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Encyclopedia > House Mouse
House Mouse

Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Rodentia
Family: Muridae
Subfamily: Murinae
Genus: Mus
Species: M. musculus
Binomial name
Mus musculus
Linnaeus, 1758

The House Mouse (Mus musculus) is one of the most numerous species of the genus Mus commonly termed a mouse. It is a small mammal and a rodent. In most parts of the world, they live in close proximity to humans. Laboratory mice belong to strains of House Mice and are some of the most important model organisms in biology and medicine; they are by far the most commonly used laboratory mammal.[2] Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species continuing to survive either in the present day or the future. ... Image File history File links Status_iucn2. ... Least Concern (LC) is an IUCN category assigned to extant species or lower taxa which have been evaluated but do not qualify for any other category. ... The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes Subphylum Urochordata - Tunicates Ascidiacea Thaliacea Larvacea Subphylum Cephalochordata - Lancelets Subphylum Myxini - Hagfishes Subphylum Vertebrata - Vertebrates Petromyzontida - Lampreys Placodermi (extinct) Chondrichthyes - Cartilaginous fishes Acanthodii (extinct) Actinopterygii - Ray-finned fishes Actinistia - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Amphibia - Amphibians Reptilia - Reptiles Aves - Birds Mammalia - Mammals Chordates (phylum Chordata) include the vertebrates, together with... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including milk producing sweat glands, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... Suborders Sciuromorpha Castorimorpha Myomorpha Anomaluromorpha Hystricomorpha Rodentia is an order of mammals also known as rodents, characterised by two continuously-growing incisors in the upper and lower jaws which must be kept short by gnawing. ... Subfamilies Deomyinae Gerbillinae Lophiomyinae Leimacomyinae Murinae Muridae is the largest family of mammals. ... Genera See text. ... Feral mouse A mouse (plural mice) is a rodent that belongs to one of numerous species of small mammals. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Feral mouse A mouse (plural mice) is a rodent that belongs to one of numerous species of small mammals. ... This article is about the rodent. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including milk producing sweat glands, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... Suborders Sciuromorpha Castorimorpha Myomorpha Anomaluromorpha Hystricomorpha Rodentia is an order of mammals also known as rodents, characterised by two continuously-growing incisors in the upper and lower jaws which must be kept short by gnawing. ... A model organism is a species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms. ... For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ...

Contents

Characteristics

House mice have an adult body length (nose to base of tail) of 7.5–10 cm and a tail length of 5–10 cm; the weight is typically 10–25 g. They vary from light brown to black, with short hair and a light belly. The ears and tail have little hair. The hind feet are short compared to Apodemus mice, only 15–19 mm long; the normal gait is a run with a stride of about 4.5 cm, though they can jump up to 45 cm. The droppings are blackish, about 3 mm long, and have a strong musty smell. The voice is a high-pitched squeak.[3][4] This article is about the unit of length. ... BIC pen cap, about 1 gram. ... Species See text Apodemus is a genus of Eurasian field mice. ...

CT scan of a House Mouse skull.
CT scan of a House Mouse skull.

Young males and females are not easily distinguished; females have a significantly smaller distance between their anus and genital opening. Females have 5 pairs of mammary glands and nipples; males have no nipples. When sexually mature, the most striking and obvious difference is the presence of testicles on the males. These are relatively large compared to the rest of the body and can be retracted into the body. In addition to the regular pea-size thymus organ in the chest, House Mice have a second functional pinhead-size thymus organ in the neck next to the trachea (Terszowski 2006). Image File history File links CTmus. ... Image File history File links CTmus. ... negron305 Cat scan redirects here. ... Mammary glands are the organs that, in the female mammal, produce milk for the sustenance of the young. ... This article is about the anatomical structure. ... Look up testes in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Thymus, see Thyme. ...


Subspecies

There are three widely accepted subspecies, increasingly treated as distinct species:[5] This article is about the zoological term. ...

