branch, the House of Orléans, then ruled for 18 years (1830–1848), until it too was overthrown. Events Russia breaks 60 year old truce with Sweden by attacking Finland February 2 - Diet of Augsburg begins February 4 - John Rogers becomes first Protestant martyr in England February 9 - Bishop of Gloucester John Hooper is burned at the stake May 23 - Paul IV becomes Pope. ... Events Rebellion of the Catholic League against King Henry III of France, in revenge for his murder of Duke Henry of Guise. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... Map of the First French Empire in 1811, with the Empire in dark blue and satellite states in light blue Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1804 - 1814/1815 Napoleon I  - 1814/1815 Napoleon II Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif Historical era Napoleonic... // The French Revolution of 1830, also known as the July Revolution, saw the overthrow of King Charles X, the last of the House of Bourbons, and the ascension of his cousin Louis-Philippe, the Duc dOrléans, who himself, after eighteen precarious years on the throne, would in turn... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Duke of Orléans is one of the most important titles in the French peerage, dating back at least to the 14th century. ...


Philip V of Spain was the first Bourbon ruler of Spain, from 1700. The Spanish Bourbons— in Spain the name is spelled Borbón—have been overthrown and restored several times, reigning 1700–1808, 18131868, 18751931, and 1975 to the present day. King Philip V of Spain (December 19, 1683 – July 9, 1746) or Philippe of Anjou was king of Spain from 1700 to 1746, the first of the Bourbon dynasty in Spain. ... Events January 1 - Russia accepts Julian calendar. ... Year 1808 (MDCCCVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... Media:Example. ... 1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


From this Spanish line comes the royal line of the kingdom of the Two Sicilies (17341806 and 18151860, and Sicily only in 18061816), the Bourbon-Sicilies family, and the Bourbon rulers of the Duchy of Parma. The Two Sicilies The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Italian: il Regno delle Due Sicilie) was the new name that the Bourbon King Ferdinand IV of Naples bestowed upon his domain (including Southern Italy and the island of Sicily) after the end of the Napoleonic Era and the full restoration... Events January 8 - Premiere of George Frideric Handels opera Ariodante at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden. ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1816 was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Duchy of Parma was created in 1545 from that part of the Duchy of Milan south of the Po River, as a fief for Pope Paul IIIs illegitimate son, Pier Luigi Farnese, centered around the city of Parma. ...


Grand Duchess Charlotte of Luxembourg married a cadet of the Bourbon-Parma line, and thus her successors, who have ruled Luxembourg since her abdication in 1964, have also technically been members of the House of Bourbon. Charlotte, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg (Charlotte Aldegonde Élise Marie Wilhelmine) (January 23, 1896 – July 9, 1985) was the second daughter of Guillaume IV, Grand Duke of Luxembourg and Marie Anne of Portugal. ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ...


The declared heiress and thrice-regent of the now-defunct Empire of Brazil married twenty years before their deposition a prince of Orleans, and their descent, known as the Orleans-Braganza, would have ascended that throne, had the empire not been ended in 1888. In 1919, the Princes of Condé (Bourbon-Condé) were a cadet branch of the Bourbon-Vendômes and, in turn, were senior to the Princes of Conti (Bourbon-Conti). Both these lines became extinct in the early nineteenth century. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... In 1822 (7 September), Infante dom Pedro of Portugal, heir apparent to the Portuguese throne and kings representative in Brazil, was proclaimed Emperor of Brazil. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Prince of Condé is a title in French peerage, attributed for the first time to Louis of Bourbon, brother of Antoine de Bourbon, Duke of Vendome and uncle of Henry IV of France. ... hello im katie!! who are you?? i would love 2 chat to all you people out there on earth!! so please go on www. ...

Contents

Origin of the House of Bourbon

The House of Bourbon was originally a noble family, dating at least from the beginning of the 13th century, when the estate of Bourbon was ruled by a Lord who was a vassal of the King of France. Bourbonnais was an historic province in the centre of France that corresponded to the modern département of Allier, along with part of the département of Cher. ... Nobility is a traditional hereditary status (see hereditary titles) that exists today in many countries (mainly present or former monarchies). ... A seat or Family Seat is the principal residence of a lord, noble, or aristrocrat, and his family. ...


The Capetian House of Bourbon

In 1268, Robert, Count of Clermont, sixth son of King Louis IX of France married Beatrix of Bourbon, heiress to the lordship of Bourbon. Their son Louis was made Duke of Bourbon in 1327. His descendant, the Constable of France Charles de Bourbon, was the last of the Bourbon line when he died in 1527. Since he chose to fight under the banner of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and lead a life of exile his title was discontinued after his death. Robert of France (1256 – February 7, 1317) was made Count of Clermont in 1268. ... Louis IX (25 April 1215 – 25 August 1270), commonly Saint Louis, was King of France from 1226 to his death. ... Beatrice of Burgundy (1257 – October 1, 1310) was Lady of Bourbon and, through her mother, heiress of all Bourbon estates. ... Louis I of Bourbon, le Boiteux (1279 – January 29, 1342) was Count of Clermont, La Merche and Castres, and the first Duke of Bourbon. ... Duke of Bourbon is a title in the peerage of France. ... The Constable of France (French connétable de France, from Latin comes stabulari for count of the stables), as the First Officer of the Crown, was one of the original five Great Officers of the Crown of France (along with seneschal, chamberlain, butler, and chancellor) and Commander in Chief of... Charles III de Bourbon, engraved portrait by Thomas de Leu Charles III of Bourbon-Montpensier, Eighth Duke of Bourbon (February 17, 1490 – May 6, 1527 in Rome) was Count of Montpensier and Dauphin of Auvergne. ... January 5 - Felix Manz, co-founder of the Swiss Anabaptists, was drowned in the Limmat in Zürich by the Zürich Reformed state church. ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... Charles V (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of the Burgundian Netherlands (1506-1555), King of Spain (1516-1556), King of Naples and Sicily (1516-1554), Archduke of Austria (1519-1521), King of the Romans (or German King), (1519-1556 but did not formally abdicate until 1558) and...


However the junior line of La Marche-Vendôme remained, the ruling house of the Dukedom of Vendôme. The Bourbon-Vendôme branch were to become rulers of the Kingdom of Navarre on the northern side of the Pyrenees in 1555 and then of France, with Henry III of Navarre becoming Henry IV of France in 1589. Duke of Vendôme (French: Duc de Vendôme) was a title in French peerage with connection to the House of Bourbon. ... The Kingdom of Navarre (Basque: Nafarroako Erresuma) was a European state which occupied lands on either side of the Pyrenees alongside the Atlantic Ocean. ... Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ... Events Russia breaks 60 year old truce with Sweden by attacking Finland February 2 - Diet of Augsburg begins February 4 - John Rogers becomes first Protestant martyr in England February 9 - Bishop of Gloucester John Hooper is burned at the stake May 23 - Paul IV becomes Pope. ... Henry IV of France, also Henry III of Navarre (13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), ruled as King of France from 1589 to 1610 and King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610. ... Events Rebellion of the Catholic League against King Henry III of France, in revenge for his murder of Duke Henry of Guise. ...


The rise of Henry IV

The first Bourbon king of France was Henry IV. He was born on December 13, 1553 in the Kingdom of Navarre. Antoine de Bourbon, his father, was a ninth generation descendent of King Louis IX of France. Jeanne d'Albret, his mother, was the Queen of Navarre and the niece of King Francis I of France. He was baptized Catholic, but raised Calvinist. After his father was killed in 1563, he became Duke of Vendôme at the age of 10, with Admiral Gaspard de Coligny (1519–1572) as his regent. Five years later, the young duke became the nominal leader of the Huguenots after the death of his uncle the Prince of Condé in 1568. Henry IV of France, also Henry III of Navarre (13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), ruled as King of France from 1589 to 1610 and King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610. ... December 13 is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events June 26 - Christs Hospital in London gets a Royal Charter July 6 - Edward VI of England dies July 10 - Lady Jane Grey is proclaimed Queen of England - for the next nine days July 18 - Lord Mayor of London proclaims Queen Mary as the rightful Queen - Lady Jane Grey... The Kingdom of Navarre (Basque: Nafarroako Erresuma) was a European state which occupied lands on either side of the Pyrenees alongside the Atlantic Ocean. ... Antoine de Bourbon, duc de Vendôme (22 April 1518 _ 17 November 1562). ... Louis IX (25 April 1215 – 25 August 1270), commonly Saint Louis, was King of France from 1226 to his death. ... Jeanne dAlbret Jeanne dAlbret (January 7, 1528 – June 9, 1572) was Queen of Navarre from 1555 to 1572, wife of Antoine de Bourbon, duke of Vendome and mother of Henry IV of France. ... Francis I (François Ier in French) (September 12, 1494 – March 31, 1547), called the Father and Restorer of Letters (le Père et Restaurateur des Lettres), was crowned King of France in 1515 in the cathedral at Reims and reigned until 1547. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Calvinism is a theological... Duke of Vendôme (French: Duc de Vendôme) was a title in French peerage with connection to the House of Bourbon. ... Gaspard de Coligny Gaspard de Coligny (February 16, 1519 – August 24, 1572), Seigneur (Lord) de Châtillon held the office of Admiral of France and is best remembered as a Huguenot leader. ... In the 16th and 17th centuries, the name of Huguenots came to apply to members of the Protestant Reformed Church of France. ... Louis I was the first Prince of Condé. Louis I de Bourbon, Prince de Condé (May 7, 1530 – March 13, 1569) was a Huguenot leader and general. ... Events March 23 - Peace of Longjumeau ends the Second War of Religion in France. ...


Henry succeeded to Navarre as Henry III when his mother died in 1572. That same year Catherine de Medici, the influential mother of King Charles IX, arranged for the marriage of her daughter, Margaret of Valois, to Henry as a peace offering between the Catholics and Huguenots. Many Huguenots had gathered for the wedding held on August 24 and were massacred by the Catholics in what became known as the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre. Henry saved his own life by converting to Catholicism. He repudiated his conversion in 1576 and resumed his leadership of the Huguenots. Catherine de Medici (April 13, 1519–January 5, 1589), born in Italy as Caterina Maria Romola di Lorenzo de Medici, and later queen of France under the French name Catherine de M dicis, was the wife of King Henry II of France, of the Valois branch of the kings... Charles IX (June 27, 1550 – May 30, 1574) born Charles-Maximilien, was a member of the Valois Dynasty, King of France from 1560 until his death. ... Margaret of Valois (14 May 1553 – 27 March 1615) (Marguerite de Valois, Princess of France, Duchesse de Valois) was the daughter of King Henri II of France and his wife, Catherine de Medici. ... The St. ...


The period from 1576 to 1584 was relatively calm in France, with the Huguenots consolidating control of much of the south with only occasional interference from the royal government. Extended civil war erupted again in 1584, when Duke of Anjou, younger brother of King Henry III, died, leaving Navarre next in line for the throne. Thus began the War of the Three Henries, as Henry of Navarre, Henry III, and the ultra-Catholic leader, Henry of Guise fought a confusing three-cornered struggle for dominance. When Henry III was assassinated on July 31, 1589 Navarre became the first Bourbon king of France as Henry IV. 1584 was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Hercule François, Duke of Anjou and Alençon, (March 18, 1555 – June 19, 1584) was the youngest son of Henry II of France and Catherine de Medici. ... Henry III (French: Henri III; September 19, 1551 – August 2, 1589), born Alexandre-Édouard, was a member of the Valois Dynasty, King of France from May 30, 1574 until his death. ... The War of the Three Henrys (1562-1598) was a series of civil wars in France, also known as the Huguenot Wars or French Wars of Religion. ... Henry I, Duke of Guise Coat of arms of the Duke of Guise Henry I, Prince of Joinville, Duke of Guise, Count of Eu (January 31, 1550 – December 23, 1588, Château de Blois), sometimes called Le Balafré, the scarred, was the eldest son of Francis, Duke of Guise and...


