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Encyclopedia > Horticulture

Horticulture (pronounced /'hɔ:tɪkʌltʃə/ or US /ˈhɔrtɨkʌltʃɚ/[1]) is the art and science of the cultivation of plants. AME is an abbreviation that can refer to: The African Methodist Episcopal Church Aircraft Maintenance Engineer (in Canada) Alternate Mission Equipment Aviation Medical Examiner (in the United States) AmE usually stands for American English This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid... Pinguicula grandiflora commonly known as a Butterwort Example of a cross section of a stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ...


Horticulturists work and conduct research in the fields of plant propagation and cultivation, crop production, plant breeding and genetic engineering, plant biochemistry, and plant physiology. The work particularly involves fruits, berries, nuts, vegetables, flowers, trees, shrubs, and turf. Horticulturalists work to improve crop yield, quality, nutritional value, and resistance to insects, diseases, and environmental stresses. Headline text PLANT PROPAGATION TECHNIQUES Adrian Arias Biology 109 October 28, 2005 There are many ways to create new plants; they can be created by sexual or asexual techniques. ... For other uses, see crop (disambiguation). ... Plant breeding is the purposeful manipulation of plant species in order to create desired genotypes and phenotypes for specific purposes. ... Elements of genetic engineering Genetic engineering, recombinant DNA technology, genetic modification/manipulation (GM) and gene splicing are terms that are applied to the direct manipulation of an organisms genes. ... Wöhler observes the synthesis of urea. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... This article is about the fruit. ... For other uses, see Nut (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Vegetable (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... A broom shrub in flower A shrub or bush is a horticultural rather than strictly botanical category of woody plant, distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and lower height, usually less than 6 m tall. ... Rolled sod Sod is turf and the part of the soil beneath it held together by the roots, or a piece of this material. ... The Nutrition Facts table indicates the amounts of nutrients which experts recommend you limit or consume in adequate amounts. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... This article is about the medical term. ...

Contents

Etymology

The word horticulture is a 17th century English adaptation of the Latin hortus (garden) and cultura (culture). Horticulture is the art of gardening or plant growing, in contrast to agronomy - the cultivation of field crops such as cereals and animal fodder,[2] forestry - cultivation of trees and products related to them,[3] or agriculture - the practice of farming. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Garden (disambiguation). ... A gardener Gardening is the practice of growing flowering plants, vegetables, and fruits. ... Agronomy is the science of utilizing plants for food, fuel, feed, and fiber. ... Grain redirects here. ... Fodder growing from barley In agriculture, fodder or animal feed is any foodstuff that is used specifically to feed domesticated livestock, including cattle, goats, sheep, horses, chickens and pigs. ... A decidous beech forest in Slovenia. ...


The study of horticulture

Part of a series on
Horticulture and Gardening
Gardening

Gardening • Garden • Botanical garden • Arboretum • Botany • Plant Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 97 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Descripción: Pequeña regadera metálica - Regando un mininaranjo Fecha: 15/07/2006 Hora: 11:16 Cámara: EOS 30D ISO: 200 Tv: 1/1250... A gardener Gardening is the practice of growing flowering plants, vegetables, and fruits. ... For other uses, see Garden (disambiguation). ... Inside the United States Botanic Garden Washington, D.C. Botanical gardens grow a wide variety of plants primarily categorized and documented for scientific purposes. ... This article is about a type of botanical garden. ... Pinguicula grandiflora commonly known as a Butterwort Example of a cross section of a stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ...

Horticulture

Horticulture • Agriculture • Urban agriculture • City farm • Organic farming • Herb farm • Hobby farm • Intercropping • Farm Urban (or peri-urban) agriculture is the practice of agriculture (including crops, livestock, fisheries, and forestry activities) within or surrounding the boundaries of cities. ... City farms are community-run projects in urban areas, which involve people working with animals and plants. ... Organic farming is a form of agriculture which excludes the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, plant growth regulators, livestock feed additives, and genetically modified organisms. ... An herb farm is usually a farm where herbs are grown for market sale. ... An old dairy farm has become a hobby farm near Leicester, New York A hobby farm is a small farm that is maintained without expectation of being a primary source of income. ... Intercropping is the agricultural practice of cultivating two or more crops in the same space at the same time (Andrews & Kassam 1976). ... For other uses, see Farm (disambiguation). ...

