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Encyclopedia > Horse
iDomestic Horse

Conservation status
Domesticated
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Perissodactyla
Family: Equidae
Genus: Equus
Species: E. caballus
Binomial name
Equus caballus
Linnaeus, 1758

The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. Horses have long been among the most economically important domesticated animals; although their importance has declined with mechanization, they are still found worldwide, fitting into human lives in various ways. The horse is prominent in religion, mythology, and art; it has played an important role in transportation, agriculture, and war; it has additionally served as a source of food, fuel, and clothing. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2480x1772, 3319 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Mangalarga Marchador Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species continuing to survive either in the present day or the future. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... Phyla Subregnum Parazoa Porifera Subregnum Eumetazoa Placozoa Orthonectida Rhombozoa Radiata (unranked) Ctenophora Cnidaria Bilateria (unranked) Acoelomorpha Myxozoa Superphylum Deuterostomia Chordata Hemichordata Echinodermata Chaetognatha Xenoturbellida Superphylum Ecdysozoa Kinorhyncha Loricifera Priapulida Nematoda Nematomorpha Onychophora Tardigrada Arthropoda Superphylum Platyzoa Platyhelminthes Gastrotricha Rotifera Acanthocephala Gnathostomulida Micrognathozoa Cycliophora Superphylum Lophotrochozoa Sipuncula Nemertea Phoronida Ectoprocta Bryozoa... {{{subdivision_ranks}}} See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Orders Multituberculata (extinct) Volaticotheria (extinct) Palaeoryctoides (extinct) Triconodonta (extinct) Subclass Australosphenida Ausktribosphenida Monotremata Subclass Eutheria (excludes extinct ancestors) Afrosoricida Anagaloidea (extinct) Arctostylopida (extinct) Artiodactyla Carnivora Cetacea Chiroptera Cimolesta (extinct) Cingulata Creodonta (extinct) Condylarthra (extinct) Dermoptera Desmostylia (extinct) Dinocerata (extinct) Embrithopoda (extinct) Hyracoidea Insectivora Lagomorpha Leptictida (extinct) Litopterna (extinct) Macroscelidea Mesonychia... Families Equidae Tapiridae Rhinocerotidae The odd-toed ungulates or Perissodactyla are large to very large browsing and grazing mammals with relatively simple stomachs and a large middle toe. ... Species - Donkey - African Wild Ass - Domestic Horse - Wild Horse - Grevys Zebra - Onager - Kiang - Plains Zebra - Cape Mountain Zebra - Hartmanns Mountain Zebra Equidae is the family of horse-like animals, order Perissodactyla. ... Species - Donkey - Domestic Horse - Grevys Zebra - Onager - Przewalskis Horse - Plains Zebra - Mountain Zebra Equidae is the family of horse-like animals, order Perissodactyla. ... In biology, binomial nomenclature is the formal method of naming species. ... Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 23, 1707 – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[1] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Binomial name Equus ferus Boddaert, 1785 Subspecies Equus ferus ferus Equus ferus przewalskii The Wild Horse (Equus ferus) is a member of the Horse genus and was found in Europe and Asia. ... Families Equidae Tapiridae Rhinocerotidae Brontotheriidae(extinct) Chalicotheriidae(extinct) Hyracodontidae(extinct) The odd-toed ungulates or Perissodactyla are large to very large browsing and grazing mammals with relatively simple stomachs and a large middle toe. ... Orders Multituberculata (extinct) Volaticotheria (extinct) Palaeoryctoides (extinct) Triconodonta (extinct) Subclass Australosphenida Ausktribosphenida Monotremata Subclass Eutheria (excludes extinct ancestors) Afrosoricida Anagaloidea (extinct) Arctostylopida (extinct) Artiodactyla Carnivora Cetacea Chiroptera Cimolesta (extinct) Cingulata Creodonta (extinct) Condylarthra (extinct) Dermoptera Desmostylia (extinct) Dinocerata (extinct) Embrithopoda (extinct) Hyracoidea Insectivora Lagomorpha Leptictida (extinct) Litopterna (extinct) Macroscelidea Mesonychia... Species - Donkey - African Wild Ass - Domestic Horse - Wild Horse - Grevys Zebra - Onager - Kiang - Plains Zebra - Cape Mountain Zebra - Hartmanns Mountain Zebra Equidae is the family of horse-like animals, order Perissodactyla. ... Domesticated animals, plants, and other organisms are those whose collective behavior, life cycle, or physiology has been altered as a result of their breeding and living conditions being under human control for multiple generations. ... // The word mythology (Greek: μυθολογία, from μυθος mythos, a story or legend, and λογος logos, an account or speech) literally means the (oral) retelling of myths – stories that a particular culture believes to be true and that use supernatural events or characters to explain the nature of the universe and humanity. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... War horses are horses specially trained for use in battle or individual combat (see also: Jousting). ...


Almost all breeds of horses can, at least in theory, carry humans on their backs or be harnessed to pull objects such as carts or plows. However, horse breeds were developed to allow horses to be specialized for certain task; lighter horses for racing or riding, heavier horses for farming and other tasks requiring pulling power. In some societies, horses are a source of food, both meat and milk; in others it is taboo to consume them. In industrialized countries horses are predominantly kept for leisure and sporting pursuits, while they are still used as working animals in many other parts of the world. A young rider at a horse show in Australia. ... Tack is any of the various accessories worn by horses in the course of their use as domesticated animals. ... Tourists in a vis-a-vis, Prague The classic definition of a carriage is a four-wheeled horse-drawn private passenger vehicle with leaf springs (elliptical springs in the 19th century) or leather strapping for suspension, whether light, smart and fast or large and comfortable. ... For the constellation known as The Plough see Ursa Major. ... This page is a list of horse and pony breeds. ... A young rider at a horse show in Australia. ... Bales of hay on a farm near Ames, Iowa A farm is the basic unit in agriculture. ... Musculature of horse It is slightly sweet, tender, low in fat, and high in protein. ... A glass of cows milk A goat kid feeding on its mothers milk Milk is the nutrient fluid produced by the mammary glands of female mammals (including monotremes). ... Swine are considered treyf, non-kosher (unfit or unclean) in Judaism or haraam in Islam Taboo food and drinks are food and drink which people abstain from consuming for religious or cultural reasons. ... Coloured world map indicating Human Development Index (as of 2003). ...

Contents

Biology of the horse

Anatomy of a horse from an Egyptian document (15th century)
Anatomy of a horse from an Egyptian document (15th century)

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (992x1371, 398 KB) Summary Anatomy of a horse from a 9th century AH (15th century AD) Egyptian document at the University Library, Istanbul. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (992x1371, 398 KB) Summary Anatomy of a horse from a 9th century AH (15th century AD) Egyptian document at the University Library, Istanbul. ...

Age

Depending on breed, management, and environment, the domestic horse today has a life expectancy of 25 to 30 years. Some specific breeds of horse can live into their 40s, and, occasionally, beyond. The oldest verifiable record was "Old Billy," a horse that lived in the 19th century, believed to have lived to the age of 62.


Reproduction and development

Main article: Horse breeding

Pregnancy lasts for approximately 11 months and usually results in one foal (male: colt, female: filly). Twins are rare. Females 4 years and over are called mares and males are stallions. A castrated male is a gelding. Horses, particularly colts, may sometimes be physically capable of reproduction at approximately 18 months but in practice are rarely allowed to breed until a minimum age of 3 years, especially females. Horses four years old are considered mature, though the skeleton usually finishes developing at the age of six, and the precise time of completion of development also depends on the horse's size (therefore a connection to breed exists), gender, and the quality of care provided by its owner. As with humans, females develop faster than males. Also, if the horse is larger, its bones are larger; therefore, not only do the bones take longer to actually form bone tissue (bones are made of cartilage in earlier stages of bone formation), but the epiphyseal plates (plates that fuse a bone into one piece by connecting the bone shaft to the bone ends) are also larger and take longer to convert from cartilage to bone as well. These plates convert after the other parts of the bones do but are crucial to development. Horse breeding is the process of using selective breeding to produce additional individuals of a given phenotype, that is, continuing a breed. ... A foal is a young horse of either gender; a female foal is called a filly, while a male foal is called a colt. ... A colt or filly with its mother A Colt is a young male horse, under the age of four. ... Filly is also a town in Belgium. ... 13 year old Peruvian Paso mare A broodmare and foal In English, a mare (an old Germanic word) is a female horse; the word is also an etymological root of marshal (originally marescalcus horse servant). Mares are considered easier to handle than males, which are called stallions or after castration... This Trakehner would be most appropriate to sire horses for the discipline of dressage. ... A gelding is a castrated animal—in English, a castrated male horse. ...


Depending on maturity, breed and the tasks expected, young horses are usually put under saddle and trained to be ridden between the ages of two and four. Although Thoroughbred and American Quarter Horse race horses are put on the track at as young as two years old in some countries (notably the United States), horses specifically bred for sports such as show jumping and dressage are generally not entered into top-level competition until a minimum age of four years old, because their bones and muscles are not solidly developed, nor is their advanced training complete. WikiProject horse training is about methods of training horses, and all the related aspects of the relationship between people and horses. ... Thoroughbred race horses The Thoroughbred is a horse breed best known as a race horse. ... A palomino Quarter Horse shown in-hand. ... Horse-racing is an equestrian sporting activity which has been practiced over the centuries; the chariot races of Roman times were an early example, as was the contest of the steeds of the god Odin and the giant Hrungnir in Norse mythology. ... Show jumping is a form of competition in which horses are jumped over a course of fences, low walls, and other obstacles (e. ... An upper-level dressage competitor performing an extended trot Dressage (a French term meaning training) is a path and destination of competitive horse training, with competitions held at all levels from amateur to the Olympics. ...


Dentition

Main article: Horse teeth
A view of the upper half of a horse's mouth.
A view of the upper half of a horse's mouth.