Much of Catholic France, organized into the Catholic League, refused to recognize a Protestant monarch and instead recognized Henry IV's uncle, Charles, Cardinal de Bourbon, as king as Charles X, and the civil war continued. Henry won a crucial victory at Ivry on March 14, 1590, and following the death of the Cardinal the same year, the forces of the League lacked an obvious Catholic candidate for the throne and divided into various factions. Nevertheless, as a Protestant, Henry IV was unable to take Paris, a Catholic stronghold, or to decisively defeat his enemies, now supported by the Spanish. He reconverted to Catholicism in 1593—he is said to have remarked, "Paris is worth a mass"—and was crowned King of France at the Cathedral of Chartres on February 27, 1594. Charles de Bourbon was born on 22nd september 1523. ... The Battle of Ivry was fought on March 14, 1590, during the French Wars of Religion. ... The Cathedral of Chartres (Cathedral of Our Lady of Chartres, French: Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Chartres), located in Chartres, about 50 miles (80 km) from Paris, is considered one of the finest examples in all France of the Gothic style of architecture. ...


The Early Bourbon Kings of France

Henry granted the Edict of Nantes on April 13, 1598, establishing Catholicism as an official state religion, but otherwise assuring the Huguenots equal rights with the Catholics. This compromise ended the religious wars in France. That same year the Treaty of Vervins ended the war with Spain, adjusted the Spanish-French border, and resulted in a belated recognition by Spain of Henry as king of France. The Edict of Nantes was issued on April 13, 1598 by Henry IV of France to grant French Calvinists (also known as Huguenots) substantial rights in a nation still considered essentially Catholic. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 7 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I. April 13 - Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. ... The Peace of Vervins was signed between Henry IV of France and Philip II of Spain on May 2, 1598. ...


Ably assisted by Maximilien de Béthune, duc de Sully, Henry reduced the land tax known as the taille; promoted agriculture, public works, construction of highways, and the first French canal; started such important industries as the tapestry works of the Gobelins; and intervened in favor of Protestants in the duchies and earldoms along the German frontier. This last was to be the cause of his assassination. Maximilien de Béthune, duke of Sully (December 13, 1560 – December 22, 1641) was the doughty soldier, French minister, staunch Protestant and faithful right-hand man who enabled Henry IV of France to accomplish so much. ... The taille was a direct land tax on the French peasantry in ancien régime France (since the nobles refused to pay taxes). ... Gobelin was the name of a family of dyers, who in all probability came originally from Reims, and who in the middle of the 15th century established themselves in the Faubourg Saint Marcel, Paris, on the banks of the Bièvre. ...


Henry's marriage to Margaret, which had produced no heir, was annulled in 1599 and he married Marie de Medici, the niece of the grand duke of Tuscany. A son, Louis, was born to them in 1601. Henry IV was assassinated on May 14, 1610 in Paris. Louis XIII was only nine years old when he succeeded his father. He was to prove a weak ruler, his reign effectively a series of distinct regimes, depending who held the effective reins of power. Marie de Medici (April 26, 1573 - July 3, 1642), born in Italy as Maria de Medici, was queen consort of France under the French name Marie de Médicis. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 7 - Galileo Galilei discovers the Galilean moons of Jupiter. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


At first, Marie de Medici, his mother, served as regent and advanced a pro-Spanish policy. To deal with the financial troubles of France, Louis summoned the Estates General in 1614; this would be the last time that body met until the eve of the French Revolution. Marie arranged the 1615 marriage of Louis to Anne of Austria, the daughter of King Philip III of Spain. In France under the Ancien Régime, the States-General or Estates-General (French: États généraux), was a legislative assembly (see The States) of the different classes (or estates) of French subjects. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Louis XIII by Philippe de Champaigne Anne of Austria (September 22, 1601 - January 20, 1666) was Queen Consort of France and Navarre and Regent for her son, Louis XIV of France. ... Philip III of Spain Philip III (Spanish: Felipe III) (April 14, 1578 – March 31, 1621) was the king of Spain and Portugal (as Philip II Portuguese: Filipe II), from 1598 until his death. ...


In 1617, however, Louis conspired with Charles d'Albert, duc de Luynes to dispense with her influence, having her favorite Concino Concini assassinated on April 26 of that year. After some years of weak government by Louis's favorites, the King made Armand Jean du Plessis, Cardinal Richelieu, a former protégé of his mother, the chief minister of France in 1624. Luynes by Moncornet Charles dAlbert, duc de Luynes (1578 - December 15, 1621), was constable of France and the first duke of Luynes. ... Concino Concini, Count della Penna, Marquis and Maréchal dAncre (Florence, 1575 - Paris, 24 april 1617), was an Italian politician, best known for being a minister of Louis XIII of France. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Cardinal Richelieu was the French chief minister from 1624 until his death in 1642. ...


Richelieu advanced an anti-Habsburg policy. He arranged for Louis' sister, Henrietta Maria, to marry King Charles I of England, on May 11, 1625. Her pro-Catholic propaganda in England was one of the contributing factors for the English Civil War. Richelieu, as ambitious for France and the French monarchy as for himself, laid the ground for the absolute monarchy that would last in France until the Revolution. He wanted to establish a dominating position for France in Europe, and he wanted to unify France under the monarchy. He established the role of intendants, non-noble men whose arbitrary powers were granted by (and revocable by) the monarchy and superseded many of the traditional duties and privileges of the noble governors. Although it required a succession of internal military campaigns, he abolished the fortified Huguenot towns that Henry had allowed. He involved France in the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) against the Habsburgs in 1635. He died in 1642 before the conclusion of that conflict, having groomed Jules Cardinal Mazarin as a successor. Louis XIII outlived him but by one year, dying in 1643 at the age of forty-two. After a childless marriage for twenty-three years he had a son with Anne on September 5, 1638, whom he named after himself. Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... Henrietta Maria Henrietta Maria (November 25, 1609 - September 10, 1669) was Queen Consort of England, Scotland and Ireland (June 13, 1625 - January 30, 1649) through her marriage to Charles I. The U.S. state of Maryland (in Latin, Terra Maria) was so named in her honour by Cæcilius Calvert... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scotland and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 27 - Prince Charles Stuart becomes King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... The English Civil War consisted of a series of armed conflicts and political machinations that took place between Parliamentarians (known as Roundheads) and Royalists (known as Cavaliers) between 1642 and 1651. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... New France was governed by three rulers: the governor, the bishop and the intendant, all appointed by the King, and sent from France. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Jules Mazarin, French diplomat and statesman, by Pierre-Louis Bouchart. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 29 - Swedish colonists establish first settlement in Delaware, called New Sweden. ...


When Louis XIV succeeded his father he was only five years old. He would become the most powerful king in French history. His mother Anne served as his regent with her favorite Jules Mazarin as chief minister. Mazarin continued the policies of Richelieu, bringing the Thirty Years' War to a successful conclusion in 1648 and defeating the noble challenge to royal absolutism in a series of civil wars known as the Fronde. He continued to war with Spain until 1659. In that year the Treaty of the Pyrenees was signed signifying a significant shift in power, France had replaced Spain as the dominant state in Europe. One of the terms of the treaty arranged the marriage of Louis to his cousin Maria Theresa, the daughter of King Philip IV of Spain, by his first wife Elizabeth, the sister of Louis XIII. They were married in 1660 and had a son, Louis, in 1661. Mazarin died on March 9, 1661 and it was expected that Louis would appoint another chief minister, as had become the tradition, but instead he shocked the country by announcing he would rule alone. “Sun King” redirects here. ... Cardinal Jules Mazarin, French diplomat and statesman Jules Mazarin, born Giulio Raimondo Mazzarino; but best known as Cardinal Mazarin (July 14, 1602 – March 9, 1661) served as the chief minister of France from 1642, until his death. ... The Fronde (1648–1653) was a civil war in France, followed by the Franco-Spanish War (1653). ... The Treaty of the Pyrenees was a treaty signed in 1659 to end the war between France and Spain that had begun in 1635 during the Thirty Years War. ... Marie Thérèse redirects here. ... Philip IV (), (April 8, 1605 – September 17, 1665) was King of Spain from 1621 to 1665 and also King of Portugal until 1640. ... March 9 is the 68th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (69th in leap years). ... 1661 (MDCLXI) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Louis intended to glorify France by making war on his neighbors. For six years he reformed the finances of his state and built formidable armed forces. France fought three wars between 1667 and 1697 and though some territory was gained it hardly seemed worth it. Maria Theresa died in 1683 and the next year he married Françoise d'Aubigné, marquise de Maintenon. She had great influence over him especially in matters of religion. Louis XIV was staunchly Catholic and he revoked the Edict of Nantes on October 18, 1685, undoing the religious tolerance established by grandfather, Henry IV, almost a hundred years before. Françoise dAubigné, marquise de Maintenon Françoise dAubigné, marquise de Maintenon (November 27, 1635 - April 15, 1719), the second wife of Louis XIV, was born in a prison at Niort. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 6 - James Stuart, Duke of York becomes King James II of England and Ireland and King James VII of Scotland. ...


The last war waged by Louis XIV proved to be one of the most important to dynastic Europe. In 1700, King Charles II of Spain died without a son. Louis's son the Grand Dauphin, as nephew to the late king, was closest heir, and Charles willed the kingdom to the Dauphin's second son, the Duke of Anjou. Other powers, particularly the Austrian Habsburgs, who had the next closest claims, objected to such a vast increase in French power. Initially, most of the other powers were willing to accept Anjou's reign as Philip V, but Louis's arrogance and blunders soon made the English, the Dutch, and other powers join the Austrians in a coalition against France. The War of the Spanish Succession began in 1701 and raged for 12 years. In the end Louis's grandson was recognized as King of Spain, but Spain's other European territories were largely ceded to Austria, and France was nearly bankrupted by the cost of the struggle. Louis died on September 1, 1715 ending his seventy-two year reign, the longest in European history. Events January 1 - Russia accepts Julian calendar. ... Charles II of Spain. ... King Philip V of Spain (December 19, 1683 – July 9, 1746) or Philippe of Anjou was king of Spain from 1700 to 1746, the first of the Bourbon dynasty in Spain. ... Combatants Habsburg Empire, England (1701-1706) Great Britain (1707-1714),[1] Dutch Republic, Kingdom of Portugal, Crown of Aragon, Others[2] Kingdom of France, Kingdom of Spain, Electorate of Bavaria, Hungarian Rebels Others[3] Commanders Eugene of Savoy, Margrave of Baden, Count Starhemberg, Duke of Marlborough, Marquis de Ruvigny, Count... September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years). ... Year 1715 (MDCCXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...