  • Mus (musculus) musculus (East European House Mouse)
  • Mus (musculus) castaneus (Southeast Asian House Mouse)
  • Mus (musculus) domesticus (West European House Mouse)

An additional subspecies was described by Prager, Orrego and Sage (1998) from the Arabian Peninsula:

  • Mus musculus gentilulus

The following were previously identified as subspecies, but have since been found to belong to the subspecies above:

  • Mus musculus homourus
  • Mus musculus molossinus (the Japanese house mouse; actually a hybrid of musculus, castaneus and domesticus; Bonhomme 1989)
  • Mus musculus bactrianus (southwestern Asian House Mouse)
  • Mus musculus praetextus
  • Mus musculus wagneri

Behaviour

Eating
Eating

House mice usually walk, run or stand on all fours, but when eating, fighting or orienting themselves, they stand only on the hind legs, supported by the tail. When running, the horizontal tail serves for balance; the end stands up vertically, unless the mouse is frightened. Mice are good jumpers, climbers and swimmers.


Mice are mostly active during dusk or night they do not like bright lights. They live in a wide variety of hidden places that are near food sources and construct nests from various soft materials. Mice are territorial and one dominant male usually lives together with several females and young. Dominant males respect each other's territory and normally enter another's territory only if it is vacant. If two or more males are held together in a cage, they will often turn aggressive unless they have been raised together from birth. A nocturnal animal is one that sleeps during the day and is active at night - the opposite of the human (diurnal) schedule. ...


House mice primarily feed on plant matter, but they will also accept meat and dairy products. They will drink water but require little of it, relying mainly on the moisture present in their food. They will eat their droppings to acquire nutrients produced by bacteria in their guts. House mice, like other rodents, do not vomit. Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Emesis redirects here. ...


Mice are afraid of rats, which often kill and (partially) eat them. This rat behaviour is known as muricide. Despite this behaviour free-living populations of rats and mice do exist together, such as in New Zealand forests. House mice are poor competitors, and in most areas cannot survive away from human settlements in areas where other small mammals, such as wood mice, are present (Tattersall, Smith and Nowell 1997). In other areas (such as Australia) mice are able to co-exist with other small rodent species (Moro and Morris 2000). Species 50 species; see text *Several subfamilies of Muroids include animals called rats. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus), also called the long-tailed field mouse, is a common rodent that was recognised as a distinct species in 1894. ...


Senses and communication

As primarily nocturnal animals, house mice have little or no colour vision. They have a sharp sense of hearing and can perceive ultrasound, possibly up to 100 kHz. They communicate both in the human audible range with squeaks (for long-distance warnings), and in the ultrasound range (for short-distance communication). Color vision is a psychophysical phenomenon that exists only in our minds. ... For other uses, see Ultrasound (disambiguation). ... This article is about the SI unit of frequency. ...


House mice also rely on pheromones. Most of these are produced by the preputial glands of both sexes and are excreted with urine. The tear fluid of male mice also contains pheromones (Kimoto 2005). Mice detect pheromones mainly with the vomeronasal organ (Jacobson's organ), located at the bottom of the nose. Fanning honeybee exposes Nasonov gland (white-at tip of abdomen) releasing pheromone to entice swarm into an empty hive A pheromone (from Greek φέρω phero to bear + ‘ορμόνη hormone) is a chemical that triggers a natural behavioral response in another member of the same species. ... Preputial glands are exocrine glands that are located in front of the genitals of some mammals and produce pheromones. ... This article is about the urine of animals generally. ... The tear system. ... The vomeronasal organ (VNO) or Jacobsons organ is an auxiliary olfactory sense organ in some tetrapods. ...


The urine of house mice, especially that of males, has a characteristic strong odor. In (Achiraman 2002), ten different compounds such as alkanes, alcohols, etc. were detected in the urine. Among the ten, five compounds are specific to males, namely 3-cyclohexene-1-methanol, Aminotriazole (3-amino-s-triazole), 4-ethyl phenol, 3-ethyl-2,7-dimethyl octane and 1-iodoundecane. An alkane in organic chemistry is a type of hydrocarbon in which the molecule has the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms and so has no double bonds (they are saturated). ... In general usage, alcohol (from Arabic al-khwl الكحول, or al-ghawl الغول) refers almost always to ethanol, also known as grain alcohol, and often to any beverage that contains ethanol (see alcoholic beverage). ... Aminotriazole is an herbicide, C2H4N4, used on nonfood croplands to control annual grasses and broadleaf and aquatic weeds. ...


The mice can sense surfaces and air movements with their whiskers. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Life cycle and reproduction

A 7 day old mouse suckling on an anaesthetized mother.
A 7 day old mouse suckling on an anaesthetized mother.
A baby mouse, 4 days old.
A baby mouse, 4 days old.
2 weeks old, just about to open its eyes.
2 weeks old, just about to open its eyes.