Horses are adapted to grazing, so their teeth continue to grow throughout life. There are 12 teeth (six upper and six lower), the incisors, adapted to biting off the grass or other vegetation, at the front of the mouth, and 24 teeth, the premolar and molars, adapted for chewing, at the back of the mouth. Stallions and geldings have four additional teeth just behind the incisors, a type of canine teeth that are called "tushes." Some horses, both male and female, will also develop one to four very small vestigial teeth in front of the molars, known as "wolf" teeth, which are generally removed because they can interfere with the bit. Horses teeth are often used to estimate the animals age, hence the saying Dont look a gift horse in the mouth. At five years of age a horse has forty teeth: twenty-four molars or jaw teeth twelve incisors or front teeth four tusks or canine teeth between... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (945x2043, 351 KB) hard palate of a horse 1 Papilla incisiva, 2 Palatum durm (hard palate), 3 Rugae palatinae, 4 Raphe palati, 5 Palatum molle (soft palate) 6 Tonsilla veli palatini own photograph Uwe Gille 15:11, 13 September 2005 (UTC... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (945x2043, 351 KB) hard palate of a horse 1 Papilla incisiva, 2 Palatum durm (hard palate), 3 Rugae palatinae, 4 Raphe palati, 5 Palatum molle (soft palate) 6 Tonsilla veli palatini own photograph Uwe Gille 15:11, 13 September 2005 (UTC... Incisors are the first kind of tooth in heterodont mammals. ... The premolar teeth or bicuspids are transitional teeth located between the canine and molar teeth. ... Molar may refer to: Molar (tooth), the fourth kind of tooth in mammals. ... A vestigial organ is an organ whose original function has been lost during evolution. ...


There is an empty interdental space between the incisors and the molars where the bit rests directly on the bars (gums) of the horse's mouth when the horse is bridled. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ...


The incisors show a distinct wear and growth pattern as the horse ages, as well as change in the angle at which the chewing surfaces meet, and while the diet and veterinary care of the horse can affect the rate of tooth wear, a very rough estimate of the age of a horse can be made by looking at its teeth.


Sizes of horses and ponies

The size of horses varies by breed, but can also be influenced by nutrition. The general rule for cutoff in height between what is considered a horse and a pony at maturity is 14.2 hands(h or hh) (147 cm, 58 inches) as measured at the withers. An animal 14.2h or over is usually considered a horse and one less than 14.2h is a pony. A Shetland Pony A pony is any of several horse breeds with a specific conformation and temperament. ... A hand (or handbreadth) is a unit of length measurement, usually based on the breadth of a male human hand and thus around 1 dm, i. ... The withers is the highest point on an animals back, on the ridge between its shoulder blades. ...


However, there are exceptions to the general rule. Some smaller horse breeds who typically produce individual horses both under and over 14.2h are considered "horses" regardless of height. Likewise, some pony breeds, such as the Pony of the Americas or the Welsh cob, share some features of horses and individual animals may occasionally mature at over 14.2h, but are still considered ponies. The Pony of the Americas, or the POA, was developed to be a children’s mount. ... The Welsh Cob (Section D) is the largest of the Welsh horse breeds, not less than 13. ...


The difference between a horse and pony is not simply a height difference, but also a difference in phenotype or appearance. There are noticeable differences in conformation and temperament. Ponies often exhibit thicker manes, tails and overall coat. They also have proportionally shorter legs, wider barrels, heavy bone, thick necks, and short heads with broad foreheads. A horses conformation is the horses body proportions in relation to each other. ...


Light horses such as Arabians, Morgans, Quarter Horses, Paints and Thoroughbreds usually range in height from 14.0 to 16.0 hands and can weigh from 850 lbs to about 1500 lbs. Heavy or draft horses such as the Clydesdale, Belgian, Percheron, and Shire are usually at least 16.0 to 18.0 hands high and can weigh from about 682 kg (1500 lb) up to about 900 kg (2000 lb). Ponies are less than 14.2h, but can be much smaller, down to the Shetland pony at around 10 hands, and the Falabella which can be the size of a medium-sized dog. The miniature horse is as small as or smaller than either of the aforementioned ponies but are classified as very small horses rather than ponies despite their size. The Arabian horse is a breed of horse with a reputation for intelligence, high spirit, and outstanding stamina. ... The Morgan is one of the first horse breeds developed in the United States. ... The American Quarter Horse is a breed of horse originally bred specifically to race the quarter mile. ... The American Paint Horse is an American breed of horse which is a specific type of stock-horse. ... Thoroughbred race horses The Thoroughbred is a horse breed best known as a race horse. ... Two pairs of Shire horses and a pair of Suffolk Punches A draft horse, draught horse, or harness horse is a large, strong horse bred for heavy work rather than speed. ... Clydesdale draft horse at the Maryland State Fair The Clydesdale is a breed of draft horse named after and derived from hard-working farm horses of Clydesdale (now Lanarkshire), Scotland. ... A pair of very typical dapple grey Percheron Horses Percheron draft horse at the Maryland State Fair The Percheron is one of the most famous draft horses from France. ... Shire draft horse The shire horse is a breed of draft horse. ... A Shetland with the winter coat beginning to shed Shetland pony horses are small (on average up to 42 inches (10. ... The Falabella horse is the smallest breed of horse in the world, reaching around 30 inches in size. ... AMHA Registered Pinto Miniature Mare. ...


Evolution of the horse

Mesohippus, an ancestor of the modern horse
Mesohippus, an ancestor of the modern horse

Horses and other equids are odd-toed ungulates of the order Perissodactyla, a relatively ancient group of browsing and grazing animals that first arose less than 10 million years after the dinosaurs became extinct. In the past, this order contained twelve families, but only three families—the horses and related species, tapirs and rhinoceroses—have survived till today. The earliest equids (belonging to the genus Hyracotherium) were found approximately 54 million years to the Eocene period. The Perissodactyls were the dominant group of large terrestrial browsing animals until the Miocene (about 20 million years ago), when even-toed ungulates, with stomachs better adapted to digesting grass, began to out compete them. Image File history File links Mesohippus. ... Image File history File links Mesohippus. ... Evolution of the horse, showing reconstruction of the fossil species obtained from successive rock strata. ... Families Equidae Tapiridae Rhinocerotidae Brontotheriidae(extinct) Chalicotheriidae(extinct) Hyracodontidae(extinct) The odd-toed ungulates or Perissodactyla are large to very large browsing and grazing mammals with relatively simple stomachs and a large middle toe. ... Scientific classification or biological classification refers to how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... Orders & Suborders Saurischia Sauropodomorpha Theropoda Ornithischia Thyreophora Ornithopoda Marginocephalia Dinosaurs were vertebrate animals that dominated the terrestrial ecosystem for over 160 million years, first appearing approximately 230 million years ago. ... A family in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso in 1997 A family consists of a domestic group of people (or a number of domestic groups), typically affiliated by birth or marriage, or by analogous or comparable relationships — including domestic partnership, cohabitation, adoption, surname and (in some cases) ownership (as occurred in the... Species - Donkey - African Wild Ass - Domestic Horse - Wild Horse - Grevys Zebra - Onager - Kiang - Plains Zebra - Cape Mountain Zebra - Hartmanns Mountain Zebra Equidae is the family of horse-like animals, order Perissodactyla. ... Species Tapirus bairdii Tapirus indicus Tapirus pinchaque Tapirus terrestris Tapirs are large browsing mammals, roughly pig-like in shape, with short, prehensile snouts. ... Genera Ceratotherium Dicerorhinus Diceros Rhinoceros Coelodonta (extinct) Elasmotherium (extinct) Height Comparison of Extant Rhinoceros Species. ... This little horse lived 50 million years ago the person who discovered it called Mole Beast or Hyracotherium later they found another one but called it Dawn Horse the name was given to another Hyracotherium but it also goes by Eohippus. ... The Eocene epoch (55. ... Families Equidae Tapiridae Rhinocerotidae The odd-toed ungulates or Perissodactyla are large to very large browsing and grazing mammals with relatively simple stomachs and a large middle toe. ... The Miocene epoch is a period of time that extends from about 23 to 5. ... Families Suidae Hippopotamidae Tayassuidae Camelidae Tragulidae Moschidae Cervidae Giraffidae Antilocapridae Bovidae The even-toed ungulates form the mammal order Artiodactyla. ... An area of grass-like plants Grass generally describes a monocotyledonous green plant in the family Poaceae, botanically regarded as true grasses. ...


The horse as it is known today adapted by evolution to survive in areas of wide-open terrain with sparse vegetation, surviving in an ecosystem where other large grazing animals, especially ruminants, could not.[1] An ecosystem, a contraction of ecological and system, refers to the collection of components and processes that comprise, and govern the behavior of, some defined subset of the biosphere. ... Families Antilocapridae Bovidae Cervidae Giraffidae Moschidae Tragulidae A ruminant is any hooved animal that digests its food in two steps, first by eating the raw material and regurgitating a semi-digested form known as cud, then eating the cud, a process called ruminating. ...


Horse evolution was characterised by a reduction in the number of toes, from five per foot, to three per foot, to only one toe per foot (late Miocene 5.3 million years ago); essentially, the animal was standing on tiptoe. One of the first true horse species was the tiny Hyracotherium, which had 4 toes on each front foot (missing the thumb) and 3 toes on each back foot (missing toes 1 and 5). Over about five million years, this early equids evolved into the Orohippus. The 5th fingers vanished, and new grinding teeth evolved. This was significant in that it signaled a transition to improved browsing of tougher plant material, allowing grazing of not just leafy plants but also tougher plains grasses. Thus the proto-horses changed from leaf-eating forest-dwellers to grass-eating inhabitants of the Great Plains. The Miocene epoch is a period of time that extends from about 23 to 5. ... In human anatomy, the thumb is the first digit on a hand. ... Orohippus is an extinct ancestor of the modern horse that likely evolved from Eohippus in the Eocene Epoch (about 50 million years ago). ... Browser can refer to: browser - a type of herbivore whose nutrition generally comes from high growing plants, like trees, rather than a grazer that eats from the ground. ... An area of grass-like plants Grass generally describes a monocotyledonous green plant in the family Poaceae, botanically regarded as true grasses. ... The Great Plains is the broad expanse of prairie which lies east of the Rocky Mountains in the United States and Canada. ...