The reign of Louis XIV was so long that he had outlived both his son and eldest grandson. He was succeeded by his great-grandson Louis XV. Louis XV was born on February 15, 1710 and was thus aged only five at his ascension, the third Louis in a row to become king of France before the age of ten. Initially, the regency was held by the Philip, Duke of Orleans, Louis XIV's nephew, as nearest adult male to the throne. This Regency period was seen as one of debauchery and loose morals following the austere nature of the latter years of Louis XIV's reign, which had seen a series of cripplingly expensive wars and the King's turn to religiosity. Following Orleans's death in 1723, another junior Bourbon, the Duke of Bourbon, the representative of the Bourbon-Condé line, became Prime Minister. It was expected that Louis would marry his cousin, the daughter of King Philip V of Spain, but this marriage was cancelled by the duke in 1725 so that Louis could marry Maria Leszczynska, the daughter of Stanislas, former king of Poland. Bourbon's motive appears to have been a desire to produce an heir as soon as possible so as to reduce the chances of a succession dispute between Philip V and the Duke of Orleans in the event of the sickly king's death. Maria was already an adult woman at the time of the marriage, while the Infanta was still a young girl. Louis XV of France (February 15, 1710 – May 10, 1774), the Beloved (French: le Bien-Aimé), was King of France from 1715 until his death. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events April 10 - The worlds first copyright legislation became effective, Britains Statute of Anne Ongoing events Great Northern War (1700-1721) War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1713) Births January 3 - Richard Gridley, American Revolutionary soldier (d. ... Philippe of Orléans Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, Philippe Charles (August 2, 1674 – December 2, 1723) called Duke of Chartres (1674–1701), and then Duke of Orléans (1701–1723) was Regent of France from 1715 to 1723. ... Events February 16 - Louis XV of France attains his majority Births February 24 - John Burgoyne, British general (d. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ...


Nevertheless, Bourbon's action brought a very negative response from Spain, and for his incompetence Bourbon was soon replaced by Cardinal Fleury, the young king's tutor, in 1726. Fleury was a peace loving man who intended to keep France out of war, but circumstances presented themselves that made this impossible. The first cause of these wars came in 1733 when Augustus II, the elector of Saxony and king of Poland died. With French backing Stanislas was again elected king. This brought France into conflict with Russia and Austria who supported Augustus III, duke of Saxony and son of Augustus II. Stanislas lost the Polish crown, but he was given the Duchy of Lorraine as compensation, which would pass to France after his death. Next came the War of the Austrian Succession in 1740 in which France supported King Frederick II of Prussia against Maria Theresa of Austria, archduchess of Austria. Fleury died in 1743 before the conclusion of the war. Cardinal Fleury, one of many studio copies of the official portrait by Hyacinthe Rigaud Cardinal André-Hercule de Fleury, Bishop of Fréjus (June 22 or 26, 1653–January 29, 1743) was a French cardinal who served as the chief minister of Louis XV. He was born in Lodève... Reign From 1697, until 1706 and from 1709, until February 1, 1733 Elected In 1697 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation On September 15, 1697 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Royal House Wettin Parents John George III Wettin Anne Sophie Consorts  ? Children August III Sas Maurice... Reign From 1734 until October 5, 1763 Elected In 1734 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation On January 17, 1734 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Royal House Wettin Parents August II Mocny ? Consorts Marie Josepha Children Frederick Christian Date of Birth October 7, 1696 Place of... Combatants Prussia Spain France Electorate of Bavaria Kingdom of Naples Austria Great Britain Dutch Republic Electorate of Saxony Sardinia Russian Empire Commanders Frederick II Leopold I Leopold II Maurice de Saxe François-Marie de Broglie Charles VII Ludwig Khevenhüller Charles Alexander George II Charles Emmanuel III Empress Maria... Frederick II (German: ; January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) was a King of Prussia (1740–1786) from the Hohenzollern dynasty. ... Maria Theresa, Holy Roman Empress, Queen of Bohemia and Hungary, Archduchess of Austria, (German: , Hungarian: , Romanian: , Slovak: , Czech: ; May 13, 1717–November 29, 1780) was (reigning) Archduchess of Austria and Queen of Hungary and Bohemia. ...


Shortly after Fleury’s death in 1745 Louis was most influenced by his mistress the Marquise de Pompadour. She reversed the policy of France in 1756 by creating an alliance with Austria against Prussia in the Seven Years' War. The war was a disaster for France, losing most of her overseas possessions to the British in the Treaty of Paris in 1763. Great Britain replaced France as the most dominant European power. Louis’ only son died in 1765 making his grandson the Dauphin. Maria, his wife, died in 1768 and Louis himself died on May 10, 1774. Madame de Pompadours portrait Madame de Pompadour (December 29, 1721 - April 15, 1764) was the famous mistress of King Louis XV of France. ... Combatants Kingdom of Prussia Kingdom of Great Britain Electorate of Hanover Kingdom of Portugal Electorate of Brunswick Electorate of Hesse-Kassel Archduchy of Austria Kingdom of France Empire of Russia Kingdom of Sweden Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Saxony Kingdom of Naples and Sicily Kingdom of Sardinia The Seven Years... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War. ...


Early Bourbons of Spain and Italy

The Spanish branch of the House of Bourbon was founded by Philip V. He was born in 1683 in Versailles, the second son of the dauphin, the son of Louis XIV. He was the Duke of Anjou and probably never expected to be raised to a rank higher than that. However King Charles II of Spain was dying without issue and he adopted Philip as his heir, being the great grandson of King Philip IV of Spain. Having a Bourbon king on both the French and Spanish thrones disturbed the balance of power in Europe and when Charles died on November 1, 1700 a Grand Alliance of European nations united against Philip. In the Treaty of Utrecht signed on April 11, 1713 Philip was recognized as king of Spain, but Sicily was ceded to Savoy and the Spanish Netherlands, Milan and Naples went to Austria. A map depicting the major changes in Western Europes borders as a result of the Treaties of Utrecht and Rastatt. ...


Philip had two sons with his first wife. After she died he married Elizabeth Farnese, the niece of Duke Francesco of Parma, in 1714. She also gave Philip two sons and intended them to win back the lost territory in Italy. She induced Philip to occupy Sardinia and Sicily in 1717. A Quadruple Alliance of Britain, France, Austria and the Netherlands, was organized on August 2, 1718 to stop him. In the Treaty of The Hague signed on February 17, 1720 Philip renounced his claim to Sardinia and Sicily, but assured the ascension of his eldest son with Elizabeth to the Duchy of Parma upon the current duke’s death. Philip abdicated in January 1724 in favor of Louis I, his eldest son with his first wife, but Louis died in August and Philip resumed the throne. When the War of the Polish Succession began in 1733 they saw it as another opportunity to advance the claims of their sons. Philip formed the Family Compact with Louis XV, his nephew and king of France. Their son Charles, duke of Parma since 1731, invaded Naples. At the conclusion of peace on November 13, 1738 Parma was ceded to Austria in exchange for Naples and Sicily. Philip also used the War of the Austrian Succession to win more territory in Italy. He did not see it to its conclusion because he died in 1746. Elizabeth Farnese, queen of Spain Elizabeth Farnese (October 25, 1692 – July 11, 1766), Queen consort of Spain, also known as Isabel de Farnesio or Isabella Farnese, was the only daughter of Odoardo II Farnese, Duke of Parma. ... Francesco Farnese. ... The Treaty of The Hague was signed on February 17, 1720. ... King Louis of Spain - Luis in Spanish (August 25, 1707 – August 31, 1724) was the eldest son of Philip V of Spain by his first Queen consort Maria Louisa of Savoy. ... The War of the Polish Succession (1733-1738) was a European war and a Polish civil war, with considerable interference from other countries, to determine the succession to Augustus II, King of Poland, as well as an attempt by the Bourbon powers to check the power of Austria in western... The Pacte de Famille (Family Compact in English) is one of two seperate, but similar alliances between the Bourbon kings of France and Spain. ...


Ferdinand VI, the second son of Philip V and his first wife, succeeded his father. He was a peace-loving monarch who kept Spain out of the Seven Years' War. He died in 1759 in the mists of that conflict and was succeeded by his half brother Charles III. Charles was the eldest son of Philip and Elizabeth. He was born in 1716 and became the Duke of Parma when the last Farnese duke died in 1731. He conquered the kingdom of the Two Sicilies during the War of the Polish Succession and became king there as Charles IV in 1734 renouncing Parma to Austria. When he ascended to the Spanish throne he abdicated in Sicily in favor of his third son, Ferdinand. Charles revived the Family Compact with France on August 15, 1761 and joined in the Seven Years' War against Britain in 1762. He also opposed Britain during the American Revolution in June 1779. He died in 1788. Ferdinand VI, (September 23, 1713 - August 10, 1759), king of Spain from 1746 until his death, second son of Philip V, founder of the Spanish Bourbon dynasty (as opposed to the French Bourbons), by his first marriage with Maria Louisa of Savoy, was born at Madrid on September 23 1713. ... Charles III of Spain - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... King Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies (January 12, 1751 - January 4, 1825). ...


Elizabeth Farnese’s ambitions were realized at the conclusion of the War of the Austrian Succession in 1748 when Parma was ceded by Austria to her second son, Philip. Her eldest son, Charles, was already the king of the Two Sicilies. She died in 1766. Philip of Parma (March 15, 1720 - July 18, 1765) was duke of Parma from 1748 to 1765. ...


The Bourbons During the French Revolution

Louis XVI had become the dauphin of France upon the death of his father, the son of Louis XV, in 1765. He married Marie Antoinette of Austria, a daughter of Maria Theresa, in 1770. Louis intervened in the American Revolution against Britain in 1778, but he is most remembered for the French Revolution. France was in financial turmoil and Louis was forced to convene the Estates-General on May 5, 1789. They formed the National Assembly and forced Louis to accept a constitution that limited his powers on July 14, 1790. He tried to flee France in June 1791, but was captured. The French monarchy was abolished on September 21, 1792 and a republic was proclaimed. The chain of Bourbon monarchs begun in 1589 was broken. Louis XVI was executed on January 21, 1793. Louis XVI, born Louis-Auguste de France (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then as King of the French from 1791 to 1792. ... Marie-Antoinette, painted by Wagenschon shortly after her marriage in 1770 Marie-Antoinette, Queen of France and Archduchess of Austria (born 2 November 1755 – executed 16 October 1793) Daughter of Maria Theresa of Austria, wife of Louis XVI and mother of Louis XVII. She was guillotined at the height... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... The Estates-General (or States-General) of 1789 (French: Les États-Généraux de 1789) was the first meeting since 1614 of the French Estates-General, a general assembly consisting of representatives from all but the poorest segment of the French citizenry. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... During the French Revolution, the National Assembly (French: Assemblée nationale) was a transitional body between the Estates-General and the National Constituent Assembly that existed from June 17 to July 9 of 1789. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1790 (MDCCXC) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Flight to Varennes (June 20-21, 1791) was a significant episode in the French Revolution during which the French royal family attempted unsuccessfully to escape from the radical agitation of the Jacobins in Paris disguised as a Russian aristocratic family. ... September 21 is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto: (Liberty, equality, brotherhood, or death!) Anthem: La Marseillaise (unofficial) Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Republic Various  - 1792-1795 National Convention (rule by legislature)  - 1794-1799 Directory  - 1799-1804 First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte Legislature National Convention French Directory French Consulate History  - Storming of the Bastille/French Revolution 14 July... January 21 is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


Marie Antoinette and her son, Louis, were held as prisoners. Many French royalists proclaimed him Louis XVII, but he never reigned. She was executed on October 16, 1793. He died of tuberculosis on June 8, 1795 at the age of ten while in captivity. Louis XVII of France (March 27, 1785 – June 8, 1795), from birth to 1789 known as Louis-Charles, Duke of Normandy; then from 1789 to 1791 as Louis-Charles, Dauphin of Viennois; and from 1791 to 1793 as Louis-Charles, Prince Royal of France, was the son of King Louis... October 16 is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years). ... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


The French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Wars spread nationalism and anti-absolutism throughout Europe, and the other Bourbon monarchs were threatened. Ferdinand was forced to flee from Naples in 1806 when Napoleon Bonaparte deposed him and installed his brother, Joseph, as king. Ferdinand continued to rule from Sicily until 1815. Combatants Great Britain Austria Prussia Spain[1] Russia Sardinia Ottoman Empire Portugal Dutch Republic[2] France The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of major conflicts, from 1792 until 1802, fought between the French Revolutionary government and several European states. ... Combatants Austria[1] Portugal Prussia[1] Russia[2] Spain[3] Sweden United Kingdom[4] French Empire Holland Kingdom of Italy Kingdom of Naples Duchy of Warsaw Bavaria[5] Saxony[6] Denmark [7] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack von Leiberich Gebhard von Blücher Duke of Brunswick Prince of... Bonaparte as general Napoleon Bonaparte ( 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution and was the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des... Joseph Bonaparte Joseph Napoleon Bonaparte, King of Naples, King of Spain (January 7, 1768 – July 28, 1844) was the older brother of French Emperor Napoleon I, who made him King of Naples and Sicily (1806–1808) and later King of Spain. ...


