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Encyclopedia > Hormone
Epinephrine (adrenaline), a catecholamine-type hormone
Epinephrine (adrenaline), a catecholamine-type hormone

Hormones (from Greek ὁρμή - "impetus") are chemicals released by cells that affect cells in other parts of the body. Only a small amount of hormone is required to alter cell metabolism.It is also a chemical messenger that transports a signal from one cell to another. All multicellular organisms produce hormones; plant hormones are also called phytohormones. Hormones in animals are often transported in the blood. Cells respond to a hormone when they express a specific receptor for that hormone. The hormone binds to the receptor protein, resulting in the activation of a signal transduction mechanism that ultimately leads to cell type-specific responses. Hormone may refer to: Hormone Hormone is also the NATO reporting name for the Soviet/Russian Kamov Ka-25 military helicopter. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 561 pixelsFull resolution (1087 × 762 pixel, file size: 3 KB, MIME type: image/png) High-resolution black/white . ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 561 pixelsFull resolution (1087 × 762 pixel, file size: 3 KB, MIME type: image/png) High-resolution black/white . ... Adrenaline redirects here. ... tyrosine is the precursor of catecholamines epinephrine norepinephrine dopamine Synthesis Catecholamines are chemical compounds derived from the amino acid tyrosine containing catechol and amine groups. ... Wild-type Caenorhabditis elegans hermaphrodite stained to highlight the nuclei of all cells Multicellular organisms are organisms consisting of more than one cell, and having differentiated cells that perform specialized functions. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Plant hormones (or plant growth regulators, or PGRs) are internally secreted chemicals in plants that are used for regulating their growth. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Gene expression, or simply expression, is the process by which the inheritable information which comprises a gene, such as the DNA sequence, is made manifest as a physical and biologically functional gene product, such as protein or RNA. Several steps in the gene expression process may be modulated, including the... In biochemistry, a receptor is a protein on the cell membrane or within the cytoplasm or cell nucleus that binds to a specific molecule (a ligand), such as a neurotransmitter, hormone, or other substance, and initiates the cellular response to the ligand. ... In biology, signal transduction refers to any process by which a cell converts one kind of signal or stimulus into another, most often involving ordered sequences of biochemical reactions inside the cell, that are carried out by enzymes and linked through second messengers resulting in what is thought of as...


Endocrine hormone molecules are secreted (released) directly into the bloodstream, while exocrine hormones (or ectohormones) are secreted directly into a duct, and from the duct they either flow into the bloodstream or they flow from cell to cell by diffusion in a process known as paracrine signalling. The endocrine system is an integrated system of small organs that involve the release of extracellular signaling molecules known as hormones. ... 3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane. ... Red blood cells (erythrocytes) are present in the blood and help carry oxygen to the rest of the cells in the body Blood is a circulating tissue composed of fluid plasma and cells (red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets). ... Exocrine gland refers to glands that secrete their products and temporarily store their secretions in a duct. ... diffusion (disambiguation). ... Paracrine signaling is a form of cell signaling in which the target cell is close to (para = alongside of or next to, but this strict prefix definition is not meticulously followed here) the signal releasing cell. ...

Contents

Hierarchical nature of hormonal control

Hormonal regulation of some physiological activities involves a hierarchy of cell types acting on each other either to stimulate or to modulate the release and action of a particular hormone. The secretion of hormones from successive levels of endocrine cells is stimulated by chemical signals originating from cells higher up the hierarchical system. The master coordinator of hormonal activity in mammals is the hypothalamus, which acts on input that it receives from the central nervous system.[1] The endocrine system is an integrated system of small organs that involve the release of extracellular signaling molecules known as hormones. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria For the folk-rock band see The Mammals. ... The hypothalamus links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis). ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ...


Other hormone secretion occurs in response to local conditions, such as the rate of secretion of parathyroid hormone by the parathyroid cells in response to fluctuations of ionized calcium levels in extracellular fluid. RNA expression pattern Orthologs Human Mouse Entrez Ensembl Uniprot na Refseq Location Pubmed search Parathyroid hormone (PTH), or parathormone, is secreted by the parathyroid glands as a polypeptide containing 84 amino acids. ... Categories: Anatomy stubs | Endocrine system ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... In some animals, including mammals, the two types of extracellular fluids are interstitial fluid and blood plasma. ...


Hormone signaling

Hormonal signalling across this hierarchy involves the following:

  1. Biosynthesis of a particular hormone in a particular tissue
  2. Storage and secretion of the hormone
  3. Transport of the hormone to the target cell(s)
  4. Recognition of the hormone by an associated cell membrane or intracellular receptor protein.
  5. Relay and amplification of the received hormonal signal via a signal transduction process: This then leads to a cellular response. The reaction of the target cells may then be recognized by the original hormone-producing cells, leading to a down-regulation in hormone production. This is an example of a homeostatic negative feedback loop.
  6. Degradation of the hormone.

As can be inferred from the hierarchical diagram, hormone biosynthetic cells are typically of a specialized cell type, residing within a particular endocrine gland (e.g., the thyroid gland, the ovaries, or the testes). Hormones may exit their cell of origin via exocytosis or another means of membrane transport. However, the hierarchical model is an oversimplification of the hormonal signaling process. Cellular recipients of a particular hormonal signal may be one of several cell types that reside within a number of different tissues, as is the case for insulin, which triggers a diverse range of systemic physiological effects. Different tissue types may also respond differently to the same hormonal signal. Because of this, hormonal signaling is elaborate and hard to dissect. Protein biosynthesis (synthesis) is the process in which cells build proteins. ... Exocytosis is the process of a biological cell releasing substances into the extracellular fluid (its environment). ... A membrane protein is a protein molecule that is attached to, or associated with the membrane of a cell or an organelle. ... In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word intracellular means inside the cell. It is used in contrast to extracellular (outside the cell). ... In biochemistry, a receptor is a protein on the cell membrane or within the cytoplasm or cell nucleus that binds to a specific molecule (a ligand), such as a neurotransmitter, hormone, or other substance, and initiates the cellular response to the ligand. ... In biology, signal transduction refers to any process by which a cell converts one kind of signal or stimulus into another, most often involving ordered sequences of biochemical reactions inside the cell, that are carried out by enzymes and linked through second messengers resulting in what is thought of as... Downregulation is the process by which a cell decreases the number of receptors to a given hormone or neurotransmitter to reduce its sensitivity to this molecule. ... Homeostasis (from Greek: ὅμος, homos, equal; and ιστημι, histemi, to stand lit. ... Negative feedback is a type of feedback, during which a system responds so as to reverse the direction of change. ... The endocrine system is an integrated system of small organs that involve the release of extracellular signaling molecules known as hormones. ... The thyroid gland and its relations In anatomy, the thyroid (IPA θaɪɹoɪd) is an endocrine gland. ... // For ovary as part of plants see ovary (plants) An ovary is an egg-producing reproductive organ found in female organisms. ... Human male anatomy The testicles, known medically as testes (singular testis), are the male generative glands in animals. ... Neuron A (transmitting) to neuron B (receiving) 1. ... The cell membrane (also called the plasma membrane, plasmalemma or phospholipid bilayer) is a selectively permeable lipid bilayer found in all cells. ... Not to be confused with inulin. ...


Interactions with receptors

Most hormones initiate a cellular response by initially combining with either a specific intracellular or cell membrane associated receptor protein. A cell may have several different receptors that recognize the same hormone and activate different signal transduction pathways, or alternatively different hormones and their receptors may invoke the same biochemical pathway. In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word intracellular means inside the cell. It is used in contrast to extracellular (outside the cell). ... A membrane protein is a protein molecule that is attached to, or associated with the membrane of a cell or an organelle. ... In biochemistry, a receptor is a protein on the cell membrane or within the cytoplasm or cell nucleus that binds to a specific molecule (a ligand), such as a neurotransmitter, hormone, or other substance, and initiates the cellular response to the ligand. ... In biology, signal transduction refers to any process by which a cell converts one kind of signal or stimulus into another, most often involving ordered sequences of biochemical reactions inside the cell, that are carried out by enzymes and linked through second messengers resulting in what is thought of as...


For many hormones, including most protein hormones, the receptor is membrane associated and embedded in the plasma membrane at the surface of the cell. The interaction of hormone and receptor typically triggers a cascade of secondary effects within the cytoplasm of the cell, often involving phosphorylation or dephosphorylation of various other cytoplasmic proteins, changes in ion channel permeability, or increased concentrations of intracellular molecules that may act as secondary messengers (e.g. cyclic AMP). Some protein hormones also interact with intracellular receptors located in the cytoplasm or nucleus by an intracrine mechanism. Peptide hormones are a class of peptides that are secreted into the blood stream and have endocrine functions in living animals. ... Drawing of a cell membrane A component of every biological cell, the cell membrane (or plasma membrane) is a thin and structured bilayer of phospholipid and protein molecules that envelopes the cell. ... Schematic showing the cytoplasm, with major components of a typical animal cell. ... A phosphorylated serine residue Phosphorylation is the addition of a phosphate (PO4) group to a protein molecule or a small molecule. ... Ion channels are pore-forming proteins that help to establish and control the small voltage gradient that exists across the plasma membrane of all living cells (see cell potential) by allowing the flow of ions down their electrochemical gradient. ... In biology, second messengers are low-weight diffusible molecules that are used in signal transduction to relay signals within a cell. ... Structure of cAMP Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP or 3-5-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a molecule that is important in many biological processes; it is derived from adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ... Peptide hormones are a class of peptides that are secreted into the blood stream and have endocrine functions in living animals. ... In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word intracellular means inside the cell. It is used in contrast to extracellular (outside the cell). ... Schematic showing the cytoplasm, with major components of a typical animal cell. ... HeLa cells stained for DNA with the Blue Hoechst dye. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


For hormones such as steroid or thyroid hormones, their receptors are located intracellularly within the cytoplasm of their target cell. In order to bind their receptors these hormones must cross the cell membrane. The combined hormone-receptor complex then moves across the nuclear membrane into the nucleus of the cell, where it binds to specific DNA sequences, effectively amplifying or suppressing the action of certain genes, and affecting protein synthesis.[2] However, it has been shown that not all steroid receptors are located intracellularly, some are plasma membrane associated.[3] Steroid hormones are steroids which act as hormones. ... In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word intracellular means inside the cell. It is used in contrast to extracellular (outside the cell). ... Schematic showing the cytoplasm, with major components of a typical animal cell. ... A protein complex is a group of two or more associated proteins formed by protein-protein interaction that is stable over time. ... A DNA sequence (sometimes genetic sequence) is a succession of letters representing the primary structure of a real or hypothetical DNA molecule or strand, The possible letters are A, C, G, and T, representing the four nucleotide subunits of a DNA strand (adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine), and typically these are... This stylistic schematic diagram shows a gene in relation to the double helix structure of DNA and to a chromosome (right). ... Protein synthesis is the creation of proteins using DNA and RNA. Biological and artificial methods for creation of proteins differ significantly. ... In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word intracellular means inside the cell. It is used in contrast to extracellular (outside the cell). ... Drawing of a cell membrane A component of every biological cell, the cell membrane (or plasma membrane) is a thin and structured bilayer of phospholipid and protein molecules that envelopes the cell. ...


An important consideration, dictating the level at which cellular signal transduction pathways are activated in response to a hormonal signal is the effective concentration of hormone-receptor complexes that are formed. Hormone-receptor complex concentrations are effectively determined by three factors: In biology, signal transduction refers to any process by which a cell converts one kind of signal or stimulus into another, most often involving ordered sequences of biochemical reactions inside the cell, that are carried out by enzymes and linked through second messengers resulting in what is thought of as... For other uses, see Concentration (disambiguation). ...

  1. The number of hormone molecules available for complex formation
  2. The number of receptor molecules available for complex formation and
  3. The binding affinity between hormone and receptor.

