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Encyclopedia > Hosni Mubarak
Muhammad Hosni Said Mubarak
محمد حسنى سيد مبارك
Hosni Mubarak

Incumbent
Assumed office 
14 October 1981
Preceded by Anwar Al Sadat

Born May 4, 1928
Flag of Egypt Kafr-El Meselha, Al Monufiyah
Political party National Democratic Party
Religion Sunni Islam

Muhammad Hosni Said Mubarak (Arabic: محمد حسنى سيد مبارك Muḥammad Ḥusnī Mubārak), commonly known as Hosni Mubarak (Arabic: حسنى مبارك Ḥusnī Mubārak), has been the President of Egypt since 14 October 1981. President Hosni Mubarak, Heliopolis Palace. ... The President of the Arab Republic of Egypt is the elected Head of State of Egypt. ... The incumbent, in politics, is the current holder of a political office. ... October 14 is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Field Marshal Mohammed Anwar Al Sadat (Arabic: محمد أنورالسادات Muhammad Anwar as-Sādāt) was an Egyptian soldier and politician who served as the third President of Egypt from October 15, 1970 until his assassination on October 6, 1981. ... May 4 is the 124th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (125th in leap years). ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt. ... Al Minufiyah (Arabic: المنوفيه ) is one of the governorates of Egypt. ... The National Democratic Party (Al-Hizb Al-Watany Al-Demoqraty) was established in 1978 by late president Anwar Sadat who headed the party till 1981. ... Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... The President of the Arab Republic of Egypt is the elected Head of State of Egypt. ... October 14 is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Mubarak was born May 4, 1928 and appointed the Vice-President of the Republic of Egypt after moving up the ranks of the Egyptian Air Force. He ascended to the Presidency, succeeding President Anwar Al Sadat, following the latter's assassination on 6 October 1981. May 4 is the 124th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (125th in leap years). ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... Egyptian Air Force Insignia The Egyptian Air Force, or EAF (Arabic: ‎, ), is the aviation branch of the Egyptian armed forces. ... The word Presidency is often used to describe the collective administrative and governmental entity that exists around an office of president of a state or nation. ... Field Marshal Mohammed Anwar Al Sadat (Arabic: محمد أنورالسادات Muhammad Anwar as-Sādāt) was an Egyptian soldier and politician who served as the third President of Egypt from October 15, 1970 until his assassination on October 6, 1981. ... Field Marshal Mohammed Anwar Al Sadat (Arabic: محمد أنورالسادات Muhammad Anwar as-Sādāt) was an Egyptian soldier and politician who served as the third President of Egypt from October 15, 1970 until his assassination on October 6, 1981. ... October 6 is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years). ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


As President of Egypt, he is considered to be one of the most powerful leaders in the region and has exercised strong control over the country in defiance of the constitution of Egypt. The Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt is the supreme law of Egypt. ...

Contents

Biography

Mubarak was born in "Kafr El-Meselha", Al Monufiyah Governorate, Egypt. Upon completion of high school, he joined the Egyptian Military Academy, where he received a Bachelor's Degree in Military Sciences in 1949. In 1950, he joined the Air Force Academy, eventually earning a Bachelor's Degree in Aviation Sciences, and was assigned to the bombers squadrons. Part of his pilot's training he received at the Soviet pilot training school in Frunze (current Bishkek), in Soviet Kyrgyzstan. He then moved up the chain of command, holding the positions of pilot, instructor, squadron leader and base commander. In 1964, he was appointed head of the Egyptian Military Delegation to the USSR. Al Minufiyah (Arabic: المنوفيه ) is one of the governorates of Egypt. ... The Egyptian Military Academy (Arabic: الكلية العسكرية), is the countrys oldest and most prominent military academy in Egypt and the region. ... A bachelors degree (Artium Baccalaureus, A.B. or B.A.) is usually an undergraduate academic degree awarded for a course or major that generally lasts for three, four, or in some cases and countries, five or six years. ... Bishkek cityscape Bishkek (Бишкек) is the capital of Kyrgyzstan. ... Soviet redirects here. ...


