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Encyclopedia > Hot spring
Hot springs in the protected area of Rupite, southwestern Bulgaria
Hot springs in the protected area of Rupite, southwestern Bulgaria
Hot springs in Yangmingshan, Taiwan
"Blood Pond" hot spring in Beppu, Japan
"Blood Pond" hot spring in Beppu, Japan

A hot spring is a spring that is produced by the emergence of geothermally-heated groundwater from the earth's crust. There are hot springs all over the earth, on every continent and even under the oceans and seas. Photo taken by Daniel Mayer and released under terms of the GNU FDL. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Photo taken by Daniel Mayer and released under terms of the GNU FDL. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The geothermal areas of Yellowstone include several geyser basins in Yellowstone National Park as well as other geothermal features such as hot springs (including mud pots) and fumaroles. ... Yellowstone National Park is the centerpiece of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, the largest intact ecosystem in the Earths northern temperate zone. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Kozhuh-Ngruev. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Kozhuh-Ngruev. ... Rupite is a small area in Pirin Macedonia, Bulgaria, 12 kilometres northeast of Petrich. ... Download high resolution version (600x800, 129 KB) Hot Springs Within Yangmingshan National Park Taiwan; Taken March 2003 by Allen Timothy Chang File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (600x800, 129 KB) Hot Springs Within Yangmingshan National Park Taiwan; Taken March 2003 by Allen Timothy Chang File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Seven Star Mountain with hot springs on the side Closer view of hot springs on Seven Star Mountain Yangmingshan (陽明山) refers to the Yangmingshan National Park (陽明山國家公園) and its surrounding area. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (480 × 640 pixel, file size: 58 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Natural Iron Hot Spring with Traditional Bonsai Tree in foreground. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (480 × 640 pixel, file size: 58 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Natural Iron Hot Spring with Traditional Bonsai Tree in foreground. ... Beppu (別府市; -shi) is a city located in Oita, Japan. ... A natural spring on Mackinac Island in Michigan. ... Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ... Groundwater is water located beneath the ground surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of geologic formations. ... Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ...

Contents

Definitions

There is, unfortunately, no universally accepted definition of a hot spring. For example, one can find the phrase hot spring defined as

  • a spring with water temperatures above its surroundings[2]
  • a natural spring with water temperature above body temperature (normally between 36.5°C and 37.5°C, that is, between 97.8°F and 99.5°F ) [3]
  • a natural spring with warm water above body temperature[4]
  • a thermal spring with water warmer than 98°F (36.7°C)[5] [6]
  • a natural spring of water greater than 70°F (21.1°C) (synonymous with thermal spring) [7][8][9][10]
  • a natural discharge of groundwater with elevated temperatures[11]
  • a type of thermal spring in which hot water is brought to the surface. The water temperature of a hot spring is usually 6.5ºC (11.7°F) or more above mean air temperature. [12][13] Note that by this definition, "thermal spring" is not synonymous with the term "hot spring".
  • a spring whose hot water is brought to the surface (synonymous with a thermal spring). The water temperature of the spring is usually 15°F (8°C)[14] or more above the mean air temperature.[15]
  • a spring with water above the core human body temperature (36.7°C or 98.06°F).[16]
  • a spring with water above average ambient ground temperature[17], a definition favored by some.
  • a spring with water temperatures above 50°C (122°F)[18]

The related term "warm spring" is defined as a spring with water temperature less than a hot spring by many sources, although Pentecost et al (2003)[19] suggest that the phrase "warm spring" is not useful and should be avoided. The US NOAA Geophysical Data Center defines a "warm spring" as a spring with water between 20°C and 50°C (between 68°F and 122°F). Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ... Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when temperature surrounding is very different. ... Groundwater is water located beneath the ground surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of geologic formations. ... Image File history File linksMetadata HotSpring_8344. ... Image File history File linksMetadata HotSpring_8344. ... Map of Lassen area showing hydrothermal features (red dots) and volcanic feature or remnant (yellow cones). ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ...


Sources of heat

Geyser in Kamisuwa (上諏訪), Nagano Pref.
Geyser in Kamisuwa (上諏訪), Nagano Pref.