By the Pleistocene era, as the horse adapted to a drier, prairie environment, the 2nd and 4th toes disappeared on all feet, and horses became bigger. These side toes were shrinking in Hipparion and have vanished in modern horses. All that remains are a set of small vestigial bones on either side of the cannon (metacarpal or metatarsal) bone, known informally as splint bones, which are a frequent source of splints, a common injury in the modern horse. The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) is part of the geologic timescale. ... Species Hipparion is an extinct genus of horse. ... The human vermiform appendix is a vestigial structure: it no longer retains its original function. ... The equine forelimb is the front, or thoracic limb of the horse. ... The metacarpus is the intermediate part of the hand skeleton that is located between the fingers distally and the carpus which forms the connection to the forearm. ... The metatarsus consists of the five long bones of the foot, which are numbered from the medial side (ossa metatarsalia I.-V.); each presents for examination a body and two extremities. ... Splints are an ailment of the horse, characterized by a hard, bony swelling, usually on the inside of a front leg, lying between the splint and cannon bone or on the splint bone itself. ...


Domestication of the horse and surviving wild species

Competing theories exist as to the time and place of initial domestication. The earliest evidence for the domestication of the horse comes from Central Asia and dates to approximately 4,500 BC. Archaeological finds such as the Sintashta chariot burials provided unequivocal evidence that the horse was definitely domesticated by 2000 BC. There are a number of theories regarding the domestication of the horse. ... There are a number of theories regarding the domestication of the horse. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Archaeology, archeology, or archology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech/discourse) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains and environmental data, including architecture, artifacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... The Sintashta fortified settlement in the southern Urals is dated to ca. ... Chariot burials are tombs in which the deceased was buried together with his chariot, usually including his horses and other possessions. ...


Wild species

Main article: Wild Horse

Most "wild" horses today are actually feral horses, animals that had domesticated ancestors but were themselves born and live in the wild, often for generations. However, there are also some truly wild horses whose ancestors were never successfully domesticated. Binomial name Equus ferus Boddaert, 1785 Subspecies Equus ferus ferus Equus ferus przewalskii The Wild Horse (Equus ferus) is a member of the Horse genus and was found in Europe and Asia. ... Feral horses are free-roaming, untamed horses who are descended from domesticated horses. ...


There is a theory that there were four basic "proto" horses that developed with adaptations to their environment prior to domestication. There are competing theories, some arguing that the prototypes were separate species, others suggesting that the prototypes were physically different manifestations of the same species. Either way, the most common theories of historical wild species from which other types are thought to have developed suggests the following base prototypes:[2]

Przewalski's Horse, the last surviving wild horse species
Przewalski's Horse, the last surviving wild horse species
  • The "Warmblood subspecies" or "Forest Horse" (Equus ferus silvaticus, also called the Diluvial Horse), thought to have evolved into Equus ferus germanicus, and which may have contributed to the development of the warmblood horses of northern Europe, as well as older "heavy horses" such as the Ardennais.
  • The "Draft" subspecies, a small, sturdy, heavyset animal with a heavy hair coat, arising in northern Europe, adapted to cold, damp climates, somewhat resembling today's draft horse and even the Shetland pony
  • The "Oriental" subspecies, a taller, slim, refined and agile animal arising in western Asia, adapted to hot, dry climates, thought to be the progenitor of the modern Arabian horse and Akhal-Teke
  • The "Tarpan subspecies," dun-colored, sturdy animal, the size of a large pony, adapted to the cold, dry climates of northern Asia, the predecessor to the Tarpan and Przewalski's Horse as well as the domesticated Mongolian horse.

The tarpan, Equus ferus ferus, became extinct in 1880. Its genetic line is lost, but its phenotype has been recreated by a "breeding back" process, in which living domesticated horses with primitive features were repeatedly interbred. Thanks to the efforts of the brothers Lutz Heck (director of the Berlin zoo) and Heinz Heck (director of Munich Tierpark Hellabrunn), the resulting Heck horse together with the Konik resembles the tarpan more closely than any other living horse. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 2038 KB) eigen foto. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 2038 KB) eigen foto. ... Trinomial name Equus ferus przewalskii (Poliakov, 1881) Przewalskis Horse (Equus ferus przewalskii or sometimes ), pronounced in English as //, also known as the Mongolian Wild Horse, or Takhi, is the closest living relative of the Domestic Horse and is in fact the same species. ... Warmbloods are a group of sport horse breeds and the term simply distinguishes this type of horse from the cold bloods (draft horses) and the hot bloods (Thoroughbreds and Arabians). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Two Ardennes in front of a plough The Ardennes or the Ardennais is one of the oldest breeds of draft horse, originally from France and Belgium. ... Two pairs of Shire horses and a pair of Suffolk Punches A draft horse, draught horse, or harness horse is a large, strong horse bred for heavy work rather than speed. ... A Shetland with the winter coat beginning to shed Shetland pony horses are small (on average up to 42 inches (10. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... The Arabian horse is a breed of horse with a reputation for intelligence, high spirit, and outstanding stamina. ... The Akhal-Teke, Ahalteke in turkmen language, horse breed (pronounced Ah-cull Tek-y) is a breed from Turkmenistan, where they are the national emblem. ... Binomial name Equus ferus Boddaert, 1785 The Tarpan, Equus ferus, was the Eurasian wild horse. ... Trinomial name Equus ferus przewalskii (Poliakov, 1881) Przewalskis Horse (Equus ferus przewalskii or sometimes ), pronounced in English as //, also known as the Mongolian Wild Horse, or Takhi, is the closest living relative of the Domestic Horse and is in fact the same species. ... Mongolian horse (with trimmed mane) The mongolian horse (mongolian Мор, mor) is the favourite animal of the mongols, and not only since Genghis Khan conquered half the world with its help. ... Binomial name Equus ferus Boddaert, 1785 The Tarpan, Equus ferus, was the Eurasian wild horse. ... Individuals in the mollusk species Donax variabilis show diverse coloration and patterning in their phenotypes. ... Breeding back is an attempt to assemble the genes of an extinct subspecies or domesticated breed, which may still be present in the larger gene pool of the overall species or other interbreedable species. ... Ludwig George Heinrich Heck, called Lutz Heck (23 April 1892 - 6 April 1983, born and died in Berlin) was a German zoologist, animal researcher, an animal book author and a director of zoo. ... Berlin is the capital city and one of the sixteen states of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... Giraffes in Sydneys Taronga Zoo Zoo redirects here. ... Heinz Heck (22 January 1894 - 5 March 1982, born in Berlin and died in Munich) was a German biologist and director of zoo in Munich. ... Tierpark Hellabrunn is the name of the zoological garden in the Bavarian capital Munich. ... A Heck horse in Sababurg, Germany (2004) Heck horse in Haselünne, Germany (2004) The Heck horse is a breed of horse that resembles the extinct tarpan. ... The konik is a small Polish horse, a kind of wild pony. ...


Przewalski's Horse (Equus ferus przewalskii), a rare Asian species, is the only true wild horse alive today. Also known as the Mongolian Wild Horse, Mongolians know it as the taki, while the Kirghiz people call it a kirtag. Small wild breeding populations of this animal, named after the Russian explorer Przewalski, exist in Mongolia.[3] There are also small populations maintained at zoos throughout the world. After a battle against extinction, the Przewalksi's Horse is finally flourishing in the wild once again. Trinomial name Equus ferus przewalskii (Poliakov, 1881) Przewalskis Horse (Equus ferus przewalskii or sometimes ), pronounced in English as //, also known as the Mongolian Wild Horse, or Takhi, is the closest living relative of the Domestic Horse and is in fact the same species. ... Trinomial name Equus ferus przewalskii (Poliakov, 1881) Przewalskis Horse (Equus ferus przewalskii or Equus caballus przewalskii, classification is debated), pronounced in English as // or [] with Polish pronunciation, also known as the Mongolian Wild Horse, or Takhi, is the closest living relative of the Domestic Horse. ... A traditional Kyrgyz Manaschi performing part of the Manas epic poem at a yurt camp in Karakol Kyrgyz are a Turkic ethnic group found primarily in Kyrgyzstan. ... Nikolai Mikhaylovich Przhevalsky, also spelled Przewalski (Russian: ) (April 12, 1839—November 1, 1888 (Gregorian calendar)), was a Russian geographer and explorer in central and eastern Asia. ...


Other truly wild equids alive today include the zebra and the onager. Species Equus zebra Equus hartmannae Equus quagga Equus grevyi The Zebra is a part of the horse family, Equidae, native to central and southern Africa. ... Binomial name Equus hemionus Pallas, 1775 The Onager (Equus hemionus) is a large mammal belonging to the horse family and native to the deserts of Syria, Iran, India, and Tibet. ...


Feral horses

Main article: Feral horse
Free-roaming mustangs (Utah, 2005)
Free-roaming mustangs (Utah, 2005)

Feral animals, who had domesticated ancestors but were born and live in the wild, are distinct from wild animals, whose ancestors have never undergone domestication. Several populations of feral horses exist, including those in the western United States and Canada (often called "mustangs"), and in parts of Australia ("brumbies") and New Zealand ("Kaimanawa horses"). Isolated feral populations are often named for their geographic location: Namibia has its Namib Desert Horses; the Sorraia lives in Spain and Portugal; Sable Island Horses reside in Nova Scotia, Canada; and New Forest ponies have been part of Hampshire, England for a thousand years. Feral horses are free-roaming, untamed horses who are descended from domesticated horses. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 146 KB) Summary Author: Jaime Jackson Subject: Free-roaming mustangs, Utah, 2005. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 146 KB) Summary Author: Jaime Jackson Subject: Free-roaming mustangs, Utah, 2005. ... Free-roaming mustangs (Utah, 2005) Mustangs at the Palomino Valley Adoption Center A mustang is a hardy, free-roaming horse of the North American west, descended primarily from horses brought to the Americas by the Spanish conquistadors. ... A feral horse (an American mustang) in Wyoming A feral animal or plant is one that has escaped from domestication and returned, partly or wholly, to its wild state. ... Feral horses are free-roaming, untamed horses who are descended from domesticated horses. ... Free-roaming mustangs (Utah, 2005) Mustangs at the Palomino Valley Adoption Center A mustang is a hardy, free-roaming horse of the North American west, descended primarily from horses brought to the Americas by the Spanish conquistadors. ... A brumby is a wild (feral) horse in Australia. ... Kaimanawa Horses are a population of New Zealand wild horses descended from domestic horses that were released in the late 1800s and early 1900s in the middle of the North Island around the Kaimanawa Ranges. ... The Sorraia is an ancient type of primative horse from Spain and Portugal, that has influenced many light modern horse breeds. ... Sable Island is situated 180 km southeast of Nova Scotia, Canada in the Atlantic Ocean. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Official languages none (English, French, Gaelic) Flower Mayflower Tree Red Spruce Bird Osprey Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 11 10 Area Total... The New Forest Pony is one of the recognised 9 Mountain and Moorland or Native pony breeds of the British Isles, valued for its hardiness, strength and sureness of foot. ... Hampshire, sometimes historically Southamptonshire or Hamptonshire, (abbr. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2005 est. ...