The number of hormone molecules available for complex formation is usually the key factor in determining the level at which signal transduction pathways are activated. The number of hormone molecules available being determined by the concentration of circulating hormone, which is in turn influenced by the level and rate at which they are secreted by biosynthetic cells. The number of receptors at the cell surface of the receiving cell can also be varied as can the affinity between the hormone and its receptor. In chemistry and biochemistry, a dissociation constant or an ionization constant is a specific type of equilibrium constant used for reversible reactions or processes. ... In biology, signal transduction refers to any process by which a cell converts one kind of signal or stimulus into another, most often involving ordered sequences of biochemical reactions inside the cell, that are carried out by enzymes and linked through second messengers resulting in what is thought of as... In chemistry and biochemistry, a dissociation constant or an ionization constant is a specific type of equilibrium constant used for reversible reactions or processes. ...


Physiology of hormones

Most cells are capable of producing one or more molecules, which act as signalling molecules to other cells, altering their growth, function, or metabolism. The classical hormones produced by cells in the endocrine glands mentioned so far in this article are cellular products, specialized to serve as regulators at the overall organism level. However they may also exert their effects solely within the tissue in which they are produced and originally released. An endocrine gland is one of a set of internal organs involved in the secretion of hormones into the blood. ...


The rate of hormone biosynthesis and secretion is often regulated by a homeostatic negative feedback control mechanism. Such a mechanism depends on factors which influence the metabolism and excretion of hormones. Thus, higher hormome concentration alone can not trigger the negative feedback mechanism. Negative feedback must be triggered by overproduction of an "effect" of the hormone. Homeostasis (from Greek: ὅμος, homos, equal; and ιστημι, histemi, to stand lit. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... The kidneys are important excretory organs in vertebrates. ...


Hormone secretion can be stimulated and inhibited by:

  • Other hormones (stimulating- or releasing-hormones)
  • Plasma concentrations of ions or nutrients, as well as binding globulins
  • Neurons and mental activity
  • Environmental changes, e.g., of light or temperature

One special group of hormones is the tropic hormones that stimulate the hormone production of other endocrine glands. For example, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) causes growth and increased activity of another endocrine gland, the thyroid, which increases output of thyroid hormones. Globulin is one of the two types of serum proteins, the other being albumin. ... This article is about cells in the nervous system. ... Trophic hormones are hormones that regulate the activity of endocrine glands. ... The endocrine system is an integrated system of small organs that involve the release of extracellular signaling molecules known as hormones. ... Thyroid-stimulating hormone (also known as TSH or thyrotropin) is a hormone synthesized and secreted by thyrotrope cells in the anterior pituitary gland which regulates the endocrine function of the thyroid gland. ... thyroxine (T4) triiodothyronine (T3) Thyroxine, T4 Triiodothyronine, T3 The thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), are tyrosine-based hormones produced by the thyroid gland. ...


A recently-identified class of hormones is that of the "hunger hormones" - ghrelin, orexin and PYY 3-36 - and "satiety hormones" - e.g., leptin, obestatin, nesfatin-1. Ghrelin is a hormone produced by P/D1 cells lining the acer of the human stomach that stimulate appetite. ... Orexins, also called hypocretins, are the common names given to a pair of highly excitatory neuropeptide hormones that were simultaneously discovered by two groups of reseachers in rat brains. ... In biology, the hormone called PYY 3-36 plays a critical role in decreasing appetites, making us aware of fullness of our stomach. ... RNA expression pattern Orthologs Human Mouse Entrez Ensembl Uniprot Refseq Location Pubmed search Leptin (from the Greek word leptos, meaning thin) is a 16 kDa protein hormone that plays a key role in regulating energy intake and energy expenditure, including the regulation (decrease) of appetite and (increase) of metabolism. ... Obestatin is a hormone that is produced in the cells linings the stomach and small intestine of several mammals including humans; it drastically reduces appetite in mice and is expected to do the same in humans. ... Nesfatin-1 is a naturally occurring protein molecule produced by the brain of mammals. ...


In order to release active hormones quickly into the circulation, hormone biosynthetic cells may produce and store biologically inactive hormones in the form of pre- or prohormones. These can then be quickly converted into their active hormone form in response to a particular stimulus. The word circulation can mean the following: The transport of blood through the circulatory system. ... A prehormone is a biochemical substance secreted by glandular tissue and has minimal or no significant biological activity, but it is converted in peripheral tissues into an active hormone. ... A prohormone is a chemical compound that is a precursor to an actual hormone (usually an anabolic like testosterone or some variant), which is taken in order to boost the body’s available hormone supply. ...


Hormone effects

Hormone effects vary widely, but can include:

In many cases, one hormone may regulate the production and release of other hormones Look up mood in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Mind (disambiguation). ... A section of mouse liver showing an apoptotic cell indicated by an arrow Apoptosis (/̩æ.pÉ™pˈto. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... IT FEELS REALLY GOOD IF YOU IMATATE THE ANIMALS. LOL! “Mounting” redirects here. ... Puberty refers to the process of physical changes by which a childs body becomes an adult body capable of reproduction. ...   It has been suggested that Child discipline be merged into this article or section. ... The word menopause literally means the permanent physiological, or natural, cessation of menstrual cycles, from the Greek roots meno (month) and pausis (a pause, a cessation). ... The reproduction of many organisms follows a cyclical pattern, known as the reproductive cycle, which regulates the conception and birth of offspring. ...


Many of the responses to hormone signals can be described as serving to regulate metabolic activity of an organ or tissue.


Chemical classes of hormones

Vertebrate hormones fall into three chemical classes: This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

The general structure of an amine Amines are organic compounds and a type of functional group that contain nitrogen as the key atom. ... This article is about the class of chemicals. ... Tyrosine (from the Greek tyros, meaning cheese, as it was first discovered in 1846 by German chemist Justus von Liebig in the protein casein from cheese[1][2]), 4-hydroxyphenylalanine, or 2-amino-3(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propanoic acid, is one of the 20 amino acids that are used by cells... Tryptophan (abbreviated as Trp or W)[1] is one of the 20 standard amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins, and an essential amino acid in the human diet. ... tyrosine is the precursor of catecholamines epinephrine norepinephrine dopamine Synthesis Catecholamines are chemical compounds derived from the amino acid tyrosine containing catechol and amine groups. ... Thyroxine, or 3:5,3:5 tetra­iodothyronine (often abbreviated as T4) is the major hormone secreted by the follicular cells of the thyroid gland. ... Peptide hormones are a class of peptides that are secreted into the blood stream and have endocrine functions in living animals. ... Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), also called thyrotropin-releasing factor (TRF) or protirelin, is a tripeptide hormone that stimulates the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone and prolactin by the anterior pituitary. ... RNA expression pattern Orthologs Human Mouse Entrez Ensembl Uniprot Refseq Location Pubmed search Arginine vasopressin (AVP), also known as vasopressin, argipressin or antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is a hormone found in most mammals, including humans. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... Not to be confused with inulin. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... N-linked protein glycosylation (N-glycosylation of N-glycans) at Asn residues (Asn-x-Ser/Thr motifs) in glycoproteins[1]. Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to their polypeptide backbones. ... Luteinizing hormone (LH) is a hormone synthesized and secreted by gonadotropes in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. ... Follicle stimulating hormone Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is a hormone synthesised and secreted by gonadotropes in the anterior pituitary gland. ... Thyroid-stimulating hormone (also known as TSH or thyrotropin) is a hormone synthesized and secreted by thyrotrope cells in the anterior pituitary gland which regulates the endocrine function of the thyroid gland. ... Some common lipids. ... Phospholipid Two schematic representations of a phospholipid. ... Linoleic acid (LA) is an unsaturated omega-6 fatty acid. ... Arachidonic acid (AA) is an omega-6 fatty acid 20:4(ω-6). ... Steroid hormones are steroids which act as hormones. ... Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol). ... In biochemistry, eicosanoids are a class of oxygenated hydrophobic molecules that largely function as autocrine and paracrine mediators. ... Steroid hormones are steroids which act as hormones. ... Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. ... Cortisol is a corticosteroid hormone produced by the Zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex (in the adrenal gland). ... Sterols, or steroid alcohols are a subgroup of steroids with a hydroxyl group in the 3-position of the A-ring. ... Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream. ... In biology, homology is any similarity between structures that is due to their shared ancestry. ... Cortical part of the adrenal gland (on the pointer). ... The gonad is the organ that makes gametes. ... In biochemistry, eicosanoids are a class of oxygenated hydrophobic molecules that largely function as autocrine and paracrine mediators. ... E1 - Alprostadil I2 - Prostacyclin A prostaglandin is any member of a group of lipid compounds that are derived enzymatically from fatty acids and have important functions in the animal body. ...

Pharmacology

Many hormones and their analogues are used as medication. The most commonly-prescribed hormones are estrogens and progestagens (as methods of hormonal contraception and as HRT), thyroxine (as levothyroxine, for hypothyroidism) and steroids (for autoimmune diseases and several respiratory disorders). Insulin is used by many diabetics. Local preparations for use in otolaryngology often contain pharmacologic equivalents of adrenaline, while steroid and vitamin D creams are used extensively in dermatological practice. In chemistry, analogs or analogues are compounds in which one or more individual atoms have been replaced, either with a different atom, or with a different functional group. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Estriol. ... Progestagens (also spelled progestogens or gestagens) are hormones which produce effects similar to progesterone, the only natural progestagen. ... Hormonal contraception refers to birth control methods that act on the hormonal system. ... Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is a system of medical treatment for perimenopausal and postmenopausal women, based on the assumption that it may prevent discomfort and health problems caused by diminished circulating estrogen hormones. ... Thyroxine, or 3:5,3:5 tetra­iodothyronine (often abbreviated as T4) is the major hormone secreted by the follicular cells of the thyroid gland. ... Levothyroxine, also known as L-thyroxine, synthetic T4 or 3,5,3,5-tetraiodo-L-thyronine, is a synthetic form of thyroxine (thyroid hormone). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the chemical family of steroids. ... Autoimmune diseases arise from an overactive immune response of the body against substances and tissues normally present in the body. ... In medicine, pulmonology (aka pneumology) is the specialty that deals with diseases of the lungs and the respiratory tract. ... Not to be confused with inulin. ... For the disease characterized by excretion of large amounts of very dilute urine, see diabetes insipidus. ... Otolaryngology is the branch of medicine that specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of ear, nose, throat, and head & neck disorders. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmakon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and lego (λέγω) to tell (about)) is the study of how drugs interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ... Epinephrine (INN) or adrenaline (BAN) is a hormone and a neurotransmitter. ... This article is about the chemical family of steroids. ... Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream. ... Dermatology (Greek δερμα, skin and λόγος, word, science) is a branch of medicine dealing with the skin and its appendages (hair, sweat glands, etc). ...


A "pharmacologic dose" of a hormone is a medical usage referring to an amount of a hormone far greater than naturally occurs in a healthy body. The effects of pharmacologic doses of hormones may be different from responses to naturally-occurring amounts and may be therapeutically useful. An example is the ability of pharmacologic doses of glucocorticoid to suppress inflammation. Glucocorticoids are a class of steroid hormones characterised by an ability to bind with the cortisol receptor and trigger similar effects. ... An abscess on the skin, showing the redness and swelling characteristic of inflammation. ...


Important human hormones

Spelling is not uniform for many hormones. Current North American and international usage is estrogen, gonadotropin, while British usage retains the Greek diphthong in oestrogen and favors the earlier spelling gonadotrophin (from trophē ‘nourishment, sustenance’ rather than tropē ‘turning, change’. In phonetics, a diphthong (also gliding vowel) (Greek δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally with two sounds, or with two tones) is a monosyllabic vowel combination involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another, often interpreted by listeners as a single vowel sound or phoneme. ...