Female house mice have an estrous cycle that is 4-6 days long, with estrus itself lasting less than a day. If several females are held together under crowded conditions, they will often not have an estrus at all; if they are then exposed to male urine, they will become estrous after 72 hours. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Estrus (also spelled œstrus) or heat in female mammals is the period of greatest female sexual responsiveness usually coinciding with ovulation. ...


Male house mice court females by emitting characteristic ultrasonic calls in the 30kHz - 110kHz range. The calls are most frequent during courtship when the male is sniffing and following the female. However, the calls continue after mating has begun at which time the calls are coincident with mounting behaviour. Males can be induced to emit these calls by female pheromones. The vocalizations appear to be different in different individuals and have been compared to birdsongs because of their complexity. (Holy 2005) While females have the capability to produce ultrasonic calls, they typically do not do so during mating behaviour. Bird song refers to the sounds, usually melodious to the human ear, made by many birds of the order Passeriformes as a form of communication. ...


Following copulation, female mice will normally develop a vaginal plug which prevents further copulation. This plug stays in place for some 24 hours. The gestation period is about 19-21 days, and they give birth to a litter of 3-14 young (average 6-8). One female can have some 5-10 litters per year, so their population can increase very quickly. Breeding occurs throughout the year (however, animals living in the wild don't reproduce in the colder months, even though they don't hibernate). The newborn are blind and furless. Fur starts to grow some three days after birth and the eyes open one to two weeks after birth. Females reach sexual maturity at about 6 weeks and males at about 8 weeks, but both can breed as early as five weeks. Gestation is the carrying of an embryo or fetus inside a female viviparous animal. ... This article refers to the process of hibernation in biology. ...


House mice usually live under a year in the wild, because of a high level of predation and exposure to harsh environments. In protected environments, however, they often live two to three years. The Methuselah Mouse Prize is a competition to breed or engineer extremely long-lived laboratory mice. As of 2005, the record holder was a genetically engineered mouse that lived for 1819 days, nearly 5 years. Another record holder that was kept in a stimulating environment but did not receive any genetic, pharmacological or dietary treatment lived for 1551 days, over 4 years. Predator and Prey redirect here. ... The Methuselah Mouse Prize or Mprize is a growing $3. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Mice and humans

See also: Fancy mouse

House mice usually live in proximity to humans, in or around houses or fields. Originally native to Asia (probably northern India; Boursot et al. 1996), they spread to the Mediterranean Basin about 8000 BC, only spreading into the rest of Europe around 1000 BC (Cucci, Vigne and Auffrey 2005). This time lag is thought to be because the mice require agrarian human settlements above a certain size (Cucci, Vigne and Auffrey 2005). They have since been spread to all parts of the globe by humans. A tame black fancy mouse Fancy mice (fancy, in this context, means hobby) are domesticated breeds of the common or house mouse (Mus musculus). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Agrarian has two meanings: It can mean pertaining to Agriculture It can also refer to the ideology of Agrarianism and Agrarian parties. ...


Many studies have been done on mouse phylogenies to reconstruct early human movements; for example, Gunduz et al 2001, showed a previously unsuspected early link between Denmark and Madeira on the basis of the origin of the Madeiran mice.

An individually ventilated and sealed cage for laboratory mice
An individually ventilated and sealed cage for laboratory mice

House mice can transmit diseases, and can damage food and food packaging. They can also cause substantial damage when feeding on grain. It is thought that house mice were the primary reason for the taming of the domestic cat. Various mousetraps have been developed to catch mice. Generally, rats are more harmful to humans than mice. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 1. ... Trinomial name Felis silvestris catus Schreber, 1775 For alternative meanings see cat (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mousetrap (disambiguation). ... Species 50 species; see text *Several subfamilies of Muroids include animals called rats. ...


