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Encyclopedia > Horse slaughter

Horse slaughter is the practice of slaughtering horses for meat. (See article at horse meat.) These animals come from auctions, private sellers, and from wild herds. Sometimes these horses are sick and injured[citation needed] but they can also be for sale by their owners. Most are brought to the slaughterhouses by contract buyers who collect horses from all across the country, also known as kill buyers. Horses that are killed for reasons other than human consumption go to the renderer's (US) or the knacker's yard (UK). Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... Slaughter is the term used to describe the killing and butchering of domestic livestock. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... Musculature of horse Horse meat is the culinary name for meat cut from a horse. ... Feral horse in the Pentland Hills, Scotland. ... Workers and cattle in a slaughterhouse. ... Look up knacker, knackered in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Many people[attribution needed] do not agree with the slaughter of horses, perceiving horses as companion animals like cats and dogs, or deserving special status like sacred cows in Hinduism.[1][2] Horse meat is often praised for its relative low cholesterol content and high iron content, low fat content,[3][4][5][6] even suggested as red meat for people with heart problems.[7][8] Horse meat is a quite dry meat to cook, it is common to add some extra fat from other animals (like bacon) to increase its softness when roasted. PET, see PET. A pet or companion animal is an animal that is kept by humans for companionship and enjoyment, rather than for economic reasons. ... This article is about Hinduism. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ...


It is important to note that the underlying reason to dispose of a horse is often human safety. Horses that are not manageable are life-threatening to human beings yet it is against the law in many states to euthanize a horse.[citation needed] However, dangerous dogs are routinely disposed of by euthanasia.


Postmortem alternatives to slaughter are rendering, burial and cremation. Rendering is a process that converts waste animal tissue into stable, value-added materials. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The crematorium at Haycombe Cemetery, Bath, England. ...

Contents

Slaughtering

In most countries where horses are slaughtered for food, they are processed in a similar fashion to cattle, i.e., in large-scale factory slaughterhouses (abbatoirs). The animals are rendered unconscious by being shot in the brain with a metal rod, using a captive bolt stunner - pneumatically or cartridge driven. They are then killed by being exsanguinated ("bled out") by severing the jugular vein or carotid artery while suspended by the rear leg by a heavy chain shackle. Horse slaughter is similar to beef slaughter except for the fact that the overhead rail that the dressed horse carcasses ride on during process is two foot higher than a feedlot beef dressing line to suit the varying sizes of the carcasses. These are then dismembered, that is, butchered, cut into smaller pieces for easier handling. The residue may be rendered to make the fats usable. Workers and cattle in a slaughterhouse. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Exsanguination (also known colloquially as bleeding out) is the fatal process of total blood loss. ... The jugular veins are veins that bring deoxygenated blood from the head back to the heart via the superior vena cava. ... In human anatomy, the carotid artery is a major artery of the head and neck. ... Butcher shop in Valencia A butcher is someone who prepares various meats and other related goods for sale. ... Rendering is a process that converts waste animal tissue into stable, value-added materials. ...


Blood of the Beasts (Le Sang des bêtes) is a 1949 short French documentary film written and directed by Georges Franju featuring the slaughter of a horse (and other animals). See also: 1948 in film 1949 1950 in film 1940s in film 1950s in film years in film film Events Top grossing films North America Adams Rib Jolson Sings Again Pinky I Was a Male War Bride, The Snake Pit, Joan of Arc Academy Awards Best Picture: All the... Short subject is an American film industry term that historically has referred to any film in the format of two reels, or approximately 20 minutes running time, or less. ... Documentary film is a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt, in one fashion or another, to document reality. ... Georges Franju (April 12, 1912 - November 5, 1987) was a French filmmaker. ...


In Kazakhstan villages, horses are still slaughtered by local butchers in a pre-industrial way[9].


United States

Sale and consumption of horse meat is illegal in California, and Illinois is considering a similar measure.[10] Horse meat supplied by three abattoirs in the U.S. was sold to zoos to feed their carnivores, and was exported to Europe, and Japan for human consumption. In 2007 two horse meat abattoirs in Texas were ordered closed. Later that year, an abattoir in Illinois, reported to be the last horse meat abattoir in the U.S., was closed.[11] For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ...