Structure Name Abbrev-
iation
Tissue Cells Mechanism Target Tissue Effect
amine - tryptophan Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) pineal gland pinealocyte antioxidant and causes drowsiness
amine - tryptophan Serotonin 5-HT CNS, GI tract enterochromaffin cell Controls mood, appetite, and sleep
amine - tyrosine Thyroxine (or tetraiodothyronine) (a thyroid hormone) T4 thyroid gland thyroid epithelial cell direct less active form of thyroid hormone: increase the basal metabolic rate & sensitivity to catecholamines,

affect protein synthesis Melatonin, 5-methoxy-N-acetyltryptamine, is a hormone found in all living creatures from algae[1] to humans, at levels that vary in a diurnal cycle. ... The pineal gland (also called the pineal body or epiphysis) is a small endocrine gland in the brain. ... Pinealocytes are the main cells of the pineal gland. ... Space-filling model of the antioxidant metabolite glutathione. ... Somnolence (or drowsiness, or hypersomnia) is a state of near-sleep, a strong desire for sleep, or sleeping unusually long periods. ... For the professional wrestling stable, see Ravens Nest#Serotonin. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... Gut redirects here. ... Serotonin Enterochromaffin (EC) cells (Kulchitsky cells) are a type of enteroendocrine cell[1] occurring in the epithelia lining the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract. ... Thyroxine, or 3:5,3:5 tetra­iodothyronine (often abbreviated as T4) is the major hormone secreted by the follicular cells of the thyroid gland. ... thyroxine (T4) triiodothyronine (T3) Thyroxine, T4 Triiodothyronine, T3 The thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), are tyrosine-based hormones produced by the thyroid gland. ... The thyroid gland and its relations In anatomy, the thyroid (IPA θaɪɹoɪd) is an endocrine gland. ... Thyroid epithelial cells are cells in the thyroid gland which produce and secrete thyroxine and triiodothyronine. ... thyroxine (T4) triiodothyronine (T3) Thyroxine, T4 Triiodothyronine, T3 The thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), are tyrosine-based hormones produced by the thyroid gland. ... Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the amount of energy expended while at rest in a neutrally temperate environment, in the post-absorptive state (meaning that the digestive system is inactive, which requires about twelve hours of fasting in humans). ... tyrosine is the precursor of catecholamines epinephrine norepinephrine dopamine Synthesis Catecholamines are chemical compounds derived from the amino acid tyrosine containing catechol and amine groups. ... Protein synthesis is the creation of proteins using DNA and RNA. Biological and artificial methods for creation of proteins differ significantly. ...

amine - tyrosine Triiodothyronine (a thyroid hormone) T3 thyroid gland thyroid epithelial cell direct potent form of thyroid hormone: increase the basal metabolic rate & sensitivity to catecholamines,

affect protein synthesis The thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), are tyrosine-based hormones produced by the thyroid gland. ... thyroxine (T4) triiodothyronine (T3) Thyroxine, T4 Triiodothyronine, T3 The thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), are tyrosine-based hormones produced by the thyroid gland. ... The thyroid gland and its relations In anatomy, the thyroid (IPA θaɪɹoɪd) is an endocrine gland. ... Thyroid epithelial cells are cells in the thyroid gland which produce and secrete thyroxine and triiodothyronine. ... thyroxine (T4) triiodothyronine (T3) Thyroxine, T4 Triiodothyronine, T3 The thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), are tyrosine-based hormones produced by the thyroid gland. ... Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the amount of energy expended while at rest in a neutrally temperate environment, in the post-absorptive state (meaning that the digestive system is inactive, which requires about twelve hours of fasting in humans). ... tyrosine is the precursor of catecholamines epinephrine norepinephrine dopamine Synthesis Catecholamines are chemical compounds derived from the amino acid tyrosine containing catechol and amine groups. ... Protein synthesis is the creation of proteins using DNA and RNA. Biological and artificial methods for creation of proteins differ significantly. ...

amine - tyrosine (cat) Epinephrine (or adrenaline) EPI adrenal medulla chromaffin cell Fight-or-flight response:

Boosts the supply of oxygen and glucose to the brain and muscles (by increasing heart rate and stroke volume, vasodilation, increasing catalysis of glycogen in liver, breakdown of lipids in fat cells. dilate the pupils Suppress non-emergency bodily processes (e.g. digestion) Suppress immune system tyrosine is the precursor of catecholamines epinephrine norepinephrine dopamine Synthesis Catecholamines are chemical compounds derived from the amino acid tyrosine containing catechol and amine groups. ... Adrenaline redirects here. ... In mammals, the adrenal glands are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit atop the kidneys. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Chromophil. ... The fight-or-flight response, also called hyperarousal or the acute stress response, was first described by Walter Cannon in 1915[1][2]. His theory states that animals react to threats with a general discharge of the sympathetic nervous system, priming the animal for fighting or fleeing. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Heart rate is the frequency of the cardiac cycle. ... In cardiovascular physiology, stroke volume (SV) is the volume of blood ejected from a ventricle with each beat of the heart. ... The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... Catalyst redirects here. ... Glycogen Structure Segment Glycogen is a polysaccharide of glucose (Glc) which functions as the primary short term energy storage in animal cells. ... Some common lipids. ... Adipocytes are the cells that primarily compose adipose tissue, specialized in storing energy as fat. ... The human eye The pupil is the central transparent area (showing as black). ... For the industrial process, see anaerobic digestion. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ...

amine - tyrosine (cat) Norepinephrine (or noradrenaline) NRE adrenal medulla chromaffin cell Fight-or-flight response:

Boosts the supply of oxygen and glucose to the brain and muscles (by increasing heart rate and stroke volume, vasoconstriction and increased blood pressure, breakdown of lipids in fat cells. Increase skeletal muscle readiness. tyrosine is the precursor of catecholamines epinephrine norepinephrine dopamine Synthesis Catecholamines are chemical compounds derived from the amino acid tyrosine containing catechol and amine groups. ... Norepinephrine (INN)(abbr. ... In mammals, the adrenal glands are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit atop the kidneys. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Chromophil. ... The fight-or-flight response, also called hyperarousal or the acute stress response, was first described by Walter Cannon in 1915[1][2]. His theory states that animals react to threats with a general discharge of the sympathetic nervous system, priming the animal for fighting or fleeing. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Heart rate is the frequency of the cardiac cycle. ... In cardiovascular physiology, stroke volume (SV) is the volume of blood ejected from a ventricle with each beat of the heart. ... Vasoconstriction is a narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contracting of the muscular wall of the vessels. ... A sphygmomanometer, a device used for measuring arterial pressure. ... Some common lipids. ... Adipocytes are the cells that primarily compose adipose tissue, specialized in storing energy as fat. ... A top-down view of skeletal muscle Skeletal muscle is a type of striated muscle, usually attached to the skeleton. ...

amine - tyrosine (cat) Dopamine (or prolactin inhibiting hormone DPM, PIH or DA kidney, hypothalamus Chromaffin cells in kidney
Dopamine neurons of the arcuate nucleus in hypothalamus
Increase heart rate and blood pressure
Inhibit release of prolactin and TRH from anterior pituitary
peptide Antimullerian hormone (or mullerian inhibiting factor or hormone) AMH testes Sertoli cell Inhibit release of prolactin and TRH from anterior pituitary
peptide Adiponectin Acrp30 adipose tissue
peptide Adrenocorticotropic hormone (or corticotropin) ACTH anterior pituitary corticotrope cAMP synthesis of corticosteroids (glucocorticoids and androgens) in adrenocortical cells
peptide Angiotensinogen and angiotensin AGT liver IP3 vasoconstriction

release of aldosterone from adrenal cortex dipsogen. tyrosine is the precursor of catecholamines epinephrine norepinephrine dopamine Synthesis Catecholamines are chemical compounds derived from the amino acid tyrosine containing catechol and amine groups. ... For other uses, see Dopamine (disambiguation). ... The kidneys are the organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... The hypothalamus links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Chromophil. ... The arcuate nucleus is an aggregation of neurons in the mediobasal hypothalamus, adjacent to the third ventricle and the median eminence. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... A sphygmomanometer, a device used for measuring arterial pressure. ... Prolactin (PRL) is a peptide hormone primarily associated with lactation. ... Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), also called thyrotropin-releasing factor (TRF) or protirelin, is a tripeptide hormone that stimulates the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone and prolactin by the anterior pituitary. ... The anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis, from Greek adeno, gland; hypo, under; physis, growth; hence, glandular undergrowth) comprises the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... Antimullerian hormone is a protein hormone produced by human and other mammalian gonads. ... Human male anatomy The testicles, known medically as testes (singular testis), are the male generative glands in animals. ... A Sertoli cell (a kind of sustentacular cell) is a nurse cell of the testes which is part of a seminiferous tubule. ... Prolactin (PRL) is a peptide hormone primarily associated with lactation. ... Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), also called thyrotropin-releasing factor (TRF) or protirelin, is a tripeptide hormone that stimulates the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone and prolactin by the anterior pituitary. ... The anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis, from Greek adeno, gland; hypo, under; physis, growth; hence, glandular undergrowth) comprises the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... RNA expression pattern Orthologs Human Mouse Entrez Ensembl Uniprot Refseq Location Pubmed search Adiponectin (also referred to as Acrp30, apM1) is a protein hormone that modulates a number of metabolic processes, including glucose regulation and fatty acid catabolism. ... Adipose tissue is one of the main types of connective tissue. ... Pronunciation (IPA): /əˈdrinoʊˌkɔrtɪkoʊˈtrɒpɪk ˈhɔrmoʊn, əˈdrinoʊˌkɔrtɪkoʊˈtroʊpɪk ˈhɔrmoʊn/ Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH or corticotropin) is a polypeptide hormone produced and secreted by the pituitary gland. ... The anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis, from Greek adeno, gland; hypo, under; physis, growth; hence, glandular undergrowth) comprises the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... Corticotropes are cells in the anterior pituitary which produce adrenocorticotrophic hormone. ... In physiology, corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex. ... Glucocorticoids are a class of steroid hormones characterised by an ability to bind with the cortisol receptor and trigger similar effects. ... Androgen is the generic term for any natural or synthetic compound, usually a steroid hormone, that stimulates or controls the development and maintenance of masculine characteristics in vertebrates by binding to androgen receptors. ... Cortical part of the adrenal gland (on the pointer). ... Angiotensinogen, angiotensin I and angiotensin II are peptides involved in maintenance of blood volume and pressure. ... Angiotensin is an oligopeptide in the blood that causes vasoconstriction, increased blood pressure, and release of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex. ... The liver is the largest internal organ in the human body, and is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... Vasoconstriction is a narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contracting of the muscular wall of the vessels. ... Aldosterone, is a steroid hormone (mineralocorticoid family) produced by the outer-section (zona glomerulosa) of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland, and acts on the kidney nephron to conserve sodium, secrete potassium,increase water retention, and increase blood pressure. ... Cortical part of the adrenal gland (on the pointer). ... A dipsogen is an agent that causes thirst. ...

peptide Antidiuretic hormone (or vasopressin, arginine vasopressin) ADH posterior pituitary Parvocellular neurosecretory neurons in hypothalamus
Magnocellular neurosecretory cells in posterior pituitary
varies retention of water in kidneys
moderate vasoconstriction
Release ACTH in anterior pituitary
peptide Atrial-natriuretic peptide (or atriopeptin) ANP heart cGMP
peptide Calcitonin CT thyroid gland parafollicular cell cAMP Construct bone, reduce blood Ca2+
peptide Cholecystokinin CCK duodenum Release of digestive enzymes from pancreas

