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Encyclopedia > Horemheb
Horemheb
Horemhab or Haremhab
Preceded by:
Ay
Pharaoh of Egypt
18th Dynasty
Succeeded by:
Ramesses I
Statue of Horemheb giving offerings to Atum, located within the Luxor Museum, Egypt
Statue of Horemheb giving offerings to Atum, located within the Luxor Museum, Egypt
Reign 1320 BC to 1292 BC
Praenomen





Djeserkheperure Setepenre
Holy are the Manifestations of Re, Chosen of Re[1]
Nomen




Horemheb Meryamun
Horus is in Jubilation, Beloved of Amun
Consort(s) Mutnedjmet, Amenia
Died 1292 BC
Burial KV57

Djeserkheperure Horemheb was the last Pharaoh of Ancient Egypt's 18th Dynasty from c.1320 BC to late 1292 BC. Horemheb's birth name and epithet was Horemheb Meryamun, meaning Horus is in Jubilation, Beloved of Amun. His name is sometimes spelled Horemhab or Haremhab. Technically, this name is transliterated as ḥr-m-ḥb mry-ỉmn, which is written in Egyptian hieroglyphs to the right. Horemheb is believed to have originated from Herakleopolis Magna or ancient Hnes (modern Ihnasya el-Medina) on the west bank of the Nile near the entrance to the Fayum since his coronation text formally credits the God Horus of Hnes for establishing him on the throne.[2] His parentage is unknown but he is universally believed to be a commoner. Kheperkheperure–Irimaat Everlasting are the Manifestations of Re, who does what is right Nomen Itinetjer Ay Gods father, Ay Horus name Kanakht Tekhenkhau The strong bull, the one of glittering crowns Nebty name Sekhempehti dersetet Who is mighty of strength, who subdues the Asiatics Golden Horus Heqamaat sekhepertawy The... Pharaoh was the ancient Egyptian name for the office of kingship. ... The Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title, New Kingdom. ... Menpehtyre Eternal is the Strength of Re[2] Nomen Ra-messes Re has fashioned him[1] Consort(s) Queen Sitre Issue Seti I Died 1290 BC Burial KV16 Menpehtyre Ramesses I (traditional English: Ramesses or Rameses ) was the founding Pharaoh of Ancient Egypts 19th dynasty. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 447 KB) fr: Antiquité égyptienne, Horemheb devant le dieu Atoum, fr:Musée de Louxor, Louxor, Égypte. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 447 KB) fr: Antiquité égyptienne, Horemheb devant le dieu Atoum, fr:Musée de Louxor, Louxor, Égypte. ... History Atum (alternatively spelt Tem, Temu, Tum, and Atem) is an early deity in Egyptian mythology, whose cult centred on the Ennead of Heliopolis. ... Luxor Museum Luxor Museum is located in the Egyptian city of Luxor (ancient Thebes). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... (Redirected from 1320 BC) Centuries: 15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC Decades: 1370s BC 1360s BC 1350s BC 1340s BC 1330s BC - 1320s BC - 1310s BC 1300s BC 1290s BC 1280s BC 1270s BC Events and Trends Egypt: End of Eighteenth Dynasty, start of Nineteenth Dynasty (1320... Centuries: 14th century BC - 13th century BC - 12th century BC Decades: 1340s BC 1330s BC 1320s BC 1310s BC 1300s BC - 1290s BC - 1280s BC 1270s BC 1260s BC 1250s BC 1240s BC Events and trends December 15 1290 BC - Seti I, Pharaoh of Egypt dies. ... The royal titulary or royal protocol of an Egyptian Pharaoh is the standard naming convention taken by the kings of Ancient Egypt. ... For other uses, see Ra (disambiguation). ... The royal titulary or royal protocol of an Egyptian Pharaoh is the standard naming convention taken by the kings of Ancient Egypt. ... For other uses, see Horus (disambiguation). ... Amun (also spelled Amon, Amoun, Amen, and rarely Imen, Greek Ἄμμων Ammon, and Ἅμμων Hammon, Egyptian Yamanu) was the name of a deity, in Egyptian mythology, who gradually rose to become one of the most important deities in Ancient Egypt, before fading into obscurity. ... The Egyptian noblewoman Mutnedjmet (or Mutnodjmet) was the second wife of Horemheb, the last ruler of the Eighteenth Dynasty. ... Amenia was an Egyptian noble woman and the first wife of Horemheb, the last ruler of the Eighteenth Dynasty. ... Centuries: 14th century BC - 13th century BC - 12th century BC Decades: 1340s BC 1330s BC 1320s BC 1310s BC 1300s BC - 1290s BC - 1280s BC 1270s BC 1260s BC 1250s BC 1240s BC Events and Trends December 15 1290 BC - Seti I, Pharaoh of Egypt dies. ... Tomb KV57, located in the Valley of the Kings, in Egypt was used for the burial of Horemheb of the Eighteenth dynasty. ... Pharaoh was the ancient Egyptian name for the office of kingship. ... Khafres Pyramid (4th dynasty) and Great Sphinx of Giza (c. ... The Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title, New Kingdom. ... (Redirected from 1320 BC) Centuries: 15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC Decades: 1370s BC 1360s BC 1350s BC 1340s BC 1330s BC - 1320s BC - 1310s BC 1300s BC 1290s BC 1280s BC 1270s BC Events and Trends Egypt: End of Eighteenth Dynasty, start of Nineteenth Dynasty (1320... Centuries: 14th century BC - 13th century BC - 12th century BC Decades: 1340s BC 1330s BC 1320s BC 1310s BC 1300s BC - 1290s BC - 1280s BC 1270s BC 1260s BC 1250s BC 1240s BC Events and trends December 15 1290 BC - Seti I, Pharaoh of Egypt dies. ... For other uses, see Horus (disambiguation). ... Amun (also spelled Amon, Amoun, Amen, and rarely Imen, Greek Ἄμμων Ammon, and Ἅμμων Hammon, Egyptian Yamanu) was the name of a deity, in Egyptian mythology, who gradually rose to become one of the most important deities in Ancient Egypt, before fading into obscurity. ... It has been suggested that Hieroglyph (French Wiki article) be merged into this article or section. ... Herakleopolis Magna is the Greek name of the capital of the Twentieth nome of ancient Egypt. ... Al Fayyum or El Faiyûm (Arabic: الفيوم ) is the capital of Al Fayyum Governorate, Egypt. ...