Napoleon conquered Parma in 1800 and compensated the Bourbon duke with Etruria, a new kingdom he created from the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. It was short-lived when Napoleon annexed Etruria in 1807. Merchant flag of the Kingdom of Etruria. ...


King Charles IV of Spain had been an ally of France. He succeeded his father, Charles III, in 1788. At first he declared war on France on March 7, 1793, but he made peace on June 22, 1795. This peace became an alliance on August 19, 1796. His chief minister, Manuel de Godoy convinced Charles that his son, Ferdinand, was plotting to overthrow him. Napoleon exploited the situation and invaded Spain in March 1808. This led to an uprising that forced Charles to abdicate on March 19 in favor of his son, Ferdinand VII. Napoleon forced Ferdinand to return the crown to Charles on April 30 and then convinced Charles to relinquish it to him on May 10. In turn, he gave it to his brother, Joseph, king of Naples on June 6. Joseph abandoned Naples to Joachim Murat, the husband of Napoleon’s sister. This was very unpopular in Spain and resulted in the Peninsular War, a struggle that would contribute to the downfall of Napoleon. Charles IV (November 11, 1748 - January 20, 1819) was King of Spain from December 14, 1788 until his abdication on March 19, 1808. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... August 19 is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1796 (MDCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Manuel de Godoy (May 12, 1767 – October 7, 1851), Duke of Alcudia, was a Spanish statesman. ... Ferdinand VII (October 14, 1784 - September 29, 1833) was King of Spain from 1813 to 1833. ... Joachim Murat, King of Naples, Marshal of France. ... Combatants Kingdom of Spain, United Kingdom, Kingdom of Portugal French Empire The Peninsular War or Spanish War of Independence (Guerra de la Independencia Española) was a war in the Iberian Peninsula. ...


The Bourbon Restoration in France and its aftermath

The drapeau blanc, the French royal standard under the ancien Régime.
The drapeau blanc, the French royal standard under the ancien Régime.
Main article: Bourbon Restoration

With the abdication of Napoleon on April 11, 1814 the Bourbon Dynasty was restored to the kingdom of France in the person of Louis XVIII, brother of Louis XVI. Napoleon escaped from exile and Louis fled in March 1815. Louis was again restored after the Battle of Waterloo on July 7. Image File history File links Pavillon_royal_de_France. ... Image File history File links Pavillon_royal_de_France. ... Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy King  - 1814-1824 Louis XVIII  - 1824-1830 Charles X Legislature Parliament History  - Bourbon Restoration 1814  - July Revolution 21 January, 1830 Currency French Franc Following the ousting of Napoleon I of France in 1814, the Allies restored the Bourbon Dynasty to the French throne. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Louis XVIII (November 17, 1755 - September 16, 1824) was King of France and Navarre from 1814 (although he declared that he considered his reign to have begun in 1795) until his death in 1824, with a brief break in 1815 due to Napoleons return in the Hundred Days. ... Combatants First French Empire Seventh Coalition: United Kingdom Kingdom of Prussia Kingdom of the United Netherlands Kingdom of Hanover Nassau Brunswick Commanders Napoleon Bonaparte, Michel Ney Duke of Wellington, Gebhard von Blücher Strength 73,000 67,000 Coalition 60,000 Prussian (48,000 engaged by about 18:00) Casualties... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The conservative elements of Europe dominated the post-Napoleonic age, but the values of the French Revolution could not be easily swept aside. Louis granted a constitution on June 14, 1814 to appease the liberals, but the ultra-royalist party, led by his brother, Charles, continued to influence his reign. When he died in 1824 his brother became king as Charles X much to the dismay of French liberals. Talleyrand reportedly remarked of the restored Bourbon rulers that they had "learned nothing and forgotten nothing." June 14 is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Charles X (October 9, 1757 – November 6, 1836) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1824 until the French Revolution of 1830, when he abdicated. ...


Charles passed several laws that appealed to the upper class, but angered the middle class. The situation came to a head when he appointed a new minister on August 8, 1829 who did not have the confidence of the chamber. The chamber censured the king on March 18, 1830 and in response Charles proclaimed five ordinances on July 26 intended to silence criticism against him. This almost resulted in another revolution as dramatic as the one in 1789, but moderates were able to control the situation. As a compromise the crown was offered to Louis-Philippe, duke of Orleans, a descendent of the brother of Louis XIV, and the head of the Orleanist cadet branch of the Bourbons. He was proclaimed King of the French on August 7. The resulting regime, known as the July monarchy, lasted until the Revolution of 1848. The Bourbon monarchy in France ended on February 24, 1848, when Louis-Philippe was forced to abdicate and the short-lived French Second Republic was established. is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 1829 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Louis-Philippe of France (6 October 1773 – 26 August 1850) was King of the French from 1830 to 1848 in what was known as the July Monarchy. ... Orleanists comprised a French political faction or party which arose out of the Revolution, and ceased to have a separate existence shortly after the establishment of the Third Republic in 1872. ... August 7 is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The July Monarchy was established in France with the reign of Louis Philippe of France. ... Up to 1848 in France As 1848 began, liberals awaited the death of King Louis Philippe, expecting revolution after his death. ... February 24 is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ...


Some legitimists refused to recognize the Orleanist monarchy. After the death of Charles in 1836 his son was proclaimed Louis XIX, though this title was never formally recognized. Charles' grandson Henri, comte de Chambord, the last Bourbon claimant of the French crown, was proclaimed by some Henry V, but the French monarchy was never restored. Louis XIX, King of France and of Navarre (Louis-Antoine, duc dAngoulême) (August 6, 1775 – June 3, 1844) was the eldest son of the comte dArtois (later King Charles X of France) and Marie-Thérèse de Savoie. ... Henri, comte de Chambord Henri Charles Ferdinand Marie Dieudonné dArtois, comte de Chambord (September 29, 1820 – August 24, 1883) was technically King Henri V of France from July 30th to August 9, 1830. ...


Following the 1870 collapse of the empire of Emperor Napoleon III, Henri was offered a restored throne. The stubborn Chambord refused to accept the throne unless France abandoned the revolution-inspired tricolour and accepted what he regarded as the true Bourbon flag of France. The tricolour, originally associated with the French Revolution and the First French Republic, had been used by the July Monarchy, the Second Republic and both Empires; the French National Assembly could not possibly agree. A temporary Third Republic was established, while monarchists waited for the comte de Chambord to die and for the succession to pass to the Comte de Paris, who was willing to accept the tricolour. Henri lived until 1883, by which time public opinion had come to accept the republic as the "form of government that divides us least." His death without issue marked the extinction of the French Bourbons. Thus head of the House of Bourbon became the now eldest male heir of the dynasty Juan, Count of Montizón of the Spanish line of the house who was also Carlist claimant to the throne of Spain. His heir as eldest Bourbon and head of the house is today Louis Alphonse, Duke of Anjou. 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Napoléon III, born Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) was the first President of the French Republic from 1848 to 1851, then from 2 December 1851 to 2 December 1852 the ruler of a dictatorial government, then Emperor of the French under the name... Flag Ratio: 2:3 The national flag of France (Vexillological symbol: , known in French as drapeau tricolore, drapeau bleu-blanc-rouge, drapeau français, rarely, le tricolore and, in military parlance, les couleurs) is a tricolour featuring three vertical bands coloured blue (hoist side), white, and red. ... Fleurs-de-lys on the flag of Quebec The fleur-de-lis (also spelled fleur-de-lys; plural fleurs-de-lis or -lys) is used in heraldry, where it is particularly associated with the France monarchy (see King of France). ... The French people proclaimed Frances First Republic on 21 September 1792 as a result of the French Revolution and of the abolition of the French monarchy. ... The Palais Bourbon, front The French National Assembly (French: Assemblée nationale) is one of the two houses of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic. ... The French Third Republic, (in French, La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) (1870/75-10 July 1940) was the governing body of France between the Second French Empire and the Vichy Regime. ... Louis-Philippe Albert dOrléans, Comte de Paris (August 24, 1838 - September 8, 1894) was the grandson of Louis Philippe I, King of the French. ... Don Juan Carlos Maria Isidro de Borbón, Count of Montizón (French: Jean Charles Marie Isidore de Bourbon, comte de Montizón) (May 15, 1822 – November 21, 1887) was the Carlist claimant to the throne of Spain from 1860 to 1887, and the Legitimist claimant to the throne of... Carlism was a conservative political movement in Spain, purporting to establish an alternative branch of the Bourbons in the Spanish throne. ... Luis Alfonso Gonzalo Víctor Emanuel Marco de Borbón y Martínez-Bordiú, Duke of Anjou (S.A.R. Louis Alphonse de Bourbon, duc dAnjou on his French National Identity Card) (born Madrid, April 25, 1974) is considered to be the head of the French Royal House by...


By an ordinance of Louis Philippe I of France of August 13, 1830, it was decided that the king's children (and his sister) would continue to bear the arms of Orléans, that Louis-Philippe's eldest son, as Prince Royal, would bear the title of duc d'Orléans, that the younger sons would continue to have their existing titles, and that the sister and daughters of the king would only be styled "princesses d'Orléans", which meant the Orleans royalty did not take the name "of France". Louis-Philippe, King of the French (October 6, 1773 – August 26, 1850) reigned as the Orléanist king of the French from 1830 to 1848. ...


Ironically Prince Jean-Christophe Napoleon is descended from both the House of Bonaparte and the House of Bourbon {Kingdom of Two Sicilies}. Image:Jean-christophenapoleon. ... Of Corsican origin, the Bonaparte (originally Buonaparte) family is the family of Napoleon I, who was elected as first consul of France on November 10, 1799 with the help of his brother, Lucien Bonaparte, president of the Council of Five Hundred at Saint-Cloud. ... The Two Sicilies The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Italian: il Regno delle Due Sicilie) was the new name that the Bourbon King Ferdinand IV of Naples bestowed upon his domain (including Southern Italy and the island of Sicily) after the end of the Napoleonic Era and the full restoration...