The first written reference to mice kept as pets occurs in the Erya, the oldest extant Chinese dictionary, from a mention in an 1100 B.C. version.[6] Human domestication led to numerous strains of "fancy" or hobby mice with a variety of colours and a docile temperament.[7] Domestic varieties of the house mouse called "feeder" mice are also used as food for some carnivorous pet reptiles, arthropods and fish. Mice bred for this purpose are genetically identical to other domestic mice, and can be kept as pets themselves.[7] The Erya (爾雅) is a Chinese dictionary from before the first century. ... Chinese dictionaries date back over two millennia to the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, which is a significantly longer lexicographical history than any other language. ... (Redirected from 1100 B.C.) Centuries: 13th century BC - 12th century BC - 11th century BC Decades: 1150s BC 1140s BC 1130s BC 1120s BC 1110s BC - 1100s BC - 1090s BC 1080s BC 1070s BC 1060s BC 1050s BC Events and Trends 1100 BC - Tiglath-Pileser I of Assyria conquers the... Animal fancy is a hobby that includes pet and exotic pet ownership, showing and other competitions, breeding and judging. ... For temperament in dog fancy, see conformation point. ... This article deals with meat-eating animals. ... Orders  Crocodilia - Crocodilians scary crocodiles. ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - Trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - Spiders, Scorpions, etc. ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ...


Mice as an invasive species

Gough Island in the South Atlantic is used by 20 species of seabird for breeding, including almost all of the world's Tristan Albatross (Diomedea dabbenena) and Atlantic Petrel (Pterodroma incerta). Until house mice arrived on the island in the 19th century with seamen, the birds did not have any mammalian predators. The mice have since grown unusually large and have learned to attack albatross chicks, which can be nearly one metre tall but are largely immobile, by working in groups and gnawing on them until they bleed to death. The estimated 700,000 mice on the island kill a total of over 1 million bird chicks per year.[8] Gough Island (occasionally referred to (erroneously) as Diego Alvarez) is a volcanic island rising from the South Atlantic Ocean to heights of over 900 metres (2950 ft) above sea level with an area of approximately 65 km² (25 mi²). It is part of Tristan da Cunha, a dependency of the... For other uses, see Atlantic (disambiguation) The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one-fifth of its surface. ... Binomial name Diomedea dabbenena Mathews, 1929 Synonyms Diomedea exulans dabbenena The Tristan Albatross (Diomedea dabbenena) is a large seabird from the albatross family. ... Binomial name Pterodroma incerta (Schlegel, 1863) The Atlantic Petrel (Pterodroma incerta) is a gadfly petrel endemic to the South Atlantic Ocean. ...


Laboratory mice

Mice are the most commonly used animal research model with hundreds of established inbred, outbred, and transgenic strains. In the United States, they are generally not regulated under the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) administered by the USDA, APHIS. However, the Public Health Service Act (PHS) as administered by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) does cover their humane treatment. Most academic research institutes seek voluntary accreditation which requires certain minimal standards of care for laboratory animals. This accreditation is a prerequisite for federal funding. The Animal Welfare Act is a law passed by government to protect the welfare of animals. ... USDA redirects here. ... Look up Aphis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Table of Contents Public Health Service Act References are to Title 42 United States Code TITLE 42 - THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE CHAPTER 6A - PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE Subchapter I - Administration and Miscellaneous Provisions Part A - Administration § 201 Definitions Part B - Miscellaneous Provisions §238 Gifts for Benefit of Service §238a Use... National Institutes of Health Building 50 at NIH Clinical Center - Building 10 The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is an agency of the United States Ministry of Health and Human Services and is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and health-related research. ...


Mice are common experimental animals in biology and psychology primarily because they are mammals, and thus share a high degree of homology with humans. The mouse genome has been sequenced, and virtually all mouse genes have human homologs. They can also be manipulated in ways that would be considered unethical to do with humans. Mice are a primary mammalian model organism, as are rats. In the scientific method, an experiment (Latin: ex- periri, of (or from) trying) is a set of observations performed in the context of solving a particular problem or question, to retain or falsify a hypothesis or research concerning phenomena. ... For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... Psychological science redirects here. ... In biology, homology is any similarity between structures that is due to their shared ancestry. ... A model organism is a species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms. ... Species 50 species; see text *Several subfamilies of Muroids include animals called rats. ...


There are many additional benefits of mice in laboratory research. Mice are small, inexpensive, easily maintained, and can reproduce quickly. Several generations of mice can be observed in a relatively short period of time. Some mice can become docile if raised from birth and given sufficient human contact. However, certain strains have been known to be quite temperamental.