Release of bile from gallbladder hunger suppressant Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), or arginine vasopressin (AVP), is a peptide hormone produced by the hypothalamus, and stored in the posterior part of the pituitary gland. ... The posterior pituitary (also called the neurohypophysis) comprises the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is an aggregation of neurons in the hypothalamus which produces many hormones. ... Magnocellular neurosecretory cells are cells within the supraoptic nucleus and paraventricular nucleus. ... The kidneys are the organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... Vasoconstriction is a narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contracting of the muscular wall of the vessels. ... Pronunciation (IPA): /əˈdrinoÊŠËŒkÉ”rtɪkoʊˈtrÉ’pɪk ˈhÉ”rmoÊŠn, əˈdrinoÊŠËŒkÉ”rtɪkoʊˈtroÊŠpɪk ˈhÉ”rmoÊŠn/ Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH or corticotropin) is a polypeptide hormone produced and secreted by the pituitary gland. ... The anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis, from Greek adeno, gland; hypo, under; physis, growth; hence, glandular undergrowth) comprises the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), or atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), is a peptide hormone that is released by walls of the cardiac atrium in response to high NaCl concentration, high extracellular fluid volume, or high blood volume. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... Calcitonin is a 32 amino acid polypeptide hormone that is produced in humans primarily by the parafollicular (also known as C) cells of the thyroid, and in many other animals in the ultimobranchial body. ... The thyroid gland and its relations In anatomy, the thyroid (IPA θaɪɹoɪd) is an endocrine gland. ... Parafollicular cells also called C cells, are cells in the thyroid which produce and secrete calcitonin. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... Cholecystokinin (from Greek chole, bile; cysto, sac; kinin, move; hence, move the bile-sac (gall bladder)) is a peptide hormone of the gastrointestinal system responsible for stimulating the digestion of fat and protein. ... In anatomy of the digestive system, the duodenum is a hollow jointed tube about 25-30 cm long connecting the stomach to the jejunum. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... The pancreas is a gland organ in the digestive and endocrine systems of vertebrates. ... Bile (or gall) is a bitter, yellow or green alkaline fluid secreted by hepatocytes from the liver of most vertebrates. ... The gallbladder (or cholecyst, sometimes gall bladder) is a pear-shaped organ that can accomodate up to 60 ml of bile (or gall) until the body needs it for digestion. ... Hunger is a feeling experienced when the glycogen level of the liver falls below a threshold, usually followed by a desire to eat. ...

peptide Corticotropin-releasing hormone CRH hypothalamus cAMP Release ACTH from anterior pituitary
peptide Erythropoietin EPO kidney Extraglomerular mesangial cells Stimulate erythrocyte production
peptide Follicle-stimulating hormone FSH anterior pituitary gonadotrope cAMP In female: stimulates maturation of Graafian follicles in ovary.

In male: spermatogenesis, enhances production of androgen-binding protein by the Sertoli cells of the testes Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), also called corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) or corticoliberin, is a polypeptide hormone involved in the stress response. ... The hypothalamus links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis). ... Pronunciation (IPA): /əˈdrinoʊˌkɔrtɪkoʊˈtrɒpɪk ˈhɔrmoʊn, əˈdrinoʊˌkɔrtɪkoʊˈtroʊpɪk ˈhɔrmoʊn/ Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH or corticotropin) is a polypeptide hormone produced and secreted by the pituitary gland. ... The anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis, from Greek adeno, gland; hypo, under; physis, growth; hence, glandular undergrowth) comprises the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... Erythropoietin (IPA pronunciation: , alternative pronunciations: ) or EPO is a glycoprotein hormone that is a cytokine for erythrocyte (red blood cell) precursors in the bone marrow. ... The kidneys are the organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... Extraglomerular mesangial cells (or lacis cells) are light-staining cells in the kidney found outside the glomerulus, near the vascular pole and macula densa. ... Human red blood cells Red blood cells are the most common type of blood cell and are the vertebrate bodys principal means of delivering oxygen to body tissues via the blood. ... Follicle stimulating hormone Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is a hormone synthesised and secreted by gonadotropes in the anterior pituitary gland. ... The anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis, from Greek adeno, gland; hypo, under; physis, growth; hence, glandular undergrowth) comprises the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... Gonadotropes are cells in the anterior pituitary which produce the gonadotropins luteinizing hormone or follicle-stimulating hormone. ... Ovarian follicles or Graafian follicles (after Regnier de Graaf) are the roughly spherical cell aggregations in the ovary containing an ovum and from which the egg is released during ovulation. ... // For ovary as part of plants see ovary (plants) An ovary is an egg-producing reproductive organ found in female organisms. ... Cross section of the epithelium of a seminiferous tubule showing various stages of spermatocyte development Spermatogenesis is the process by which male spermatogonia develop into mature spermatozoa. ... Androgen-binding protein (ABP) is a glycoprotein (beta-globulin) produced by the Sertoli cells in the seminiferous tubules of the testis that binds specifically to testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and 17-beta-estradiol. ... A Sertoli cell (a kind of sustentacular cell) is a nurse cell of the testes which is part of a seminiferous tubule. ... Human male anatomy The testicles, known medically as testes (singular testis), are the male generative glands in animals. ...

peptide Gastrin GRP stomach, duodenum G cell Secretion of gastric acid by parietal cells
peptide Ghrelin stomach P/D1 cell Stimulate appetite,

secretion of growth hormone from anterior pituitary gland In humans, gastrin is a hormone that stimulates secretion of gastric acid by the stomach. ... In anatomy, the stomach is a bean-shaped hollow muscular organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ... In anatomy of the digestive system, the duodenum is a hollow jointed tube about 25-30 cm long connecting the stomach to the jejunum. ... In medicine, the G cell is a type of cell in the stomach that secrets gastrin. ... Gastric acid is, together with several enzymes and the intrinsic factor, one of the main secretions of the stomach. ... Human parietal cells - stomach Parietal cells (also called oxyntic cells) are the stomach epithelium cells which secrete gastric acid and intrinsic factor. ... Ghrelin is a hormone produced by P/D1 cells lining the acer of the human stomach that stimulate appetite. ... In anatomy, the stomach is a bean-shaped hollow muscular organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ... Cells lining the fundus of the human stomach that produce ghrelin. ... The appetite is the desire to eat food, felt as hunger. ... Growth hormone (GH) or somatotropin (STH) is a protein hormone which stimulates growth and cell reproduction in humans and other animals. ... The anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis) comprises the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ...

peptide Glucagon GCG pancreas alpha cells cAMP glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in liver

increases blood glucose level Glucagon ball and stick model A microscopic image stained for glucagon. ... The pancreas is a gland organ in the digestive and endocrine systems of vertebrates. ... Alpha cells are endocrine cells in the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas. ... Glycogen Glucose Glucose-6-phosphate Glycogenolysis is the catabolism of glycogen by removal of a glucose monomer and addition of phosphate to produce glucose-1-phosphate. ... Gluconeogenesis pathway with key molecules and enzymes. ... The liver is the largest internal organ in the human body, and is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ...

peptide Gonadotropin-releasing hormone GnRH hypothalamus IP3 Release of FSH and LH from anterior pituitary.
peptide Growth hormone-releasing hormone GHRH hypothalamus IP3 Release GH from anterior pituitary
peptide Human chorionic gonadotropin hCG placenta syncytiotrophoblast cells cAMP promote maintenance of corpus luteum during beginning of pregnancy

Inhibit immune response, towards the human embryo. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GNRH1 also called LHRH) is a peptide hormone responsible for the release of FSH and LH from the anterior pituitary. ... The hypothalamus links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis). ... Follicle stimulating hormone Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is a hormone synthesised and secreted by gonadotropes in the anterior pituitary gland. ... Luteinizing hormone (LH) is a hormone synthesized and secreted by gonadotropes in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. ... The anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis, from Greek adeno, gland; hypo, under; physis, growth; hence, glandular undergrowth) comprises the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... Growth hormone-releasing hormone is a hormone released from the arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus that stimulates the release of growth hormone. ... The hypothalamus links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis). ... Growth hormone (GH) or somatotropin (STH) is a protein hormone which stimulates growth and cell reproduction in humans and other animals. ... The anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis, from Greek adeno, gland; hypo, under; physis, growth; hence, glandular undergrowth) comprises the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a peptide hormone produced in pregnancy, that is made by the embryo soon after conception and later by the syncytiotrophoblast (part of the placenta). ... The placenta (Latin for cake, referencing its appearance in humans) is an ephemeral organ present in placental vertebrates, such as eutherial mammals and sharks during gestation (pregnancy). ... Syncytiotrophoblasts are cells found in the placenta of human embryos. ... The corpus luteum (Latin for yellow body) is a small, temporary endocrine structure in animals. ... This article is about human pregnancy in biological females. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ...

peptide Human placental lactogen HPL placenta increase production of insulin and IGF-1

increase insulin resistance and carbohydrate intolerance Human placental lactogen (HPL), also called human chorionic somatomammotropin, is a polypeptide placental hormone. ... The placenta (Latin for cake, referencing its appearance in humans) is an ephemeral organ present in placental vertebrates, such as eutherial mammals and sharks during gestation (pregnancy). ... Not to be confused with inulin. ... The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are polypeptides with high sequence similarity to insulin. ... Insulin resistance is the condition in which normal amounts of insulin are inadequate to produce a normal insulin response from fat, muscle and liver cells. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ...

peptide Growth hormone GH or hGH anterior pituitary somatotropes stimulates growth and cell reproduction

Release Insulin-like growth factor 1 from liver Growth hormone (GH) or somatotropin (STH) is a protein hormone which stimulates growth and cell reproduction in humans and other animals. ... The anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis, from Greek adeno, gland; hypo, under; physis, growth; hence, glandular undergrowth) comprises the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... Somatotropes are cells in the anterior pituitary which produce growth hormone. ... This article is about biological human development. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a polypeptide protein hormone similar in molecular structure to insulin. ... The liver is the largest internal organ in the human body, and is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ...

peptide Inhibin testes, ovary, fetus Sertoli cells of testes
granulosa cells of ovary
trophoblasts in fetus
anterior pituitary Inhibit production of FSH
peptide Insulin INS pancreas beta cells tyrosine kinase Intake of glucose, glycogenesis and glycolysis in liver and muscle from blood

intake of lipids and synthesis of triglycerides in adipocytes Other anabolic effects Inhibin is a peptide that is an inhibitor of FSH synthesis and secretion and participates in the regulation of the menstrual cycle. ... Human male anatomy The testicles, known medically as testes (singular testis), are the male generative glands in animals. ... // For ovary as part of plants see ovary (plants) An ovary is an egg-producing reproductive organ found in female organisms. ... For other uses, see Fetus (disambiguation). ... The Sertoli cell is the nurse cell of the testes. ... Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the structural and functional unit of all living organisms, and are sometimes called the building blocks of life. ... The trophoblast (from Greek threphein: to feed) is considered to be the first of all embryonic annexes. ... The anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis, from Greek adeno, gland; hypo, under; physis, growth; hence, glandular undergrowth) comprises the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is a hormone produced by gonadotropes in the anterior pituitary gland. ... Not to be confused with inulin. ... The pancreas is a gland organ in the digestive and endocrine systems of vertebrates. ... Beta cells are a type of cell in the pancreas in areas called the islets of Langerhans. ... Tyrosine kinases are a subclass of protein kinase, see there for the principles of protein phosphorylation A tyrosine kinase (EC 2. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... Glycogenesis is the process of glycogen synthesis, in which glucose molecules are added to chains of glycogen. ... Glycolysis is the sequence of reactions that converts glucose into pyruvate with the concomitant production of a relatively small amount of ATP. The word is derived from Greek γλυκύς (sweet) and λύσις (letting loose). ... The liver is the largest internal organ in the human body, and is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... For other uses of Muscle, see Muscle (disambiguation). ... Some common lipids. ... {{refimprove|date=October 2007} Ausra yra maza mergaite. ... Adipose tissue is an anatomical term for loose connective tissue composed of energy in the form of fat, although it also cushions and insulates the body. ... Anabolism is the metabolic process that builds larger molecules from smaller ones. ...

peptide Insulin-like growth factor (or somatomedin) IGF liver Hepatocytes tyrosine kinase insulin-like effects

regulate cell growth and development The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are polypeptides with high sequence similarity to insulin. ... The liver is the largest internal organ in the human body, and is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... Sinusoid of a rat liver with fenestrated endothelial cells. ... Tyrosine kinases are a subclass of protein kinase, see there for the principles of protein phosphorylation A tyrosine kinase (EC 2. ... The term cell growth is used in two different ways in biology. ...