Studies of feral horses have provided useful insights into the behavior of ancestral wild horses, as well as greater understanding of the instincts and behaviours that drive horses.


Other modern equids

Main article: Equidae for full species list.

Other members of the horse family include zebras, donkeys, and onagers. The Donkey, Burro or Domestic Ass, Equus asinus, like the horse, has many breeds. A mule is a hybrid of a male ass (jack) and a mare, and is usually infertile. A hinny is the less common hybrid of a female ass (jenny) and a stallion. Breeders have also tried crossing various species of zebra with mares or female asses to produce "zebra mules" (zorses, and zonkeys (also called zedonks)). This will probably remain a novelty hybrid as these individuals tend to inherit some of the undomesticated nature of their zebra parent, but they may inherit the zebra's resistance to nagana pest: zorses, also called zebroids, have been used in Central African game parks for light haulage.[citation needed] Species - Donkey - African Wild Ass - Domestic Horse - Wild Horse - Grevys Zebra - Onager - Kiang - Plains Zebra - Cape Mountain Zebra - Hartmanns Mountain Zebra Equidae is the family of horse-like animals, order Perissodactyla. ... Species Equus zebra Equus hartmannae Equus quagga Equus grevyi The Zebra is a part of the horse family, Equidae, native to central and southern Africa. ... Binomial name Equus asinus Linnaeus, 1758 The donkey or jackass, Equus asinus, is a domesticated animal of the horse family, Equidae. ... Binomial name Equus hemionus Pallas, 1775 The Onager (Equus hemionus) is a large mammal belonging to the horse family and native to the deserts of Syria, Iran, India, and Tibet. ... A barren of mules. ... A hinny is the offspring of a male horse and a female donkey (jennet or jenny). ... A stallion is an ungelded male horse after reaching the age of sexual maturity, usually between two and three years of age. ... A zorse in an 1899 photograph from J.C. Ewarts The Penycuik Experiments. ... A zeedonk in South Africa Colchester Zoos zeedonk, named Shadow A zeedonk (also called similar names including zebrass, zebronkey or zenkey) is a mixed breed animal, a cross between a zebra and a donkey. ... A zeedonk in South Africa Colchester Zoos zeedonk, named Shadow A zeedonk (also called similar names including zebrass, zebronkey or zenkey) is a mixed breed animal, a cross between a zebra and a donkey. ... Nagana, also called nagana pest or Animal African Trypanosomiasis, is a disease of vertebrate animals. ... A zebra/donkey hybrid A zebroid is a cross between a zebra and any other equid: essentially, a zebra hybrid. ...


Horse behavior

Main article: Horse behavior

Horses are prey animals with a well-developed fight-or-flight instinct. Their first response to threat is to flee, although they are known to stand their ground and defend themselves or their offspring in cases where flight is not possible, such as when a foal would be threatened. Through selective breeding, some breeds of horses have been bred to be quite docile, particularly certain large draft horses. However, most light horse riding breeds were developed for speed, agility, alertness and endurance; natural qualities that extend from their wild ancestors. Horse behavior is best understood from the perspective that horses are prey animals with a well-developed Fight-or-flight instinct. ... This article or section should include material from Fight-or-flight The flight or fight response, also called the acute stress response, was first described by Walter Cannon in the 1920s as a theory that animals react to threats with a general discharge of the sympathetic nervous system. ...


Horses are herd animals, and become very attached to their species and to humans. They communicate in various ways, such as nickering, grooming, and body language. Many horses will become flighty and hard to manage if they are away from their herd. This is called being "herd-bound". However, through proper training, it is possible to teach any horse to be comfortable away from the herd.


Horses within the human economy

See also: Horse training

Around the world, horses play a role within human economies, for leisure, sport and working purposes. To cite one example, the American Horse Council estimates that horse-related activities have a direct impact on the economy of the United States of over $39 billion, and when indirect spending is considered, the impact is over $102 billion.[4] WikiProject horse training is about methods of training horses, and all the related aspects of the relationship between people and horses. ...


In wealthier, First World, industrialized economies, horses are primarily used in recreational pursuits and competitive sports, though they also have practical uses in police work, cattle ranching, search and rescue, and other duties where terrain or conditions preclude use of motorized vehicles. In poorer, Third World economies, they may also be used for recreational purposes by the elite population, but serve a much wider role in working pursuits including farming, ranching and as a means of transportation. To a very limited extent, they are also still used in warfare, particularly in regions of extremely rugged terrain. The terms First World, Second World, and Third World were used to divide the nations of Earth into three broad categories. ... A Ranch is an area of land, including buildings and structures, given primarily to the grazing of livestock on rangeland. ... For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ... Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in Indonesia Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock). ... Ranching is the raising of cattle or sheep on rangeland, although one might also speak of ranching with regard to less common livestock such as elk, bison or emu. ... War horses are horses specially trained for use in battle or individual combat (see also: Jousting). ...


Horses for sport

a youth competitor show jumping in Denmark
a youth competitor show jumping in Denmark
Main articles: Equestrianism and Horse Racing

Horses are used in two ways for sports: as competitors, and as mounts for human competitors. Horses as competitors are trained to be ridden or driven in a particular event. Examples include barrel racing, eventing, carriage driving, dressage, and show jumping. Although scoring varies by event, most emphasize the horse's speed, maneuverability, obedience and/or precision. Sometimes the equitation of the rider is also considered. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1000x1021, 1366 KB) En Baltic Cup Show jumping. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1000x1021, 1366 KB) En Baltic Cup Show jumping. ... Show jumping is a form of competition in which horses are jumped over a course of fences, low walls, and other obstacles (e. ... A young rider at a horse show in Australia. ... Horse-racing is an equestrian sporting activity which has been practiced over the centuries; the chariot races of Roman times were an early example, as was the contest of the steeds of the god Odin and the giant Hrungnir in Norse mythology. ... A professional barrel racer Barrel racing, is a rodeo event that features a horse or barrel racer and one rider, running a cloverleaf pattern around three barrels in a triangular arrangement. ... Eventing is an equestrian event which comprises dressage, cross-country and show-jumping. ... An upper-level dressage competitor performing an extended trot Dressage (a French term meaning training) is a path and destination of competitive horse training, with competitions held at all levels from amateur to the Olympics. ... Show jumping is a form of competition in which horses are jumped over a course of fences, low walls, and other obstacles (e. ... A riders equitation is her/his ability to ride correctly with a strong, supple position and effective aids. ...


Sports such as polo and horseball use horses as mounts on which the human competitors ride. Although their riders are the primary competitors, horses serve as a necessary part of the game. In jousting, for example, the main goal is for one rider to dismount the other. Buzkashi is a game played throughout Central Asia, the aim being to capture a goat while on horseback. [1] Although the horse assists this process and requires specialized training to do so, the details of its performance are not judged, only the result of the rider's actions. A game of polo underway. ... A game played on horseback where a ball is handled and points are scored by shooting it through a high net. ... This article or section needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ...


The most widely known use of horses for sport is horse racing, seen in almost every nation in the world. There are three types: "flat" racing, steeple chasing, i.e. racing with jumps, and harness racing, where horses trot towing a small cart where the driver sits. Most racing horses in the developed world are Thoroughbreds, a breed which can reach speeds up to 40 mph/70 km/h. In the case of a specialized sprinting breed, the American quarter horse, speeds over 50 mph have been clocked. In harness racing, speeds over 30 mph have been measured. Horse-racing is an equestrian sporting activity which has been practiced over the centuries; the chariot races of Roman times were an early example, as was the contest of the steeds of the god Odin and the giant Hrungnir in Norse mythology. ... A trotter training at Vincennes hippodrome Harness racing is a form of horse-racing in which the horses race in a specified gait. ... Thoroughbred race horses The Thoroughbred is a horse breed best known as a race horse. ... A palomino Quarter Horse shown in-hand. ... A trotter training at Vincennes hippodrome Harness racing is a form of horse-racing in which the horses race in a specified gait. ...


A major part of the economic importance of horse racing, as for many sports, lies in the gambling associated with it. Gambling has had many different meanings depending on the cultural and historical context in which it is used. ...


Horses for work

Horses used for carriage rides
Horses used for carriage rides

There are certain jobs that horses do very well, and no amount of technology appears able to supersede. Mounted police horses are still effective for crowd control. Cattle ranches still require riders on horseback to round up cattle that are scattered across remote, rugged terrain. Search and rescue organizations in some countries depend upon mounted teams to locate people, particularly hikers and hunters, who are lost in remote areas. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3072x2304, 2970 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3072x2304, 2970 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... The Royal Canadian Mounted Police Musical Ride Mounted police are police who patrol on horseback. ... A Ranch is an area of land, including buildings and structures, given primarily to the grazing of livestock on rangeland. ...


Some land management practices such as logging can be more efficiently managed with horses, to avoid vehicular disruption to delicate soil in areas such as a nature reserve. Forestry rangers may use horses for their patrols. Loggers on break, c. ...


In poor countries such as Romania, Kyrgyzstan, and many parts of the Third World, horses, donkeys and mules are widely used for transport and agriculture, especially for pulling plows or carts. In areas where roads are poor or non-existent, fossil fuels are scarce, and the terrain rugged, riding horseback is still the most efficient way to get from place to place. For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ...


Horses used for entertainment and culture

Horses portraying characters from "Middle-Earth" were used extensively in films such as The Return of the King
Horses portraying characters from "Middle-Earth" were used extensively in films such as The Return of the King

. Image File history File linksMetadata Snowmane. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Snowmane. ... Horses are an important element in the fantasy world of Middle-earth created by J. R. R. Tolkien. ...


Horses today also are used to re-enact their historical work purposes. A famous example are the Budweiser Clydesdales, a team of draft horses who pull a beer wagon in a manner similar to that used prior to the invention of the modern motorized truck. For the Czech beer also known as Budweiser, please see Budweiser Budvar. ... Clydesdale (Dail Chluaidh in Scottish Gaelic) was formerly (1975-96) a local government district in the Strathclyde Region of Scotland. ... Two pairs of Shire horses and a pair of Suffolk Punches A draft horse, draught horse, or harness horse is a large, strong horse bred for heavy work rather than speed. ...


