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Encyclopedia > Horseshoe crab
Horseshoe crab
Limulus polyphemus from many angles
Limulus polyphemus from many angles
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Chelicerata
Class: Merostomata[2]
Order: Xiphosura
Family: Limulidae
Genus: Limulus
Species: L. polyphemus
Binomial name
Limulus polyphemus
Linnaeus, 1758

The horseshoe crab, horsefoot, king crab, or sauce-pan (Limulus polyphemus, formerly known as Limulus cyclops, Xiphosura americana, Polyphemus occidentalis) is a chelicerate arthropod. Despite its name, it is more closely related to spiders, ticks, and scorpions than to crabs.[3] Horseshoe crabs are most commonly found in the Gulf of Mexico and along the northern Atlantic coast of North America. A main area of annual migration is the Delaware Bay, although stray individuals are occasionally found in Europe.[4] Image File history File links Limulus_polyphemus. ... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species remaining extant either in the present day or the near future. ... Image File history File links Status_iucn2. ... Near Threatened (NT) is an conservation status assigned to species or lower taxa which may be considered threatened with extinction in the near future, although it does not currently qualify for the threatened status. ... The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... Scientific classification redirects here. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ... Classes Arachnida- spiders, scorpions, etc. ... Orders Order Eurypterida Order Xiphosura Merostomata is a class of marine Chelicerata which includes horseshoe crabs and eurypterids. ... Orders Synziphosurida Xiphosurida Xiphosura is a class of marine chelicerates which includes a large number of extinct lineages and only four recent species in the family Limulidae, which include the horseshoe crabs. ... Genera Carcinoscorpius Limulus Tachypleus Limulidae is the only family of the order Xiphosura and contains all the 4 living species known of the class Merostomata. ... Latin name redirects here. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Classes Arachnida- spiders, scorpions, etc. ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ... For other uses, see Spider (disambiguation). ... This article is about the parasitic arachnid. ... Superfamilies Pseudochactoidea Buthoidea Chaeriloidea Chactoidea Iuroidea Scorpionoidea See classification for families. ... For other uses, see Crab (disambiguation). ... Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ... Atlantic and North Atlantic redirect here. ... Delaware Bay Delaware Bay is a large esturarial inlet of the Atlantic Ocean at the mouth of the Delaware River along the coast of the United States. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Three other species from the same family in the Indian and Pacific Oceans are also called horseshoe crabs.[5] The Japanese horseshoe crab (Tachypleus gigas) is found in the Seto Inland Sea, and is considered an endangered species because of loss of habitat. Two other species occur along the east coast of India: Tachypleus tridentatus and Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda.[6] A research project to protect them is on in Chandipur. Binomial name (Müller, 1785) Tachypleus gigas is a species in the family Limulidae. ... The Inland Sea and its major straits with the bay of Osaka (dashed) Formally named the Seto Inland Sea (瀬戸内海 Seto Naikai), the Inland Sea is the body of water separating Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu, three of the main islands of Japan. ... Binomial name (Leach, 1819) Tachypleus tridentatus is a species in the family Limulidae. ... Binomial name (Latreille, 1802) Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda is a species in the family Limulidae. ... A view of the Chandipur beach during high-tide Chandipur also known as Chandipur-on-sea is a small sea resort in Balasore District, Orissa, India. ...


The diminutive horseshoe crab, Lunataspis aurora, 4 centimetres (1.6 in) from head to tail-tip, have been identified in 445-million-year-old Ordovician strata in Manitoba.[7] Artist impression of the Ordovician Sea. ... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English French (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 14 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th) Area  Ranked 8th Total 647,797...

Contents

Physical description

Underside of a female showing the legs and book gills.
Underside of a female showing the legs and book gills.