Most laboratory mice are hybrids of different subspecies, most commonly of Mus musculus domesticus and Mus musculus musculus. Laboratory mice come in a variety of coat colours including agouti, black and albino. Many (but not all) laboratory strains are inbred, so as to make them genetically almost identical. The different strains are identified with specific letter-digit combinations; for example C57BL/6 and BALB/c. Albinism is a genetic condition resulting in a lack of pigmentation in the eyes, skin and hair. ... Inbreeding is breeding between close relatives, whether plant or animal. ... C57BL/6, often referred to as C57 black 6 or just black 6 is a common inbred strain of lab mouse. ... BALB/c mice BALB/c is an albino strain of laboratory mouse from which a number of common substrains are derived. ...


The first such inbred strains were produced by Clarence Cook Little in 1909. Little was influential in promoting the mouse as a laboratory organism. Clarence Cook C.C. Little (October 6, 1888–1971) was an American genetics, cancer, and tobacco researcher. ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


The behavioural patterns of laboratory mice are significantly different from those of most common house mice due to years of lab breeding.[citation needed] These behaviours are much simpler.[citation needed]

Albino lab mice
Albino lab mice

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

Genome

Sequencing of the mouse genome was completed in late 2002. The haploid genome is about 3 billion bases long (3000 Mb distributed over 20 chromosomes) and therefore equal to the size of the human genome.[9] Estimating the number of genes contained in the mouse genome is difficult, in part because the definition of a gene is still being debated and extended. The current estimated gene count is 23,786 [10]. This estimate takes into account knowledge of molecular biology as well as comparative genomic data. For comparison, humans are estimated to have 23,686 genes[11]. In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Haploid (meaning simple in Greek) cells have only one copy of each chromosome. ... For other uses, see Gene (disambiguation). ...


Mutant and transgenic strains

Various mutant strains of mice have been created by a number of methods:

Since 1998, it has been possible to clone mice from cells derived from adult animals. For other uses, see Reproduction (disambiguation) Reproduction is the biological process by which new individual organisms are produced. ... Non-obese diabetic or NOD mice are a specially developed breed of mouse used as an animal model for type 1 diabetes. ... Diabetes mellitus type 1 (Type 1 diabetes, Type I diabetes, T1D, IDDM) is a form of diabetes mellitus. ... In biology, regeneration is an organisms ability to replace body parts. ... For other uses, see Waltz (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ear (disambiguation). ... In medicine, immunodeficiency (or immune deficiency) is a state in which the immune systems ability to fight infectious disease is compromised or entirely absent. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Thymus, see Thyme. ... T cells are a subset of lymphocytes that play a large role in the immune response. ... Immunology is a broad branch of biomedical science that covers the study of all aspects of the immune system in all organisms. ... An organ transplant is the transplantation of an organ (or part of one) from one body to another, for the purpose of replacing the recipients damaged or failing organ with a working one from the donor. ... Severe combined immunodeficiency, or Boy in the Bubble Syndrome, is a genetic disorder in which both arms (B cells and T cells) of the adaptive immune system are crippled, due to a defect in one of several possible genes. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... Ó GloFish: the first genetically modified animal to be sold as a pet. ... For other uses, see Gene (disambiguation). ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... Growth hormone (GH) or somatotropin (STH) is a protein hormone which stimulates growth and cell reproduction in humans and other animals. ... The OncoMouse or Harvard mouse is a type of laboratory mouse that has been genetically modified using modifications designed by Philip Leder and Timothy Stewart of Harvard University to carry a specific gene called an activated oncogene. ... An oncogene is a modified gene that increases the malignancy of a tumor cell. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... The NMDA receptor (NMDAR) is an ionotropic receptor for glutamate (NMDA (N-methyl d-aspartate) is a name of its selective specific agonist). ... Knockout mice A knockout mouse is a genetically engineered mouse that has had one or more of its genes made inoperable through a gene knockout. ... A gene knockout is a genetically engineered organism that carries one or more genes in its chromosomes that has been made inoperative. ... Myostatin (formerly known as Growth differentiation factor 8) is a growth factor that limits muscle tissue growth, i. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... For the cloning of human beings, see human cloning. ...