In the years between 1967 and 1972, during the War of Attrition between Egypt and Israel, Mubarak was appointed Director of the Air Force Academy and Chief of Staff of the Egyptian Air Force. In 1972, he became Commander of the Air Force and deputy minister of war. In October 1973, following the October War, also known as Yom Kippur War and the 10th of Ramadan War, Mubarak was promoted to the rank of Air Chief Marshal. In April 1975, he was appointed Vice-President of Egypt and, in 1978, he was selected as Vice-Chairman of the National Democratic Party (NDP). Combatants Israel Egypt Soviet Union Strength unknown Egyptian: unknown Soviet advisors: 10,700–12,300 Casualties 1,424 soldiers and >100 civilians killed 2,000 soldiers and 700 civilians wounded [1] [2] 10,000 Egyptian soldiers and civilians killed¹ 3 Soviet pilots killed The War of Attrition (Hebrew: ‎)(Arabic: ‎) was... Combatants Israel Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Iraq Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled, Israel Tal, Rehavam Zeevi, Aharon Yariv, Yitzhak Hofi, Rafael Eitan, Abraham Adan, Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali, Hosni Mubarak, Mohammed Aly Fahmy, Anwar Sadat, Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy, Abdul... This article is about Islamic religious observances in the month of Ramadan. ... An Air Chief Marshals sleeve/shoulder insignia Air Chief Marshal is the most senior rank active in the Royal Air Force (RAF) today, after the inactivation of Marshal of the Royal Air Force as a substantive rank in peacetime during defence cuts of the 1990s. ... The National Democratic Party (Al-Hizb Al-Watany Al-Demoqraty) was established in 1978 by late president Anwar Sadat who headed the party till 1981. ...


Following the assassination of President Sadat by fundamentalists in 1981, Mubarak became President of the Arab Republic of Egypt and the Chairman of the National Democratic Party (NDP). Mubarak has escaped no fewer than six assassination attempts. [1] In comparative religion, fundamentalism has come to refer to several different understandings of religious thought and practice, through literal interpretation of religious texts such as the Bible or the Quran and sometimes also anti-modernist movements in various religions. ...


Hosni Mubarak is married to Suzanne Mubarak, and has two sons: Alaa and Gamal. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Alaa Mubarak (Arabic: علاء مبارك ), or Alā-ud-dīn Muhammad Husni Sayyid Mubarak (Arabic: علاء الدين محمد حسنى سيد مبارك ) , is an Egyptian businessman and one of two sons of president Hosni Mubarak of Egypt. ... Gamal Mubarak (Arabic: جمال مبارك ), or Gamal El Deen Muhammad Hosni Saiid Mubarak (Arabic:جمال الدين محمد حسنى سيد مبارك), born 1963, is the younger of the two sons of current Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak and Mrs. ...


Egypt under Mubarak

A younger Hosni Mubarak
A younger Hosni Mubarak

President Mubarak has been re-elected by majority votes in referenda for successive terms on four occasions: in 1987, 1993, 1999 and 2005. The results of the referenda are of questionable validity. No one runs against the President due to a restriction in the Egyptian Constitution in which the People's Assembly plays the main role in electing the President of the Republic. However in February 2005 Mubarak passed a constitutional amendment allowing parties directly running against the incumbent president. As expected, he was re-elected. Mohamed Hosni Mubarak This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Mohamed Hosni Mubarak This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ...


After increased domestic and international pressure for democratic reform in Egypt, on February 26, 2005 Mubarak asked the largely rubber stamp parliament to amend the constitution to allow multi-candidate presidential elections by September 2005. Previously, Mubarak secured his position by having himself nominated by parliament, then confirmed without opposition in a referendum. February 26 is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Rubber stamp, is a political metaphor referring to an institution that has little power and rarely disagrees with more powerful organs, though usually it formally has much greater power. ... Ballots of the Argentine plebiscite of 1984 on the border treaty with Chile A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ...