The water issuing from a hot spring is heated by geothermal heat, i.e., heat from the Earth's interior. In general, the temperature of rocks within the earth increases with depth. The rate of temperature increase with depth is known as the geothermal gradient. If water percolates deeply enough into the crust, it will be heated as it comes into contact with hot rocks. The water from hot springs in non-volcanic areas is heated in this manner. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (600x800, 82 KB) Suwa Hotspring in Japan. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (600x800, 82 KB) Suwa Hotspring in Japan. ... Nagano Prefecture (長野県; Nagano-ken) is located on Honshu island, Japan. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ... For other uses, see Heat (disambiguation) In physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is energy transferred from one body or system to another as a result of a difference in temperature. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... For other uses, see Gradient (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ...


In volcanic zones such as Yellowstone National Park, water may be heated by coming into contact with magma (molten rock). The high temperature gradient near magma may cause water to be heated enough that it boils or becomes superheated. If the water becomes so hot that it builds steam pressure and erupts in a jet above the surface of the Earth, it is called a geyser. If the water only reaches the surface in the form of steam, it is called a fumarole. If the water is mixed with mud and clay, it is called a mud pot. Yellowstone National Park is the centerpiece of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, the largest intact ecosystem in the Earths northern temperate zone. ... Magma is molten rock located beneath the surface of the Earth (or any other terrestrial planet), and which often collects in a magma chamber. ... See superheater for the device used in steam engines. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into articles entitled steam and water vapor, accessible from a disambiguation page. ... Strokkur geyser, Iceland A geyser is a type of hot spring that erupts periodically, ejecting a column of hot water and steam into the air. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into articles entitled steam and water vapor, accessible from a disambiguation page. ... Sulfur deposits near a fumarole A fumarole (Latin fumus, smoke) is an opening in Earths (or any other astronomical bodys) crust, often in the neighborhood of volcanoes, which emit steam and gases such as carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrochloric acid, and hydrogen sulfide. ... The Gay Head cliffs in Marthas Vineyard are made almost entirely of clay. ... Fountain Paint Pots, Yellowstone National Park A mud pot (technically known as solfatare) is a hot spring or fumarole formed in high-temperature geothermal areas where water is in short supply. ...


Note that hot springs in volcanic areas are often at or near the boiling point. People have been seriously burned and even killed by accidentally or intentionally entering these springs. Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ...


Warm springs are sometimes the result of hot and cold springs mixing but may also occur outside of volcanic areas, such as Warm Springs, Georgia (frequented for its therapeutic effects by paraplegic U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, who built the Little White House there). A natural spring on Mackinac Island in Michigan. ... Warm Springs is a city in Meriwether County, Georgia, United States. ... Physical therapy (or physiotherapy[1]) is the provision of services to people and populations to develop, maintain and restore maximum movement and functional ability throughout the lifespan. ... Paraplegia is a condition where the lower half of a patients body is paralyzed and cannot move. ... The presidential seal is a well-known symbol of the presidency. ... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), 32nd President of the United States, the longest-serving holder of the office and the only man to be elected President more than twice, was one of the central figures of 20th century history. ... The Little White House was Franklin Delano Roosevelts retreat near Warm Springs, Georgia. ...


Flow rates

hot spring in Bridgeport, CA
hot spring in Bridgeport, CA
Deildartunguhver, Iceland: the highest flow hot spring in Europe
Deildartunguhver, Iceland: the highest flow hot spring in Europe

Hot springs range in flow rate from the tiniest "seeps" to veritable rivers of hot water. Sometimes there is enough pressure that the water shoots upward in a geyser, or fountain. Image File history File links Bridgeport_hot_springs. ... Image File history File links Bridgeport_hot_springs. ... Bridgeport, California is the county seat of Mono County, California. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x1536, 1024 KB) fr: La source chaude du Deildartunguhver Auteur : Johann Dréo (User:Nojhan) Date : juillet 2004 Notes : Près de Reykholt, en Islande. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x1536, 1024 KB) fr: La source chaude du Deildartunguhver Auteur : Johann Dréo (User:Nojhan) Date : juillet 2004 Notes : Près de Reykholt, en Islande. ... Deildartunguhver Deildartunguhver is a hot spring in Reykholtsdalur, Iceland. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... Strokkur geyser, Iceland A geyser is a type of hot spring that erupts periodically, ejecting a column of hot water and steam into the air. ... The worlds highest fountain: King Fahds Fountain in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Three traditional fountain features: a low jet, a pair of raised basins, and sculpture with a water theme, here hippocamps (Villa Borghese, Rome) A traditional fountain is an arrangement where water issues from a source (Latin fons...