There is an effort in the United States to create a law, the American Horse Slaughter Prevention Act, designed to stop the slaughter of horses for human consumption.[12] On September 8, 2006, the House of Representatives passed a bill which, had it also passed the Senate and been signed by the President, would have made killing horses for human consumption an illegal practice in the United States.[13]


Most people in the US are not aware that horses are slaughtered there for human consumption in other countries. According to some of these polls, in New York, 64% of people polled believed that slaughtering horses for meat was illegal, while in Indiana, 91% believe that horse slaughter should be banned.[14] In Texas 89% of voters are unaware that horse slaughter goes on in their own state.[15] This article is about the state. ... For other uses, see Indiana (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ...


Prior to 2007, three major equine slaughterhouses operated in the United States: Dallas Crown, Inc. in Kaufman, Texas; Beltex Corporation in Fort Worth, Texas; and Cavel International, Inc. in DeKalb, Illinois. All with Belgian ownership, although Multimeat NW has also been listed as French and Dutch owned. Velda NV owns Cavel, Multimeat NV owns Beltex and Chevideco owns Dallas Crown. Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... For the Batman villain, see Abattoir (comics). ... Kaufman is a city in Kaufman County, Texas, USA. The population was 6,490 at the 2000 census. ... Nickname: Motto: Where the West Begins Location of Fort Worth in Tarrant County, Texas Coordinates: , Country State Counties Tarrant, Denton Government  - Mayor Michael J. Moncrief Area  - City 298. ... DeKalb is a city in DeKalb County, Illinois, United States. ...


The slaughterhouses exported approximately 42 million dollars worth of horse meat per year. Since the human consumption of horse meat is generally considered unacceptable by the majority of the United States populace[citation needed] (see Taboo food and drink) and is illegal in several states, most of the horses slaughtered for this purpose in the United States were exported to other countries, such as France, Belgium and Japan, where the meat is considered a delicacy.[16] As prominently stated on their website, Dallas Crown “provides Carnivore Diet for zoos and wildlife centers across the United States”.[17] Musculature of horse Horse meat is the culinary name for meat cut from a horse. ... This article is about practices and beliefs in relation to various animals as food. ...


The Department of Transportation have officers at the enforcement points to ensure proper transportation of the horses, but has no jurisdiction beyond transportation matters. Horses that are severely lame or disabled are not accepted at the plants. Haulers are supposed to be fined for horses that arrive with any sign of abuse. Horses are transported in trailers that are straight, gooseneck or double-decked[18][not in citation given] meant for cows and pigs, making it impossible for the average sized horse to stand properly.[citation needed] A 1998 survey commissioned by the USDA/APHIS to determine where welfare problems occur during horse transport to slaughter found severe welfare problems in 7.7% of the transported horses, with a majority from conditions caused by owner neglect or abuse rather than transportation.[19]


The underlying issue in the United States

Although most Americans would oppose the slaughtering of horses for meat consumption[20], it is important to note an underlying issue that U.S. media tends to downplay.[citation needed] According to the AVMA, 100,000 U.S. horses will go to slaughter each year no matter what legislation is enacted.[citation needed] They must travel outside the protection of national regulations to be slaughtered.[citation needed] Such travel without food or water for days, and packed tightly in large trailers places enormous levels of stress on the horse.[citation needed] Death and disease are quite[citation needed] The percentage of horses that actually survive the journey to the slaughtering plant is hard to ascertain, but it certainly is not nearly as high as it would be if slaughtering were still allowed in the U.S.[citation needed] Image File history File links Emblem-important. ...


Legislation in the United States

There are US Department of Agriculture (USDA) laws governing the transportation of horses to processing plants.


Two bills, H.R. 503 in the House and S. 1915 in the Senate, were introduced last session to prevent the slaughter of horses for human consumption in the United States. H.R. 503 was passed in the House on September 7, 2006. The bill was anonymously blocked from a vote in the Senate, so both bills died at the end of the session. H.R. 503 and S. 311 were introduced January 17, 2007. The text of the bill reads:


A bill to amend the Horse Protection Act to prohibit the shipping, transporting, moving, delivering, receiving, possessing, purchasing, selling, or donation of horses and other equines to be slaughtered for human consumption, and for other purposes.


A separate bill ensures that none of America's wild mustangs are sent to slaughter.


On February 22, 2007, Rep. Robert Molaro introduced a bill, HB1711, to the Illinois General Assembly to prohibit the transportation of horses into the State for the sole purpose of slaughter for human consumption.


On March 28, 2007, the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia ruled that it was illegal for horse slaughterhouses to pay the USDA for their own health inspections. The next day USDA pulled their inspectors from Cavel, effectively ending slaughter of horses for human consumption in the United States.