Horses are used, complete with equipment that is authentic or a meticulously recreated replica, to enact various historical battles. Popular subjects include American Revolutionary War and Civil War reenactments, as well as battles of the 19th century between the U.S. Cavalry and Native Americans. The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a war fought primarily between Great Britain and revolutionaries within thirteen of her North American colonies. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback in combat are commonly known as cavalry (from French cavalerie). ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ...


Horses also are used for historical reenactment of specific periods of history, to preserve cultural resources, or for ceremonial purposes. Examples include the use of horses at tourist destinations such as Colonial Williamsburg. Countries such as the United Kingdom still use horse-drawn carriages to convey royalty and VIPs to and from certain culturally significant events. Reenactors of the American Civil War Historical reenactment is an activity in which participants recreate some aspects of a historical event or period. ... View of Duke of Gloucester Street Colonial Williamsburg is the historic district of the independent city of Williamsburg, Virginia. ...


Horses are frequently used in movies to add authenticity to historical dramas as well as adding charm to films set in the modern-day, or even futuristic dramas.


Horses used for assisted learning and theraputic purposes

Main article: Hippotherapy

People with both physical and mental disabilities have obtained medically beneficial results from being around horses. The movement of a horse strengthens muscles throughout a rider's body and promotes better overall health. In many cases, riding has also led to increased mobility for the rider. Horses also provide psychological benefits to people whether they actually ride or not. According to the American Hippotherapy Association, Inc. ... Therapeutic horseback riding is an alternative therapy for individuals with a range of physical, emotional, cognitive, and social special needs. ... Equine guided education, equine assisted learning (EAL) or equine assisted professional development is a relatively new field of experiential learning for corporate, professional and personal development. ...


Hippotherapy and therapeutic horseback riding are names for different physical, occupational and speech therapy treatment strategies that utilize equine movement. In the hippotherapy environment, a therapist uses the horse's movement to provide carefully graded sensory input, whereas therapeutic horseback riding uses specific riding skills. According to the American Hippotherapy Association, Inc. ... Therapeutic horseback riding is an alternative therapy for individuals with a range of physical, emotional, cognitive, and social special needs. ...


The benefits of equestrian activity for people with disabilities has also been recognized with the addition of equestrian events to the Paralympic Games. Silver 2004 The Paralympic Games are an elite multi-sport event for athletes with a disability. ...


"Equine-assisted" or "equine-facilitated" psychotherapy is a new but growing movement which uses horses as companion animals to assist people with psychological problems. Actual practices vary widely due to the newness of the field; some programs include Therapeutic Horseback Riding and hippotherapy. Non-riding therapies simply encourage a person to touch, speak to and otherwise interact with the horse. Even without riding, people appear to benefit from being able to connect to a horse on a personal level; horses are very sensitive to non-verbal signals from humans and are an ideal tool for working with patients who have "tuned out" human therapists. Benefits can be obtained from the interaction and relationships formed between horses and people. Horses are also used in camps and programs for young people with emotional difficulties.[citation needed] // Psychotherapy is a range of techniques based on dialogue, communication and behavior change and which are designed to improve the mental health of a client or patient, or to improve group relationships (such as in a family). ... Therapeutic horseback riding is an alternative therapy for individuals with a range of physical, emotional, cognitive, and social special needs. ... According to the American Hippotherapy Association, Inc. ...


Equine Assisted Learning (EAL), Equine guided education, or equine assisted professional development, is a relatively new field of experiential learning for corporate, professional and personal development. Equine guided education, equine assisted learning (EAL) or equine assisted professional development is a relatively new field of experiential learning for corporate, professional and personal development. ...


There also have been experimental programs using horses in prison settings. Exposure to horses appears to improve the behavior of inmates in a prison setting and help reduce recidivism when they leave. A correctional facility in Nevada has a successful program where inmates learn to train young mustangs captured off the range in order to make it more likely that these horses will find adoptive homes. Both adult and juvenile prisons in New York, Florida, and Kentucky work in cooperation with the Thoroughbred Retirement Foundation to re-train former racehorses as pleasure mounts and find them new homes.[citation needed] Recidivism is the act of a person repeating an undesirable behavior after they have either experienced negative consequences of that behavior, or have been treated or trained to extinguish that behavior. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Free-roaming mustangs (Utah, 2005) Mustangs at the Palomino Valley Adoption Center A mustang is a hardy, free-roaming horse of the North American west, descended primarily from horses brought to the Americas by the Spanish conquistadors. ... Free-roaming mustangs (Utah, 2005) Mustangs at the Palomino Valley Adoption Center A mustang is a hardy, free-roaming horse of the North American west, descended primarily from horses brought to the Americas by the Spanish conquistadors. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ...


Horses in warfare

Jousting is a sport that evolved out of heavy cavalry practice
Jousting is a sport that evolved out of heavy cavalry practice
Main article: Horses in warfare

Horses in warfare have been seen for most of recorded history, dating back at least to the 19th century B.C. While mechanization largely has replaced the horse as a weapon of war, horses are still seen today in limited military uses, mostly for ceremonial purposes, or for reconnaissance and transport activities in areas of rough terrain where motorized vehicles are ineffective. Horses are also used to reenact historical battles; (see Culture above). The training of the war horse has vestiges in the disciplines of classical dressage and eventing. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2163x1203, 601 KB)Jousting at the Golden Gate Renaissance fair, San Francisco, California. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2163x1203, 601 KB)Jousting at the Golden Gate Renaissance fair, San Francisco, California. ... This article or section needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... An army unit consisting of mounted soldiers are commonly known as cavalry. ... A modern-day knight on a draft horse in late medieval plate armor jousting at a Renaissance Fair War Horses have been used in human warfare for millennia, probably since the time of domestication of the horse. ... A modern-day knight on a draft horse in late medieval plate armor jousting at a Renaissance Fair War Horses have been used in human warfare for millennia, probably since the time of domestication of the horse. ... War horses are horses specially trained for use in battle or individual combat (see also: Jousting). ... Classical dressage evolved from cavalry movements trained for the battlefield. ... Eventing is an equestrian event which comprises dressage, cross-country and show-jumping. ...


Horse products

  • Horse meat has been used as food for animals and humans throughout the ages. It is eaten in many parts of the world and is an export industry in the United States and other countries. Bills have been introduced in both the House and the Senate which would put an end to this practice in the United States. [citation needed] Horse consumption is taboo in some cultures.
  • Mare's milk is used by people with large horse-herds, such as the Mongols. They may let it ferment to produce kumis. Mares produce a lower yield of milk than cows, but more than goats and sheep.
  • Horse blood was also used as food by the Mongols and other nomadic tribes. The Mongols found this food source especially convenient when riding for long periods of time. Drinking their own horse's blood allowed the Mongols to ride for extended periods of time without stopping to eat.
  • Premarin is a mixture of female hormones (estrogens) extracted from the urine of pregnant mares (pregnant mares' urine). It is a widely used drug for hormone replacement therapy. This horse product is especially controversial; see the Premarin article.
  • Horsehide leather has been used for boots, gloves, jackets, baseballs,[5] and baseball gloves.[6] The saba is a horsehide vessel used in the production of kumis. Horsehide can be used to produce animal glue.
  • Horse hooves can be used to produce hoof glue.

Musculature of horse It is slightly sweet, tender, low in fat, and high in protein. ... A glass of cows milk A goat kid feeding on its mothers milk Milk is the nutrient fluid produced by the mammary glands of female mammals (including monotremes). ... Mongols (Mongolian: Монгол Mongol, Turkish: Moğollar) are an ethnic group that originated in what is now Mongolia, Russia, and China or more specifically on the Central Asian plateau north of the Gobi desert and south of Siberia. ... In the West, Kumis has been touted for its health benefits, as in this 1877 book also naming it Milk Champagne. Kumis (also spelled kumiss, koumiss, kymys; called airag in Mongolian cuisine) is a fermented milk drink traditionally made from the milk of horses. ... COW is an acronym for a number of things: Can of worms The COW programming language, an esoteric programming language. ... Species See Species and subspecies The goat is a mammal in the genus Capra, which consists of nine species: the Ibex, the West Caucasian Tur, the East Caucasian Tur, the Markhor, and the Wild Goat. ... Species See text. ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... Communities of nomadic people move from place to place, rather than settling down in one location. ... Estriol. ... Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is a system of medical treatment for perimenopausal and postmenopausal women, based on the assumption that it may prevent discomfort and health problems caused by diminished circulating estrogen hormones. ... Premarin is a mixture of estrogens isolated from mares urine (PREgnant MARes urINe) made by Wyeth Pharmaceuticals. ... A cello bow In music, a bow is a device pulled across the strings of a string instrument in order to make them vibrate and emit sound. ... A string instrument (also stringed instrument) is a musical instrument that produces sound by means of vibrating strings. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... The viola (in French, alto; in German Bratsche) is a string instrument played with a bow which serves as the middle voice of the violin family, between the upper lines played by the violin and the lower lines played by the cello and double bass. ... This article is about the stringed instrument. ... Side and front views of a modern double bass with a French bow. ... A classic advertisement for an A-2 jacket. ... A baseball is a ball used primarily in the sport of the same name, baseball. ... In the West, Kumis has been touted for its health benefits, as in this 1877 book also naming it Milk Champagne. Kumis (also spelled kumiss, koumiss, kymys; called airag in Mongolian cuisine) is a fermented milk drink traditionally made from the milk of horses. ... An animal glue is an adhesive that is created by prolonged boiling of animal connective tissue. ... Hoof Glue is an adhesive made by boiling down the hooves of ungulates. ...