A very low flow rate hot spring fed the closed resort, Fales Hot Ditch, which is north of Bridgeport, California. There is a huge subterranean lake below Tonopah, Arizona, which provides natural hot mineral waters to several hot springs. These hot springs were used by the seven or more hot spring spas that once operated in Tonopah. The ruins of two such spas are still visible in Tonopah. Bridgeport, California is the county seat of Mono County, California. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Tonopah (IPA: ), Arizona is an unincorporated town located in western Maricopa County, approximately 50 miles west of downtown Phoenix off Interstate 10. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... Mineral water is water containing minerals or other dissolved substances that alter its taste or give it therapeutic value. ... Look up spa, Spa, SpA in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


High flow hot springs

See main article on Hot spring properties.


There are many claims in the literature about the flow rates of hot springs. Some of the hot springs with high flow rates and high claimed flow rates[20] include:

  • The combined flow of the 47 hot springs in Hot Springs, Arkansas is 35 liters/second.
  • The combined flow of the hot springs complex in Truth or Consequences, New Mexico is estimated at 99 liters/second.[21]
  • Lava Hot Springs in Idaho has a flow of 130 liters/second.
  • Glenwood Springs in Colorado has a flow of 143 liters/second.
  • Elizabeth Springs in western Queensland, Australia might have had a flow of 158 liters/second in the late 1800s, but now has a flow of about 5 liters/second
  • Deildartunguhver in Iceland has a flow of 180 liters/second.
  • The hot springs of Brazil's Caldas Novas ("Hot River" in Portuguese) are tapped by 86 wells, from which 333 liters/second are pumped for 14 hours per day. This corresponds to a peak average flow rate of 3.88 liters/second per well.
  • The 2850 hot springs of Beppu in Japan are the highest flow hot spring complex in Japan. Together the Beppu hot springs produce about 1592 liters/second, or corresponding to an average hot spring flow of 0.56 liters/second.
  • The 303 hot springs of Kokonoe in Japan produce 1028 liters/second, which gives the average hot spring a flow of 3.39 liters/second.
  • The Oita Prefecture has 4,762 hot springs, with a total flow of 4437 liters/second, so the average hot spring flow is 0.93 liters/second.
  • The highest flow rate hot spring in Japan is the Tamagawa Hot Spring in Akita Prefecture, which has a flow rate of 150 liters/second. The Tamagawa Hot Spring feeds a 3 meter wide stream with a temperature of 98 degrees C.
  • There are at least three hot springs in the Nage region 8 km southwest of Bajawa City in Indonesia that collectively produce more than 453.6 liters/second.
  • There are another three large hot springs (Mengeruda, Wae Bana and Piga) 18km northeast of Bajawa City, Indonesia that together produce more than 450 liters/second of hot water.
  • The Dalhousie Springs complex in Australia had a peak total flow of more than 23,000 liters/second in 1915, giving the average spring in the complex an output of more than 325 liters/second. This has been reduced now to a peak total fow of 17,370 liters/second so the average spring has a peak output of about 250 liters/second.[22]

Sign from the city limits. ... Truth or Consequences is a spa city in Sierra County, New Mexico, United States. ... Lava Hot Springs Lava Hot Springs is a city located in Bannock County, Idaho. ... Official language(s) English [1] Capital Boise Largest city Boise Area  Ranked 14th  - Total 83,642 sq mi (216,632 km²)  - Width 305 miles (491 km)  - Length 479 miles (771 km)  - % water 0. ... Glenwood Springs is a city located in Garfield County, Colorado. ... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... Capital Brisbane Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Quentin Bryce Premier Peter Beattie (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 28  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $158,506 (3rd)  - Product per capita  $40,170/person (6th) Population (End of November 2006)  - Population  4,164,590 (3rd)  - Density  2. ... Deildartunguhver Deildartunguhver is a hot spring in Reykholtsdalur, Iceland. ... Caldas Novas is a Brazilian city and municipality in the state of Goiás. ... Beppu (別府市; -shi) is a city located in Oita, Japan. ... Naruhodo Hot Spring in Kokonoe, not one of the promoted nine Kokonoe (九重町; -machi) is a small town located in Kusu District, ÅŒita, Japan. ... ÅŒita Prefecture (大分県; ÅŒita-ken) is located on Kyushu Island, Japan. ... The Tamagawa Hot Spring in Senboku, Akita Prefecture, Japan is the highest flow rate hot spring in Japan. ... Akita Prefecture ) is located in the Tōhoku Region of northern Japan. ... Flores Island is shown highlighted in yellow near the bottom The Nage people are a little-known primitive tribe living on the remote eastern Indonesian island of Flores. ... Dalhousie Springs are natural artesian springs located in Witjira National Park on the western fringe of the Simpson Desert, 180 kilometres northeast of Oodnadatta in northern South Australia. ...