peptide Leptin LEP adipose tissue decrease of appetite and increase of metabolism.
peptide Luteinizing hormone LH anterior pituitary gonadotropes cAMP In female: ovulation

In male: stimulates Leydig cell production of testosterone RNA expression pattern Orthologs Human Mouse Entrez Ensembl Uniprot Refseq Location Pubmed search Leptin (from the Greek word leptos, meaning thin) is a 16 kDa protein hormone that plays a key role in regulating energy intake and energy expenditure, including the regulation (decrease) of appetite and (increase) of metabolism. ... Adipose tissue is one of the main types of connective tissue. ... The appetite is the desire to eat food, felt as hunger. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... Luteinizing hormone (LH) is a hormone synthesized and secreted by gonadotropes in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. ... The anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis, from Greek adeno, gland; hypo, under; physis, growth; hence, glandular undergrowth) comprises the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... Gonadotropes are cells in the anterior pituitary which produce the gonadotropins luteinizing hormone or follicle-stimulating hormone. ... Ovulation is the process in the menstrual cycle by which a mature ovarian follicle ruptures and discharges an ovum (also known as an oocyte, female gamete, or casually, an egg) that participates in reproduction. ... Leydig cells, also known as interstitial cells of Leydig, are found adjacent to the seminiferous tubules in the testes. ... Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. ...

peptide Melanocyte stimulating hormone MSH or α-MSH anterior pituitary/pars intermedia Melanotroph cAMP melanogenesis by melanocytes in skin and hair
peptide Orexin hypothalamus wakefulness and increased energy expenditure, increased appetite
peptide Oxytocin OXT posterior pituitary Magnocellular neurosecretory cells IP3 release breast milk

Contraction of cervix and vagina Involved in orgasm, trust between people.[4] and circadian homeostasis (body temperature, activity level, wakefulness) [5]. Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) is a peptide hormone produced by cells in the intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland. ... The anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis, from Greek adeno, gland; hypo, under; physis, growth; hence, glandular undergrowth) comprises the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... Pars intermedia is the boundary between the anterior and posterior lobes of the pituitary. ... A Melanotroph (or melanotrope) is a cell in the pituitary gland which generates melanocyte-stimulating hormone from its precursor Proopiomelanocortin. ... Melanogenesis is the production of the pigment melanin, responsible for skin colour. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the organ. ... This article is about the body feature. ... Orexins, also called hypocretins, are the common names given to a pair of highly excitatory neuropeptide hormones that were simultaneously discovered by two groups of reseachers in rat brains. ... The hypothalamus links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis). ... Oxytocin (Greek: quick birth) is a mammalian hormone that also acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain. ... The posterior pituitary (also called the neurohypophysis) comprises the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... Magnocellular neurosecretory cells are cells within the supraoptic nucleus and paraventricular nucleus. ... The cervix (from Latin neck) is the lower, narrow portion of the uterus where it joins with the top end of the vagina. ... The vagina, (from Latin, literally sheath or scabbard ) is the tubular tract leading from the uterus to the exterior of the body in female placental mammals and marsupials, or to the cloaca in female birds, monotremes, and some reptiles. ... An orgasm (sexual climax) is the conclusion of the plateau phase of the sexual response cycle, and may be experienced by both males and females. ... The circadian rhythm is a name given to the internal body clock that regulates the (roughly) 24 hour cycle of biological processes in animals and plants. ...

peptide Parathyroid hormone PTH parathyroid gland parathyroid chief cell cAMP increase blood Ca2+: *indirectly stimulate osteoclasts

(Slightly) decrease blood phosphate: RNA expression pattern Orthologs Human Mouse Entrez Ensembl Uniprot na Refseq Location Pubmed search Parathyroid hormone (PTH), or parathormone, is secreted by the parathyroid glands as a polypeptide containing 84 amino acids. ... The four human parathyroid glands are adjacent to the thyroid. ... Parathyroid chief cells are cells in the parathyroid glands which produce parathyroid hormone. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... An osteoclast (from the Greek words for bone and broken) is a type of bone cell that removes bone tissue by removing the bones mineralized matrix. ... The kidneys are the organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream. ... A phosphate, in inorganic chemistry, is a salt of phosphoric acid. ...

  • (decreased reuptake in kidney but increased uptake from bones
  • activate vitamin D)
peptide Prolactin PRL anterior pituitary, uterus lactotrophs of anterior pituitary
Decidual cells of uterus
milk production in mammary glands
sexual gratification after sexual acts
peptide Relaxin RLN uterus Decidual cells Unclear in humans
peptide Secretin SCT duodenum S cell Secretion of bicarbonate from liver, pancreas and duodenal Brunner's glands

Enhances effects of cholecystokinin Stops production of gastric juice The kidneys are the organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream. ... Prolactin (PRL) is a peptide hormone primarily associated with lactation. ... The anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis, from Greek adeno, gland; hypo, under; physis, growth; hence, glandular undergrowth) comprises the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... This article is about female reproductive anatomy. ... Lactotrophs (also known as lactotrope, mammatroph, mammotroph, epsilon acidophil, prolactin cell, and lactotropic cell) are cells in the anterior pituitary which produce prolactin in response to signals including dopamine and estrogen. ... Before the fertilized ovum reaches the uterus, the mucous membrane of the body of the uterus undergoes important changes and is then known as the decidua. ... Mammary glands are milk-secreting adaptations of sweat glands and are the characteristic of mammals which gave the class its name. ... An orgasm (sexual climax) is the conclusion of the plateau phase of the sexual response cycle, and may be experienced by both males and females. ... This article is about sexual practices (i. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... This article is about female reproductive anatomy. ... Before the fertilized ovum reaches the uterus, the mucous membrane of the body of the uterus undergoes important changes and is then known as the decidua. ... Secretin is a peptide hormone produced in the S cells of the duodenum. ... In anatomy of the digestive system, the duodenum is a hollow jointed tube about 25-30 cm long connecting the stomach to the jejunum. ... S cells are cells which release secretin, found in the jejunum and duodenum. ... For baking soda, see Sodium bicarbonate In inorganic chemistry, a bicarbonate (IUPAC-recommended nomenclature: hydrogencarbonate) is an intermediate form in the deprotonation of carbonic acid. ... The liver is the largest internal organ in the human body, and is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... The pancreas is a gland organ in the digestive and endocrine systems of vertebrates. ... Brunners glands are submucosal glands located throughout the duodenum. ... Cholecystokinin (from Greek chole, bile; cysto, sac; kinin, move; hence, move the bile-sac (gall bladder)) is a peptide hormone of the gastrointestinal system responsible for stimulating the digestion of fat and protein. ...

peptide Somatostatin SRIF hypothalamus, islets of Langerhans, gastrointestinal system delta cells in islets
Neuroendocrince cells of the Periventricular nucleus in hypothalamus
Inhibit release of GH and TRH from anterior pituitary
Suppress release of gastrin, cholecystokinin (CCK), secretin, motilin, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), enteroglucagon in gastrointestinal system
Lowers rate of gastric emptying

Reduces smooth muscle contractions and blood flow within the intestine [6]
Inhibit release of insulin from beta cells [7]
Inhibit release of glucagon from beta cells [7]
Suppress the exocrine secretory action of pancreas. Somatostatin is a hormone. ... The hypothalamus links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis). ... A porcine islet of Langerhans. ... For the Physics term GUT, please refer to Grand unification theory The gastrointestinal or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and... Delta cells are somatostatin producing cells. ... The Periventricular nucleus is a composite structure of the hypothalamus. ... Growth hormone (GH) or somatotropin (STH) is a protein hormone which stimulates growth and cell reproduction in humans and other animals. ... Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), also called thyrotropin-releasing factor (TRF) or protirelin, is a tripeptide hormone that stimulates the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone and prolactin by the anterior pituitary. ... The anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis, from Greek adeno, gland; hypo, under; physis, growth; hence, glandular undergrowth) comprises the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... In humans, gastrin is a hormone that stimulates secretion of gastric acid by the stomach. ... Cholecystokinin (from Greek chole, bile; cysto, sac; kinin, move; hence, move the bile-sac (gall bladder)) is a peptide hormone of the gastrointestinal system responsible for stimulating the digestion of fat and protein. ... Secretin is a peptide hormone produced in the S cells of the duodenum. ... Motilin is a polypeptide hormone secreted by the small intestine that increases gastrointestinal motility and stimulates the production of pepsin. ... VIP is a peptide hormone containing 28 amino acid residues. ... Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is a member of the secretin family of hormones. ... An editor has expressed a concern that the topic of this article may be unencyclopedic. ... For the Physics term GUT, please refer to Grand unification theory The gastrointestinal or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and... Smooth muscle Layers of Esophageal Wall: 1. ... Not to be confused with inulin. ... Beta cells are a type of cell in the pancreas in areas called the islets of Langerhans. ... Glucagon ball and stick model A microscopic image stained for glucagon. ... Beta cells are a type of cell in the pancreas in areas called the islets of Langerhans. ... The pancreas is a gland organ in the digestive and endocrine systems of vertebrates. ...

peptide Thrombopoietin TPO liver, kidney, striated muscle Myocytes megakaryocytes produce platelets[8]
peptide Thyroid-stimulating hormone (or thyrotropin) TSH anterior pituitary thyrotropes cAMP thyroid gland secrete thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3)
peptide Thyrotropin-releasing hormone TRH hypothalamus Parvocellular neurosecretory neurons IP3 anterior pituitary Release thyroid-stimulating hormone (primarily)
Stimulate prolactin release
steroid - glu. Cortisol adrenal cortex (zona fasciculata and zona reticularis cells) direct Stimulation of gluconeogenesis

Inhibition of glucose uptake in muscle and adipose tissue Mobilization of amino acids from extrahepatic tissues Stimulation of fat breakdown in adipose tissue anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive Thrombopoietin is the recently discovered (1994) glycoprotein hormone that regulates the production of platelets. ... The liver is the largest internal organ in the human body, and is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... The kidneys are the organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... Structure of a skeletal muscle Skeletal muscle is a type of striated muscle, attached to the skeleton. ... Myocyte is the technical term for a muscle cell. ... The megakaryocyte is a bone marrow cell responsible for the production of blood platelets when its cytoplasm becomes fragmented. ... A 250 ml bag of newly collected platelets. ... Thyroid-stimulating hormone (also known as TSH or thyrotropin) is a hormone synthesized and secreted by thyrotrope cells in the anterior pituitary gland which regulates the endocrine function of the thyroid gland. ... The anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis, from Greek adeno, gland; hypo, under; physis, growth; hence, glandular undergrowth) comprises the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... Thyrotropes are cells in the anterior pituitary which produce thyroid stimulating hormone. ... The thyroid gland and its relations In anatomy, the thyroid (IPA θaɪɹoɪd) is an endocrine gland. ... Thyroxine, or 3:5,3:5 tetra­iodothyronine (often abbreviated as T4) is the major hormone secreted by the follicular cells of the thyroid gland. ... The thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), are tyrosine-based hormones produced by the thyroid gland. ... Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), also called thyrotropin-releasing factor (TRF) or protirelin, is a tripeptide hormone that stimulates the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone and prolactin by the anterior pituitary. ... The hypothalamus links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis). ... The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is an aggregation of neurons in the hypothalamus which produces many hormones. ... The anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis, from Greek adeno, gland; hypo, under; physis, growth; hence, glandular undergrowth) comprises the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... Thyroid-stimulating hormone (also known as TSH or thyrotropin) is a hormone synthesized and secreted by thyrotrope cells in the anterior pituitary gland which regulates the endocrine function of the thyroid gland. ... Prolactin (PRL) is a peptide hormone primarily associated with lactation. ... Glucocorticoids are a class of steroid hormones characterised by an ability to bind with the cortisol receptor and trigger similar effects. ... Cortisol is a corticosteroid hormone produced by the Zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex (in the adrenal gland). ... Cortical part of the adrenal gland (on the pointer). ... In mammals, the adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands or colloquially as kidney hats) are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit atop the kidneys; their name indicates that position (ad, near or at + renes, kidneys). They are chiefly responsible for regulating the stress response through the synthesis of... The zona reticularis (inner region of the adrenal cortex) secretes and synthesize small amounts of weak androgens, steroids that have masculinizing effects. ... Gluconeogenesis pathway with key molecules and enzymes. ... Adipose tissue is an anatomical term for loose connective tissue composed of energy in the form of fat, although it also cushions and insulates the body. ... In chemistry, an amino acid is any molecule that contains both amino and carboxylic acid functional groups. ... Anti-inflammatory refers to the property of a substance or treatment that reduces inflammation. ... Immunosuppression is the medical suppression of the immune system. ...