Judicial Ruling in the United States

On January 19, 2007, the 5th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in New Orleans overturned a lower court's 2006 ruling on a 1949 Texas law that banned horse slaughter for the purpose of selling the meat for food on grounds that the Texas law was invalid because it had been repealed by another statute and was pre-empted by federal law. However, a panel of three judges on the 5th Circuit disagreed, saying the law still stood and was still enforceable.[21] On March 6, 2007, without comment or dissent, the 19 judges of United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit rejected a petition by three foreign-owned slaughter plants seeking full court review of a three-judge panel's January 19, 2007 decision.[22] is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the following United States District Courts: Western, Middle, and Eastern Districts of Louisiana Northern and Southern Districts of Mississippi Western, Eastern, Northern, and Southern Districts of Texas The court is based at...


In June of 2007, a federal judge refused a request from the nation's last operating horse slaughterhouse, located in Illinois, to remain open. As of July of 2007, a legal dispute over an Illinois state ban on killing horses for food remains unresolved .[11] Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


The last remaining horse slaughter plant in the country was effectively shut down Sept. 21 when a three-judge panel on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit ruled an Illinois law banning horse slaughter for human consumption is constitutional.


The ruling comes four months after Gov. Rod Blagojevich signed the law, overwhelmingly passed by the Illinois State Senate earlier this year.


Belgian-owned Cavel International immediately filed a federal lawsuit contesting the ban. While the lawsuit was pending, the slaughter plant was allowed to operate, killing hundreds of horses a week.


Cavel has the option to appeal to the United States Supreme Court, but it is likely that the justices will refuse to hear the case, as they did earlier this year when two Texas slaughter facilities appealed their respective closures.


As of September 2007, bills introduced in the U.S. Congress (H.R.503 and S.311), known informally as the "American Horse Slaughter Prevention Act", are being considered by congressional committees.[23] The description of these bills is "To amend the Horse Protection Act to prohibit the shipping, transporting, moving, delivering, receiving, possessing, purchasing, selling, or donation of horses and other equines to be slaughtered for human consumption, and for other purposes." These bills can be viewed and their status tracked via a Library of Congress to follow Legislation in Current Congress. The Congress of the United States is the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States of America. ... Construction of the Thomas Jefferson Building, from July 8, 1888 to May 15, 1894. ...


Controversy in the United States

There are 200 organizations that oppose the proposed ban on horse slaughter. Included in this group are the American Quarter Horse Association (AQHA), the largest breed association in the world; the American Association of Equine Practitioners (AAEP); the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA);[24]; and numerous animal agriculture groups. Included in the animal agriculture groups are organizations representing the interests of traditional food animal industries, such as cattle, sheep, and pork, who are concerned that banning any animal for slaughter will lead to endangering their industries. Outside of the American Quarter Horse Associations Heritage Center and Museum. ... The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA), founded in 1863, is a not-for-profit association representing more than 73,000 US veterinarians working in academia, private and corporate practice, industry, government, and uniformed services. ...


An argument is that abuse would multiply if the horses were not slaughtered. However, according to a report from UC Davis, there was no increase in cases of horse abuse in California when horse slaughter was banned.[citation needed] Another argument is that banning horse slaughter in the US will result in that the horses instead have to endure a long trip to either Canada or Mexico to be slaughtered.[25] The University of California, Davis, commonly abbreviated to UC Davis or UCD is one of the ten University of California campuses. ...


There are many organizations such as the Animal Welfare Institute and Sterling Silver Farm Equine Rescue that support the abolition of horse slaughter. The Thoroughbred and Standardbred racing industry strongly oppose horse slaughter. Other equine organizations in favor of the slaughter ban are the National Show Horse Registry, National Steeplechase Association, Palomino Horse Association, Int., and United States Eventing Association. Many equine adoption and rescue groups also oppose slaughter for human consumption. The Animal Welfare Institute (AWI) is a non-profit charitable organization founded in 1951 to reduce the sum total of pain and fear inflicted on animals by humans. ... The National Steeplechase Association was founded on February 15, 1895 by August Belmont, Jr. ... The USEA (United States Eventing Association) governs the sport of eventing in the United States. ...


Horses in the United States are not raised or treated as meat. Almost all equine medications and treatments are labeled "not for horses intended for human consumption." In the European Union, horses intended for slaughter cannot be treated with many medications commonly used for U.S. horses.


United Kingdom

According to The Daily Mail, up to 5,000 horses are slaughtered annually in the United Kingdom — not, they report, for domestic consumption but rather for export, mostly to France.[26] UK law effectively forbids the export of live animals for slaughter [26]. The Daily Mail and its Sunday edition the Mail on Sunday are British newspapers, first published in 1896. ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and a member of the European Union. ...