Therapeutic uses

Japanese open air hot spring in Nachikatsuura, Wakayama
Japanese open air hot spring in Nachikatsuura, Wakayama

Because heated water can hold more dissolved solids, warm and especially hot springs also often have a very high mineral content, containing everything from simple calcium to lithium, and even radium. Because of both the folklore and the claimed medical value some of these springs have, they are often popular tourist destinations, and locations for rehabilitation clinics for those with disabilities. [23] [24] Download high resolution version (1234x878, 261 KB)This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Download high resolution version (1234x878, 261 KB)This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Categories: Towns in Wakayama Prefecture | Japan geography stubs ... For the connotation of the term relating to chemistry, see Solvation. ... For other uses, see Solid (disambiguation). ... A mineral is a naturally occurring substance formed through geological processes that has a characteristic chemical composition, a highly ordered atomic structure and specific physical properties. ... General Name, Symbol, Number calcium, Ca, 20 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 40. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lithium, Li, 3 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 2, s Appearance silvery white/grey Standard atomic weight 6. ... General Name, Symbol, Number radium, Ra, 88 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 7, s Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight (226) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... See drugs, medication, and pharmacology for substances that are used to treat patients. ... A tourist boat travels the River Seine in Paris, France Tourism can be defined as the act of travel for the purpose of recreation, and the provision of services for this act. ... Physical therapy (or physiotherapy[1]) is the provision of services to people and populations to develop, maintain and restore maximum movement and functional ability throughout the lifespan. ... A clinic or outpatient clinic is a small medical facility that provides health care for ambulatory patients - as opposed to inpatients treated in a hospital. ... Disabilities are limitations in activity and/or functioning that are attributable to permanent medical conditions in physical, mental, emotional, and/or sensory domains and, significantly, are also due to societal responses to those limitations. ...


Infections from hot springs

Unfortunately, hot springs can create ideal conditions to spread infections. For example:

  • A bather may have been infected by the herpes simplex virus in his toe from a hot spring in Japan.[32]
  • Viruses have been collected from very extreme environments, for example, a hot spring with a temperature of 87 to 93°C and an incredibly acidic pH of 1.5 in Pozzuoli, Italy. These viruses were observed to infect cells in the laboratory.[33]

Binomial name Naegleria fowleri Carter (1970) Naegleria fowleri (pronounced //) is a free living amoeba typically found in warm fresh water, from 25-35 degrees Celsius in an amoeboid or temporary flagellate stage. ... Alternate meanings: Amoeboid, Amoebozoa For other uses, see Amoeba (disambiguation). ... Meningitis is the inflammation of the protective membranes covering the central nervous system, known collectively as the meninges. ... Acanthamoeba is a genus of amoebae, one of the most common protozoa in soil, and also frequently found in freshwater and other habitats. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta is recognized as the lead United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people by providing credible information to enhance health decisions, and promoting health through strong partnerships with state health departments and other organizations. ... Species Legionella adelaidensis Legionella anisa Legionella beliardensis Legionella birminghamensis Legionella bozemanii Legionella brunensis Legionella busanensis Legionella cherrii Legionella cincinnatiensis Legionella donaldsonii Legionella drancourtii Legionella drozanskii Legionella erythra Legionella fairfieldensis Legionella fallonii Legionella feeleii Legionella geestiana Legionella gratiana Legionella gresilensis Legionella hackeliae Legionella israelensis Legionella jamestowniensis Legionella jordanis Legionella lansingensis Legionella... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Species Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) This article is about the virus. ... The correct title of this article is . ... Pozzuoli is a city of the province of Napoli, in the Italian region of Campania. ...