Later Bourbon monarchs outside France

Upon the fall of the Napoleonic empire, Ferdinand I was restored to the throne of the kingdom of the Two Sicilies in 1815. His subjects revolted on July 2, 1820 and he was forced to grant a constitution on July 13. Austria invaded in March 1821 and revoked the constitution. He was succeeded by his son, Francis I, in 1825 and by his grandson, Ferdinand II, in 1830. Another revolution erupted on January 12, 1848 and Ferdinand was also forced to grant a constitution on February 10. This constitution was revoked in 1849. Ferdinand was succeeded by his son, Francis II, in May 1859. When Giuseppe Garibaldi captured Naples on September 7, 1860 Francis restored the constitution on July 2 in an attempt to save his sovereignty. He failed and after the capture of the fortress of Gaeta (February 13, 1861) his kingdom was incorporated in the Kingdom of Italy but only on March 17, 1861 because two other fortresses, Messina and Civitella del Tronto, surrendered on March 12, 1861 9 p.m.(Messina) and only on March 20 Civitella. (As a matter of fact, when the Commander Ascione was convinced to surrender by his King's order, there was still a group of soldiers opposed to the surrender, led by the heroic Sgt. Massinelli and the friar Leonardo Zilli. Ascione, however, succeeded in infiltrating the mutinous group on the morning of March 20 and shot Massinelli and Zilli. Thus fell the last fortress of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.) Francis I (Francesco Gennaro Giuseppe, August 14, 1777 – November 8, 1830) was King of the Two Sicilies from 1825 to 1830. ... Ferdinand II (Ferdinando Carlo, January 12, 1810 – May 22, 1859) was the King of the Two Sicilies (Southern Italy) from 1830 until his death. ... Francis II (Francesco dAssisi Maria Leopoldo, January 16, 1836 – December 27, 1894), was King of the Two Sicilies from 1859 to 1861. ... Garibaldi in 1866. ... Gaeta (ancient Latin name Caieta) is a city in Province of Latina, in Lazio, Italy. ... Messina, Italy Strait of Messina, Italy. ... Civitella del tronto is a town and comune in Teramo province, within the Abruzzo region of central Italy. ... The Two Sicilies The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Italian: il Regno delle Due Sicilie) was the new name that the Bourbon King Ferdinand IV of Naples bestowed upon his domain (including Southern Italy and the island of Sicily) after the end of the Napoleonic Era and the full restoration...


After the fall of Napoleon, Napoleon's wife, Maria Louisa, was made Duchess of Parma. As compensation, Charles Louis, the former king of Etruria, was made the Duke of Lucca. When Maria Louisa died in 1847 he was restored to Parma as Charles II. Lucca was incorporated into Tuscany. He was succeeded by his son, Charles III, and grandson, Robert I, in 1854. The people of Parma voted for a union with the kingdom of Sardinia on March 13, 1860. After Italian unification in 1861 the Bourbon dynasty in Italy was no more. ... Charles Louis (1799-1883) was the King of Etruria (1803-1807), the Duke of Lucca (1815-1847) and the Duke of Parma (1847-1848). ... Charles III was Duke of Parma from 1848 to 1854. ... Robert I Duke of Parma, Roberto I Carlo Luigi Maria Duke of Parma and Piacenza (July 9, 1848-November 16, 1907) was the son of Charles III of Parma and his wife Louise du Berry. ...


The Spanish branch of the Bourbon dynasty was the only one to survive into the 20th century. Ferdinand VII was restored to the throne of Spain after the fall of Napoleon in March 1814. Like his Italian Bourbon counterpart his subjects revolted against him in January 1820 and he was forced to grant a constitution. A French army invaded in 1823 and the constitution was revoked. Ferdinand married his fourth wife, Maria Christina, the daughter of Francis I, the Bourbon king of Sicily, in 1829. Despite his many marriages he did not have a son so on June 30, 1833 he was influenced by his wife to abolish the Salic Law so that her daughter, Isabella, could become queen depriving his brother, Don Carlos, of the throne. Maria Christina, Queen Regent of Spain Maria Christina, Princess of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, Queen of Spain (Maria Cristina Ferdinanda of the Two Sicilies branch of the Royal House of Bourbon) (April 27, 1806–August 22, 1878) was Queen Consort of Spain (1829 to 1833) and Queen Regent of Spain (1833... The King of the Franks, in the midst of the military chiefs who formed his Treuste -- or armed court, dictates the Salic Law (Code of the Barbaric Laws). ... Infante Carlos of Spain Don Carlos María Isidro Benito de Borbón, Infante of Spain (1788-1855) was the second surviving son of King Charles IV of Spain and of his wife, Maria Louisa of Parma. ...


Isabella II succeeded her father when he died on September 29, 1833. She was only three years old and Maria Cristina, her mother, served as regent. Maria knew that she needed the support of the liberals to oppose Don Carlos so she granted a constitution in 1834. Don Carlos found his greatest support in Catalonia and the Basques country because the constitution centralized the provinces thus denying them the autonomy they sought. He was defeated and fled the country in 1839. Isabella was declared of age in 1843 and she married her cousin Francisco de Asis, the son of her father’s brother, on October 10, 1846. A military revolution broke out against Isabella in 1868 and she was deposed on September 29. She abdicated in favor of her son, Alfonso, in 1870, but Spain was proclaimed a republic for a brief time. Isabella II (October 10, 1830 – April 10, 1904), Isabel II in Spanish, was Queen regnant of Spain (Queen of the Spains officially from August 13, 1836, Isabella II the queen of Castile, Leon, Aragon,...) She was born in Madrid, and was the eldest daughter of Ferdinand VII, king of Spain... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1833 (MDCCCXXXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Carlism restored the cross of Burgundy assimilated by the Spanish Bourbons throught the Spanish Habsburgs and used as flag of the Spanish empire. ... October 10 is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years). ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


When the First Spanish Republic failed the crown was offered to Isabella’s son who accepted on January 1, 1875 as Alfonso XII. Don Carlos, who returned to Spain, was again defeated and resumed his exile in February 1876. Alfonso granted a new constitution on July 1876 that was more liberal than the one granted by his grandmother. His reign was cut short when he died in 1885 at the age of twenty-eight. Flag of the Spanish First Republic The First Spanish Republic lasted only two years, between 1873 and 1874. ... Alfonso XII of Spain (November 28, 1857–November 25, 1885), was king of Spain, reigning from 1875 to 1885, after a coup détat restored the monarchy and ended the ephemeral First Spanish Republic. ... Infante Carlos of Spain Don Carlos María Isidro Benito de Borbón, Infante of Spain (1788-1855) was the second surviving son of King Charles IV of Spain and of his wife, Maria Louisa of Parma. ...


Alfonso XIII was born on May 17, 1886 after the death of his father. His mother, Maria Christina, the second wife of Alfonso XII served as regent. Alfonso XIII was declared of age in 1902 and he married Victoria Eugénie Julia Ena of Battenberg, the granddaughter of the British queen Victoria, on May 31, 1906. He remained neutral during World War I, but supported the military coup of Miguel Primo de Rivera on September 13, 1923. A movement towards the establishment of a republic began in 1930 and Alfonso fled the country on April 14, 1931. He never formally abdicated, but lived the rest of his life in exile. He died in 1941. Alfonso XIII of Spain (May 17, 1886 – February 28, 1941), King of Spain, posthumous son of Alfonso XII of Spain, was proclaimed King at his birth. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Maria Christina of Austria, Queen of Spain Maria Christina, Princess Imperia and Archduchess of Austria, Princess Royal of Hungary and Bohemia (Maria Christina Désirée Henriette Felicitas Rainiera von Habsburg-Lothringen, 21 July 1858–6 February 1929) was the second Queen consort of King Alfonso XII of Spain and... Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837, and the first Empress of India from 1 May 1876, until her death on 22 January 1901. ... May 31 is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Spanish dictator Miguel Primo de Rivera y Orbaneja Miguel Primo de Rivera y Orbaneja, Marqués de Estella (Jerez, January 8, 1870 - Paris, March 16, 1930) was a Spanish military official who ruled Spain as a dictator from 1923 to 1930, ending the turno system of alternating parties. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 14 is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 261 days remaining. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Bourbon dynasty seemed finished in Spain as in the rest of the world, but it would be resurrected. The Second Spanish Republic was overthrown in the Spanish Civil War, leading to the dictatorship of Francisco Franco. He named Juan Carlos de Borbón, a grandson of Alfonso XIII, his successor on July 22, 1969. When Franco died on November 20, 1975 a Bourbon monarch was restored to the throne of Spain two days later as Juan Carlos I. The new king oversaw the Spanish transition to democracy; the Spanish Constitution of 1978, approved on September 28, 1978, recognized the monarchy. It has been suggested that Martyrs of the Spanish Civil War be merged into this article or section. ... General Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco Bahamonde (4 December 1892–20 November[1] 1975), commonly abbreviated to Francisco Franco (pron. ... Juan Carlos I, King of Spain (baptized as Juan Carlos Alfonso Víctor María de Borbón y Borbón-Dos Sicilias) was born on January 5, 1938 in Rome and is the reigning King (Rey de España) and head of state of Spain. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Stargate SG-1 episode, see 1969 (Stargate SG-1). ... November 20 is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Spanish transition to democracy or new Bourbon restoration was the era when Spain moved from the dictatorship of Francisco Franco to a liberal democratic state. ... The Spanish Constitution of 1978 is the culmination of the Spanish transition to democracy. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ...


Though it is not as powerful as it once was under Louis XIV and it does not reign in its native country of France, it is by no means extinct, and the house of Bourbon has survived to the present day world of republics. It seems likely that it will continue as well under Juan Carlos' son, Felipe, who officially became heir apparent when he turned eighteen years old in 1986. Don Felipe, Prince of Asturias (Felipe Juan Pablo Alfonso de Todos los Santos de Borbón y de Grecia) born January 30, 1968), is the third child of King Juan Carlos and Queen Sofía of Spain. ...


List of Bourbon rulers

Monarchs of France

Dates indicate reigns, not lifetimes.

Henry IV of France, also Henry III of Navarre (13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), ruled as King of France from 1589 to 1610 and King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610. ... Events Rebellion of the Catholic League against King Henry III of France, in revenge for his murder of Duke Henry of Guise. ... // Events January 7 - Galileo Galilei discovers the Galilean moons of Jupiter. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... // Events January 7 - Galileo Galilei discovers the Galilean moons of Jupiter. ... // Events January 21 - Abel Tasman discovers Tonga February 6 - Abel Tasman discovers the Fiji islands. ... “Sun King” redirects here. ... // Events January 21 - Abel Tasman discovers Tonga February 6 - Abel Tasman discovers the Fiji islands. ... Year 1715 (MDCCXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Philippe of Orléans Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, Philippe Charles (August 2, 1674 - December 2, 1723) called Duke of Chartres (1674-1701), and then Duke of Orléans (1701-1723) was Regent of France from 1715 to 1723. ... Year 1715 (MDCCXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Events February 16 - Louis XV of France attains his majority Births February 24 - John Burgoyne, British general (d. ... Louis XV of France (February 15, 1710 – May 10, 1774), the Beloved (French: le Bien-Aimé), was King of France from 1715 until his death. ... Year 1715 (MDCCXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War. ... Louis XVI, born Louis-Auguste de France (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then as King of the French from 1791 to 1792. ... Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...

Claimants to the throne of France

Dates indicate claims, not lifetimes.

Louis XVI, born Louis-Auguste de France (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then as King of the French from 1791 to 1792. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Louis XVII of France (March 27, 1785 – June 8, 1795), from birth to 1789 known as Louis-Charles, Duke of Normandy; then from 1789 to 1791 as Louis-Charles, Dauphin of Viennois; and from 1791 to 1793 as Louis-Charles, Prince Royal of France, was the son of King Louis... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Louis XVIII (November 17, 1755 - September 16, 1824) was King of France and Navarre from 1814 (although he declared that he considered his reign to have begun in 1795) until his death in 1824, with a brief break in 1815 due to Napoleons return in the Hundred Days. ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ...

Monarchs of France

Dates indicate reigns, not lifetimes.

Louis XVIII (November 17, 1755 - September 16, 1824) was King of France and Navarre from 1814 (although he declared that he considered his reign to have begun in 1795) until his death in 1824, with a brief break in 1815 due to Napoleons return in the Hundred Days. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Charles X (October 9, 1757 – November 6, 1836) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1824 until the French Revolution of 1830, when he abdicated. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Louis XIX, King of France and of Navarre (Louis-Antoine, duc dAngoulême) (August 6, 1775 – June 3, 1844) was the eldest son of the comte dArtois (later King Charles X of France) and Marie-Thérèse de Savoie. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Louis-Philippe of France (6 October 1773 – 26 August 1850) was King of the French from 1830 to 1848 in what was known as the July Monarchy. ...