References

  1. ^ Amori, G. (1996). Mus musculus. 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2007. Retrieved on 2007-01-09.
  2. ^ the National Centre for Replacement, Refinement, and Reduction of Animals in Research
  3. ^ Lyneborg, L. (1971). Mammals of Europe. Blandford Press.
  4. ^ Lawrence, M. J., & Brown, R. W. (1974). Mammals of Britain Their Tracks, Trails and Signs. Blandford Press.
  5. ^ Mitchell-Jones, A.J., Amori, G., Bogdanowicz, W., Krystufek, B., Reijnders, P. J. H., Spitzenberger, F., Stubbe, M., Thissen, J. B. M., Vohralik, V., & Zima, J. (1999). The Atlas of European Mammals. T. & A. D. Poyser ISBN 0856611301.
  6. ^ American Fancy Rat and Mouse Association
  7. ^ a b the Rat and Mouse Club of America
  8. ^ Wanless R.M., Angel A., Cuthbert R.J., Hilton G.M. & Ryan P.G.. "Can predation by invasive mice drive seabird extinctions?". Biology Letters 3.
  9. ^ No items found - Books Results
  10. ^ http://www.ensembl.org/Mus_musculus/index.html Ensembl gene build 47, based upon NCBI assembly m37, Apr 2007
  11. ^ http://www.ensembl.org/Homo_sapiens/index.html Ensembl gene build 47, based upon NCBI assembly 36, Oct 2005
  • Amori (1996). Mus musculus. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. Retrieved on 12 May 2006.
  • Mus musculus (TSN 180366). Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved on 18 March 2006.
  • Bonhomme F., Miyashita N., Boursot., Catalan J. and Moriwaki K (1989) Genetic variation and polyphyletic origin in Japanese Mus musculus. Heredity, 63, 299- 308.
  • Boursot P., Din W., Anand R., Darviche D., Dod B., Von Deimling F., Talwar G. P. and Bonhomme F. (1996) Origin and radiation of the house mouse: mitochondrial DNA phylogeny. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 9, 391-415.
  • Cucchi T., Vigne J-D. and Auffray J-C. (2005) First occurrence of the house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus Schwarz & Schwarz, 1943) in the Western Mediterranean: a zooarchaeological revision of subfossil occurrences. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 84, 429-445.
  • Gündüz I., Auffray J.-C., Britton-Davidian J., Catalan J., Ganem G., Ramalhinho M.G., Mathias M.L. and Searle J.B. (2001) Molecular studies on the colonization of the Madeiran archipelago by house mice. Molecular Ecology, 10, 2023-2029.
  • Kimoto H., Haga S., Sato K., Touhara K. (2005) Sex-specific peptides from exocrine glands stimulate mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons. Nature, 437. 898 - 901. Abstract
  • Holy TE, Guo Z (2005) Ultrasonic Songs of Male Mice. PLoS Biol 3(12): e386. Full Text
  • Moro, D. and Morris, K. (2000) Movements and refugia of Lakeland Downs short-tailed mice, Leggadina lakedownensis, and house mice, Mus domesticus, on Thevenard Island, Western Australia. Wildlife Research 27, 11-20.
  • Prager E. M., Orrego C. and Sage R. D. (1998) Genetic variation and phylogeography of Central Asian and other house mice, including a major new mitochondrial lineage in Yemen. Genetics 150, 835-861.
  • Achiraman S, Archunan G. (2002) Characterization of urinary volatiles in Swiss male mice (Mus musculus): bioassay of identified compounds. J Biosci. 2002 Dec;27(7):679-86. PMID 12571373
  • Terszowski G et al. (2006) Evidence for a Functional Second Thymus in Mice. Science. 2006 Mar 2. PMID 16513945
  • Tattersall F. H., Smith, R. H. & Nowell, F. (1997). Experimental colonization of contrasting habitats by house mice. Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde. 62: 350-358.

The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) is a partnership designed to provide consistent and reliable information on the taxonomy of biological species. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Science is the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). ...

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Disney's House of Mouse - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (412 words)
Disney's House of Mouse is an animated television series, produced by Walt Disney Television, that originally aired from 2001 to 2003, and ran for 52 episodes.
Mickey Mouse and his friends run a nightclub called the "House of Mouse," which shows Disney cartoons as part of its floor show.
House of Mouse was on One Saturday Morning on ABC, and as of February 2006, this show is no longer airing on The Disney Channel.
House mouse - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1962 words)
House mice have Harderian glands near their eyes which produce a reddish-brown discharge when the animals are stressed.
In addition to the regular pea-size thymus organ in the chest, house mice have a second functional pinhead-size thymus organ in the neck next to the windpipe, as was reported in (Terszowski 2006).
House mice usually live under a year in the wild, because of a high level of predation and exposure to harsh environments.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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