Hot springs around the world

Distribution of geothermal springs in the US
Macaques enjoying an open air hot spring or "onsen" in Nagano
Macaques enjoying an open air hot spring or "onsen" in Nagano

There are hot springs on all continents and in many countries around the world. Countries that are renowned for their hot springs include Iceland, New Zealand, Chile and Japan, but there are interesting and unique hot springs in many other places as well: Download high resolution version (887x387, 78 KB)Geothermal hot springs in the United States. ... Download high resolution version (887x387, 78 KB)Geothermal hot springs in the United States. ... Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ... Image File history File links Japanese Macaques (Macaca fuscata) Jigokudani Hot Spring in Nagano Prefecture, Japan. ... Image File history File links Japanese Macaques (Macaca fuscata) Jigokudani Hot Spring in Nagano Prefecture, Japan. ... Type Species Simia inuus Linnaeus, 1758 = Simia sylvanus Linnaeus, 1758 Species See text. ... Outdoor pool, Naruko Outdoor Onsen on Nakanoshima island in Nachikatsuura, Wakayama Prefecture Old onsen in Hakone An private outdoor rotenburo in Gorakadan Guidebook to Hakone from 1811 This rotenburo at Jigokudani Onsen is for Japanese Macaques. ... Categories: Host cities of the Winter Olympic Games | Cities in Nagano Prefecture | Japan geography stubs ... There are hot springs on all continents and in many countries around the world. ...

  • The town of Spa, Belgium is the origin of the word "spa" and features springs with water temperatures of 32 degrees C. Casanova visited Spa in 1783 looking for business opportunities but was disappointed.[34]
  • Aachen, Germany has the hottest springs of Central Europe with water temperatures of 74 degrees C.
  • There are more than 275 hot springs registered in Chile including South America's largest hot spring source in Liquiñe.[citation needed]
  • The Yangbajing hot springs field about 87 km. north of Lhasa in Tibet is several square kilometers in size, and used to supply a large fraction of the electricity of Lhasa. At an altitude between 4290 and 4500 m, this is a strong candidate for the highest altitude set of hot springs on earth.
  • Icaria, Greece features a radioactive hot water spring that has been used since the fourth century BCE.
  • There are numerous hot springs in Greenland, such as in Uunartoq. There are over 2000 hot springs just on Disko Island, which has an area only 0.4% of that of Greenland.
  • The Geysir hot springs in Iceland are the source of the word "geyser".
  • The closest town to Machu Picchu in Peru is Machu Picchu Pueblo, which features several hot springs. The local name for Machu Picchu Pueblo is Aguas Calientes.
  • Iceland has many famous hot springs, including the one feeding the Blue Lagoon spa in Grindavík, Iceland, and Europe's highest flow rate hot spring Deildartunguhver. Deildartunguhver's water emerges at 97 degrees C and is piped many miles to heat neighboring towns.
  • Shiretoko National Park in Hokkaidō, Japan has a hot springs waterfall called Kamuiwakkayu-no-taki, which translates as "river of the gods" in the Ainu language.
  • Northwest Spitsbergen National Park, Spitsbergen at 80°N, contains two of earth's most northerly hot springs.
  • There are many geothermal springs in the UK, but the thermal springs found in the town of Bath produce the highest temperature geothermal water in the UK. The Bath hot springs are only true hot springs in the UK, by some definitions.
  • Oymyakon in eastern Siberia is a candidate for the coldest permanently-inhabited location in the Northern Hemisphere and another hot springs site. The Yakut language word "oymyakon" means "river doesn't freeze" after the local tributary of the Indigirka River fed by the hot springs which continues to flow year round in this permafrost region.
  • Being located in the "Pacific Ring of Fire", Japan is in a volcanic region, and is home to many hot springs. The onsen (a Japanese word for "hot spring") plays a notable role in Japanese culture. Visiting an onsen is a quintessential Japanese experience and is a popular tourist activity.
  • Chutsen Chugang Hot Springs are located on the grounds of the Zhoto Terdrom / Tidro Nunnery, at an altitude of 4400 meters in Maldrogongkar / Mozhugongka County, Lhasa, Tibet. Buddhist nuns and the "hot spring snake" both live near this set of high altitude hot springs.
  • There are even hot springs in Antarctica, such as the one on Deception Island.
  • Champaign Hot Springs is a shallow submarine geothermal spring system along the coast of the island of Dominica, Lesser Antilles.[35]