The September 2005 ballot was therefore a multiple candidate election rather than a referendum, but the electoral institutions, and security apparatus remain under the control of the President. The official state media, including the three government newspapers and state television also express views identical to the official line taken by Mubarak. In recent years however, there has been a steady growth in independent news outlets, especially independent newspapers which occasionally criticize the President and his family severely. Satellite channels beaming from Egypt such as the Orbit Satellite Television and Radio Network for example, also exhibit relative openness as exhibited in their flagship program Al Qahira Al Yawm. However, Mubarak started to lose support in Egypt in the mid-1990s. The breakthrough economic performance of the early 1990s was wasted. In the last few years however, a cabinet headed by Prime Minister Ahmed Nazif has been somewhat successful in turning things around. According to the List of countries by Human Development Index Egypt ranks 111th out of 177 countries, and rates 0.702 on the index. Orbit Satellite Television and Radio Network was the world’s first fully digital, multi-channel, multi-lingual, pay television service, providing perfect sound and picture quality at all times. ... A live show from Cairo hosted by Amr Adeeb and Nirvana Idriss covering all aspects of the life in Cairo today. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... Dr. Ahmed Nazif (Arabic: أحمد نظيف ; born 8 July 1952 in Alexandria) has served as the Prime Minister of Egypt since 14 July 2004. ... This is a list of countries by Human Development Index as included in the United Nations Development Programmes Human Development Report 2006, compiled on the basis of 2004 data. ...


On July 28, Mubarak announced his candidacy, as he had been widely expected to do. The election which was scheduled for September 7 involved mass rigging activities according to civil organizations that observed the elections. Reports have shown that Mubarak's party used government vehicles to take public employees to vote for Mubarak. Votes were bought for Mubarak in poor suburbs and rural areas. It was also reported that thousands of illegal votes were allowed for Mubarak from citizens who were not registered to vote. On September 8, Dr. Ayman Nour, a dissident and candidate for the Al-Ghad party, contested the election results, and demanded a repeat of the election. On September 9, the Egyptian Electional Committee, consisting of several independent judges, denied the demands of Dr. Nour, and he was later given a five year jail sentence for forging signatures, a charge that Nour strongly denies. July 28 is the 209th day (210th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 156 days remaining. ... September 7 is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years). ... September 8 is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years). ... Ayman Abd El-Aziz Nour (Arabic: ) is an Egyptian politician, a former member of that countrys Parliament and chairman of the al-Ghad party (Tomorrow Party). He became famous around the world following his January 2005 imprisonment by the government of President Hosni Mubarak, which was widely understood as... Tomorrow Party (Hizb al-Ghad) is an active political party in Egypt that was granted license in October 2004. ... September 9 is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years). ...


On the day of Nour's guilty verdict and sentencing, the White House Press Secretary released the following statement denouncing the government's action: The White House Press Secretary is a senior White House official with a rank one step below Presidential Cabinet level. ...


"The United States is deeply troubled by the conviction today of Egyptian politician Ayman Nour by an Egyptian court. The conviction of Dr. Nour, the runner-up in Egypt's 2005 presidential elections, calls into question Egypt's commitment to democracy, freedom and the rule of law. We are also disturbed by reports that Mr. Nour's health has seriously declined due to the hunger strike on which he has embarked in protest of the conditions of his trial and detention. The United States calls upon the Egyptian government to act under the laws of Egypt in the spirit of its professed desire for increased political openness and dialogue within Egyptian society, and out of humanitarian concern, to release Mr. Nour from detention."


Despite these reports by some observers however, a poll released by the Pew Research Center indicates that an overwhelming majority of Egyptians express confidence in Mubarak's leadership, with some 86% of those polled indicating they had either "a lot of confidence" or "some confidence" in Mubarak's leadership. [2] (Q.40 i.) The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact tank that provides information on the issues, attitudes and trends shaping the USA and the world. ...


Egypt's return to the Arab League

Egypt was the only country in the history of the Arab League to be suspended from its membership due to President Sadat's peace treaty with Israel, but it re-gained admission to the league - eight years after the 6 October 1981 assassination of Sadat - in 1989, under Mubarak. Its headquarters was relocated to its original setting in Cairo. [3] The Arab League or League of Arab States (Arabic: ‎), is an organization of predominantly Arab states (compare Arab world). ... Nickname: Al Qahirah (The Triumphant City) Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 210 km²  (81. ...