Horseshoe crabs possess five pairs of book gills located just behind their appendages that allow them to breathe underwater, and can also allow them to breathe on land for short periods of time, provided the gills remain moist. The outer shell of these animals consists of three parts. The carapace is the smooth frontmost part of the crab which contains the eyes, the walking legs, the chelicera (pincers), the mouth, the brain, and the heart. The abdomen is the middle portion where the gills are attached as well as the genital operculum. The last section is the telson (i.e., tail or caudal spine) which is used to flip itself over if stuck upside down. Dead female horseshoe crab from NOAA Photo Library: Image ID: line2632, Americas Coastlines Collection Location: Patuxent River, Maryland Photo Date: 2002 August 17 Photographer: Mary Hollinger, NESDIS/NODC biologist, NOAA File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old... Dead female horseshoe crab from NOAA Photo Library: Image ID: line2632, Americas Coastlines Collection Location: Patuxent River, Maryland Photo Date: 2002 August 17 Photographer: Mary Hollinger, NESDIS/NODC biologist, NOAA File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old... A book lung is a type of respiration organ used for atmospheric gas exhange and is found in arachnids, such as scorpions and spiders. ... A book lung is a type of respiration organ used for atmospheric gas exhange and is found in arachnids, such as scorpions and spiders. ... Look up appendage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Various seashells Danielle A shell is the hard, rigid outer covering, or integument, allanimals. ... The term carapace refers to a dorsal section of an exoskeleton or shell, in a number of animal groups. ... For other uses, see Eye (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... The abdomen in a human and an ant. ... The telson is the last division of the body of a crustacean. ...


They can grow up to 60 centimetres (24 in) on a diet of mollusks, annelid worms, and other benthic invertebrates. Its mouth is located in the middle of the underside of the cephalothorax. A pair of pincers (chelicerae) for seizing food are found on each side of the mouth. Classes Caudofoveata Aplacophora Polyplacophora Monoplacophora Bivalvia Scaphopoda Gastropoda Cephalopoda † Rostroconchia The mollusks or molluscs are the large and diverse phylum Mollusca, which includes a variety of familiar creatures well-known for their decorative shells or as seafood. ... For the characters from System Shock 2, see The Many. ... Invertebrate is an English word that describes any animal without a spinal column. ... The cephalothorax is an anatomical term used of arachnid and malacostracan arthropods for the first major body section. ... A claw is a curved pointed growth found at the end of a toe or finger, or in arthropods, of the tarsus. ... Types of chelicerae: jackknife (in green), scissor (in blue) and 3-segmented chelate (in red) The Chelicerae are mouth parts of the Chelicerata, an arthropod subphylum that includes arachnids, Merostomata (horseshoe crabs), and Pycnogonida (sea spiders). ...


Limulus has been extensively used in research into the physiology of vision. It has four compound eyes, and each ommatidium feeds into a single nerve fibre. Furthermore the nerves are large and relatively accessible. This made it possible for electrophysiologists to record the nervous response to light stimulation easily, and to observe visual phenomena like lateral inhibition working at the cellular level. More recently, behavioral experiments have investigated the functions of visual perception in Limulus. Habituation and classical conditioning to light stimuli have been demonstrated, as has the use of brightness and shape information by male Limuli when recognizing potential mates. It has also been said that it is able to see ultra-violet light. The visual system is the part of the nervous system which allows organisms to see. ... Compound eye of a dragonfly A compound eye is a visual organ found in certain arthropods (some insects and crustaceans). ... The compound eye of insects is composed of hundreds of unit eyes called ommatidia. ... For other uses, see Nerve (disambiguation). ... Current Clamp is a common technique in electrophysiology. ... simply; your nose receives messages from the environment sending them to the olfactory centre which is present in the cerebrum the largest part of brain: then you either smell a good smell or a bad smell stink with parts of seconds. ... In psychology, habituation is an example of non-associative learning in which there is a progressive diminution of behavioral response probability with repetition of a stimulus. ... Classical Conditioning (also Pavlovian or Respondent Conditioning) is a form of associative learning that was first demonstrated by Ivan Pavlov. ...


Among other senses, they have a small sense organ on the triangular area formed by the exoskeleton beneath the body near the ventral eyes.

The mouth opening is between the legs, the gills are visible below
Underside of a male, showing the first leg modified for grasping the female during copulation
Underside of a male, showing the first leg modified for grasping the female during copulation

Horseshoe crabs can live for 24-31 years. They migrate into the shore in late spring, with the males arriving first. The females then arrive and make nests at a depth of 15-20 cm in the sand. In the nests, females deposit eggs which are subsequently fertilized by the male. Egg quantity is dependent on female body size and ranges from 15,000-64,000 eggs per female.[8] "Development begins when the first egg cover splits and new membrane, secreted by the embryo, forms a transparent spherical capsule" (Sturtevant). The larvae form and then swim for about five to seven days. After swimming they settle, and begin the first molt. This occurs approximately twenty days after the formation of the egg capsule. As young horseshoe crabs grow, they move to deeper waters, where molting continues. They reach sexual maturity in approximately eleven years and may live another 10-14 years beyond that. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (591x898, 129 KB)limulus image uwe kils gfdl self File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (591x898, 129 KB)limulus image uwe kils gfdl self File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 435 KB) Summary I took this picture myself in May 2003, on the Delaware Bay beach west of Lewes Delaware. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 435 KB) Summary I took this picture myself in May 2003, on the Delaware Bay beach west of Lewes Delaware. ...