Specialized vocabulary

Parts of a horse
Parts of a horse
Morphology and Locomotive System of a Horse
Morphology and Locomotive System of a Horse

Because horses and humans have lived and worked together for thousands of years, an extensive specialized vocabulary has arisen to describe virtually every horse behavioral and anatomical characteristic with a high degree of precision. The anatomy of the horse comes with a large number of horse specific terms. ... Horses exhibit a diverse array of coat colors and distinctive markings, and a specialized vocabulary has evolved to describe them. ... There are currently two theories of equine coat color genetics: Dr. Ann Bowlings and Dr. Phillip Sponenbergs. ... Download high resolution version (979x817, 87 KB)Scanned and modified engraving from 1882 book, now labels parts of horses body that have special names. ... Download high resolution version (979x817, 87 KB)Scanned and modified engraving from 1882 book, now labels parts of horses body that have special names. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2000x1673, 1417 KB) Summary Morphology and Locomotive system of Equus Callibus (a common horse). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2000x1673, 1417 KB) Summary Morphology and Locomotive system of Equus Callibus (a common horse). ...


The anatomy of the horse comes with a large number of horse specific terms. The anatomy of the horse comes with a large number of horse specific terms. ...


Horses exhibit a diverse array of coat colors and distinctive markings, and a specialized vocabulary has evolved to describe them. Often, one will refer to a horse in the field by its coat color rather than by breed or by sex. The genetics of the coat colors has largely been resolved, although discussion continues about some of the details. Horses exhibit a diverse array of coat colors and distinctive markings, and a specialized vocabulary has evolved to describe them. ... These young horses, though all the same color, exhibit uniquely different markings, which can be used to identify individual horses Note: This article is about markings on any type or color of horse and does not discuss horse coat colors generally. ... There are currently two theories of equine coat color genetics: Dr. Ann Bowlings and Dr. Phillip Sponenbergs. ...


The English-speaking world measures the height of horses in hands. One hand is defined in British law as 101.6 mm, a figure derived from the previous measure of 4 Imperial inches. Horse height is measured at the highest point of an animal's withers. Perhaps because of extensive selective breeding, modern adult horses vary widely in size, ranging from miniature horses measuring 5 hands (0.5 m) to draft animals measuring 19 hands (1.8 m) or more. By convention, 15.2 hh means 15 hands, 1.57 m in height. The Imperial units or the Imperial system is a collection of English units, first defined in the Weights and Measures Act of 1824, later refined (until 1959) and reduced. ... Mid-19th century tool for converting between different standards of the inch An inch is an Imperial and U.S. customary unit of length. ... The withers is the highest point on an animals back, on the ridge between its shoulder blades. ... AMHA Registered Pinto Miniature Mare. ...


Age

The most commonly used nomenclature describing horses by age is as follows:

  • Foal: a horse or either gender less than one year old. A nursing foal is sometimes called a suckling and a foal that has been weaned is called a weanling.
  • Yearling: a horse of either gender that is between one and two years old.
  • Colt: a male horse three years old or younger.
  • Filly: a female horse three years old or younger.
  • Mare: a female horse four years old and older.
  • Stallion: is a non-castrated male horse four years old and older. Some people, particularly in the UK, refer to a stallion as a "horse."
  • Gelding: A castrated male horse of any age, though for convenience sake, many people also refer to a young gelding as a "colt."

In horse racing the definitions of colt, filly, mare, and stallion or horse may differ from those given above. In the United Kingdom, thoroughbred racing defines a colt as a male horse less than five years old and a filly as a female horse less than five years old.[citation needed] In the USA, thoroughbred racing and harness racing defines colts and fillies as four years old and younger.[7] A foal is a young horse of either gender; a female foal is called a filly, while a male foal is called a colt. ... 13 year old Peruvian Paso mare A broodmare and foal In English, a mare (an old Germanic word) is a female horse; the word is also an etymological root of marshal (originally marescalcus horse servant). Mares are considered easier to handle than males, which are called stallions or after castration... This Trakehner would be most appropriate to sire horses for the discipline of dressage. ... A gelding is a castrated animal—in English, a castrated male horse. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Horse-racing is an equestrian sporting activity which has been practiced over the centuries; the chariot races of Roman times were an early example, as was the contest of the steeds of the god Odin and the giant Hrungnir in Norse mythology. ... Thoroughbred race horses The Thoroughbred is a horse breed best known as a race horse. ... A trotter training at Vincennes hippodrome Harness racing is a form of horse-racing in which the horses race in a specified gait. ...


Gaits

Main article: Horse gait
Sequence of a race horse galloping

All horses move naturally with four basic gaits;the walk, trot or jog, canter or lope, and gallop. See horse gait for further details. Horse gaits are the different ways in which a horse, either naturally or through human training, can move. ... Image File history File links Muybridge_race_horse_animated. ... Image File history File links Muybridge_race_horse_animated. ... A gait can refer to: a particular way or manner of moving on foot: walking and running are the two basic human gaits; see also gait analysis and Gait (human). ... Horse gaits are the different ways in which a horse, either naturally or through human training, can move. ... The trot is a gait of the horse where the diagonal pairs of legs move forwards at the same time, a diagonal gait. ... Horse gaits are the different ways in which a horse, either naturally or through human training, can move. ... Horse gaits are the different ways in which a horse, either naturally or through human training, can move. ... Horse gaits are the different ways in which a horse, either naturally or through human training, can move. ...


Besides these basic gaits, there are many additional "single foot" gaits such as pace, slow gait, rack, fox trot running walk, and tölt. These special gaits are often found in specific breeds, often referred to as "gaited" horses because they naturally possess additional gaits that are approximately the same speed as the trot but smoother to ride. Technically speaking the so called "gaited horses" replace the standard trot which is a 2 beat gait with a four beat gait (as opposed to the canter/lope and gallop which are three beated gaits). Horse gaits are the different ways in which a horse, either naturally or through human training, can move. ... Horse gaits are the different ways in which a horse, either naturally or through human training, can move. ... Horse gaits are the different ways in which a horse, either naturally or through human training, can move. ... This article is about a horses gait. ... Horse gaits are the different ways in which a horse, either naturally or through human training, can move. ... Horse gaits are the different ways in which a horse, either naturally or through human training, can move. ...


Horse breeds with additional gaits include the Tennessee Walking Horse with its running walk, the American Saddlebred with its "slow gait" and rack, the Paso Fino horse with the paso corto and paso largo, Icelandic horse which are known for the tölt, and the Rocky Mountain Horse with its smooth, even four-beat gait. The Fox Trot is found in several gaited breeds, most notably the Missouri Foxtrotter. Standardbreds, depending on bloodlines and training may either pace and trot. A breed is a domesticated subspecies or infrasubspecies of an animal. ... ... The American Saddlebred is a breed of horse that was developed in Kentucky by plantation owners. ... The Paso Fino is a beautiful, naturally-gaited horse with a history dating back many centuries to Spain. ... The Icelandic horse is a breed of pony that has lived in Iceland since the mid-800s, having been brought to the island by Viking settlers. ... THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN HORSE: Around the turn of the century a young horse appeared in eastern Kentucky that gave rise to a line of horses that is prized and treasured by North American and European owners. ... The Fox Trotting Horse, a pleasure and using horse, was developed in the rugged Ozark Hills to answer the needs for a horse that could carry a heavy load for long hours at a ground consuming gait and, at the same time, a gait that was easy for both horse... Standardbred harness racing horses are so called because in the early years of the Trotting Registry, the standardbred stud book established in the United States in 1879 by the National Association of Trotting Horse Breeders, only horses who could race a mile in a standard time or better, or whose... Horse gaits are the different ways in which a horse, either naturally or through human training, can move. ...


The origin of modern horse breeds

See also List of horse breeds Horses come in various sizes and shapes. The draft breeds can top 19 hands (2 metres, 76 inches) while the smallest miniature horses stand as low as 5.2 hands (0.56 metres, 22 inches). The Patagonian Fallabella, usually considered the smallest horse in the world, compares in size to a German Shepherd Dog. This page is a list of horse and pony breeds. ... Two pairs of Shire horses and a pair of Suffolk Punches A draft horse, draught horse, or harness horse is a large, strong horse bred for heavy work rather than speed. ... The Falabella horse is the smallest breed of horse in the world, reaching around 30 inches in size. ... The German Shepherd Dog or Alsatian (See History), is a breed of dog. ...


Different schools of thought exist to explain how this range of size and shape came about. One school, which some refer to as the "Four Foundations", (see Domestication of the horse and surviving wild species, above), suggests that the modern horse evolved from multiple types of early wild pony and horse prototypes; the differences between these types account for the differences in type of the modern breeds. A second school - the "Single Foundation" - holds only one type of wild horse underwent domestication, and it diverged in form after domestication through human selective breeding (or in the case of feral horses, through ecological pressures). This question will most likely only be resolved once geneticists have finished evaluating the horse genome, analyzing DNA and mitochondrial DNA to construct family trees. See: Domestication of the horse. A feral horse (an American mustang) in Wyoming A feral animal or plant is one that has escaped from domestication and returned, partly or wholly, to its wild state. ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix. ... // Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is DNA that is located in mitochondria. ... There are a number of theories regarding the domestication of the horse. ...


In either case, modern horse breeds developed in response to the need for "form to function"; that is, the necessity to develop certain physical characteristics necessary to perform a certain type of work. Thus, light, refined horses such as the Arabian horse or the Akhal-Teke developed in dry climates to be fast and with great endurance over long distances, while heavy draft horse such as the Belgian developed out of a need to pull plows and perform other farm work. Ponies of all breeds developed out of a dual need to create mounts suitable for children as well as for work in small places like mine shafts or in areas where there was insufficient forage to support larger draft animals. In between these extremes, horses were bred to be particularly suitable for tasks that included pulling carriages, carrying heavily-armored knights, jumping, racing, herding other animals, and packing supplies. The Arabian horse is a breed of horse with a reputation for intelligence, high spirit, and outstanding stamina. ... The Akhal-Teke, Ahalteke in turkmen language, horse breed (pronounced Ah-cull Tek-y) is a breed from Turkmenistan, where they are the national emblem. ... Bales of hay on a farm near Ames, Iowa A farm is the basic unit in agriculture. ... The silver Anglia knight, commissioned as a trophy in 1850, intended to represent the Black Prince. ...