Spa is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Liège. ... Look up spa, Spa, SpA in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Giacomo Casanova (April 5, 1725 - June 4, 1798). ... Oche redirects here; in darts the oche is the line from which players must throw. ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Liquiñe is small village carved in a andean valley in Panguipullis municality at Valdivias Province, Chile. ... Yangbajing is a Tibetan town approximately 87 kilometers (54 miles) north-west of Lhasa, halfway to Damxung in the Tibet Autonomous Region of China. ... Lhasa (Tibetan: ལྷ་ས་; Wylie: lha sa; Lhasa dialect IPA: [; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), sometimes spelled Llasa, is the traditional capital of Tibet and the capital of the Tibet Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Lhasa (Tibetan: ལྷ་ས་; Wylie: lha sa; Lhasa dialect IPA: [; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), sometimes spelled Llasa, is the traditional capital of Tibet and the capital of the Tibet Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... For the utopian place see the entry for Étienne Cabet Icaria, also spelled Ikaria (Greek: Ικαρία), locally Nikaria or Nicaria (Νικαριά), previous name: Doliche (Δολίχη), is a Greek island 10 nautical miles (19 km) south-west of Samos. ... Uunartoq is a town (latitude of 69. ... Disko Island lies off the west coast of Greenland in Davis Strait at a latitude of less than 70° North, and to the north of Disko Bay. ... The erupting Great Geysir Geysir (sometimes known as The Great Geysir), in the Haukadalur valley, Iceland, is the oldest known geyser and one of the worlds most impressive examples of the phenomenon. ... Machu Picchu (Quechua: Machu Pikchu Old Peak) is a pre-Columbian Inca city located at 2,430 m (7,970 ft) altitude[1] on a mountain ridge above the Urubamba Valley in Peru, about 70 km (44 mi) northwest of Cusco. ... Aguas Calientes is a town on the Urubamba River in Peru. ... View of the blue lagoon in Iceland The Blue Lagoon (Icelandic: Bláa Lónið) geothermal spa is one of the most visited attractions in Iceland. ... Location of Grindavík Grindavík is a fishing town at the peninsula of Reykjanes at the south-western coast of Iceland. ... Deildartunguhver Deildartunguhver is a hot spring in Reykholtsdalur, Iceland. ... Deildartunguhver Deildartunguhver is a hot spring in Reykholtsdalur, Iceland. ... Shiretoko National Park ) covers most of the Shiretoko Peninsula at the northeastern tip of the island of Hokkaido, Japan. ...   literally North Sea Circuit, Ainu: Mosir), formerly known as Ezo, Yezo, Yeso, or Yesso, is Japans second largest island and the largest of its 47 prefectural-level subdivisions. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Ainu language (Ainu: , aynu itak; Japanese: ainu-go) is spoken by the Ainu ethnic group on the northern Japanese island of Hokkaidō. It was once spoken in the Kurile Islands, the northern part of HonshÅ«, and the southern half of Sakhalin. ... Northwest Spitsbergen National Park (Nordvest-Spitsbergen nasjonalpark) is located on the Norwegian archipelago of Svalbard and includes parts of northwest Spitzbergen (Albert I Land and Haakon VII Land) and nearby islands such as Danskøya and Moffen. ... Map of Svalbard, showing Spitsbergen in the West. ... There are several geothermal springs in the UK: Tunbridge Wells, Kent thermal spring Stoney Middleton Thermal Springs, Derbyshire 