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Encyclopedia > House Sparrow
House Sparrow
Birdsong (help·info)
Birdsong 
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Passeridae
Genus: Passer
Species: P. domesticus
Binomial name
Passer domesticus
(Linnaeus, 1758)

The House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) is a member of the Old World sparrow family Passeridae, and is, somewhat controversially, considered a relative of the Weaver Finch Family. It occurs naturally in most of Europe and much of Asia. It has also followed humans all over the world and has been intentionally or accidentally introduced to most of the Americas, sub-Saharan Africa, New Zealand and Australia as well as urban areas in other parts of the world. It is now the most widely distributed wild bird on the planet.[1][2] In the United States it is also colloquially known as the English Sparrow to distinguish it from native species. Image File history File links Passer_domesticus. ... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species remaining extant either in the present day or the near future. ... Least Concern (LC) is an IUCN category assigned to extant species or lower taxa which have been evaluated but do not qualify for any other category. ... Scientific classification redirects here. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... Families Many, see text A passerine is a bird of the giant order Passeriformes. ... For other uses, see Sparrow (disambiguation). ... Species Many, see text Passer is a genus of Old World sparrows. ... Latin name redirects here. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... For other uses, see Old World (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Sparrow (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Sparrow (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... Satellite image of Africa, showing the ecological break that defines the sub-Saharan area Sub-Saharan Africa is a geographical term used to describe the area of the African continent which lies south of the Sahara, or those African countries which are fully or partially located south of the Sahara. ... Genera Arremon Arremonops Melozone Pipilo Aimophila Oriturus Torreornis Spizella Pooecetes Chondestes Amphispiza Calamospiza Passerculus Ammodramus Passerella Xenospiza Melospiza Zonotrichia Junco American sparrows are a group of mainly New World passerine birds forming part of the family Emberizidae. ...


Wherever people build, House Sparrows sooner or later come to share their abodes. Though described as tame and semi-domestic, neither is strictly true; humans provide food and home, not companionship. The House Sparrow remains wary of man. Dogs and sheep were among the first animals to be domesticated. ... Synanthropes are animals who/which are not domesticated but live in the vicinity of humans. ...

Contents

Description

A male singing
A male singing
Average House Sparrow
Female
Female
Immature
Immature
Mating
Mating
Female feeding juvenile
Female feeding juvenile
Chick
Chick

This 14 to 16 centimetre long bird is abundant in temperate climates, but not universally common; in many hilly districts it is scarce. In cities, towns and villages, even around isolated farms, it can be the most abundant bird. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3264 × 2448 pixels, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3264 × 2448 pixels, file size: 2. ... house sparrow This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ... house sparrow This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 572 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): House Sparrow Metadata This file contains... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 572 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): House Sparrow Metadata This file contains...


The male House Sparrow has a grey crown, cheeks and underparts, black on the throat, upper breast and between the bill and eyes. The bill in summer is blue-black, and the legs are brown. In winter the plumage is dulled by pale edgings, and the bill is yellowish brown. The female has no black on head or throat, nor a grey crown; her upperparts are streaked with brown. The juveniles are deeper brown, and the white is replaced by buff; the beak is dull yellow. The House Sparrow is often confused with the smaller and slimmer Tree Sparrow, which, however, has a chestnut and not grey crown, two distinct wing bars, and a black patch on each cheek. For other uses, see Feather (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Passer montanus (Linnaeus, 1758) The Tree Sparrow, Passer montanus, breeds over most of Europe and Siberia, and allied forms occur in other parts of Asia. ...


The House Sparrow is gregarious at all seasons in its nesting colonies, when feeding and in communal roosts. Deep cup nest of the Great Reed-warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) A bird nest is the spot in which a bird lays and incubates its eggs and raises its young. ...


Although the Sparrows' young are fed on the larvae of insects, often destructive species, this species eats seeds, including grain where it is available. A larval insect A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... The word grain has several meanings, most being descriptive of a small piece or particle. ...


In spring, flowers — especially those with yellow colours — are often eaten; crocuses, primroses and aconites seem to attract the house sparrow most. The bird will also hunt butterflies. For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... Species See text. ... Binomial name Huds. ... Species About 60: see text Aconitum is a genus of plants belonging to the buttercup family Ranunculaceae. ... Superfamilies and families Superfamily Hedyloidea: Hedylidae Superfamily Hesperioidea: Hesperiidae Superfamily Papilionoidea: Papilionidae Pieridae Nymphalidae Lycaenidae Riodinidae A butterfly is an insect of the order Lepidoptera. ...