steroid - min. Aldosterone adrenal cortex (zona glomerulosa) direct Increase blood volume by reabsorption of sodium in kidneys (primarily)

Potassium and H+ secretion in kidney. Mineralocorticoids is a class of steroids characterised by their similarity to aldosterone and their influence on salt and water metabolism. ... Aldosterone, is a steroid hormone (mineralocorticoid family) produced by the outer-section (zona glomerulosa) of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland, and acts on the kidney nephron to conserve sodium, secrete potassium,increase water retention, and increase blood pressure. ... Cortical part of the adrenal gland (on the pointer). ... In mammals, the adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands or colloquially as kidney hats) are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit atop the kidneys; their name indicates that position (ad, near or at + renes, kidneys). They are chiefly responsible for regulating the stress response through the synthesis of... Blood volume is a term describing the amout of blood (including both red blood cells and plasma) in a persons circulatory system. ... For sodium in the diet, see Salt. ... Kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... Hydronium is the common name for the cation H3O+. Nomenclature According to IUPAC ion nomenclature, it should be referred to as oxonium. ...

steroid - sex (and) Testosterone testes Leydig cells direct Anabolic: growth of muscle mass and strength, increased bone density, growth and strength,

Virilizing: maturation of sex organs, formation of scrotum, deepening of voice, growth of beard and axillary hair. Androgen is the generic term for any natural or synthetic compound, usually a steroid hormone, that stimulates or controls the development and maintenance of masculine characteristics in vertebrates by binding to androgen receptors. ... Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. ... Human male anatomy The testicles, known medically as testes (singular testis), are the male generative glands in animals. ... Leydig cells, also known as interstitial cells of Leydig, are found adjacent to the seminiferous tubules in the testes. ... Anabolic is an adjective referring to processes of metabolism that result in growth of cells or organisms. ... A top-down view of skeletal muscle Muscle is contractile tissue of the body and is derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells. ... Bone density is a medical term referring to the amount of matter per cubic centimeter of bones. ... In biology and medicine, virilization refers to the biological development of sex differences, changes which make a male body different from a female body. ... Maturation is the increase in the state of maturity. ... A sex organ, or primary sexual characteristic, narrowly defined, is any of those parts of the body (which are not always bodily organs according to the strict definition) which are involved in sexual reproduction and constitute the reproductive system in an complex organism; namely: Male: penis (notably the glans penis... In some male mammals the scrotum is a protuberance of skin and muscle containing the testicles. ... For other uses, see Beard (disambiguation). ... Armpit Hair Underarm hair is the composition of hair in the underarm area. ...

steroid - sex (and) Dehydroepiandrosterone DHEA testes, ovary, kidney Zona fasciculata and Zona reticularis cells of kidney
theca cells of ovary
Leydig cellss of testes
direct Virilization, anabolic
steroid - sex (and) Androstenedione adrenal glands, gonads direct Substrate for estrogen
steroid - sex (and) Dihydrotestosterone DHT multiple direct
steroid - sex (est) Estradiol E2 females: ovary, males testes females: granulosa cells, males: Sertoli cell direct Females:

Structural: Androgen is the generic term for any natural or synthetic compound, usually a steroid hormone, that stimulates or controls the development and maintenance of masculine characteristics in vertebrates by binding to androgen receptors. ... Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), is a natural steroid prohormone produced from cholesterol by the adrenal glands, the gonads, adipose tissue, brain and in the skin (by an autocrine mechanism)]. DHEA is the precursor of androstenedione, testosterone and estrogen. ... Human male anatomy The testicles, known medically as testes (singular testis), are the male generative glands in animals. ... // For ovary as part of plants see ovary (plants) An ovary is an egg-producing reproductive organ found in female organisms. ... The kidneys are the organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... In mammals, the adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands or colloquially as kidney hats) are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit atop the kidneys; their name indicates that position (ad, near or at + renes, kidneys). They are chiefly responsible for regulating the stress response through the synthesis of... The zona reticularis (inner region of the adrenal cortex) secretes and synthesize small amounts of weak androgens, steroids that have masculinizing effects. ... Leydig cells, also known as interstitial cells of Leydig, are found adjacent to the seminiferous tubules in the testes. ... In biology and medicine, virilization refers to the development of changes which make a male body different from a female body. ... Anabolic is an adjective referring to processes of metabolism that result in growth of cells or organisms. ... Androgen is the generic term for any natural or synthetic compound, usually a steroid hormone, that stimulates or controls the development and maintenance of masculine characteristics in vertebrates by binding to androgen receptors. ... Androstenedione (also known as 4-androstenedione) is a 19-carbon steroid hormone produced in the adrenal glands and the gonads as an intermediate step in the biochemical pathway that produces the androgen testosterone and the estrogens estrone and estradiol. ... In mammals, the adrenal glands are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit atop the kidneys. ... A sex organ, or primary sexual characteristic, narrowly defined, is any of those parts of the body (which are not always bodily organs according to the strict definition) which are involved in sexual reproduction and constitute the reproductive system in an complex organism; namely: Male: penis (notably the glans penis... Estriol. ... Androgen is the generic term for any natural or synthetic compound, usually a steroid hormone, that stimulates or controls the development and maintenance of masculine characteristics in vertebrates by binding to androgen receptors. ... For other uses, see DHT (disambiguation). ... Estriol. ... Estradiol (17β-estradiol) (also oestradiol) is a sex hormone. ... // For ovary as part of plants see ovary (plants) An ovary is an egg-producing reproductive organ found in female organisms. ... Human male anatomy The testicles, known medically as testes (singular testis), are the male generative glands in animals. ... Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the structural and functional unit of all living organisms, and are sometimes called the building blocks of life. ... A Sertoli cell (a kind of sustentacular cell) is a nurse cell of the testes which is part of a seminiferous tubule. ...

Protein synthesis: Secondary sex characteristics are traits that distinguish the two sexes of a species, but that are not directly part of the reproductive system. ... Height is the measurement of distance between a specified point and a corresponding plane of reference. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... For other uses of Muscle, see Muscle (disambiguation). ... The endometrium is the inner membrane of the mammalian uterus. ... This article is about female reproductive anatomy. ... f you all The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... Bone resorption is the process by which osteoclasts break down bone and release the minerals, resulting in a transfer of calcium from bone fluid to the blood. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ...

  • increase hepatic production of binding proteins

Coagulation: This article is about the clotting of blood. ...

Increase HDL, triglyceride, height growth Decrease LDL, fat deposition Fluid balance: Coagulation is the thickening or congealing of any liquid into solid clots. ... Thrombin (activated Factor II) is a coagulation protein that has many effects in the coagulation cascade. ... Factor VII (formerly known as proconvertin) is one of the central proteins in the coagulation cascade. ... Factor IX (or Christmas factor or Christmas-Eve factor) is one of the serine proteases (EC 3. ... Factor X, also known by the eponym Stuart-Prower factor or as thrombokinase, is an enzyme ( EC 3. ... Image:Antithrombin. ... Plasmin is an important degrading enzyme (EC 3. ... A 250 ml bag of newly collected platelets. ... High-density lipoproteins (HDL) form a class of lipoproteins, varying somewhat in their size (8–11 nm in diameter), that carry cholesterol from the bodys tissues to the liver. ... {{refimprove|date=October 2007} Ausra yra maza mergaite. ... Height is the measurement of distance between a specified point and a corresponding plane of reference. ... Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) belongs to the lipoprotein particle family. ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ...

Gastrointestinal tract: For sodium in the diet, see Salt. ... Growth hormone (GH) or somatotropin (STH) is a protein hormone which stimulates growth and cell reproduction in humans and other animals. ... Cortisol is a corticosteroid hormone produced by the Zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex (in the adrenal gland). ... Sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) is a glycoprotein that binds to sex hormones, specifically testosterone and estradiol. ...

  • reduce bowel motility
  • increase cholesterol in bile

Melanin: Bile (or gall) is a bitter, yellow or green alkaline fluid secreted by hepatocytes from the liver of most vertebrates. ...

Cancer: support hormone-sensitive breast cancers [9] Suppression of production in the body of estrogen is a treatment for these cancers. Melanin is a polymer of either or both of two monomer molecules: indolequinone, and dihydroxyindole carboxylic acid. ... Melanin is a polymer of either or both of two monomer molecules: indolequinone, and dihydroxyindole carboxylic acid. ... Breast cancer is cancer of breast tissue. ...


Lung function:

Males: Prevent apoptosis of germ cells[11] The alveoli (singular:alveolus), tiny hollow sacs which are continuous with the airways, are the sites of gas exchange with the blood. ... A section of mouse liver showing an apoptotic cell indicated by an arrow Apoptosis (/̩æ.pəpˈto. ...

steroid - sex (est) Estrone ovary granulosa cells, Adipocytes direct
steroid - sex (est) Estriol placenta syncytiotrophoblast direct
steroid - sex (pro) Progesterone ovary, adrenal glands, placenta (when pregnant) Granulosa cells theca cells of ovary direct Support pregnancy[12]:

Convert endometrium to secretory stage Make cervical mucus permeable to sperm. Inhibit immune response, e.g. towards the human embryo. Decrease uterine smooth muscle contractility[12] Inhibit lactation Inhibit onset of labor. Support fetal production of adrenal mineralo- and glucosteroids. Estriol. ... Estrone (also oestrone) is an estrogenic hormone secreted by the ovary. ... // For ovary as part of plants see ovary (plants) An ovary is an egg-producing reproductive organ found in female organisms. ... Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the structural and functional unit of all living organisms, and are sometimes called the building blocks of life. ... Adipocytes are the cells that primarily compose adipose tissue, specialized in storing energy as fat. ... Chemical structure of estriol Estriol (also oestriol) is one of the three main estrogens produced by the human body. ... Chemical structure of estriol Estriol (also oestriol) is one of the three main estrogens produced by the human body. ... The placenta (Latin for cake, referencing its appearance in humans) is an ephemeral organ present in placental vertebrates, such as eutherial mammals and sharks during gestation (pregnancy). ... Syncytiotrophoblasts are cells found in the placenta of human embryos. ... Progestagens (also spelled progestogens or gestagens) are hormones which produce effects similar to progesterone, the only natural progestagen. ... Progesterone is a C-21 steroid hormone involved in the female menstrual cycle, pregnancy (supports gestation) and embryogenesis of humans and other species. ... // For ovary as part of plants see ovary (plants) An ovary is an egg-producing reproductive organ found in female organisms. ... In mammals, the adrenal glands are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit atop the kidneys. ... The placenta (Latin for cake, referencing its appearance in humans) is an ephemeral organ present in placental vertebrates, such as eutherial mammals and sharks during gestation (pregnancy). ... Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the structural and functional unit of all living organisms, and are sometimes called the building blocks of life. ... In biology, folliculogenesis refers to the maturation of the ovarian follicle, a densely-packed shell of somatic cells that contains an immature oocyte. ... This article is about human pregnancy in biological females. ... The endometrium is the uterine membrane in mammals which is thickened in preparation for fertilization, and into which a fertilized egg is implanted upon its arrival into the uterus. ... The cervix (from Latin neck) is the lower, narrow portion of the uterus where it joins with the top end of the vagina. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... Smooth muscle Layers of Esophageal Wall: 1. ... Kittens nursing Lactation describes the secretion of milk from the mammary glands, the process of providing that milk to the young, and the period of time that a mother lactates to feed her young. ... Childbirth in a hospital. ... Fetus at eight weeks A fetus (alternatively foetus or fœtus) is an embryo in later stages of development, from the third month of pregnancy until birth in humans. ... In mammals, the adrenal gland (also known as suprarenal glands) are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit on top of the kidneys; their name indicates that position (ad, near or at + renes, kidneys). They are chiefly responsible for regulating the stress response through the synthesis of corticosteroids and catecholamines...