Rest of European Union

The Daily Mail reports that 100,000 horses are transported annually into and around the European Union, for human consumption in France, Italy, Belgium and other countries, where horse meat is commonly accepted.[26]


See also

Musculature of horse Horse meat is the culinary name for meat cut from a horse. ...

References

  1. ^ Deseret News: Editorial: They eat horses, don't they?
  2. ^ Secretary of State of South Dakota: Sacred Horses
  3. ^ Clarifying the notion of horsemeat, Viande Richelieu Meat, <http://www.vianderichelieu.com/en/cheval/content.htm>. Retrieved on 20 February 2008
  4. ^ Horse Slaughter Human Consumption Need Declared Illegal, encyclocentral.com, <http://www.encyclocentral.com/19682-Horse_Slaughter_Human_Consumption_Need_Declared_Illegal.html>. Retrieved on 20 February 2008 "Scientifically seeing, horse meat is appreciated for its high iron content, relative low cholesterol content and low fat content. It is highly favored in Italy and France."
  5. ^ Horse Meat, Europmeat (Italy), <http://www.europemeat.it/prod-uk.html>. Retrieved on 20 February 2008
  6. ^ Food Safety of GOAT and HORSE, International Generic Horse Association, 1997, <http://www.igha.org/USDA.html>. Retrieved on 20 February 2008 (republished USDA report, now obsolete and withdrawn)
  7. ^ Once an ersatz beef of the poor, horse meat has morphed into a high-end fare of discerning European carnivores., February 1, 2005, <http://www.tristateobserver.com/modules.php?op=modload&name=News&file=article&sid=3566&mode=thread&order=0&thold=0>. Retrieved on 20 February 2008
  8. ^ Carnitine: Have a Taste of Nature’s Medicine, November 1, 2007, <http://wfcinc.com/?p=98>. Retrieved on 20 February 2008
  9. ^ New York Times article
  10. ^ DeKalb County, Illinois Daily Chronicle: Bill banning horse slaughtering fails
  11. ^ a b Tara Burghart. "Last US Horse Slaughterhouse to Close", The Huffington Post, June 29, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-07-16. 
  12. ^ Animal Welfare Institute: American Horse Slaughter Prevention Act
  13. ^ Science.qj.net: New US Bill Makes Killing Horses for Meat Illegal in US
  14. ^ Equine Protection Network - Polls
  15. ^ Society for Animal Protective Legislation: Survey Shows Texans Strongly Oppose Horse Slaughter
  16. ^ Time: Horse—It's What’s for Dinner
  17. ^ Dallas Crown, Inc.: Carnivore Diet Products
  18. ^ FSIS Docket 98-074-2 issued Dec 7, 2001 made transport of horses in double deckers illegal as of Dec 7, 2006U.S. Department of Agriculture Veterinary Services: Horse Transport (from internet archive)
  19. ^ Dr. Temple Grandin: Survey of Trucking Practices and Injury to Slaughter Horses
  20. ^ Poll Finds Most Americans Against Horse Slaughter
  21. ^ BELTEX CORPORATION; DALLAS CROWN, INC., v. TIM CURRY, District Attorney Tarrant County, 05-11499 (January 19, 2007).
  22. ^ Federal Court of Appeals Affirms Ruling Declaring Horse Slaughter Illegal in Texas. The Humane Society of the United States (March 6, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-07-16.
  23. ^ http://news.bloodhorse.com/viewstory.asp?id=40918[dead link – history]
  24. ^ American Veterinary Medical Association: Testimony of Bonnie V. Beaver, DVM
  25. ^ Chicago Sun-Times: Don't ban horse slaughter in Illinois
  26. ^ a b c Tom Rawstone (May 19, 2007). The English horses being sent to France to be eaten. Daily Mail. Retrieved on 2007-10-04.

is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Americans Against Horse Slaughter
  • U.S. District Court opinion(pdf)
  • 5th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals ruling(pdf)
  • Equine medications not allowed in European slaughter horses (pdf)
  • AAEP position paper (pdf)
  • Where would all the horses go? (pdf)
  • Animal Welfare Institute - American Horse Slaughter Prevention Act
  • H.R. 503 on Library of Congress/Thomas
  • S. 311 on Library of Congress/Thomas
  • HB1711 on Illinois General Assembly
  • http://www.distriva.com/index.htm
  • Equine Protection Network FAQ about Horse Slaughter
  • Equine Advocates, Inc. article on horse slaughter
  • NPR - Coverage of United States bill to outlaw horse meat.

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