The Sparrow's most common call is a short and incessant chirp. It also has a double call note phillip which originated the now obsolete name of "phillip sparrow". While the young are in their nests, the older birds utter a long churr. At least three broods are reared in the season.


The common, but declining House Sparrow was the most common garden bird in 2006, calculated by the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB)


Nesting

The nesting site is varied; under eaves, in holes in masonry or rocks, in ivy or creepers on houses or banks, on the sea-cliffs, or in bushes in bays and inlets. When built in holes or ivy, the nest is an untidy litter of straw and rubbish, abundantly filled with feathers. Large, well-constructed domed nests are often built when the bird nests in trees or shrubs, especially in rural areas. Species Hedera algeriensis – Algerian Ivy Hedera azorica – Azores Ivy Hedera canariensis – Canaries Ivy Hedera caucasigena Hedera colchica – Caucasian Ivy Hedera cypria Hedera helix – Common Ivy Hedera hibernica – Irish Ivy Hedera maderensis – Madeiran Ivy Hedera maroccana Hedera nepalensis – Himalayan Ivy Hedera pastuchowii – Pastuchovs Ivy Hedera rhombea – Japanese Ivy Hedera sinensis... Parthenocissus is a genus of climbing plants from the grape family, Vitaceae. ...


The House Sparrow is quite aggressive in usurping the nesting sites of other birds, often forcibly evicting the previous occupants, and sometimes even building a new nest directly on top of another active nest with live nestlings. House Martins, Bluebirds, and Sand Martins are especially susceptible to this behavior. However, though this tendency has occasionally been observed in its native habitats (particularly concerning House Martins), it appears to be far more common in habitats in which it has been introduced, such as North America. Binomial name Delichon urbica (Linnaeus, 1758) The House Martin (Delichon urbica) is a migratory passerine of the family Hiruninidae. ... Species Sialia sialis Sialia mexicana Sialia currucoides Mountain Bluebird Western Bluebird The bluebirds are medium-sized, mostly insectivorous or omnivorous birds in the genus Sialia of the thrush family Turdidae. ... Binomial name Riparia riparia (Linnaeus, 1758) The Sand Martin (Riparia riparia) is a migratory passerine bird in the swallow family. ... North American redirects here. ...


Five to six eggs, profusely dusted, speckled or blotched with black, brown or ash-grey on a blue-tinted or creamy white ground, are usual types of the very variable eggs. They are variable in size and shape as well as markings. Eggs are incubated by the female. The House Sparrow has the shortest incubation period of all the birds: 10-12 days and a female can lay 25 eggs a summer in New England. In most birds and reptiles, an egg (Latin ovum) is the zygote, resulting from fertilization of the ovum. ... The word incubate in the context of birds refers to the development of the chick (embryo) within the egg and the constant temperature required for the development of it over a specific period. ...


House Sparrows in Europe

Juvenile
Juvenile

In large parts of Europe, populations of House Sparrows are decreasing. In the Netherlands, the House Sparrow is even considered an endangered species[citation needed], and the population of House Sparrows has dropped in half since the 1980s. It is however still the second most common breeding bird in the Netherlands, after the Blackbird. Currently the number of breeding pairs is estimated between half a million and one million. Similar precipitous drops in population have also been recorded in the United Kingdom. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1067, 457 KB) Juvenile House Sparrow File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): House Sparrow ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1067, 457 KB) Juvenile House Sparrow File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): House Sparrow ... The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ... For other uses, see Blackbird (disambiguation). ...


Various causes for its dramatic decrease in population have been proposed, one of the more surprising being the introduction of unleaded petrol, the combustion of which produces compounds such as methyl nitrite [3], a compound highly toxic for small insects, which form major part of young sparrows diet. [4] Other theories consider reducing areas of free growing weeds, or reducing numbers of badly maintained buildings, which are important nesting opportunities for sparrows. [5] The chemical compound methyl nitrite is an Alkyl nitrite. ...