Other: Raise epidermal growth factor-1 levels Increase core temperature during ovulation[13] Reduce spasm and relax smooth muscle (widen bronchi and regulate mucus) Antiinflammatory Reduce gall-bladder activity[14] Normalize blood clotting and vascular tone, zinc and copper levels, cell oxygen levels, and use of fat stores for energy. Assist in thyroid function and bone growth by osteoblasts Relsilience in bone, teeth, gums, joint, tendon, ligament and skin Healing by regulating collagen Nerve function and healing by regulating myelin Prevent endometrial cancer by regulating effects of estrogen. Epidermal growth factor or EGF is a growth factor that plays an important role in the regulation of cell growth, proliferation and differentiation. ... A spasm is a sudden, involuntary contraction of a muscle, a group of muscles, or a hollow organ, or a similarly sudden contraction of an orifice. ... Smooth muscle Layers of Esophageal Wall: 1. ... A bronchus (plural bronchi, adjective bronchial) is a caliber of airways in the the respiratory tract that conducts air into the lungs. ... Mucus cells. ... An abscess on the skin, showing the redness and swelling characteristic of inflammation. ... The gallbladder (or cholecyst) is a pear-shaped organ that stores bile (or gall) until the body needs it for digestion. ... For other uses, see Blood (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... This article is about the skeletal organs. ... An osteoblast (from the Greek words for bone and germ or embryonic) is a mononucleate cell that is responsible for bone formation. ... This article is about the skeletal organs. ... Types of teeth Molars are used for grinding up foods Carnassials are used for slicing food. ... The gingiva (sing. ... For other uses, see Joint (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tendon (disambiguation). ... In anatomy, the term ligament is used to denote three different types of structures:[1] Fibrous tissue that connects bones to other bones. ... This article is about the organ. ... Tropocollagen triple helix. ... Myelin is an electrically insulating phospholipid layer that surrounds the axons of many neurons. ... Endometrial cancer involves cancerous growth of the endometrium (lining of the uterus). ...

sterol Calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) skin/proximal tubule of kidneys direct Active form of vitamin D3

Increase absorption of calcium and phosphate from gastrointestinal tract and kidneys inhibit release of PTH Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream. ... This article is about the organ. ... In the biology of the kidney, the proximal convoluted tubule is the segment of the renal tubule that drains Bowmans capsule. ... Kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ... Chemical structure of cholecalciferol Cholecalciferol is a form of Vitamin D. Vitamin D3 is also a steroid much like testosterone, cholesterol and cortisol. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... A phosphate, in inorganic chemistry, is a salt of phosphoric acid. ... Gut redirects here. ... Kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ... RNA expression pattern Orthologs Human Mouse Entrez Ensembl Uniprot na Refseq Location Pubmed search Parathyroid hormone (PTH), or parathormone, is secreted by the parathyroid glands as a polypeptide containing 84 amino acids. ...

sterol Calcidiol (25-hydroxyvitamin D3) skin/proximal tubule of kidneys direct Inactive form of Vitamin D3
eicosanoid Prostaglandins PG seminal vesicle
eicosanoid Leukotrienes LT white blood cells
eicosanoid Prostacyclin PGI2 endothelium
eicosanoid Thromboxane TXA2 platelets
Prolactin releasing hormone PRH hypothalamus Release prolactin from anterior pituitary
Lipotropin PRH anterior pituitary Corticotropes lipolysis and steroidogenesis,
stimulates melanocytes to produce melanin
Brain natriuretic peptide BNP heart Cardiac myocytes (To a minor degree than ANP) reduce blood pressure by:

reducing systemic vascular resistance, reducing blood water, sodium and fats Calcidiol, calcifediol, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol, or 25–hydroxy–vitamin D, is a prehormone which is produced by the metabolism of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) and which is converted by the kidneys into calcitriol (1,25-vitamin D), a steroid hormone. ... This article is about the organ. ... In the biology of the kidney, the proximal convoluted tubule is the segment of the renal tubule that drains Bowmans capsule. ... Kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ... Chemical structure of cholecalciferol Cholecalciferol is a form of Vitamin D. Vitamin D3 is also a steroid much like testosterone, cholesterol and cortisol. ... E1 - Alprostadil I2 - Prostacyclin A prostaglandin is any member of a group of lipid compounds that are derived enzymatically from fatty acids and have important functions in the animal body. ... The seminal vesicles are a pair of simple tubular glands posterinferior to the urinary bladder of males. ... Leukotrienes are autocrine and paracrine eicosanoid lipid mediators derived from arachidonic acid by 5-lipoxygenase. ... White Blood Cells is also the name of a White Stripes album. ... Prostacyclin is a member of the family of lipid molecules known as eicosanoids. ... The endothelium is the layer of thin, flat cells that lines the interior surface of blood vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall. ... Thromboxane A2 Thromboxane B2 Thromboxane is a member of the family of lipids known as eicosanoids. ... A 250 ml bag of newly collected platelets. ... The hypothalamus links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis). ... Prolactin (PRL) is a peptide hormone primarily associated with lactation. ... The anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis, from Greek adeno, gland; hypo, under; physis, growth; hence, glandular undergrowth) comprises the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... Lipotropin is a pituitary hormone It comes in two forms: gamma lipotropin (γ-LPH) beta lipotropin (β-LPH) It is derived from proopiomelanocortin. ... The anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis, from Greek adeno, gland; hypo, under; physis, growth; hence, glandular undergrowth) comprises the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... Corticotropes are cells in the anterior pituitary which produce adrenocorticotrophic hormone. ... Lipolysis is the breakdown of fat stored in fat cells. ... Steroidogenesis is the process of steroid production in living organism. ... Melanocytes are cells located in the bottom layer of the skins epidermis. ... Broadly, melanin is any of the polyacetylene, polyaniline, and polypyrrole blacks and browns or their mixed copolymers. ... Brain natriuretic peptide (also known as B-type natriuretic peptide or GC-B) is a 32-amino-acid polypeptide secreted by the ventricles of the heart in response to excessive stretching of myocytes (heart muscles cells) in the ventricles. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... Cardiac muscle is a type of involuntary striated muscle found within the heart. ... A sphygmomanometer, a device used for measuring arterial pressure. ... Systemic circulation is the portion of the cardiovascular system which carries oxygenated blood away from the heart, to the body, and returns deoxygenated blood back to the heart. ... Vascular resistance is a term used to define the resistance to flow that must be overcome to push blood through the circulatory system. ...

Neuropeptide Y NPY Stomach increased food intake and decreased physical activity
Histamine Stomach ECL cells stimulate gastric acid secretion
Endothelin Stomach X cells Smooth muscle contraction of stomach [15]
Pancreatic polypeptide Pancreas PP cells Unknown
Renin Kidney Juxtaglomerular cells Activates the renin-angiotensin system by producing angiotensin I of angiotensinogen
Enkephalin Kidney Chromaffin cells Regulate pain

Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a 36 amino acid peptide neurotransmitter found in the brain and autonomic nervous system. ... In anatomy, the stomach is a bean-shaped hollow muscular organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... In anatomy, the stomach is a bean-shaped hollow muscular organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ... Enterochromaffin-Like (ECL) Cells Enterochromaffin-like or ECL cells are a distinctive type of neuroendocrine cell in the gastric mucosa underlying the epithelium. ... Gastric acid is, together with several enzymes and the intrinsic factor, one of the main secretions of the stomach. ... Endothelin is a 21-amino acid vasoconstricting peptide that plays a key part in vascular homeostasis. ... In anatomy, the stomach is a bean-shaped hollow muscular organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ... Smooth muscle Layers of Esophageal Wall: 1. ... Pancreatic polypeptide is an enzyme secreted by PP cells in the tail of pancreas. ... The pancreas is a gland organ in the digestive and endocrine systems of vertebrates. ... PP cells are pancreatic polypeptide producing cells in the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. ... Not to be confused with rennin, the active enzyme in rennet. ... The kidneys are the organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... The juxtaglomerular cells are specialized cells that stimulate the secretion of the adrenal hormone aldosterone and play a major role in renal autoregulation, the kidneys self-governance. ... Schematic depicting how the RAAS works. ... Angiotensinogen, angiotensin I and angiotensin II are peptides involved in maintenance of blood volume and pressure. ... Angiotensinogen, angiotensin I and angiotensin II are peptides involved in maintenance of blood volume and pressure. ... Endorphins are endogenous opioid biochemical compounds. ... The kidneys are the organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Chromophil. ...

References

  1. ^ Mathews, CK and van Holde, K. E. (1990). "Integration and control of metabolic processes", in Bowen, D.: Biochemistry. The Benjamin/Cummings publishing group, 790-792. ISBN 0-8053-5015-2. 
  2. ^ Beato M, Chavez S and Truss M (1996). "Transcriptional regulation by steroid hormones". Steroids 61 (4): 240-251. doi:10.1016/0039-128X(96)00030-X. PMID 8733009. 
  3. ^ Hammes SR (2003). "The further redefining of steroid-mediated signaling". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100 (5): 21680-2170. doi:10.1073/pnas.0530224100. PMID 12606724. 
  4. ^ Kosfeld M et al. (2005) Oxytocin increases trust in humans. Nature 435:673-676. PDF PMID 15931222
  5. ^ Scientific American Mind, "Rhythm and Blues"; June/July 2007; Scientific American Mind; by Ulrich Kraft
  6. ^ http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/endocrine/otherendo/somatostatin.html Colorado State University - Biomedical Hypertextbooks - Somatostatin
  7. ^ a b Physiology at MCG 5/5ch4/s5ch4_17
  8. ^ Kaushansky K. Lineage-specific hematopoietic growth factors. N Engl J Med 2006;354:2034-45. PMID 16687716.
  9. ^ Hormonal Therapy
  10. ^ Massaro D, Massaro GD (2004). "Estrogen regulates pulmonary alveolar formation, loss, and regeneration in mice". American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology 287 (6): L1154-9. PMID 15298854 url=http://ajplung.physiology.org/cgi/content/full/287/6/L1154. 
  11. ^ Pentikäinen V, Erkkilä K, Suomalainen L, Parvinen M, Dunkel L. Estradiol Acts as a Germ Cell Survival Factor in the Human Testis in vitro. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2006;85:2057-67 PMID 10843196
  12. ^ a b Placental Hormones
  13. ^ Physiology at MCG 5/5ch9/s5ch9_13
  14. ^ Hould F, Fried G, Fazekas A, Tremblay S, Mersereau W (1988). "Progesterone receptors regulate gallbladder motility". J Surg Res 45 (6): 505-12. doi:10.1016/0022-4804(88)90137-0. PMID 3184927. 
  15. ^ Diabetes-related changes in contractile responses of stomach fundus to endothelin-1 in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats Journal of Smooth Muscle Research Vol. 41 (2005) , No. 1 35-47. Kazuki Endo1), Takayuki Matsumoto1), Tsuneo Kobayashi1), Yutaka Kasuya1) and Katsuo Kamata1)

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Nature is a prominent scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869. ... In 1828 the Medical Academy of Georgia was chartered by the state of Georgia with plans to offer a single course of lectures leading to a bachelors degree. ... The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by the Massachusetts Medical Society. ... In 1828 the Medical Academy of Georgia was chartered by the state of Georgia with plans to offer a single course of lectures leading to a bachelors degree. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

See also

Endocrinology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the endocrine system and its specific secretions called hormones. ... The endocrine system is an integrated system of small organs that involve the release of extracellular signaling molecules known as hormones. ... Neuroendocrinology is the study of the interactions between the nervous system and the endocrine system. ... Plant hormones (or plant growth regulators, or PGRs) are internally secreted chemicals in plants that are used for regulating their growth. ... Plant hormones (or plant growth regulators, or PGRs) are internally-secreted chemicals in plants that are used for regulating the plants growth. ... Autocrine signalling is a form of signalling in which the target cell is the secretory cell itself. ... Paracrine signaling is a form of cell signaling in which the target cell is close to (para = alongside of or next to, but this strict prefix definition is not meticulously followed here) the signal releasing cell. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Cytokines are a category of less-widely-known signalling proteins and glycoproteins that, like hormones and neurotransmitters, are used extensively in cellular communication. ... Growth factor is a protein that acts as a signaling molecule between cells (like cytokines and hormones) that attaches to specific receptors on the surface of a target cell and promotes differentiation and maturation of these cells. ... Endocrine disruptors are exogenous substances that cause adverse biological effects by interfering with the endocrine system and disrupting the function of hormones. ...