Some countries specialize in breeding horses suitable for particular activities. For example, Australia, the United States, and the Patagonia region of South America are known for breeding horses particularly suitable for working cattle and other livestock. Germany produces many Warmblood breeds that are used for dressage. Ireland is recognized for breeding hunters and jumpers. Spain and Portugal are known for the Iberian horse breeds used in high school dressage and bullfighting. Austria is known worldwide for its Lipizzaner horses, used for dressage and high school work in the famous Spanish Riding School in Vienna. The United Kingdom breeds an array of heavy draft horses and several breeds of hardy ponies. Both the United States and Great Britain are noted for breeding Thoroughbred race horses. Russia takes great pride in breeding harness racing horses, a tradition dating back to the development of the Orlov Trotter in the 18th century. In orange the area most commonly defined as Patagonia. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Binomial name Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758 Cattle (often called cows in vernacular and contemporary usage, or kye as the Scots plural of cou) are domesticated ungulates, a member of the subfamily Bovinae of the family Bovidae. ... Warmbloods are a group of sport horse breeds and the term simply distinguishes this type of horse from the cold bloods (draft horses) and the hot bloods (Thoroughbreds and Arabians). ... An upper-level dressage competitor performing an extended trot Dressage (a French term meaning training) is a path and destination of competitive horse training, with competitions held at all levels from amateur to the Olympics. ... The show hunter is a type of show horse that is judged on its movement, manners, and way of going. ... Show jumping is a form of competition in which horses are jumped over a course of fences, low walls, and other obstacles (e. ... The Iberian horse is native to the Iberian peninsula. ... An upper-level dressage competitor performing an extended trot Dressage (a French term meaning training) is a path and destination of competitive horse training, with competitions held at all levels from amateur to the Olympics. ... Bull ring (Plaza de Toros) La Malagueta in Málaga (Spain) Bullfighting or tauromachy (Spanish toreo, corrida de toros or tauromaquia; Portuguese tourada, corrida de touros or tauromaquia) is a tradition that involves, most of the time, professional performers (generally called in Spanish toreros or matadores and in Portuguese toureiros... A Lipizzaner The Lipizzan horses, or Lipizzaner, are very closely associated with what is called the Spanish Riding School, which is the oldest riding academy in the world. ... A Lipizzan horse in the Winter Riding School The Spanish Riding School of Vienna, Austria, is a traditional riding school for Lipizzan horses. ... Two pairs of Shire horses and a pair of Suffolk Punches A draft horse, draught horse, or harness horse is a large, strong horse bred for heavy work rather than speed. ... Thoroughbred race horses The Thoroughbred is a horse breed best known as a race horse. ... A trotter training at Vincennes hippodrome Harness racing is a form of horse-racing in which the horses race in a specified gait. ... Count Grigory Orlov Orlov (Орлов) is the name of a Russian noble family which produced several distinguished statesmen, diplomatists and soldiers. ...


Breeds, studbooks, purebreds, and landraces

Main article: Horse breeding
Seabiscuit, one of the most well-known race horses
Seabiscuit, one of the most well-known race horses

Selective breeding of horses has occurred as long as humans have domesticated them. However, the concept of controlled breed registries has gained much wider importance during the 20th century. One of the earliest formal registries was General Stud Book for thoroughbreds,[8] a process that started in 1791 tracing back to the foundation sires for that breed. These sires were Arabians, brought to England from the Middle East. Horse breeding is the process of using selective breeding to produce additional individuals of a given phenotype, that is, continuing a breed. ... www. ... www. ... Seabiscuit (May 23, 1933—May 17, 1947) was a champion thoroughbred race horse in the United States. ...


The Arabs had a reputation for breeding their prize Arabian mares to only the most worthy stallions, and kept extensive pedigrees of their "asil" (purebred) horses. Though these pedigrees were primarily transmitted via an oral tradition, written pedigrees of Arabian horses can be found that date to the 14th century. During the late Middle Ages the Carthusian monks of southern Spain, themselves forbidden to ride, bred horses which nobles throughout Europe prized; the lineage survives to this day in the Andalusian horse or caballo de pura raza espanol. For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... The Arabian horse is a breed of horse with a reputation for intelligence, high spirit, and outstanding stamina. ... Asil or Aseel in India, means a breed of cockerel used for cock fighting, It has a distinctive upright stance, drooping tail, and powerful musculature. ... Oral tradition or oral culture is a way of transmitting history, literature or law from one generation to the next in a civilization without a writing system. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... A Carthusian Monastery in Jerez, Spain The Carthusian Order, also called the Order of St. ... Andalusian horse The Andalusian horse is one of the purest breeds of horses in the world today. ...


The modern landscape of breed designation presents a complicated picture. Some breeds have closed studbooks; a registered Thoroughbred, Arabian, or Quarter Horse must have two registered parents of the same breed, and no other criteria for registration apply. Other breeds tolerate limited infusions from other breeds; for example, the modern Appaloosa must have at least one Appaloosa parent but may also have a Quarter Horse, Thoroughbred, or Arabian parent and must also exhibit spotted coloration to gain full registration.[citation needed] Still other breeds, such as most of the warmblood sport horses, require individual judging of an individual animal's quality before registration or breeding approval, but also allow outside bloodlines in if the horses meet the standard. A breed registry, also known as a stud book, is an official list of animals within a specific breed whose parents are known. ... Thoroughbred race horses The Thoroughbred is a horse breed best known as a race horse. ... The Arabian horse is a breed of horse with a reputation for intelligence, high spirit, and outstanding stamina. ... A palomino Quarter Horse shown in-hand. ... The Appaloosa is a horse breed, in which the horse has one of several distinct patterns of spots. ... A palomino Quarter Horse shown in-hand. ... Warmbloods are a group of sport horse breeds and the term simply distinguishes this type of horse from the cold bloods (draft horses) and the hot bloods (Thoroughbreds and Arabians). ...


Breed registries also differ as to their acceptance or rejection of breeding technology. For example, all Jockey Club Thoroughbred registries require that a registered Thoroughbred be a product of a natural mating ('live cover' in horse parlance). A foal born of two Thoroughbred parents, but by means of artificial insemination or embryo transfer is barred from the Thoroughbred studbook. Any Thoroughbred bred outside of these constraints can, however, become part of the Performance Horse Registry. The Jockey Club is responsible for the day-to-day regulation of United Kingdom horse-racing. ... Artificial insemination (AI) is when sperm is placed into a females uterus (intrauterine), or cervix (intracervical) using artificial means rather than by natural copulation. ... Embryo transfer refers to a step in the process of in vitro fertilization (IVF) whereby one or several embryos are placed into the uterus of the female with the intent to establish a pregnancy. ...


On the other hand, since the advent of DNA testing to verify parentage, most breed registries now allow artificial insemination (AI), embryo transfer (ET), or both. The high value of stallions has helped with the acceptance of these techniques because they 1) allow a stallion to breed more mares with each "collection," and 2) take away the risk of injury during mating. Artificial insemination (AI) is when sperm is placed into a females uterus (intrauterine), or cervix (intracervical) using artificial means rather than by natural copulation. ... Embryo transfer refers to a step in the process of in vitro fertilization (IVF) whereby one or several embryos are placed into the uterus of the female with the intent to establish a pregnancy. ...


Hot bloods, warm bloods, and cold bloods

See also: List of horse breeds

Horses are mammals and as such are all warm-blooded creatures, as opposed to reptiles, which are cold-blooded. However, these words have developed a separate meaning in the context of equine description, with the "hot-bloods", such as race horses, exhibiting more sensitivity and energy, while the "cold-bloods" are heavier, calmer creatures such as the draft giants. This page is a list of horse and pony breeds. ... Orders Subclass Monotremata Monotremata Subclass Marsupialia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Subclass Placentalia Xenarthra Dermoptera Desmostylia Scandentia Primates Rodentia Lagomorpha Insectivora Chiroptera Pholidota Carnivora Perissodactyla Artiodactyla Cetacea Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Proboscidea Sirenia The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals primarily characterized by the presence of mammary... Orders  Crocodilia - Crocodilians scary crocodiles. ...


Hot bloods Arabian horses, whether originating on the Arabian peninsula or from the European studs (breeding establishments) of the 18th and 19th centuries, gained the title of "hot bloods" for their temperament, characterized by sensitivity, keen awareness, athleticism, and energy. European breeders wished to infuse some of this energy and athleticism into their own best cavalry horses. These traits, combined with the lighter, aesthetically refined bone structure of the oriental-type horse (Akhal-Teke, Arabian, Barb), were used as the foundation of the thoroughbred breed. The Arabian horse is a breed of horse with a reputation for intelligence, high spirit, and outstanding stamina. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... The Akhal-Teke, Ahalteke in turkmen language, horse breed (pronounced Ah-cull Tek-y) is a breed from Turkmenistan, where they are the national emblem. ... The word barb can have many meanings: Look up barb in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Thoroughbred race horses The Thoroughbred is a horse breed best known as a race horse. ...


True hot bloods usually offer both greater riding challenges and rewards than other horses. Their sensitivity and intelligence enable quick learning with greater communication and cooperation with their riders. However, their intelligence also allows them to learn bad habits as quickly as good ones. Because of this, they also can quickly lose trust in a poor rider and do not tolerate inept or abusive training practices.


Cold bloods

A Percheron draft horse
A Percheron draft horse

Muscular and heavy draft horses are known as "cold bloods", as they have been bred to have the calm, steady, patient temperament needed to pull a plow or a heavy carriage full of people. One of the most best-known draft breeds is the Belgian. The largest is the Shire. The Clydesdales, with their common coloration of a bay or black coat with white legs and long-haired, "feathered" fetlocks are among the most easily recognized.[9] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2341x1853, 978 KB) Percheron as presented on the german horsefair de:Equitana during the „Equitana Stallion Masters“ (Dressurkör der Klasse S für gekörte Hengste) 02. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2341x1853, 978 KB) Percheron as presented on the german horsefair de:Equitana during the „Equitana Stallion Masters“ (Dressurkör der Klasse S für gekörte Hengste) 02. ... A pair of very typical dapple grey Percheron Horses Percheron draft horse at the Maryland State Fair The Percheron is one of the most famous draft horses from France. ... Two pairs of Shire horses and a pair of Suffolk Punches A draft horse, draught horse, or harness horse is a large, strong horse bred for heavy work rather than speed. ... Shire draft horse The shire horse is a breed of draft horse. ... Clydesdale draft horse at the Maryland State Fair The Clydesdale is a breed of draft horse derived from the very hard-working farm horses of Clydesdale (now Lanarkshire), Scotland and named for that region. ...