Mubarak and corruption

A dramatic drop in support for Mubarak occurred with the news that his son Alaa was favoured in government tenders and privatization. With both of his sons owning directly and indirectly shares in vast number of companies and minor projects, Mubarak's corruption is leading a series of corruption cases among his cabinet of minor governmental employees. Corruption at the Ministry of Interior and Police is also very obvious, on a wide scale of the infinite powers of police departments as in the later events of executing criminals without trials, hidden prison cells from the DA, etc., and also on an individual level, as each individual officer can violate any simple citizen's privacy, making unconditioned arrests, resulting in the sight of a police captain being as a danger instead of safety. Transparency International (TI) is an international organisation addressing corruption, including, but not limited to, political corruption. In 2005, TI's Corruption Perceptions Index report assessed Egypt with a CPI score of 3.4, based on perceptions of the degree of corruption from business people and country analysts, with 10 being highly clean and 0 being highly corrupt. Egypt ranked 70th out of the 159 countries included in the report.[1] Alaa Mubarak (Arabic: علاء مبارك ), or Alā-ud-dīn Muhammad Husni Sayyid Mubarak (Arabic: علاء الدين محمد حسنى سيد مبارك ) , is an Egyptian businessman and one of two sons of president Hosni Mubarak of Egypt. ... Transparency International (TI) is an international organisation addressing corruption, including, but not limited to, political corruption. ... Overview of the index of perception of corruption, 2006 Since 1995, Transparency International has published an annual Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI)[1] ordering the countries of the world according to the degree to which corruption is perceived to exist among public officials and politicians.[2] The organization defines corruption as...


Presidential succession

As Alaa left the picture around the year 2000, Mubarak's second son Gamal started rising in the National Democratic Party, and succeeded in getting a newer generation of neo-liberals into the party, and eventually the government. Due to Gamal's increasing visibility and influence, rumours about his being groomed for the presidency became common. Nevertheless, this has been denied by both the president and his son several times. Many believe that his succession would mean a hereditary pseudo-monarchy (see also family dictatorship). Gamal Mubarak (Arabic: جمال مبارك ), or Gamal El Deen Muhammad Hosni Saiid Mubarak (Arabic:جمال الدين محمد حسنى سيد مبارك), born 1963, is the younger of the two sons of current Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak and Mrs. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A monarchy, from the Greek μονος, one, and αρχειν, to rule, is a form of government that has a monarch as head of state. ... A family dictatorship, in political science terms a personalistic regime, is a form of dictatorship that operates much like an absolute monarchy, yet occurs in a nominally republican state. ...


Changing economic scene

In July 2004, Mubarak accepted the resignation of Prime Minister Atef Ebeid and the entire cabinet. Mubarak appointed Ahmed Nazif as the new Prime Minister. The new cabinet is generally viewed with optimism, and economic conditions are starting to improve considerably after a period of stagnation. The new cabinet headed by Prime Minister Ahmed Nazif was somewhat successful in overcoming the grim economic situation. The Egyptian stock market came in first place out of all emerging markets in terms of percentage increase for the fiscal year 2004/2005. Unemployment still persists however, and Mubarak has come under criticism for favoring big business and privatization as opposed to workers' rights. All this was a consequence of the wide use of privatization policy, by selling shares in most public sector companies, bit it is widely believed that this reserve of previously nationalized capitals will end soon, leaving Nazif's government broke. Dr. Atef Muhammad Ebeid (born 14 April 1932) was the Prime Minister of Egypt from October 1999 to July 2004. ... Dr. Ahmed Nazif (Arabic: أحمد نظيف ; born 8 July 1952 in Alexandria) has served as the Prime Minister of Egypt since 14 July 2004. ... Dr. Ahmed Nazif (Arabic: أحمد نظيف ; born 8 July 1952 in Alexandria) has served as the Prime Minister of Egypt since 14 July 2004. ...


Wars and the monetary gain from the First Gulf War

President Mubarak spoke out against the 2003 war on Iraq, arguing that the Israeli-Palestinian conflict should be tackled first. Egypt was a member of the allied coalition in the 1991 Gulf War, and Egyptian foot soldiers were some of the first to land in Saudi Arabia to evict Iraqi forces from Kuwait. Israel, with the West Bank, Gaza Strip and Golan Heights highlighted in green The Israeli-Palestinian conflict which is often claimed to be at the heart of the Arab-Israeli conflict, is an ongoing dispute between two peoples, Jewish Israelis and Arab Palestinians, that both claim the right to sovereignty... Combatants UN Coalition Republic of Iraq Commanders Norman Schwarzkopf, Peter de la Billière, Khalid bin Sultan, Saleh Al-Muhaya, Mohamed Hussein Tantawi Saddam Hussein Strength 883,863 360,000 Casualties 378 dead, 1,000 wounded 25,000 dead, 75,000 wounded The Gulf War or the Persian Gulf War...