Although most arthropods have mandibles, the horseshoe crab is jawless. The horseshoe crab's mouth is located in the center of the body. In the female, the four large legs are all alike, and end in pincers. In the male, the first of the four large legs is modified, with a bulbuous claw that serves to lock the male to the female while she deposits the eggs and he waits to fertilize them. Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ...


Evolution

Horseshoe crabs are distant relatives of spiders and are probably descended from the ancient eurypterids (sea scorpions). They evolved in the shallow seas of the Paleozoic Era (540-248 million years ago) with other primitive arthropods like the trilobites. Horseshoe crabs are one of the oldest classes of marine arthropods, and are often referred to as living fossils, as they have changed little in the last 350 to 500 million years. They feed on worms, mollusks, and sometimes even seaweed. Orders many, all extinct The eurypterids were the largest known arthropods that ever lived. ... The Paleozoic Era (from the Greek palaio, old and zoion, animals, meaning ancient life) is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. ... For the robot vacuum cleaner, see Electrolux Trilobite. ... A class is the rank in the scientific classification of organisms in biology below Phylum and above Order. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Regeneration

Horseshoe crabs possess the rare ability to regrow lost limbs, in a manner similar to sea stars.[9] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with User:Stellertony/Notepad/Sea_star. ...


Medical research

Horseshoe crabs are valuable as a species to the medical research community. The horseshoe crab has a simple but effective immune system. When a foreign object such as a bacterium enters through a wound in the animal's body, a substance called Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) almost immediately clots into a clear gel-like material, effectively trapping the foreign body. LAL is used to test for bacterial endotoxins in pharmaceuticals and for several bacterial diseases. If the bacterium is harmful, the blood will form a clot. Horseshoe crabs are helpful in finding remedies for diseases that have developed resistances to penicillin and other drugs. Horseshoe crabs are returned to the ocean after bleeding. Studies show that blood volume returns to normal in about a week, though blood cell count can take two to three months to fully rebound.[10] A single horseshoe crab can be worth $2,500 over its lifetime for periodic blood extractions. Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Endotoxins are potentially toxic, natural compounds found inside pathogens such as bacteria. ... Penicillin core structure Penicillin (abbreviated PCN) is a group of β-lactam antibiotics used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible, usually Gram-positive, organisms. ...


Hemocyanin

The blood of most molluscs, including cephalopods and gastropods, as well as some arthropods such as horseshoe crabs contains the copper containing protein hemocyanin at concentrations of about 50 g per litre.[11] These creatures do not have hemoglobin (iron containing protein) which is the basis of oxygen transport in vertebrates. Hemocyanin is colourless when deoxygenated and dark blue when oxygenated. The blood in the circulation of these creatures, which generally live in cold environments with low oxygen tensions, is grey-white to pale yellow,[11] and it turns dark blue when exposed to the oxygen in the air, as seen when they bleed.[11] This is due to change in color of hemocyanin when it is oxidized.[11] Hemocyanin carries oxygen in extracellular fluid, which is in contrast to the intracellular oxygen transport in mammals by hemoglobin in red blood cells.[11] Classes Caudofoveata Aplacophora Polyplacophora - Chitons Monoplacophora Bivalvia - Bivalves Scaphopoda - Tusk shells Gastropoda - Snails and Slugs Cephalopoda - Squids, Octopuses, etc. ... Orders Sepiida Sepiolida Spirulida Teuthida Octopoda Vampyromorphida Nautilida The Cephalopods (head-foot) are the mollusc class Cephalopoda characterized by bilateral body symmetry, a prominent head, and a modification of the mollusc foot into the form of arms or tentacles. ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - Trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - Spiders, Scorpions, etc. ... Single Oxygenated Hemocyanin protein from Octopus Hemocyanins (also spelled haemocyanins) are respiratory proteins containing two copper atoms that reversibly bind a single oxygen molecule (O2). ... Structure of hemoglobin. ...