Customs

Harvest festival • Thanksgiving • History of agriculture In Britain, thanks have been given for successful harvests since pagan times. ... For other uses, see Thanksgiving (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

Plant protection

Phytopathology • Pesticide • Weed control Phytopathology (plant pathology) is the scientific study of plant diseases caused by pathogens (infectious diseases) and environmental conditons (non-infectiousness). ... A pesticide is a substance or mixture of substances used for preventing, controlling, or lessening the damage caused by a pest. ... Weed control, a botanical component of pest control, stops weeds from reaching a mature stage of growth when they could be harmful to domesticated plants, sometimes livestocks, by using manual techniques including soil cultivation, mulching and herbicides. ...

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Horticulture involves six areas of study, which can be grouped into two broad sections - ornamentals and edibles:

  • Arboriculture the study and selection, planting, care, and removal of individual trees, shrubs, vines, and other perennial woody plants.
  • Floriculture (includes production and marketing of floral crops),
  • Landscape horticulture (includes production, marketing and maintenance of landscape plants).
  • Olericulture (includes production and marketing of vegetables).
  • Pomology (includes production and marketing of fruits)
  • Postharvest physiology (involves maintaining quality and preventing spoilage of horticultural crops).

Horticulturists can work in industry, government or educational institutions or private collections. They can be cropping systems engineers, wholesale or retail business managers, propagators and tissue culture specialists (fruits, vegetables, ornamentals, and turf), crop inspectors, crop production advisers, extension specialists, plant breeders, research scientists, and of course, teachers. Good arboricultural care can reduce the risks of broken tree branches like this one Arboriculture is the selection, planting, care, and removal of individual trees, shrubs, vines, and other perennial woody plants, and the study of how they grow and respond to cultural practices and the environment. ... The Latin words hortus (garden plant) and cultura (culture) together form horticulture, classically defined as the culture or growing of garden plants. ... Central Park, like most city parks, is an example of landscape architecture. ... Olericulture (science of vegetable growing) deals with the culture of non-woody (herbaceous) plants for food. ... Pomology (from Latin pomum (fruit) + -logy) is is branch of botany that studies and cultivates fruits. ... Postharvest physiology is a field which studies maintaining quality and preventing spoilage of horticultural crops. ...


Disciplines which complement horticulture include biology, botany, entomology, chemistry, mathematics, genetics, physiology, statistics, computer science, and communications, garden design, planting design. Plant science and horticulture courses include: plant materials, plant propagation, tissue culture, crop production, post-harvest handling, plant breeding, pollination management, crop nutrition, entomology, plant pathology, economics, and business. Some careers in horticultural science require a masters (MS) or doctoral (PhD) degree. For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: Βιολογία - βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... Pinguicula grandiflora commonly known as a Butterwort Example of a cross section of a stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... Not to be confused with Etymology, the study of the history of words. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the field of statistics. ... Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Garden design is the art and process of designing and creating plans for layout and planting of gardens and landscapes. ... Planting design The art of design with plant material is related to the art of garden design but has a different emphasis and a different approach. ... Pinguicula grandiflora commonly known as a Butterwort Example of a cross section of a stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... Headline text PLANT PROPAGATION TECHNIQUES Adrian Arias Biology 109 October 28, 2005 There are many ways to create new plants; they can be created by sexual or asexual techniques. ... In agriculture, post-harvest handling is the stage of crop production immediately following harvest, including cooling, cleaning, sorting and packing. ... Plant breeding is the purposeful manipulation of plant species in order to create desired genotypes and phenotypes for specific purposes. ... Pollination Management is the label for horticultural practices that accomplish or enhance pollination of a crop, to improve yield or quality, by understanding of the particular crops pollination needs, and by knowledgeable management of pollenizers, pollinators, and pollination conditions. ... Not to be confused with Etymology, the study of the history of words. ... Phytopathology (plant pathology) is the scientific study of plant diseases caused by pathogens (infectious diseases) and environmental conditons (non-infectiousness). ...