Legitimist claimants to the throne of France

Dates indicate claims, not lifetimes.

Charles X (October 9, 1757 – November 6, 1836) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1824 until the French Revolution of 1830, when he abdicated. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1836 (MDCCCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Louis XIX, King of France and of Navarre (Louis-Antoine, duc dAngoulême) (August 6, 1775 – June 3, 1844) was the eldest son of the comte dArtois (later King Charles X of France) and Marie-Thérèse de Savoie. ... Year 1836 (MDCCCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Jan. ... Henri, comte de Chambord Henri Charles Ferdinand Marie Dieudonné dArtois, comte de Chambord (September 29, 1820 – August 24, 1883) was technically King Henri V of France from July 30th to August 9, 1830. ... Jan. ... Year 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Don Juan Carlos Maria Isidro de Borbón, Count of Montizón (French: Jean Charles Marie Isidore de Bourbon, comte de Montizón) (May 15, 1822 – November 21, 1887) was the Carlist claimant to the throne of Spain from 1860 to 1887, and the Legitimist claimant to the throne of... Year 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... Carlos de Bourbon, Duke of Madrid (1848 - 1909) was the Carlist claimant to the throne of Spain, and later the Legitimist claimant to the throne of France. ... 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... 1900 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... Jacques de Bourbon, Duke of Anjou and Madrid (1870 - 1931) was the Legitimist claimant to the throne of France and the Carlist claimant to the throne of Spain. ... 1900 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Alfonso Carlos de Bourbon, Duke of San Jaime (1849 - 1936) was the Legitimist claimant to the throne of France and the Carlist claimant to the throne of Spain. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Alfonso XIII of Spain (May 17, 1886 – February 28, 1941), King of Spain, posthumous son of Alfonso XII of Spain, was proclaimed King at his birth. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Jaime Luitpold Isabelino Enrique de Borbón y Battenberg (1908-1975) was the second son of King Alfonso XIII of Spain and his wife Princess Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Alfonso de Borbón y de Dampierre (French citizen as Alphonse de Bourbon) (1936–1989), also known as the Duke of Cádiz (as he was mostly called in Spain) and Duke of Anjou, was a pretender to the French throne. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Luis Alfonso Gonzalo Víctor Emanuel Marco de Borbón y Martínez-Bordiú, Duke of Anjou (S.A.R. Louis Alphonse de Bourbon, duc dAnjou on his French National Identity Card) (born Madrid, April 25, 1974) is considered to be the head of the French Royal House by... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ...

Monarchs of Spain

Dates indicate reigns, not lifetimes. Coat of Arms of the King of Spain King of Spain redirects here. ...

King Philip V of Spain (December 19, 1683 – July 9, 1746) or Philippe of Anjou was king of Spain from 1700 to 1746, the first of the Bourbon dynasty in Spain. ... Events January 1 - Russia accepts Julian calendar. ... Events January 14 - King Philip V of Spain abdicates the throne February 20 - The premiere of Giulio Cesare, an Italian opera by George Frideric Handel, takes place in London June 23 - Treaty of Constantinople signed. ... Events January 14 - King Philip V of Spain abdicates the throne February 20 - The premiere of Giulio Cesare, an Italian opera by George Frideric Handel, takes place in London June 23 - Treaty of Constantinople signed. ... // Events Catharine de Ricci (born 1522) canonized. ... King Louis of Spain - Luis in Spanish (August 25, 1707 – August 31, 1724) was the eldest son of Philip V of Spain by his first Queen consort Maria Louisa of Savoy. ... Events January 14 - King Philip V of Spain abdicates the throne February 20 - The premiere of Giulio Cesare, an Italian opera by George Frideric Handel, takes place in London June 23 - Treaty of Constantinople signed. ... Ferdinand VI, (September 23, 1713 - August 10, 1759), king of Spain from 1746 until his death, second son of Philip V, founder of the Spanish Bourbon dynasty (as opposed to the French Bourbons), by his first marriage with Maria Louisa of Savoy, was born at Madrid on September 23 1713. ... // Events Catharine de Ricci (born 1522) canonized. ... 1759 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Charles III of Spain - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... 1759 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1788 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Charles IV (November 11, 1748 - January 20, 1819) was King of Spain from December 14, 1788 until his abdication on March 19, 1808. ... 1788 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1808 (MDCCCVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Ferdinand VII (October 14, 1784 - September 29, 1833) was King of Spain from 1813 to 1833. ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1833 (MDCCCXXXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Isabella II (October 10, 1830 – April 10, 1904), Isabel II in Spanish, was Queen regnant of Spain (Queen of the Spains officially from August 13, 1836, Isabella II the queen of Castile, Leon, Aragon,...) She was born in Madrid, and was the eldest daughter of Ferdinand VII, king of Spain... Year 1833 (MDCCCXXXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Media:Example. ... Alfonso XII of Spain (November 28, 1857–November 25, 1885), was king of Spain, reigning from 1875 to 1885, after a coup détat restored the monarchy and ended the ephemeral First Spanish Republic. ... 1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Alfonso XIII of Spain (May 17, 1886 – February 28, 1941), King of Spain, posthumous son of Alfonso XII of Spain, was proclaimed King at his birth. ... Year 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... King Juan Carlos I His Majesty King Juan Carlos I (Juan Carlos Alfonso Víctor María de Borbón y Borbón), styled HM The King (born January 5, 1938), is the reigning King of Spain. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Grand Dukes of Luxembourg

Dates indicate reigns, not lifetimes. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...

Jean I, Grand Duke of Luxembourg (Jean Benoit Guillaume Robert Antoine Louis Marie Adolphe Marc dAviano) (born January 5, 1921) ruled Luxembourg from 1964 to 2000. ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Henri, Grand Duke of Luxembourg (Henri Albért Gabriel Félix Marie Guillaume), the head of state of Luxembourg was born at Betzdorf Castle in Luxembourg 16 April 1955, the eldest son of Grand Duke Jean of Luxembourg and Grand Duchess Joséphine-Charlotte (née Princess Joséphine-Charlotte... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Other significant Bourbon branches

Duke of Bourbon is a title in the peerage of France. ... The French lordship of Montpensier (départment of Puy-de-Dôme), which became a countship in the 14th century, was sold in 1384 by Bernard and Robert de Ventadour to John, duke of Berry, whose daughter Marie brought the countship to her husband, John I, Duke of Bourbon, in... Duke of Vendôme (French: Duc de Vendôme) was a title in French peerage with connection to the House of Bourbon. ... Counts of Anjou, c. ... The Two Sicilies The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies was the new name that the Bourbon king Ferdinand IV of Naples gave to his domain (including Southern Italy and Sicily) after the end of the Napoleonic Era and the full restoration of his power in 1816. ... The Duchy of Parma was a small Italian state between 1545 and 1802, and again from 1814 to 1860. ... Duke of Orléans is one of the most important titles in the French peerage, dating back at least to the 14th century. ... On September 7, 1822, Prince Pedro of Portugal, heir apparent to the Portuguese throne and the Kings representative in Brazil, declared the countrys independence from Portugal and proclaimed himself Emperor of Brazil. ... Prince of Condé is a title in French peerage, attributed for the first time to Louis of Bourbon, brother of Antoine de Bourbon, Duke of Vendome and uncle of Henry IV of France. ... hello im katie!! who are you?? i would love 2 chat to all you people out there on earth!! so please go on www. ...

Morganatic notable branches of Bourbon

  • Bourbon-Galliera
  • Bourbon-Sevilla

A morganatic marriage is a type of marriage which can be contracted in certain countries, usually between persons of unequal social rank (unebenbürtig in German), which prevents the passage of the husbands titles and privileges to the wife and any children born of the marriage. ...

Illegitimate notable branches of Bourbon

  • Bourbon-Busset
  • Bourbon-Vendome
  • Bourbon du Maine
  • Bourbon-Penthievre

The line of de Bourbon de Busset is a branch of the Capetian dynasty and of the House of Bourbon. ...

Further reading

  • Bergamini, John D. The Spanish Bourbons: The History of a Tenacious Dynasty. Putnam, 1974.
  • Petrie, Sir Charles. The Spanish Royal House. Geoffrey Bles, 1958.
  • Seward, Desmond. The Bourbon Kings of France. Barnes & Noble, 1976.
  • Van Kerrebrouck, Patrick. La Maison de Bourbon, 1256-1987. ___v. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France: The Author, 1987–2000. [only Vol. 2 & Vol. 4 have been published as of 2005]

See also

*Royal House*
House of Bourbon
Cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty
Preceded by
House of Valois
Ruling House of France
15891792
Monarchy Abolished
See French Revolution;

eventually House of Bonaparte
Preceded by
House of Bonaparte
Ruled as French Emperor
Ruling House of France
18141830
Succeeded by
House of Orléans
Preceded by
House of Habsburg
Ruling House of Duchy of Burgundy
17001713
Succeeded by
House of Habsburg
Ruling House of Spain
17001808
Succeeded by
House of Bonaparte
Vacant
Title last held by
House of Trastámara
Ruling House of Naples and Sicily
17531806
Preceded by
House of Bonaparte
Ruling House of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
18151860
Kingdom Abolished
Italian Unification under the House of Savoy
Ruling House of Spain
18131868
Interregnum
Bourbon Monarchy overthrown in Glorious Revolution;

eventually House of Savoy
Vacant
Title last held by
House of Savoy
Ruling House of Spain
18851931
Second Republic Declared
Vacant
Title last held by
House of Bourbon
Ruling House of Spain
1975 – present
Incumbent
Preceded by
House of Nassau-Weilburg
Ruling House of Luxembourg
1964 – present
Chronology of French monarchs from 987 to 1870
Medieval FranceHouse of Capet