Reports that sums as large as $500,000 per soldier were paid or debt forgiven were published in the news media. The Economist cites: The programme worked like a charm: a textbook case, says the IMF. In fact, luck was on Hosni Mubarak’s side—helped by his own quick judgment. When America was hunting for a military alliance to force Iraq out of Kuwait, Egypt’s president joined without hesitation. His reward, after the 1991 Gulf war, was that America, the Gulf states and Europe forgave Egypt around $20 billion-worth of debt, and rescheduled nearly as much again. [4] The Economist is a weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London, UK. It has been in continuous publication since September 1843. ... The flag of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is the international organization entrusted with overseeing the global financial system by monitoring foreign exchange rates and balance of payments, as well as offering technical and financial assistance when asked. ...


Because Egyptians were some of the first to move into Kuwait during the liberation, Egypt is rumored to have suffered more casualties than reported. According to Reporters Without Borders; Egyptian media ranks 133 out of 168 in freedom of the press [5], showing an improvement of 10 places from 2005. Reporters Without Borders, or RWB (French: Reporters sans frontières, Spanish: Reporteros Sin Fronteras, or RSF) is a French origin international non-governmental organization that advocates freedom of the press, founded by its current general-secretary, Robert Menard. ...


Mubarak and the Coptic church

Prior to Mubarak assuming the presidency, former Egyptian President Sadat ordered Shenouda III of Alexandria, the Pope of the Orthodox Coptic church into exile at the Monastery of St. Bishoi. In addition, eight bishops, twenty-four priests, and many other prominent Copts were placed under arrest. Sadat replaced the church hierarchy with a committee of five bishops and referred to Pope Shenouda as the "ex-pope." More than three years after assuming power following Sadat's 1981 assassination, Mubarak released Pope Shenouda from exile on January 2, 1985. He returned to Cairo to celebrate the January 7th Christmas mass to a crowd of more than ten thousand. Christians have enjoyed relatively greater rights under Mubarak with their January 7th holiday (Christmas in the orthodox calendar) being declared a national holiday in 2002. However, many Copts continue to claim that Mubarak has done little to safeguard Coptic interests. HH Pope Shenouty III, 117th Pope of Alexandria and All Africa, and Patriarch of the Apostolic See of St Mark His Holiness Pope Shenouda III of Alexandria, born Nazeer Gayed, has been Pope of the Coptic Orthodox Church since November 14, 1971. ... The current Pope is Benedict XVI (born Joseph Alois Ratzinger), who was elected at the age of 78 on 19 April 2005. ... A Copt is a native Egyptian Christian (also see Coptic Christianity). ... This article is about a title or office in religious bodies. ... HH Pope Shenouda III, 117th Pope of Alexandria and of the Apostolic See of St Mark Pope Shenouda III (Arabic:البابا شنودة الثالث), (August 3, 1923 – ), born Nazeer Gayed (Arabic:نظير جيد), is the 117th Pope of Alexandria and the Patriarch of All Africa on the Holy Apostolic See of Saint Mark the Evangelist of...


Twenty-five years of Emergency Law rule

Recently he has come under criticism for extending Egypt's Emergency Law (the country has been under a state of emergency since ex-president Sadat's assassination in 1981). Under that "state of emergency", the government has the right to imprison individuals for any period of time, and for virtually no reason, thus keeping them in prisons without trials for any period. One justification presented by the government and certain members of the international community to keep that state of emergency going is to fight terrorism. Opposition groups like the Muslim Brotherhood could come into power in Egypt if the current government does not forge parliamental elections, confescate the group's main financiers' possessions, and/or detain group figureheads; virtually impossible without emergency law and judicial-system independence prevention. However, critics would argue that this goes against the principles of democracy, a fundamental precept of which is a citizen's right to a fair trial and another one is the right to vote for whichever candidate and/or party one deems fit to run one's country. A state of emergency is a governmental declaration that may suspend certain normal functions of government, may work to alert citizens to alter their normal behaviors, or may order government agencies to implement emergency preparedness plans. ... The Muslim Brotherhood or The Muslim Brothers (Arabic: الإخوان المسلمون al-ikhwān al-muslimūn, full title The Society of the Muslim Brothers, often simply الإخوان al-ikhwān, the Brotherhood) is a world-wide Sunni Islamist movement, which has spawned several religious and political organizations in the Middle East, dedicated to...