Conservation

Limulus polyphemus is not presently endangered, but harvesting and habitat destruction have reduced its numbers at some locations and caused some concern for this animal's future. Since the 1970s, the horseshoe crab population has been decreasing in some areas, due to several factors, including the use of the crab as bait in whelk and conch trapping. The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ... Habitat destruction is a process of land use change in which one habitat-type is removed and replaced with another habitat-type. ... A whelk is a large marine gastropod (snail) found in temperate waters. ... Species Strombus gigas Strombus luhuanus Strombus pugilis Strombus tricornis Strombus canarium Strombus dolomena Strombus gibberulus Strombus conomurex Strombus lentigo Strombus doxander Strombus urceus Strombus fragilis Strombus gallus Strombus dentatus Strombus marginatus Strombus raninus Strombus buvonius A conch (pronounced in the U.S.A. as konk or conch, IPA: or ) [1...


In 1995, the nonprofit Ecological Research and Development Group (ERDG) was founded with the aim of preserving the four remaining species of horseshoe crab. Since its inception, the ERDG has made significant contributions to horseshoe crab conservation. ERDG founder Glenn Gauvry designed a mesh bag for whelk/conch traps, to prevent other species from removing the bait. This has led to a decrease in the amount of bait needed by approximately 50%. In the state of Virginia, these mesh bags are mandatory in whelk/conch fishery. The Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission in 2006 considered several conservation options, among them being a two-year ban on harvesting the animals affecting both Delaware and New Jersey shores of Delaware Bay.[12] In June of 2007, Delaware Superior Court Judge Richard Stokes has allowed limited harvesting of 100,000 males. He ruled that while the crab population was seriously depleted by over-harvesting through 1998, it has since stabilized and that this limited take of males will not adversely affect either Horseshoe Crab or Red Knot populations. In opposition, Delaware environmental secretary John Hughes concluded that a decline in the Red Knot bird population was so significant that extreme measures were needed to ensure a supply of crab eggs when the birds arrived.[13][14] Harvesting of the crabs was banned in New Jersey March 25, 2008.[15] This article is about the U.S. state. ... The Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission ( ASMFC ) manages marine, shell, and anadromous fishery resources along the Atlantic coast within state waters. ... Delaware Bay Delaware Bay is a large esturarial inlet of the Atlantic Ocean at the mouth of the Delaware River along the coast of the United States. ...



Every year approximately 10% of the horseshoe crab breeding population dies when rough surf flips the creatures onto their backs, a position from which they often cannot right themselves. In response, the ERDG launched a "Just Flip 'Em" campaign, in the hopes that beachgoers will simply turn the crabs back over.


Conservationists have also voiced concerns about the declining population of shorebirds, such as Red Knots, which rely heavily on the horseshoe crabs' eggs for food during their Spring migration. Precipitous declines in the population of the Red Knots have been observed in recent years. Predators of horseshoe crabs, such as the currently threatened Atlantic Loggerhead Turtle, have also suffered as crab populations diminish.[16] Families Scolopacidae Rostratulidae Jacanidae Thinocoridae Pedionomidae Burhinidae Chionididae Pluvianellidae Ibidorhynchidae Recurvirostridae Haematopodidae Charadriidae Dunlin (Calidris alpina). ... Binomial name Calidris canutus (Linnaeus, 1758) The Red Knot, Calidris canutus (just Knot in Europe), is a small shorebird. ... Flock of Barnacle Geese during autumn migration Bird migration refers to the regular seasonal journeys undertaken by many species of birds. ... Binomial name Calidris canutus (Linnaeus, 1758) The Red Knot, Calidris canutus (just Knot in Europe), is a small shorebird. ... Binomial name Caretta caretta Linnaeus, 1758 The Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta) is a sea turtle and the only member of the genus Caretta. ...