Hugues (987-996) • Robert II (996-1031) • Henri I (1031-1060) • Philippe I (1060-1108) • Louis VI (1108-1137) • Louis VII (1137-1180) • Philippe II (1180-1223) • Louis VIII (1223-1226) • Louis IX (1226-1270) • Philippe III (1270-1285) • Philippe IV (1285-1314) • Louis X (1314-1316) • Jean I (1316) • Philippe V (1316-1322) • Charles IV (1322-1328) • Philippe VI (1328-1350) • Jean II (1350-1364) • Charles V (1364-1380) • Charles VI (1380-1422) • Charles VII (1422-1461) • Louis XI (1461-1483) • Charles VIII (1483-1498) Coronation of Louis VIII and Blanche of Castile at Reims in 1223; a miniature from the Grandes Chroniques de France, painted in the 1450s, kept at the National Library of France See also List of Queens and Empresses of France The monarchs of France ruled, first as kings and later... This is a list of Spanish monarchs—that is, rulers of the country of Spain in the modern sense of the word. ... This is a list of non-ruling members of the French royal family. ... This is the Kings of France family tree, including all kings, from Charles Magne to the advent of the Republic. ... This is a simplified Family tree of the House of Bourbon, from the first duke of Bourbon, to present day, where family representatives are the kings of Spain and heirs to the throne of France. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2334x765, 127 KB) The Dynastic Links Between The Royal Houses Of Habsburg, Bourbon, Bourbon-Parma and Bourbon-Two Sicilies Drawn by M.Lawrenson File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this... The French Wars of Religion were a series of conflicts fought between Catholics and Huguenots (Protestants) from the middle of the sixteenth century to the Edict of Nantes in 1598, including civil infighting as well as military operations. ... Bourbons of India are supposedly descendants of Jean Philippe de Bourbon Navarre, apparently a nephew or cousin of Henry IV of France [1], [2]. In 1560, Jean Philippe apparently (according to family tradition) arrived in the court of Mugal emperor Akbar, having endured hair-raising and exciting adventures involving pirates... Legitimists are Royalists in France who believe that the King of France and Navarre must be chosen according to the simple application of the Salic Law. ... Carlism restored the cross of Burgundy assimilated by the Spanish Bourbons throught the Spanish Habsburgs and used as flag of the Spanish empire. ... A Royal House or Dynasty is a sort of family name used by royalty. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with House of Capet. ... The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. ... // For other uses, see Dynasty (disambiguation). ... Events Rebellion of the Catholic League against King Henry III of France, in revenge for his murder of Duke Henry of Guise. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Of Corsican origin, the Bonaparte (originally Buonaparte) family is the family of Napoleon I, who was elected as first consul of France on November 10, 1799 with the help of his brother, Lucien Bonaparte, president of the Council of Five Hundred at Saint-Cloud. ... Of Corsican origin, the Bonaparte (originally Buonaparte) family is the family of Napoleon I, who was elected as first consul of France on November 10, 1799 with the help of his brother, Lucien Bonaparte, president of the Council of Five Hundred at Saint-Cloud. ... Map of the First French Empire in 1811, with the Empire in dark blue and satellite states in light blue Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1804 - 1814/1815 Napoleon I  - 1814/1815 Napoleon II Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif Historical era Napoleonic... // For other uses, see Dynasty (disambiguation). ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Duke of Orléans is one of the most important titles in the French peerage, dating back at least to the 14th century. ... Habsburg (sometimes spelled Hapsburg, but never so in official use) was one of the major ruling houses of Europe. ... // For other uses, see Dynasty (disambiguation). ... A map of the Imperial Circles as at the beginning of the 16th century The Burgundian Circle (in German, Burgundischer Reichskreis) was an Imperial Circle of the Holy Roman Empire. ... Events January 1 - Russia accepts Julian calendar. ... Year 1713 (MDCCXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Habsburg (sometimes spelled Hapsburg, but never so in official use) was one of the major ruling houses of Europe. ... // For other uses, see Dynasty (disambiguation). ... Events January 1 - Russia accepts Julian calendar. ... Year 1808 (MDCCCVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Of Corsican origin, the Bonaparte (originally Buonaparte) family is the family of Napoleon I, who was elected as first consul of France on November 10, 1799 with the help of his brother, Lucien Bonaparte, president of the Council of Five Hundred at Saint-Cloud. ... The House of Trastámara was a dynasty of kings, of Spanish origin, which governed in Castile from 1369 to 1504, in Aragón from 1412 to 1516, in Navarre from 1425 to 1479, and in Naples from 1442 to 1501. ... // For other uses, see Dynasty (disambiguation). ... The Kingdom of Naples was born out of the division of the Kingdom of Sicily after the Sicilian Vespers rebellion of 1282. ... Flag The Kingdom of Sicily as it existed at the death of its founder, Roger II of Sicily, in 1154. ... 1753 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Of Corsican origin, the Bonaparte (originally Buonaparte) family is the family of Napoleon I, who was elected as first consul of France on November 10, 1799 with the help of his brother, Lucien Bonaparte, president of the Council of Five Hundred at Saint-Cloud. ... // For other uses, see Dynasty (disambiguation). ... The Two Sicilies The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies was the new name that the Bourbon king Ferdinand IV of Naples gave to his domain (including Southern Italy and Sicily) after the end of the Napoleonic Era and the full restoration of his power in 1816. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... Italian unification (called in Italian the Risorgimento, or Resurgence) was the political and social process that unified disparate states of the Italian peninsula into the single nation of Italy. ... The House of Savoy or in Italian, La Casa di Savoia, or simply Casa Savoia, (or Savoie, French) is a dynasty of nobles who traditionally had their domain in Savoy, a region that includes present-day Piemonte, other parts of Northern Italy, and a smaller region in France. ... // For other uses, see Dynasty (disambiguation). ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... Media:Example. ... Queen Isabella II of Spain in exile at Paris Juan Prim, Spanish general. ... The House of Savoy or in Italian, La Casa di Savoia, or simply Casa Savoia, (or Savoie, French) is a dynasty of nobles who traditionally had their domain in Savoy, a region that includes present-day Piemonte, other parts of Northern Italy, and a smaller region in France. ... The House of Savoy or in Italian, La Casa di Savoia, or simply Casa Savoia, (or Savoie, French) is a dynasty of nobles who traditionally had their domain in Savoy, a region that includes present-day Piemonte, other parts of Northern Italy, and a smaller region in France. ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Anthem El Himno de Riego Capital Madrid Language(s) Spanish Government Republic President¹  - 1931 Niceto Alcalá-Zamora  - 1937-1939 Juan Negrín Legislature Congress of Deputies Historical era Interwar period  - Monarchy abolished April 14, 1931  - Spanish Civil War 1936-1939  - Surrender to Franco April 1, 1939 Currency Spanish peseta ¹ Formal... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Flag of Nassau-Weilburg Nassau-Weilburg were a state in the current Germany which had existed from 1344 to 1816. ... // For other uses, see Dynasty (disambiguation). ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... Coronation of Louis VIII and Blanche of Castile at Reims in 1223; a miniature from the Grandes Chroniques de France, painted in the 1450s, kept at the National Library of France See also List of Queens and Empresses of France The monarchs of France ruled, first as kings and later... Events Hugh Capet, Count of Paris, crowned King of France Kukulcan conquers Chichen Itza Births Deaths May 21 King Louis V of France Categories: 987 ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Image File history File links ÃŽle-de-France_flag. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The House of Capet includes any of the direct descendants of Robert the Strong. ... Hugh Capet[1] (c. ... Events Hugh Capet, Count of Paris, crowned King of France Kukulcan conquers Chichen Itza Births Deaths May 21 King Louis V of France Categories: 987 ... Events March/April - Pope John XV dies before being being able to coronate Otto III, King of Germany as Holy Roman Emperor. ... Robert II the Pious (French: Robert II le Pieux) (March 27, 972 – July 20, 1031) was King of France from 996 to 1031. ... Events March/April - Pope John XV dies before being being able to coronate Otto III, King of Germany as Holy Roman Emperor. ... Events Collapse of the Moorish Caliphate of Córdoba. ... Henry I (French: Henri Ier) (May 4, 1008–August 4, 1060) was King of France from 1031 to 1060. ... Events Collapse of the Moorish Caliphate of Córdoba. ... Events May - The Norman leader Robert Guiscard conquers Taranto. ... Philip I (French: Philippe Ier) (May 23, 1052 – July 29, 1108) was King of France from 1060 to 1108. ... Events May - The Norman leader Robert Guiscard conquers Taranto. ... Events May - Battle of Ucles Consecration of Chichester cathedral Saint Magnus becomes the first earl of Orkney In Pistoia, Italy, Cathedral of San Zeno burned to the ground. ... Louis VI the Fat (French: Louis VI le Gros) (December 1, 1081 – August 1, 1137) was King of France from 1108 to 1137. ... Events May - Battle of Ucles Consecration of Chichester cathedral Saint Magnus becomes the first earl of Orkney In Pistoia, Italy, Cathedral of San Zeno burned to the ground. ... // Groups BL1137 is the (now defunct) Unix group at Bell Labs in Murray Hill, NJ where Unix and C were invented. ... Louis VII the Younger (French: Louis VII le Jeune) (1120 – September 18, 1180) was King of France from 1137 to 1180. ... // Groups BL1137 is the (now defunct) Unix group at Bell Labs in Murray Hill, NJ where Unix and C were invented. ... Events April 13 - Frederick Barbarossa issues the Gelnhausen Charter November 18 - France Emperor Antoku succeds Emperor Takakura as emperor of Japan Afonso I of Portugal is taken prisoner by Ferdinand II of Leon Artois is annexed by France Prince Mochihito amasses a large army and instigates the Genpei War between... Philip II Augustus (French: Philippe II Auguste) (August 21, 1165 – July 14, 1223), was King of France from 1180 to 1223. ... Events April 13 - Frederick Barbarossa issues the Gelnhausen Charter November 18 - France Emperor Antoku succeds Emperor Takakura as emperor of Japan Afonso I of Portugal is taken prisoner by Ferdinand II of Leon Artois is annexed by France Prince Mochihito amasses a large army and instigates the Genpei War between... // Events August 6 - Louis VIII is crowned King of France. ... Louis VIII the Lion (5 September 1187 – 8 November 1226) reigned as King of France from 1223 to 1226. ... // Events August 6 - Louis VIII is crowned King of France. ... Events Carmelite Order approved by Pope Honorius III Frederick II calls Imperial Diet of Cremona Births June 21 - King Boleslaus V of Poland (died 1279) Abul-Faraj, Syriac scholar (died 1286) Bar-Hebraeus, Syriac historian and bishop (died 1286) Deaths March 7 - William de Longespee, 3rd Earl of Salisbury, English... Louis IX (25 April 1215 – 25 August 1270), commonly Saint Louis, was King of France from 1226 to his death. ... Events Carmelite Order approved by Pope Honorius III Frederick II calls Imperial Diet of Cremona Births June 21 - King Boleslaus V of Poland (died 1279) Abul-Faraj, Syriac scholar (died 1286) Bar-Hebraeus, Syriac historian and bishop (died 1286) Deaths March 7 - William de Longespee, 3rd Earl of Salisbury, English... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... Philip III the Bold (French: Philippe III le Hardi) (30 April 1245 – 5 October 1285) reigned as King of France from 1270 to 1285. ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... Philip IV the Fair (French: Philippe IV le Bel) (1268 – November 29, 1314) was King of France from 1285 until his death. ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... Events June 24 - Battle of Bannockburn. ... Louis X of France Louis X the Quarreller, also called the Headstrong or the Stubborn, (French: Louis X le Hutin, Spanish: Luis el Obstinado) (October 4, 1289 – June 5, 1316), King of France from 1314 to 1316, was a member of the Capetian Dynasty. ... Events June 24 - Battle of Bannockburn. ... Events Pope John XXII elected to the papacy. ... John I the Posthumous (French: Jean Ier le Posthume) (November 15, 1316 – November 20, 1316) was King of France for the five days he lived. ... Events Pope John XXII elected to the papacy. ... Philip V the Tall (French: Philippe V le Long) (1293 - January 3, 1322) was King of France from 1316 to 1322, a member of the Capetian dynasty. ... Events Pope John XXII elected to the papacy. ... Events September 27/September 28 - Battle of Ampfing, often called the last battle of knights, in which Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor defeats Frederick I of Austria Births January 11 - Emperor Komyo of Japan (died 1380) Deaths January 3 - King Philip V of France (born 1293) March 16 - Humphrey de... Charles IV of France, also Charles I of Navarre, called the Fair (French: le Bel) (11 December 1294 – 1 February 1328), was the King of France and Navarre and Count of Champagne from 1322 to his death: the last French king of the senior Capetian lineage. ... Events September 27/September 28 - Battle of Ampfing, often called the last battle of knights, in which Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor defeats Frederick I of Austria Births January 11 - Emperor Komyo of Japan (died 1380) Deaths January 3 - King Philip V of France (born 1293) March 16 - Humphrey de... Events Augustiner brew Munich May 1 - Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton - England recognises Scotland as an independent nation after the Wars of Scottish Independence May 12 - Nicholas V is consecrated at St Peters Basilica in Rome by the bishop of Venice. ... Philip VI of France Philip VI of Valois (French: Philippe VI de Valois; 1293 – August 22, 1350) was the King of France from 1328 to his death, and Count of Anjou, Maine, and Valois 1325–1328. ... Events Augustiner brew Munich May 1 - Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton - England recognises Scotland as an independent nation after the Wars of Scottish Independence May 12 - Nicholas V is consecrated at St Peters Basilica in Rome by the bishop of Venice. ... Events 29 August - An English fleet personally commanded by King Edward III defeats a Spanish fleet in the battle of Les Espagnols sur Mer. ... John II the Good (French: Jean II le Bon) (April 16, 1319 – April 8, 1364), was King of France 1350–1364, Duke of Normandy and Count of Anjou and Maine 1332–1350, Count of Poitiers 1344–1350, and Duke of Guienne 1345–1350. ... Events 29 August - An English fleet personally commanded by King Edward III defeats a Spanish fleet in the battle of Les Espagnols sur Mer. ... Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Decades: 1310s 1320s 1330s 1340s 1350s - 1360s - 1370s 1380s 1390s 1400s 1410s Years: 1359 1360 1361 1362 1363 - 1364 - 1365 1366 1367 1368 1369 See also: 1364 state leaders Events Charles V becomes King of France. ... Charles V the Wise (French: Charles V le Sage) (January 21, 1338 – September 16, 1380) was king of France from 1364 to 1380 and a member of the Valois Dynasty. ... Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Decades: 1310s 1320s 1330s 1340s 1350s - 1360s - 1370s 1380s 1390s 1400s 1410s Years: 1359 1360 1361 1362 1363 - 1364 - 1365 1366 1367 1368 1369 See also: 1364 state leaders Events Charles V becomes King of France. ... September 8 - Battle of Kulikovo - Russian forces under Grand Prince Dmitri Donskoi of Moscow resist a large invasion by the Blue Horde, Lithuania and Ryazan, stopping their advance at Kulikovo. ... Charles VI Charles VI the Well-Beloved, later known as the Mad (French: Charles VI le Bien-Aimé, later known as le Fol) (December 3, 1368 – October 21, 1422) was a King of France (1380 – 1422) and a member of the Valois Dynasty. ... September 8 - Battle of Kulikovo - Russian forces under Grand Prince Dmitri Donskoi of Moscow resist a large invasion by the Blue Horde, Lithuania and Ryazan, stopping their advance at Kulikovo. ... Events January 10 - Battle of Nemecky Brod during the Hussite Wars. ... Charles VII the Victorious, a. ... Events January 10 - Battle of Nemecky Brod during the Hussite Wars. ... Events February 2 - Battle of Mortimers Cross - Yorkist troops led by Edward, Duke of York defeat Lancastrians under Owen Tudor and his son Jasper Tudor, Earl of Pembroke in Wales. ... Louis XI the Prudent (French: Louis XI le Prudent) (July 3, 1423 – August 30, 1483), also informally nicknamed luniverselle aragne (old French for universal spider), or the Spider King, was King of France (1461–1483). ... Events February 2 - Battle of Mortimers Cross - Yorkist troops led by Edward, Duke of York defeat Lancastrians under Owen Tudor and his son Jasper Tudor, Earl of Pembroke in Wales. ... Events The São Tomé settlement is founded. ... Charles VIII the Affable (French: Charles VIII lAffable) (June 30, 1470 – April 7, 1498) was King of France from 1483 to his death. ... Events The São Tomé settlement is founded. ... 1498 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Early Modern FranceHouse of Valois