House Sparrows as an invasive species

House Sparrows in Australia

House sparrows were introduced to Australia between 1863 and 1870. They were released first in Victoria and then to other areas including Sydney, Brisbane, and Hobart. They quickly became a major pest throughout eastern Australia, but have been prevented from establishing themselves in Western Australia where every found specimen is deliberately destroyed.[6] VIC redirects here. ... This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ... For other uses, see Brisbane (disambiguation). ... Hobart is the state capital and most populous city of the Australian island state of Tasmania. ... Slogan or Nickname: Wildflower State or the Golden State Other Australian states and territories Capital Perth Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Ken Michael Premier Alan Carpenter (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 15  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2005-06)  - Product ($m)  $107,910 (4th)  - Product per capita  $53,134/person...


House Sparrows in North America

The large North American population is descended from birds deliberately imported from Britain in the late 19th century. They were introduced independently in a number of American cities in the years between 1850 and 1875 as a means of pest control. The mistake was realized after they were well established and by 1883 they were already considered pests and their introduction a disaster.[7] A crop duster applies low-insecticide bait that is targeted against Western corn rootworms Pest control refers to the regulation or management of another species defined as a pest, usually because it is believed to be detrimental to a persons health, the ecology or the economy Pest control is...


While declining somewhat in their adopted homeland, House Sparrows are one of the most abundant birds in North America, with a population estimated at approximately 150 million.[8] North American redirects here. ...

Sparrows feeding

In the United States[9] and Canada, the House Sparrow is one of only three birds (the other two being the European Starling and the Rock Pigeon) not protected by law. As an invasive non-indigenous species, it is legal to kill House Sparrows and destroy their eggs at any time in most places in the United States. These three introduced species are now each more widespread and common on the continent than are any other birds. House Sparrows kill adult bluebirds and other native cavity nesters and their young, smash their eggs, and take over their nesting sites,[10] and as such are major factors in the decline of bluebirds and other native cavity nesters in North America.[11] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1402 × 934 pixel, file size: 106 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) // File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1402 × 934 pixel, file size: 106 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) // File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Binomial name Sturnus vulgaris Linnaeus, 1758 The European Starling or Common Starling, Sturnus vulgaris, is a passerine bird in the family Sturnidae. ... “Rock pigeon” redirects here. ... Lantana invasion of abandoned citrus plantation; Moshav Sdey Hemed, Israel The term invasive species refers to a subset of introduced species or non-indigenous species that are rapidly expanding outside of their native range. ... Species Sialia sialis Sialia mexicana Sialia currucoides Mountain Bluebird Western Bluebird The bluebirds are medium-sized, mostly insectivorous or omnivorous birds in the genus Sialia of the thrush family Turdidae. ...


Because the House Sparrow is smaller than the less aggressive native birds with which it competes, it is impossible to keep them out of nest boxes built for many native birds. Attempts to counter the effects of the House Sparrow on native bird populations include the trapping and shooting of adults and the destruction of their nests and eggs.


Footnotes

  1. ^ Biology of the Ubiquitous House Sparrow: From Genes to Populations by Ted R. Anderson; Oxford University Press; 2006.
  2. ^ "House Sparrow Control" by The North American Bluebird Society
  3. ^ British Birds, vol 100, September 2007, p558
  4. ^ Gnosis9.net: Vrabec vymírá
  5. ^ Science World - Proè ubývá vrabcù?
  6. ^ "House Sparrow Fact Sheet" at australian museum online
  7. ^ "House Sparrow History" by E.A. Zimmerman posted at Sialis
  8. ^ "House Sparrow (Passer domesticus)" by the Cornell Lab of Ornithology of Cornell University
  9. ^ "Backyard Bird Problems: Problem Birds" by The United States Fish and Wildlife Service
  10. ^ "House Sparrows Kill Eastern Bluebirds" by Patricia Adair Gowaty in Journal of Field Ornithology, Volume 55, Number 3, Summer, 1984, pp. 378-380.
  11. ^ "Monitoring Bluebird Nest Boxes" by The North American Bluebird Society

References

The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) is a partnership designed to provide consistent and reliable information on the taxonomy of biological species. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

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Image File history File links Wikispecies-logo. ... Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation that aims to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species (including animalia, plantae, fungi, bacteria, archaea, and protista). ...

Gallery


  Results from FactBites:
 
House Sparrow - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1359 words)
House Martins, Bluebirds, and Sand Martins are especially susceptible to this behavior.
While declining somewhat in their adopted homeland, house sparrows are still possibly the most abundant bird in the United States, with a population estimated as high as 400 million.
The House Sparrow is partially responsible for the near extinction of Bluebirds in the United States.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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