Horticulture is practised in many gardens, "plant growth centres" and nurseries. Activities in nurseries range from preparing seeds and cuttings to growing fully mature plants. These are often sold or transferred to ornamental gardens or market gardens.


Horticulture and anthropology

The origins of horticulture lie in the transition of human communities from nomadic hunter-gatherers to sedentary or semi-sedentary horticultural communities, cultivating a variety of crops on a small scale around their dwellings or in specialized plots visited occasionally during migrations from one area to the next. (such as the "milpa" or maize field of Mesoamerican cultures[4]). In forest areas such horticulture is often carried out in swiddens ("slash and burn" areas)[5]. A characteristic of horticultural communities is that useful trees are often to be found planted around communities or specially retained from the natural ecosystem. In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ... Milpa is a crop-growing system in the Yucatán peninsula area of Mexico. ... Mesoamerica is the region extending from central Mexico south to the northwestern border of Costa Rica that gave rise to a group of stratified, culturally related agrarian civilizations spanning an approximately 3,000-year period before the European discovery of the New World by Columbus. ... Assarting in Finland in 1892 Slash and burn (a specific practice that may be part of shifting cultivation or swidden-fallow agriculture) is an agricultural procedure widely used in forested areas. ... This article is about the agricultural practice of slash and burn. ...


Horticulture sometimes differs from agriculture in (1) a smaller scale of cultivation, using small plots of mixed crops rather than large field of single crops (2) the cultivation of a wider variety of crops, often including fruit trees. In pre-contact North America the semi-sedentary horticultural communities of the Eastern Woodlands (growing maize, squash and sunflower) contrasted markedly with the mobile hunter-gatherer communities of the Plains people. In Central America, Maya horticulture involved augmentation of the forest with useful trees such as papaya, avocado, cacao, ceiba and sapodilla. In the cornfields, multiple crops were grown such as beans (using cornstalks as supports), squash, pumpkins and chilli peppers, in some cultures tended mainly or exclusively by women [6]. In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ... The three chiefs--Piegan, by Edward S. Curtis The Plains Indians are the Indians who lived on the plains and rolling hills of the Great Plains of North America. ... This article is about the pre-Columbian Maya civilization. ... Binomial name L. This article is about the fruit. ... Binomial name Mill. ... For the town in French Guiana, see Cacao, French Guiana. ... Species About 10-20 species, including: Ceiba aesculifolia Ceiba glaziovii Ceiba insignis Ceiba pentandra Ceiba speciosa Ceiba trichistandra Ceiba is the name of a genus of many species of large trees found in tropical areas, including Central and South America, The Bahamas,the Caribbean, West Africa, and Southeast Asia. ... Binomial name (L.) P. Royen Sapodilla (Manilkara zapota) is a long-lived, evergreen tree native to the New World tropics. ...


Gallery

References

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ EnviroEducation.com - Environmental Majors and Programs - Agronomy
  3. ^ Janick, Jules. 1979. Horticultural science. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman. Page 1.
  4. ^ von Hagen, V.W. (1957) The Ancient Sun Kingdoms Of The Americas. Ohio: The World Publishing Company
  5. ^ McGee, J.R. and Kruse, M. (1986) Swidden horticulture among the Lacandon Maya [videorecording (29 mins.)] . University of California, Berkeley: Extension Media Center
  6. ^ Thompson, S.I. (1977) Women, Horticulture, and Society in Tropical America. American Anthropologist, N.S., 79: 908-910