Louis XII (1498-1515) • François I (1515-1547) • Henri II (1547-1559) • François II (1559-1560) • Charles IX (1560-1574) • Henri III (1574-1589) Image File history File links Flag_of_Royalist_France. ... Early Modern France is the portion of French history that falls in the early modern period from the end of the 15th century to the end of the 18th century (or from the French Renaissance to the eve of the French Revolution). ... The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. ... Louis XII (b. ... 1498 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1515 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Francis I (François Ier in French) (September 12, 1494 – March 31, 1547), called the Father and Restorer of Letters (le Père et Restaurateur des Lettres), was crowned King of France in 1515 in the cathedral at Reims and reigned until 1547. ... 1515 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1547 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Henry II (French: Henri II) (March 31, 1519 – July 10, 1559), a member of the Valois Dynasty, was King of France from March 31, 1547, until his death. ... Year 1547 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... January 15 - Elizabeth I of England is crowned in Westminster Abbey. ... Francis II (French: François II) (January 19, 1544 – December 5, 1560) was a King of France (1559 – 1560). ... January 15 - Elizabeth I of England is crowned in Westminster Abbey. ... Events February 27 - The Treaty of Berwick, which would expel the French from Scotland, is signed by England and the Congregation of Scotland The first tulip bulb was brought from Turkey to the Netherlands. ... Charles IX (June 27, 1550 – May 30, 1574) born Charles-Maximilien, was a member of the Valois Dynasty, King of France from 1560 until his death. ... Events February 27 - The Treaty of Berwick, which would expel the French from Scotland, is signed by England and the Congregation of Scotland The first tulip bulb was brought from Turkey to the Netherlands. ... Year 1574 was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Henry III (French: Henri III; September 19, 1551 – August 2, 1589), born Alexandre-Édouard, was a member of the Valois Dynasty, King of France from May 30, 1574 until his death. ... Year 1574 was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Events Rebellion of the Catholic League against King Henry III of France, in revenge for his murder of Duke Henry of Guise. ...

Early Modern FranceHouse of Bourbon

Henri IV (1589-1610) • Louis XIII (1610-1643) • Louis XIV (1643-1715) • Louis XV (1715-1774) • Louis XVI (1774-1792) Image File history File links Flag_of_Royalist_France. ... Early Modern France is the portion of French history that falls in the early modern period from the end of the 15th century to the end of the 18th century (or from the French Renaissance to the eve of the French Revolution). ... Henry IV of France, also Henry III of Navarre (13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), ruled as King of France from 1589 to 1610 and King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610. ... Events Rebellion of the Catholic League against King Henry III of France, in revenge for his murder of Duke Henry of Guise. ... // Events January 7 - Galileo Galilei discovers the Galilean moons of Jupiter. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... // Events January 7 - Galileo Galilei discovers the Galilean moons of Jupiter. ... // Events January 21 - Abel Tasman discovers Tonga February 6 - Abel Tasman discovers the Fiji islands. ... “Sun King” redirects here. ... // Events January 21 - Abel Tasman discovers Tonga February 6 - Abel Tasman discovers the Fiji islands. ... Year 1715 (MDCCXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Louis XV of France (February 15, 1710 – May 10, 1774), the Beloved (French: le Bien-Aimé), was King of France from 1715 until his death. ... Year 1715 (MDCCXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War. ... Louis XVI, born Louis-Auguste de France (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then as King of the French from 1791 to 1792. ... Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...

First Republic
First EmpireHouse of Bonaparte

Napoléon I (1804-1814) Motto: (Liberty, equality, brotherhood, or death!) Anthem: La Marseillaise (unofficial) Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Republic Various  - 1792-1795 National Convention (rule by legislature)  - 1794-1799 Directory  - 1799-1804 First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte Legislature National Convention French Directory French Consulate History  - Storming of the Bastille/French Revolution 14 July... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Map of the First French Empire in 1811, with the Empire in dark blue and satellite states in light blue Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1804 - 1814/1815 Napoleon I  - 1814/1815 Napoleon II Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif Historical era Napoleonic... The original arms of the Buonapartes Bonaparte is a French family name that is of Italian origin. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... 1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ...

Bourbon Restoration IHouse of Bourbon

Louis XVIII (1814-1815) Image File history File links Flag_of_Royalist_France. ... Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy King  - 1814-1824 Louis XVIII  - 1824-1830 Charles X Legislature Parliament History  - Bourbon Restoration 1814  - July Revolution 21 January, 1830 Currency French Franc Following the ousting of Napoleon I of France in 1814, the Allies restored the Bourbon Dynasty to the French throne. ... Louis XVIII (November 17, 1755 - September 16, 1824) was King of France and Navarre from 1814 (although he declared that he considered his reign to have begun in 1795) until his death in 1824, with a brief break in 1815 due to Napoleons return in the Hundred Days. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ...

Hundred DaysHouse of Bonaparte

Napoléon I (1815) • Napoléon II (1815) Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Hundred Days (French Cent-Jours) or the Waterloo Campaign commonly refers to the period between 20 March 1815, the date on which Napoleon Bonaparte arrived in Paris after his return from Elba, and 8 July 1815, the date of the restoration of King Louis XVIII. The phrase Cent jours... The original arms of the Buonapartes Bonaparte is a French family name that is of Italian origin. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... Napoleon II, Duke of Reichstadt (March 20, 1811 – July 22, 1832) was the son of Napoleon Bonaparte, and briefly the second Emperor of the French. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ...

Bourbon Restoration IIHouse of Bourbon

Louis XVIII (1815-1824) • Charles X (1824-1830) • Louis XIX (1830) • Henri V (1830) Image File history File links Flag_of_Royalist_France. ... Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy King  - 1814-1824 Louis XVIII  - 1824-1830 Charles X Legislature Parliament History  - Bourbon Restoration 1814  - July Revolution 21 January, 1830 Currency French Franc Following the ousting of Napoleon I of France in 1814, the Allies restored the Bourbon Dynasty to the French throne. ... Louis XVIII (November 17, 1755 - September 16, 1824) was King of France and Navarre from 1814 (although he declared that he considered his reign to have begun in 1795) until his death in 1824, with a brief break in 1815 due to Napoleons return in the Hundred Days. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Charles X (October 9, 1757 – November 6, 1836) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1824 until the French Revolution of 1830, when he abdicated. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Louis XIX, King of France and of Navarre (Louis-Antoine, duc dAngoulême) (August 6, 1775 - June 3, 1844) was the eldest son of the comte dArtois (later King Charles X of France). ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Henri, comte de Chambord Henri Charles Ferdinand Marie Dieudonné dArtois, comte de Chambord (September 29, 1820 – August 24, 1883) was technically King Henri V of France from July 30th to August 9, 1830. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...

July MonarchyHouse of Orléans

Louis-Philippe (1830-1848) Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The July Monarchy was established in France with the reign of Louis Philippe of France. ... Duke of Orléans is one of the most important titles in the French peerage, dating back at least to the 14th century. ... Louis-Philippe of France (6 October 1773 – 26 August 1850) was King of the French from 1830 to 1848 in what was known as the July Monarchy. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

Second Republic
Second EmpireHouse of Bonaparte

Napoléon III (1852-1870) This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Map of the French Second Empire Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1852-1870 Napoleon III Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif History  - French coup of 1851 December 2 1851  - Established 1852  - Disestablished September 4, 1870 Currency French Franc The Second French Empire or... The original arms of the Buonapartes Bonaparte is a French family name that is of Italian origin. ... Napoléon III, born Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) was the first President of the French Republic from 1848 to 1851, then from 2 December 1851 to 2 December 1852 the ruler of a dictatorial government, then Emperor of the French under the name... 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

Third Republic
List of French monarchsList of Queens and Empresses of France — History of France

  Results from FactBites:
 
House of Bourbon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4672 words)
Bourbon monarchs ruled Navarre (from 1555) and France (from 1589) until the 1792 overthrow of the monarchy during the French Revolution.
The House of Bourbon as a noble family dates at least from the beginning of the 13th century, when the estate of Bourbon was ruled by a Lord who was a vassal of the King of France.
The Spanish branch of the House of Bourbon was founded by Philip V. He was born in 1683 in Versailles, the second son of the dauphin, the son of Louis XIV.
House of Bourbon - definition of House of Bourbon in Encyclopedia (545 words)
The House of Bourbon dates from at least the beginning of the 13th century, when the estate of Bourbon was ruled by a Lord, vassal of France.
With the course of time, the House of Bourbon would become one of the most powerful ruling families of Europe, with its members becoming monarchs of Navarre, France, Spain and southern Italy and rulers of several important duchies.
The Bourbons first became an important family in 1268, with the marriage of Robert, Count of Clermont, sixth son of king Louis IX of France, to Beatrice of Burgundy, heiress to the lordship of Bourbon.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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