17. ... Bath is a city in Somerset, England most famous for its baths fed by three hot springs. ... Oymyakon in Russia Oymyakon (Russian: ) is a village (selo) in Oymyakonsky Ulus of the Sakha Republic, Russia, located along the Indigirka River. ... “Siberian” redirects here. ... The Yakut language, or Sakha, is a Turkic language with around 363,000 speakers that is spoken in the Sakha Republic in the Russian Federation. ... The Indigirka River (Индигирка in Russian), a river in Sakha in Russia. ... In geology, permafrost or permafrost soil is soil at or below the freezing point of water (0°C or 32°F) for two or more years. ... The Pacific Ring of Fire The Pacific Ring of Fire is an area of frequent earthquakes and volcanic eruptions encircling the basin of the Pacific Ocean. ... Outdoor pool, Naruko Outdoor Onsen on Nakanoshima island in Nachikatsuura, Wakayama Prefecture Old onsen in Hakone An private outdoor rotenburo in Gorakadan Guidebook to Hakone from 1811 This rotenburo at Jigokudani Onsen is for Japanese Macaques. ... This article is about an abbey as a religious building. ... Lhasa (Tibetan: ལྷ་ས་; Wylie: lha sa; Lhasa dialect IPA: [; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), sometimes spelled Llasa, is the traditional capital of Tibet and the capital of the Tibet Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Tibet (see Name section below for other spellings) is a plateau region in Central Asia and the indigenous home to the Tibetan people. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... Thermophis baileyi, also known as Baileys snake or the Hot-spring keel-back[1], is a rare snake found only at high altitudes in the mountains of Tibet near two hot springs. ... Deception Island is an island in the South Shetland Islands off the Antarctic Peninsula in Antarctica. ... Location of the Lesser Antilles (green) in relation to the rest of the Caribbean Islands of the Lesser Antilles The Lesser Antilles, also known as the Caribbees,[1] are part of the Antilles, which together with the Bahamas and Greater Antilles form the West Indies. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Bath is a city in Somerset, England most famous for its baths fed by three hot springs. ... In geology, a hotspot is a location on the Earths surface that has experienced active volcanism for a long period of time. ... Green Dragon Spring at Norris Geyser A hot spring is a place where warm or hot groundwater issues from the ground on a regular basis for at least a predictable part of the year, and is significantly above the ambient ground temperature (which is usually around 55~57°F or... Outdoor pool, Naruko Outdoor Onsen on Nakanoshima island in Nachikatsuura, Wakayama Prefecture Old onsen in Hakone An private outdoor rotenburo in Gorakadan Guidebook to Hakone from 1811 This rotenburo at Jigokudani Onsen is for Japanese Macaques. ... A spa town is a town frequented, in times past, for health reasons, to take the waters. The name derives from the Belgian town Spa, and in continental Europe, a spa was known as a ville deau (town of water). ... The List of spa towns is a link page for any spa town. ... There are several geothermal springs in the UK: Tunbridge Wells, Kent thermal spring Stoney Middleton Thermal Springs, Derbyshire 17. ... Closer view of hot springs on Seven Star Mountain located in Yangmingshan Taiwan is on the fault line where the Euro-Asian and Philippine continental plates meet. ...