References

  1. ^ World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1996). Limulus polyphemus. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. Retrieved on 11 May 2006.
  2. ^ Integrated Taxonomic Information System. ITIS.gov, this taxonomy also concurs with the Global Biodiversity Information Facility: http://www.europe.gbif.net/portal/ecat_browser.jsp?taxonKey=513239&countryKey=0&resourceKey=0 and with horseshoecrab.org. Retrieved on 2007-02-28.
  3. ^ Chliboyko, J. Crabby Ancestors, Canadian Geographic Magazine, April 2008, p. 25
  4. ^ NEAT Chelicerata and Uniramia Checklist. Retrieved on 2006-10-24.
  5. ^ The Horseshoe Crab Natural History: Crab Species. Retrieved on 2007-03-01.
  6. ^ Basudev Tripathy (2006). "In-House Research Seminar: The status of horseshoe crab in east coast of India.". Wildlife Institute of India. 
  7. ^ (Fox News) "Ancient Horseshoe Crabs Get Even Older" January 30, 2008.
  8. ^ Leschen, A.S., et al. (2006). "Fecundity and spawning of the Atlantic horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus, in Pleasant Bay, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA". Marine Ecology 27: 54. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0485.2005.00053.x. 
  9. ^ Misty Edgecomb. "Horseshoe Crabs Remain Mysteries to Biologists", Bangor Daily News (Maine), repr. National Geographic News, 2002-06-21, p. 2. 
  10. ^ Medical Uses. Ecological Research and Development Group. Retrieved on 2008-02-21.
  11. ^ a b c d e Shuster, Carl N (2004). "Chapter 11: A blue blood: the circulatory system", in Shuster, Carl N, Jr; Barlow, Robert B; Brockmann, H. Jane: The American Horseshoe Crab. Harvard University Press, pp 276-277. ISBN 0674011597. 
  12. ^ Molly Murray. "Seafood dealer wants to harvest horseshoe crabs (subtitle: Regulators look at 2-year ban on both sides of Delaware Bay)", The News Journal, May 5, 2006, pp. B1, B6. 
  13. ^ "Horseshoe Crabs in Political Pinch Over Bird's Future / Creature is Favored Bait On Shores of Delaware; Red Knot Loses in Court", The Wall Street Journal, June 11, 2007, pp. A1, A10. 
  14. ^ AP. "Judge dumps horseshoe crab protection", Charlotte Observer. 
  15. ^ AP. "NJ to ban horshoe crabbing...", Philly Burbs.Com.  http://www.phillyburbs.com/pb-dyn/news/104-03252008-1508360.html
  16. ^ Juliet Eilperin. "Horseshoe Crabs' Decline Further Imperils Shorebirds (subtitle: Mid-Atlantic States Searching for Ways to Reverse Trend)", The Washington Post, June 10, 2005, p. A03. Retrieved on 2006-05-14. 
  • The Horseshoe Crab: Natural History, Anatomy, Conservation and Current Research. Ecological Research and Development Group (2003). Retrieved on May 14, 2006.

The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Delaware News-Journal (also known as The News Journal) is a Wilmington, Delaware newspaper. ... The Wall Street Journal (WSJ) is an international daily newspaper published by Dow Jones & Company in New York City, New York, USA, with Asian and European editions, and a worldwide daily circulation of more than 2 million as of 2006, with 931,000 paying online subscribers. ... The Charlotte Observer, serving Charlotte, North Carolina, is the oldest daily newspaper in the United States (other newspapers, such as The New York Times began circulation before The Observer but were not daily). ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikispecies has information related to:
  • http://horseshoe-crabs.com/ Horseshoe-Crabs.com
  • http://www.horseshoecrab.org/ Horseshoe Crabs.org
  • http://www.saltwater-fish-tanks.com/fish/horseshoe-crab-conservation.php The Alarming Decrease in Population.
  • http://www.ocean.udel.edu/horseshoecrab/Research/eye.html Biomedical Eye Research
  • http://earthmattersfoundation.org/horse_shoe_crab.htm Timeless Traveller - The Horseshoe Crab
  • http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Limulus_polyphemus.html All about the horseshoe crab.
Image File history File links Wikispecies-logo. ... Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation that aims to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species (including animalia, plantae, fungi, bacteria, archaea, and protista). ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Horseshoe Crab Monitoring Web Site (1055 words)
Horseshoe crab blood is collected to produce an important pharmaceutical called Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL), which is used to test for human pathogens in human blood, tissues, and intravenous drugs.
Although the crabs are released alive after a small sample of their blood is taken, it is estimated that mortality is increased by 10 to 15% after release.
Inconclusive evidence suggests that horseshoe crabs are being over-fished and are in decline in Delaware Bay.
Limulu_polyph (2547 words)
Horseshoe crabs spawn during the spring and early summer on beaches along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States, and in Yucatan, Mexico (Penn and Brockmann 1994).
Horseshoe crabs typically locate mates, achieve amplexus, then migrate to the high tide mark in the intertidal zone to deposit and fertilize eggs before returning to deeper water after the spawning season.
Horseshoe crabs are capable of surviving physical extremes in temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, and anoxic sediments (Shuster 1982).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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