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Encyclopedia > Hostility

Hostility (also called inimicality) is a form of angry internal rejection or denial in psychology. It is a part of personal construct psychology, developed by Dan Kelman. In everyday speech it is more commonly used as a synonym for anger and aggression. This article is about the emotion. ... Rejection may mean: In psychology, rejection is an emotion felt by most humans (and possibly other higher animals) when another person denies a personal request, particularly if it is an emotional advance. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Personal Construct Psychology (PCP) is a theory of personality developed by the American psychologist George Kelly in the 1950s. ... George Kelly (April 28, 1905-March 6, 1966) was an American psychologist, therapist and educator. ... Synonyms (in ancient Greek, συν (syn) = plus and όνομα (onoma) = name) are different words with similar or identical meanings. ... This article is about the emotion. ... In psychology and other social and behavioral sciences, aggression refers to behavior that is intended to cause harm or pain. ...


In psychological terms, Kelman defined hostility as the wilful refusal to accept evidence that one's perceptions of the world are wrong. Instead of reconsidering, the hostile person attempts to force or coerce the world to fit their view, even if this is a forlorn hope, and however harmful the cost.


Whilst testing theories against reality is a necessary part of life, and persistence in the face of failure is often a necessary part of invention or discovery, in the case of hostility there is the distinction that the evidence is not assessed and a decision made to try again. Instead the evidence is suppressed or denied, and deleted from awareness - the unfavorable evidence which might suggest a prior belief is flawed is instead ignored and wilfully avoided. Psychologically, it can be said that reality is being held to ransom, and in this sense hostility is a form of psychological extortion - an attempt to force reality to produce the desired feedback, in order that preconceptions become validated. Censorship is the control of speech and other forms of human expression, often by government intervention. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The term ransom refers to the practice of holding a prisoner to extort money or property extorted to secure their release, or to the sum of money involved. ... Extortion is a criminal offense, which occurs when a person either obtains money, property or services from another through coercion or intimidation or threatens one with physical harm unless they are paid money or property. ...


In this sense, hostility is a response which forms part of discounting of unwanted cognitive dissonance. Cognitive dissonance is a psychological state that describes the uncomfortable feeling between what one holds to be true and what one knows to be true. ...


External links

  • Presidential Address on Hostility to Clinical Division of the APA, by Kelly, 1957
For other uses, see Emotion (disambiguation). ... This is a list of emotions. ... For other uses, see Acceptance (disambiguation). ... For the change in vowel and consonant quality in Celtic languages, see Affection (linguistics). ... Alertness is the the process of paying close and continuous attention. ... Look up ambivalence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the emotion. ... For other uses, see Angst (disambiguation). ... Annoyance is an unpleasant mental state that is characterized by such effects as irritation and distraction from ones conscious thinking. ... Anticipation is an emotion involving pleasure (and sometimes anxiety) in considering some expected or longed-for good event, or irritation at having to wait. ... Anxiety is a physiological state characterized by cognitive, somatic, emotional, and behavioral components[1]. These components combine to create the feelings that we typically recognize as anger and known as fear, apprehension, or worry. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Resentment is an emotion, from ressentiment, a French word, meaning malice, anger, being rancorous. The English word has the sense of feeling bitter. ... Boring and Bored redirect here. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Compassion is best described as an understanding of the emotional state of another; not to be confused with empathy. ... For other uses, see Contempt (disambiguation). ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... Severe confusion of a degree considered pathological usually refers to loss of orientation (ability to place oneself correctly in the world by time, location, and personal identity), and often memory (ability to correctly recall previous events or learn new materal). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up desire in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Depression. ... Disappointment is the emotion felt when a strongly held expectation of something desired is not met. ... A woman showing disgust. ... This article is about the mental state. ... This article is about informal use of the term. ... Embarrassment is an unpleasant emotional state experienced upon having a socially or professionally unacceptable act or condition witnessed by or revealed to others. ... Not to be confused with Pity, Sympathy, or Compassion. ... For other uses, see Emptiness (disambiguation). ... Enthusiasm (Greek: enthousiasmos) originally meant inspiration or possession by a divine afflatus or by the presence of a God. ... For other uses, see Envy (disambiguation). ... This article is about a feeling, for other meanings see epiphany (disambiguation). ... Euphoria (Greek ) is a medically recognized emotional state related to happiness. ... Fanaticism is an emotion of being filled with excessive, uncritical zeal, particularly for an extreme religious or political cause, or with an obsessive enthusiasm for a pastime or hobby. ... For other uses, see Fear (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Gratification is the positive emotional response (happiness) to a fulfillment of desire. ... For other uses, see Gratitude (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Anticipatory Grief be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the emotion. ... For other uses, see Happiness (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hate (disambiguation). ... Homesickness is generally described as a feeling of longing for ones familiar surroundings. ... For other uses, see Hope (disambiguation). ... Look up despair in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Horror is the feeling of revulsion that usually occurs after something frightening is seen, heard, or otherwise experienced. ... Etymology: Late Latin humiliatus, past participle of humiliare, from Latin humilis low. ... Hysteria is a diagnostic label applied to a state of mind, one of unmanageable fear or emotional excesses. ... Inspiration in artistic composition refers to an irrational and unconscious burst of creativity. ... Jealous redirects here. ... Look up kindness in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Limerence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Loneliness is an emotional state in which a person experiences a powerful feeling of emptiness and isolation. ... For other uses, see Love (disambiguation). ... A demon sating his lust in a 13th century manuscript Lust is any intense desire or craving for self gratification and excitement. ... Melancholy redirects here. ... Panic is the primal urge to run and hide in the face of imminent danger. ... Patience, engraving by Hans Sebald Beham, 1540 Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: patience Patience is the ability to endure waiting, delay, or provocation without becoming annoyed or upset, or to persevere calmly when faced with difficulties. ... Not to be confused with Empathy, Sympathy, or Compassion. ... This article is about the emotion. ... Rage, tacuinum sanitatis casanatensis (XIV century) Rage, in psychiatry, is a mental state that is one extreme of the intensity spectrum of anger. ... Regret is an intelligent (and/or emotional) dislike for personal past acts and behaviors. ... People feel remorse when reflecting on their actions that they believe are wrong. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Righteous indignation is an emotion one feels when one gets angry over perceived mistreatment, insult, or malice. ... Sadness is a mood that displays feeling of disadvantage and loss. ... Look up Schadenfreude in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... For other uses, see Shame (disambiguation). ... In humans, shyness is the feeling of apprehension or lack of confidence experienced in regard to social association with others, e. ... ... Suffering, or pain in this sense,[1] is a basic affective experience of unpleasantness and aversion associated with harm or threat of harm in an individual. ... For other uses, see Surprise. ...

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A Diffusion/Contagion Model of Interracial Hostility (765 words)
The extent to which those opportunities are used to express hostility (transmission).
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Direct participation in hostilities (755 words)
Direct participation in hostilities by civilians entails loss of immunity from attack during the time of such participation and may also subject them, upon capture, to penal prosecution under the domestic law of the detaining state.
Notwithstanding the divergences regarding the precise confines of direct participation, any interpretation of this notion should be narrow enough to protect civilians and maintain the meaning of the principle of distinction, while broad enough to meet the legitimate need of the armed forces to effectively respond to violence by non-combatants.
Even though it is not a violation of IHL for a civilian to fight for his or her country, the lack of combatant or prisoner of war status implies that civilians directly participating in hostilities may be prosecuted under domestic law for their acts regardless of whether or not they violated IHL.
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