References

  1. ^ MSN Encarta definition of hot spring
  2. ^ Miriam-Webster Online dictionary definition of hot spring
  3. ^ Wordsmyth definition of hot spring
  4. ^ American Heritage dictionary, fourth edition (2000) definition of hot spring
  5. ^ Infoplease definition of hot spring
  6. ^ Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2006. definition of hot spring
  7. ^ Wordnet 2.0 definition of hot spring
  8. ^ Interlingua Online dictionary definition of hot spring
  9. ^ Rhymezone definition of hot spring
  10. ^ Lookwayup definition of hot spring
  11. ^ Columbia Encyclopedia, sixth edition, article on hot spring
  12. ^ Physical Geology, 6th Edition, Don L. Leet, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1982
  13. ^ A thermal spring is defined as a spring that brings warm or hot water to the surface. by Physical Geology, 6th Edition, Don L. Leet, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1982 and Leet states that there are two types of thermal springs; hot springs and warm springs.
  14. ^ Actually, 15°F is 8.3°C
  15. ^ Lake and water glossary defintion of hot spring
  16. ^ What is a hot spring?, Allan Pentecost, B. Jones, and R.W. Renaut Can. J. Earth Sci./Rev. can. sci. Terre 40(11): 1443-1446 (2003) provides a critical discussion of the definition of a hot spring.
  17. ^ For example, ambient ground temperature is usually around 55–57°F (13–14°C) in the eastern United States
  18. ^ US NOAA Geophysical Data Center definition
  19. ^ What is a hot spring?, Allan Pentecost, B. Jones, and R.W. Renaut Can. J. Earth Sci./Rev. can. sci. Terre 40(11): 1443-1446 (2003) provides a critical discussion of the definition of a hot spring.
  20. ^ It should be noted that there are many more very high flow nonthermal springs than geothermal springs. For example, there are 33 recognized "magnitude one springs" (having a flow in excess of 2800 liters/second) in Florida alone. Silver Springs, Florida has a flow of more than 23000 liters/second.
  21. ^ Truth or Consequences, New Mexico- A Spa City, John W. Lund, James C. Witcher,GHC Bulletin, December 2002.
  22. ^ Desert Springs of Great Australian Arterial Basin, W. F. Ponder, Conference Proceedings. Spring-fed Wetlands: Important Scientific and Cultural Resources of the Intermountain Region, 2002.
  23. ^ The web site of the Roosevelt rehabilitation clinic in Warm Springs, Georgia
  24. ^ Web site of rehabilitation clinics in Central Texas created because of a geothermal spring
  25. ^ emedicine article on naegleria
  26. ^ Occurrence and Distribution of Naegleria Species in Thermal Waters in Japan, Shinji Izumiyama, Kenji Yagita, Reiko Furushima-Shimogawara, Tokiko Asakura, Tatsuya Karasudani, Takuro Endo, The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology Vol. 50 Issue s1 Page 514 July 2003
  27. ^ Primary amebic meningoencephalitis due to Naegleria fowleri: An autopsy case in Japan, Yasuo Sugita, Teruhiko Fujii, Itsurou Hayashi, Takachika Aoki, Toshirou Yokoyama, Minoru Morimatsu, Toshihide Fukuma & Yoshiaki Takamiya, Pathology International, Volume 49 Page 468 - May 1999
  28. ^ Southern New Mexico web site article about some local hot springs, including a warning about Naegleria fowler
  29. ^ CDC description of acanthomoeba
  30. ^ Molecular determination of infection source of a sporadic Legionella pneumonia case associated with a hot spring bath, H. Miyamoto, S. Jitsurong, R. Shiota, K. Maruta, S. Yoshida, E. Yabuuchi, Microbiol Immunol., 41(3):197-202, 1997.
  31. ^ An outbreak of legionellosis in a new facility of hot spring Bath in Hiuga City, Eiko Yabauuchi, Kunio Agata, Kansenshogaku zasshi (Kansenshogaku zasshi), ISSN 0387-5911, vol. 78, no2, pp. 90-98, 2004.
  32. ^ Indolent herpetic whitlow of the toe in an elderly patient with diabetic neuropathy, Maki Ozawa, Tomoyuki Ohtani, and Hachiro Tagami, Dermatology Online Journal 10 (1): 16, 2004.
  33. ^ Viral Diversity in Hot Springs of Pozzuoli, Italy, and Characterization of a Unique Archaeal Virus, Acidianus Bottle-Shaped Virus, from a New Family, the Ampullaviridae, Monika Häring, Reinhard Rachel, Xu Peng, Roger A. Garrett, and David Prangishvili1, J. Virol., 79(15): 9904–9911, August 2005.
  34. ^ Spa: Belgium's healthy-living retreat, Gareth Bourne and Sarah Hajibagheri, The Independent, November 3, 2006
  35. ^ Geochemistry of Champagne Hot Springs shallow hydrothermal vent field and associated sediments, Dominica, Lesser Antilles, Kevin T. McCarthy, Thomas Pichler, Roy E. Price, Chemical Geology 224, pages 55– 68, 2005

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... A natural spring on Mackinac Island in Michigan. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ... Silver Springs is in Marion County, Florida, in the Ocala Metropolitan area. ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading and external links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Hot spring - definition of Hot spring in Encyclopedia (712 words)
A "hot spring" is a place where warm or hot groundwater issues from the ground on a regular basis for at least a predictable part of the year, and is significantly above the ambient ground temperature (which is usually around 55~57°F or 13~14°C in the eastern United States).
Though there are no Indian ruins in the immediate vicinity of the hot springs, the presence of grain grinding mortar holes, pottery shards, and other artifacts close by to the west are a clear indication that nomadic hunter-gatherers frequented the area for many years.
Pemberton: Meagre Creek Hot Springs, Sloquet Creek Hot Springs and Skookumchuck Hot Springs
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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