Warmbloods "Warmblood" breeds began when the European carriage and war horses were crossed with oriental horses or thoroughbreds. The term "warm blood" was originally used to mean any cross of heavy horses on Thoroughbred or Arabian horses. Examples included breeds such as the Irish Draught horse, and sometimes also referred to the "Baroque" horses used for "high school" dressage, such as the Lipizzaner, Andalusian, Lusitano and the Alter Real. Sometimes the term was even used to refer to breeds of light riding horse other than Thoroughbreds or Arabians, such as the Morgan horse. But today the term "warmblood" usually refers to a group of sport horse breeds that have dominated the Olympic Games and World Equestrian Games in Dressage and Show Jumping since the 1950s. These breeds include the Hanoverian, Oldenburg, Trakehner, Holsteiner, Swedish Warmblood, and Dutch Warmblood. Warmbloods are a group of sport horse breeds and the term simply distinguishes this type of horse from the cold bloods (draft horses) and the hot bloods (Thoroughbreds and Arabians). ... A warm-blooded (homeothermic) animal is one that can keep its core body temperature at a nearly constant level regardless of the temperature of the surrounding environment (that is, to maintain thermal homeostasis) . This can involve not only the ability to generate heat, but also the ability to cool down... Irish horses are renowned for being the best hunters in the worldand none more so than those produced by crossing Thooroughbred with Irish Draught. ... A Lipizzaner The Lipizzan horses, or Lipizzaner, are very closely associated with what is called the Spanish Riding School, which is the oldest riding academy in the world. ... Andalusian horse The Andalusian horse is one of the purest breeds of horses in the world today. ... The Lusitano is a breed of horse from Portugal that closely resembles the Andalusian. ... The Alter Real is a breed of horse that originated in Portugal. ... The Morgan is one of the first horse breeds developed in the United States. ... Olympics redirects here. ... The World Equestrian Games are the world championship for Equestrianism, administrered by the Fédération Equestre Internationale. ... An upper-level dressage competitor performing an extended trot Dressage (a French term meaning training) is a path and destination of competitive horse training, with competitions held at all levels from amateur to the Olympics. ... Show jumping is a form of competition in which horses are jumped over a course of fences, low walls, and other obstacles (e. ... The 1950s was the decade spanning from the 1st of January, 1950 to the 31st December, 1959. ... Hanoverian A Hanoverian is a warmblooded horse originating in Germany, which is often seen in the Olympics and other difficult English style competitions, and have won gold medals in all three equestrian Olympic competitions. ... Oldenburg (Low German: Ollnborg) is an Independent City in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... A Trakehner can also refer to a type of Cross country jump The Trakehner Trakehner is a horse breed. ... Holsteiner is a warmblood horse breed which has its origin in the region of Schleswig-Holstein in northern Germany. ... The Dutch Warmblood is a breed of horse developed for competition that has gained wide recognition in dressage. ...


The list of horse breeds provides a partial alphabetical list of breeds of horse extant today, plus a discussion of rare breeds' conservation. This page is a list of horse and pony breeds. ...


Miscellaneous

Saddling and mounting

The common European practice and tradition of saddling and mounting the horse from the left hand side is sometimes said to originate from the practice of right-handed fighters carrying their sheathed sword on their left hip, making it easier to throw their right leg over the horse when mounting, and sometimes it is regarded as a superstition. However, several other explanations are equally plausible. A saddle is a seat for a rider fastened to an animals back. ... Swiss longsword, 15th or 16th century Look up Sword in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The number 13 is often avoided in public buildings, also floors, doors and this Santa Anita Park horse stall. ...


Horses can be mounted bareback with a vault from the ground, by grabbing the mane to provide leverage as a rider makes a small jump and scrambles up onto the horse's back (an awkward but popular method used by children), or by "bellying over", a technique which involves placing both hands side by side on the horse's back, jumping up so that the rider lays belly down on the horse's back, and swinging the leg over to sit astride. Some people prefer bareback pads, which are basically sheepskin cushions, when riding bareback, especially on old, under-nourished or bony horses. Equestrian vaulting is most often described as gymnastics and dance on horseback, and like these disciplines, it is both an art and a highly competitive sport. ...


In actual practice, however, most bareback riders use a fence or mounting block, or another object which can be stood upon to be able to simply slide onto the horse's back. This method is more convenient for both horse and rider, as the horse does not like someone "hiking' onto their back, and the "hiking" can be found to be very difficult for the rider, especially if the horse is tall or large.


Zodiac

The horse features in the 12-year cycle of animals which appear in the Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar. According to Chinese folklore, each animal is associated with certain personality traits, and those born in the year of the horse are: intelligent, independent and free-spirited. See: Horse (Zodiac). Chinese astrology (占星術 pinyin: zhan4 xing1 shu4; 星學 pinyin: xing1 xue2; 七政四餘 pinyin: qi1 zheng4 si4 yu2; and 果老星宗 pinyin: guo3 lao3 xing1 zong1) is related to the Chinese calendar, particularly its 12-year cycle of animals (aka Chinese Zodiac), and... The Chinese calendar (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: nónglì) is a lunisolar calendar, akin to the Hebrew calendar, incorporating elements of a lunar calendar with those of a solar calendar. ... The Horse ( 午 ) is one of the 12-year cycle of animals which appear in the Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar. ...


Riding Methods

Main article: Equestrianism

See also: English riding, Western riding, Dressage A young rider at a horse show in Australia. ... English riding is a term used in the United States to describe a form of horseback riding that is seen throughout the world. ... Western riding is shown in this sculpture, Great Western Tradition, by Doug Israelsen Western riding evolved from the cattle-working and warfare traditions brought to the Americas by the Spanish Conquistadors, and both equipment and riding style evolved to meet the working needs of the cowboy in the American West. ... An upper-level dressage competitor performing an extended trot Dressage (a French term meaning training) is a path and destination of competitive horse training, with competitions held at all levels from amateur to the Olympics. ...


Since the horse was domesticated, a wide variety of riding methods or styles have developed, but all basically balancing the need to allow the horse freedom of movement in activities such as horse racing or show jumping and the need for security of the rider, precision of commands and overall control as seen in activities such as dressage and reining. Worldwide, the most common modern riding style is referred to as "English riding," which is a broad style that encompasses most Olympic Equestrian competition, and includes such specific styles as Dressage, Hunt Seat, show jumping and Saddle seat, among many others. Western riding is a popular style seen in North America, derived from the traditions of Spain, modified the needs of cattle ranchers. Horse-racing is an equestrian sporting activity which has been practiced over the centuries; the chariot races of Roman times were an early example, as was the contest of the steeds of the god Odin and the giant Hrungnir in Norse mythology. ... Show jumping is a form of competition in which horses are jumped over a course of fences, low walls, and other obstacles (e. ... An upper-level dressage competitor performing an extended trot Dressage (a French term meaning training) is a path and destination of competitive horse training, with competitions held at all levels from amateur to the Olympics. ... Reining is a Western horseback riding competition. ... English riding is a term used in the United States to describe a form of horseback riding that is seen throughout the world. ... Equestrianism made its Summer Olympics debut at the 1900 Summer Olympics in Paris, France. ... An upper-level dressage competitor performing an extended trot Dressage (a French term meaning training) is a path and destination of competitive horse training, with competitions held at all levels from amateur to the Olympics. ... Hunt seat refers to a style of English-type riding commonly found at American horse shows. ... Show jumping is a form of competition in which horses are jumped over a course of fences, low walls, and other obstacles (e. ... Saddle seat is a form of riding that is found in the United States, and to a lesser extent in Canada, Europe, Africa and Australia. ... Western riding is shown in this sculpture, Great Western Tradition, by Doug Israelsen Western riding evolved from the cattle-working and warfare traditions brought to the Americas by the Spanish Conquistadors, and both equipment and riding style evolved to meet the working needs of the cowboy in the American West. ... Binomial name Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758 Cattle (often called cows in vernacular and contemporary usage, or kye as the Scots plural of cou) are domesticated ungulates, a member of the subfamily Bovinae of the family Bovidae. ... A Ranch is an area of land, including buildings and structures, given primarily to the grazing of livestock on rangeland. ...


References

  1. ^ Budiansky, Stephen. The Nature of Horses. Free Press, 1997. ISBN 0-684-82768-9
  2. ^ Bennett, Deb. Conquerors: The Roots of New World Horsemanship. Amigo Publications Inc; 1st edition 1998. ISBN 0-9658533-0-6
  3. ^ http://www.treemail.nl/takh/
  4. ^ http://www.cthorsecouncil.org/AHC2005JuneEconStudy.pdf Most Comprehensive Horse Study Ever Reveals A Nearly $40 Billion Impact On The U.S. Economy, June 20, 2005.
  5. ^ http://www.baseball-fever.com/showthread.php?p=309566
  6. ^ http://store.rawlings.com/info/index.jsp?categoryId=972842&infoPath=222974
  7. ^ Glossary of Horse racing Terms
  8. ^ http://www.imh.org/imh/bw/tbred.html#hist
  9. ^ http://images.google.com/images?&q=budweiser+clydesdale&btnG=Search

June 20 is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 194 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bibliography

  • Book of Horses: A Complete Medical Reference Guide for Horses and Foals, edited by Mordecai Siegal. (By members of the faculty and staff, University of California, Davis, School of Veterinary Medicine.) Harper Collins, 1996.
  • Illustrated Atlas of Clinical Equine Anatomy and Common Disorders of the Horse, by Ronald J. Riegal, D.V.M. and Susan E. Hakola, B.S., R.N., C.M.I. Equistar Publications, Ltd., 1996.
  • International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. 2003. Opinion 2027 (Case 3010). Usage of 17 specific names based on wild species which are pre-dated by or contemporary with those based on domestic animals (Lepidoptera, Osteichthyes, Mammalia): conserved. Bull.Zool.Nomencl., 60:81-84.
  • Bennett, Deb. Conquerors: The Roots of New World Horsemanship. Amigo Publications Inc; 1st edition 1998. ISBN 0-9658533-0-6
  • Budiansky, Stephen. The Nature of Horses. Free Press, 1997. ISBN 0-684-82768-9

See also

A young rider at a horse show in Australia. ... Tack is any of the various accessories worn by horses in the course of their use as domesticated animals. ... This is a list of equine-related topics and articles. ... The list of classic equitation books will never be complete, but here is a start: Xenophon, On Horsemanship See the Project Gutenberg etext Antoinine de Pluvinel, LInstruction du Roi. ...

External links

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