External links

Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... The endocrine system is an integrated system of small organs that involve the release of extracellular signaling molecules known as hormones. ... An endocrine gland is one of a set of internal organs involved in the secretion of hormones into the blood. ... Peptide hormones are a class of peptides that are secreted into the blood stream and have endocrine functions in living animals. ... Steroid hormones are steroids which act as hormones. ... The hypothalamus links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis). ... Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), also called thyrotropin-releasing factor (TRF) or protirelin, is a tripeptide hormone that stimulates the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone and prolactin by the anterior pituitary. ... Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), also called corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) or corticoliberin, is a polypeptide hormone involved in the stress response. ... Gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GNRH1 also called LHRH) is a peptide hormone responsible for the release of FSH and LH from the anterior pituitary. ... Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), also known as growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF or GHRF), is a 44-amino acid peptide hormone produced in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. ... Somatostatin is a hormone. ... For other uses, see Dopamine (disambiguation). ... The posterior pituitary (also called the neurohypophysis) comprises the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... RNA expression pattern Orthologs Human Mouse Entrez Ensembl Uniprot Refseq Location Pubmed search Arginine vasopressin (AVP), also known as vasopressin, argipressin or antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is a hormone found in most mammals, including humans. ... Oxytocin (Greek: quick birth) is a mammalian hormone that also acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain. ... The anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis, from Greek adeno, gland; hypo, under; physis, growth; hence, glandular undergrowth) comprises the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... The Alpha subunit of glycoprotein hormones is a peptide formed by gene found on chromosome 6. ... Follicle stimulating hormone Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is a hormone synthesised and secreted by gonadotropes in the anterior pituitary gland. ... Luteinizing hormone (LH) is a hormone synthesized and secreted by gonadotropes in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. ... Thyroid-stimulating hormone (also known as TSH or thyrotropin) is a hormone synthesized and secreted by thyrotrope cells in the anterior pituitary gland which regulates the endocrine function of the thyroid gland. ... Growth hormone (GH) or somatotropin (STH) is a protein hormone which stimulates growth and cell reproduction in humans and other animals. ... Prolactin (PRL) is a peptide hormone primarily associated with lactation. ... Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) is a precursor polypeptide with 241 amino acid residues. ... Pronunciation (IPA): /əˈdrinoʊˌkɔrtɪkoʊˈtrɒpɪk ˈhɔrmoʊn, əˈdrinoʊˌkɔrtɪkoʊˈtroʊpɪk ˈhɔrmoʊn/ Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH or corticotropin) is a polypeptide hormone produced and secreted by the pituitary gland. ... Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) is a peptide hormone produced by cells in the intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland. ... For other uses, see Endorphin (disambiguation). ... Lipotropin is a pituitary hormone It comes in two forms: gamma lipotropin (γ-LPH) beta lipotropin (β-LPH) It is derived from proopiomelanocortin. ... It has been suggested that HTPA be merged into this article or section. ... In mammals, the adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit on top of the kidneys; their name indicates that position (ad-, near or at + -renes, kidneys). They are chiefly responsible for regulating the stress response through the synthesis of corticosteroids and catecholamines... Adrenaline redirects here. ... Norepinephrine (INN)(abbr. ... In mammals, the adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit on top of the kidneys; their name indicates that position (ad-, near or at + -renes, kidneys). They are chiefly responsible for regulating the stress response through the synthesis of corticosteroids and catecholamines... Aldosterone, is a steroid hormone (mineralocorticoid family) produced by the outer-section (zona glomerulosa) of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland, and acts on the kidney nephron to conserve sodium, secrete potassium,increase water retention, and increase blood pressure. ... Cortisol is a corticosteroid hormone produced by the Zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex (in the adrenal gland). ... Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), is a natural steroid prohormone produced from cholesterol by the adrenal glands, the gonads, adipose tissue, brain and in the skin (by an autocrine mechanism)]. DHEA is the precursor of androstenedione, testosterone and estrogen. ... The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis (HPT axis for short) is part of the endocrine system responsible in part for the regulation of metabolism. ... thyroxine (T4) triiodothyronine (T3) Thyroxine, T4 Triiodothyronine, T3 The thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), are tyrosine-based hormones produced by the thyroid gland. ... The thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), are tyrosine-based hormones produced by the thyroid gland. ... Thyroxine, or 3:5,3:5 tetra­iodothyronine (often abbreviated as T4) is the major hormone secreted by the follicular cells of the thyroid gland. ... Calcitonin is a 32 amino acid polypeptide hormone that is produced in humans primarily by the parafollicular (also known as C) cells of the thyroid, and in many other animals in the ultimobranchial body. ... Categories: Anatomy stubs | Endocrine system ... RNA expression pattern Orthologs Human Mouse Entrez Ensembl Uniprot na Refseq Location Pubmed search Parathyroid hormone (PTH), or parathormone, is secreted by the parathyroid glands as a polypeptide containing 84 amino acids. ... The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (also HPTA) is a way of referring to the combined effects of the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and gonads as if these individual endocrine glands were a single entity. ... Human male anatomy The testicles, known medically as testes (singular testis), are the male generative glands in animals. ... Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. ... Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is a dimeric glycoprotein that inhibits the development of the Müllerian ducts in a male embryo. ... Inhibin is a peptide that is an inhibitor of FSH synthesis and secretion and participates in the regulation of the menstrual cycle. ... // For ovary as part of plants see ovary (plants) An ovary is an egg-producing reproductive organ found in female organisms. ... Estradiol (17β-estradiol) (also oestradiol) is a sex hormone. ... Progesterone is a C-21 steroid hormone involved in the female menstrual cycle, pregnancy (supports gestation) and embryogenesis of humans and other species. ... Inhibin is a peptide that is an inhibitor of FSH synthesis and secretion and participates in the regulation of the menstrual cycle. ... Activin is a peptide that enhances FSH synthesis and secretion and participates in the regulation of the menstrual cycle. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... The pancreas is a gland organ in the digestive and endocrine systems of vertebrates. ... Glucagon ball and stick model A microscopic image stained for glucagon. ... Not to be confused with inulin. ... Somatostatin is a hormone. ... The pineal gland (also called the pineal body or epiphysis) is a small endocrine gland in the brain. ... Melatonin, 5-methoxy-N-acetyltryptamine, is a hormone found in all living creatures from algae[1] to humans, at levels that vary in a diurnal cycle. ... The placenta (Latin for cake, referencing its appearance in humans) is an ephemeral organ present in placental vertebrates, such as eutherial mammals and sharks during gestation (pregnancy). ... Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a peptide hormone produced in pregnancy, that is made by the embryo soon after conception and later by the syncytiotrophoblast (part of the placenta). ... Human placental lactogen (HPL), also called human chorionic somatomammotropin, is a polypeptide placental hormone. ... Estriol. ... Progesterone is a C-21 steroid hormone involved in the female menstrual cycle, pregnancy (supports gestation) and embryogenesis of humans and other species. ... The kidneys are the organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... Not to be confused with rennin, the active enzyme in rennet. ... Erythropoietin (IPA pronunciation: , alternative pronunciations: ) or EPO is a glycoprotein hormone that is a cytokine for erythrocyte (red blood cell) precursors in the bone marrow. ... Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream. ... E1 - Alprostadil I2 - Prostacyclin A prostaglandin is any member of a group of lipid compounds that are derived enzymatically from fatty acids and have important functions in the animal body. ... In anatomy, the atrium (plural: atria) is the blood collection chamber of a heart. ... Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) or atriopeptin, is a polypeptide hormone involved in the homeostatic control of body water and sodium. ... In anatomy, the stomach is a bean-shaped hollow muscular organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ... In humans, gastrin is a hormone that stimulates secretion of gastric acid by the stomach. ... Ghrelin is a hormone produced by P/D1 cells lining the acer of the human stomach that stimulate appetite. ... In anatomy of the digestive system, the duodenum is a hollow jointed tube about 25-30 cm long connecting the stomach to the jejunum. ... Cholecystokinin (from Greek chole, bile; cysto, sac; kinin, move; hence, move the bile-sac (gall bladder)) is a peptide hormone of the gastrointestinal system responsible for stimulating the digestion of fat and protein. ... Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is a member of the secretin family of hormones. ... Secretin is a peptide hormone produced in the S cells of the duodenum. ... Motilin is a polypeptide hormone secreted by the small intestine that increases gastrointestinal motility and stimulates the production of pepsin. ... VIP is a peptide hormone containing 28 amino acid residues. ... Not to be confused with ilium (bone). ... An editor has expressed a concern that the topic of this article may be unencyclopedic. ... Adipose tissue is one of the main types of connective tissue. ... RNA expression pattern Orthologs Human Mouse Entrez Ensembl Uniprot Refseq Location Pubmed search Leptin (from the Greek word leptos, meaning thin) is a 16 kDa protein hormone that plays a key role in regulating energy intake and energy expenditure, including the regulation (decrease) of appetite and (increase) of metabolism. ... RNA expression pattern Orthologs Human Mouse Entrez Ensembl Uniprot Refseq Location Pubmed search Adiponectin (also referred to as Acrp30, apM1) is a protein hormone that modulates a number of metabolic processes, including glucose regulation and fatty acid catabolism. ... Resistin is a hormone secreted by adipose tissue. ... Thymus, see Thyme. ... Thymosin is a hormone secreted from the thymus. ... Thymopoietin is a protein involved in the induction of CD90 in the thymus. ... Front view of a skeleton of an adult human Back view of a skeleton of an adult human The human skeleton consists of both fused and individual bones supported and supplemented by ligaments, tendons, muscles and cartilage. ... Osteocalcin is a protein found in bone and dentin; that plays a role in mineralization and calcium ion homeostasis ... The liver is the largest internal organ in the human body, and is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are polypeptides with high sequence similarity to insulin. ... Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a polypeptide protein hormone similar in molecular structure to insulin. ... Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2) is a protein hormone similar in molecular structure to insulin. ... Nerve growth factor (NGF), is a small secreted protein which induces the differentiation and survival of particular target neurons (nerve cells). ... Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is exactly as it states; a neurotrophic factor usually derived in the brain. ... Neurotrophin-3, or NT-3 is a neurotrophic factor, in the NGF (Nerve Growth Factor)-family of neurotrophins. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
ACS :: Hormone Therapy (650 words)
Hormone therapy will only be effective if the cancer is making either estrogen and/or progesterone receptors.
While estrogen is usually thought of as a "female" hormone, men have it in their bodies as well, although at lower levels.
Hormonal treatments are often used in a sequence in the metastatic setting.
Hormone - MSN Encarta (1036 words)
The majority of hormones are peptides, or amino acid derivatives that include the hormones produced by the anterior pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, placenta, and pancreas.
Steroid hormones are synthesized from cholesterol (a fatty substance produced by the body) and modified by a series of chemical reactions to form a hormone ready for immediate action.
For example, hormones from the hypothalamus, a portion of the brain that controls the endocrine system, are delivered directly to the adjacent pituitary gland, where their concentrations are several hundred times higher than in the circulatory system.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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