Political and military posts

Hosni Mubarak with US President George W. Bush
Hosni Mubarak with US President George W. Bush
  • Re-elected for a fifth term of office (2005)
  • Chairman of the G-15 (1998 & 2002)
  • Re-elected for a fourth term of office (1999)
  • Chairman of the Arab Summit since June (1996)
  • Chairman of the OAU (1993-1994)
  • Re-elected for a third term of office (1993)
  • Chairman of the OAU (1989-1990)
  • Re-elected for a second term of office (1987)
  • President of the National Democratic Party (1982)
  • President of the Republic (1981)
  • Vice-President of the National Democratic Party (NDP) (1979)
  • Vice-President of the Arab Republic of Egypt (1975)
  • Promoted to the rank of Lieutenant General (1974)
  • Commander of the Air Force and Deputy Minister of Defense (1972)
  • Chief of Staff of the Air Force (1969)
  • Director of the Air Force Academy (1968)
  • Commander of Cairo West Air Base (1964)
  • Joined Frunze Military Academy, USSR (1964)
  • Lecturer in Air Force Academy (1952-1959)

President George W. Bush speaks during a press conference with Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak after their meeting at Camp David, Saturday, June 8. ... President George W. Bush speaks during a press conference with Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak after their meeting at Camp David, Saturday, June 8. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... G15 countries. ... Flag of the Organisation of African Unity, later also used by the African Union. ... The National Democratic Party (Al-Hizb Al-Watany Al-Demoqraty) was established in 1978 by late president Anwar Sadat who headed the party till 1981. ... There were a number of military academies in the Soviet Union of different specialties. ...

References

  1. ^ Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 2005. Transparency International (2005-10-18). Retrieved on October 7, 2006.

October 7 is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...

External links

  • A critical, yet peaceful video addressed to President Mubarak. °°°No Explicit images or foul language°°°. Please, note: related links might be explicit. They must be avoided by young or sensitive viewers.
  • Egyptian government page
  • Another government page
  • Election candidate site
  • Informative website about the Egyptian President
Preceded by
Anwar Al Sadat
President of Egypt
1981–present
Succeeded by
---
Preceded by
Anwar Al Sadat
Prime Minister of Egypt
1981–1982
Succeeded by
Ahmad Fuad Mohieddin
Persondata
NAME Mubarak, Hosni
ALTERNATIVE NAMES حسنى مبارك (Arabic); Mubarak, Muhammad Hosni Said (full name);محمد حسنى سيد مبارك (Arabic full name)
SHORT DESCRIPTION Egyptian president
DATE OF BIRTH May 4, 1928
PLACE OF BIRTH Kafr-El Meselha, Al Monufiyah, Egypt
DATE OF DEATH living
PLACE OF DEATH n/a

  Results from FactBites:
 
Hosni Mubarak - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1981 words)
Mubarak was appointed the Vice-President of the Republic of Egypt after moving up the ranks of the Egyptian Air Force.
Hosni Mubarak is married to Suzanne Mubarak, and has two sons: Alaa, and Gamal.
Mubarak appointed Ahmed Nazif as the new Prime Minister.
Hosni Mubarak - MSN Encarta (585 words)
Hosni Mubarak, born in 1928, military leader and president of Egypt (1981- ).
Mubarak was educated at Egypt's national Military Academy and Air Force Academy and at the Frunze General Staff Academy in Moscow.
Mubarak supported the 1990 United Nations (UN) sanctions against Iraq when that country invaded Kuwait, orchestrated Arab League opposition to the invasion, committed about 38,500 troops to the anti-Iraq coalition in the Persian Gulf War (1991), and supported postwar efforts to achieve peace in the Middle East.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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