See also

Good arboricultural care can reduce the risks of broken tree branches like this one Arboriculture is the selection, planting, care, and removal of individual trees, shrubs, vines, and other perennial woody plants, and the study of how they grow and respond to cultural practices and the environment. ... Agronomy is the science of utilizing plants for food, fuel, feed, and fiber. ... // Aquatic animal effluent (for example fish waste) accumulates in water as a byproduct of keeping them in a closed system or tank (for example a recirculating aquaculture system). ... The word Arborsculpture is believed to have first appeared in print in the book How to Grow a Chair- The Art of Tree Trunk Topiary 1995 by Reames and Delbol. ... Pinguicula grandiflora commonly known as a Butterwort Example of a cross section of a stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... Cross pollination is a form of pollination in which pollen from one plant pollinates another. ... A cultigen is a plant that has been deliberately altered or selected by humans; it is man-made (human-altered) or anthropogenic. ... Espaliered pear tree in the garden of the Cloisters in upper Manhattan Espalier is the horticultural technique of training trees through pruning and grafting in order to create formal two-dimensional or single plane patterns by the branches of the tree. ... A decidous beech forest in Slovenia. ... A gardener Gardening is the practice of growing flowering plants, vegetables, and fruits. ... The terms geoponic and geoponics refer to growing plants in a normal soil. ... See also subsistence gardening, the art and craft of growing plants, considered as a circumscribed form of individual agriculture. ... This article is about a biological term. ... Plants grown in a hydroponics grow box made to look like a computer NASA researcher checking hydroponic onions with Bibb lettuce to his left and radishes to the right Example of autotrophic metabolism Hydroponics is a method of growing plants using mineral nutrient solutions instead of soil. ... The Journal of Applied Horticulture (JAH) publishes papers of original work (or results), & rapid communications and reviews on all aspects of horticultural crops which can contribute to fundamental and applied research on these crops and their related products. ... Permaculture Mandala summarising the ethics and principles of permaculture design. ... Plant breeding is the purposeful manipulation of plant species in order to create desired genotypes and phenotypes for specific purposes. ... A germination rate experiment Plant physiology is a subdiscipline of botany concerned with the function, or physiology, of plants. ... Headline text PLANT PROPAGATION TECHNIQUES Adrian Arias Biology 109 October 28, 2005 There are many ways to create new plants; they can be created by sexual or asexual techniques. ... Planting design The art of design with plant material is related to the art of garden design but has a different emphasis and a different approach. ... Carpenter bee with pollen collected from Night-blooming cereus Pollination is an important step in the reproduction of seed plants: the transfer of pollen grains (containing the male gametes, sperm) to the plant carpel of flowering plants, the structure that contains the ovule (which in turn houses the female gamete... In microeconomics, pruning taken as a metaphor from gardening, refers to the removal of excess items from a budget. ... The Royal Horticultural Society was founded in 1804 as the London Horticultural Society, and gained its present name in a Royal Charter granted in 1861 by Prince Albert. ... Selective breeding in domesticated animals is the process of developing a cultivated breed over time. ... wine grapes Viticulture (from the Latin word for vine) is the science, production and study of grapes which deals with the series of events that occur in the vineyard. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
New Georgia Encyclopedia: Horticulture (1220 words)
Horticulture is a significant and expanding component of agriculture in Georgia, ranking second only to the production of poultry.
Overall, the horticulture industry has expanded fifteen-fold since 1970, making it one of the few consistently profitable segments of agriculture in Georgia, and one in which even small family-owned businesses can still thrive.
The diversity and profitability of Georgia horticulture continues as many crops are emerging that promise to bring sustainable incomes to the state's farmers.
Horticulture - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (296 words)
These areas are floriculture (includes production and marketing of floral crops), landscape horticulture (includes production, marketing and maintenance of landscape plants), olericulture (includes production and marketing of vegetables), pomology (includes production and marketing of fruits), and postharvest physiology (involves maintaining quality and preventing spoilage of horticultural crops).
College courses that complement Horticulture are biology, botany, entomology, chemistry, mathematics, genetics, physiology, statistics, computer science, and communications, garden design, planting design.
Plant science and horticulture courses include: plant materials, plant propagation, tissue culture, crop production, post-harvest handling, plant breeding, pollination management, crop nutrition, entomology, plant pathology, economics, and business.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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