Horemheb's throne name, Djeserkheperure Setepenre, means "Holy are the Manifestations of Re, Chosen of Re". This name is transliterated as dsr-ḫprw-r‘ stp-n-r‘, which is also written in hieroglyphs to the right. For other uses, see Ra (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Early career

According to the French (Sorbonne) Egyptologist Nicolas Grimal, Horemheb does not appear to be the same person as Paatenemheb (Aten Is Present In Jubilation) who was the Commander-in-chief of Akhenaten's army.[3] Grimal notes that Horemheb's political career first began under Tutankhamun where he "is depicted at this king's side in his own tomb chapel at Memphis."[4]. In the earliest known stage of his life, Horemheb served as "the royal spokesman for [Egypt's] foreign affairs" and personally led a diplomatic mission to visit the Nubian governors.[5] This resulted in a reciprocal visit by "the Prince of Miam (Aniba)" to Tutankhamun's court--"an event [that is] depicted in the tomb of the Viceroy Huy."[6] Horemheb quickly rose to prominence under Tutankhamun, becoming Commander-in-Chief of the Army, and advisor to the Pharaoh. [1] Aten (or Aton) was the disk of the sun in ancient Egyptian mythology, and originally an aspect of Ra. ... Nebkheperure Lord of the forms of Re Nomen Tutankhaten Living Image of the Aten Tutankhamun Hekaiunushema Living Image of Amun, ruler of Upper Heliopolis Horus name Kanakht Tutmesut The strong bull, pleasing of birth Nebty name Neferhepusegerehtawy One of perfect laws, who pacifies the two lands[1] Wer-Ah-Amun...


When Tutankhamun died while still a teenager, Horemheb had actually been designated as rpat ("Crown Prince") and idnw (King's "Deputy") which meant that Horemheb was the officially recognised heir to Tutankhamun's throne. However, the aged Vizier Ay managed to sideline Horemheb's claim to the throne and instead succeed Tutankhamun. Having pushed Horemheb aside, Ay proceeded to nominate a military officer named Nakhtmin who was possibly Ay's son or adopted son, to succeed him rather than Horemheb.[7] After Ay's brief reign of four years and one month, however, Horemheb managed to seize power presumably from his position as Commander of the Army to assume what he must have perceived to be his just reward for having ably served Egypt under Tutankhamun and Ay. Horemheb quickly removed Naktmin's rival claim to the throne and arranged to have Ay's WV23 tomb desecrated by smashing the latter's sarcophagus into several pieces, systematically chiselling out Ay's name and figure out of the tomb walls and probably destroying Ay's mummy.[8]. However, he spared Tutankhamun's tomb from vandalism presumably because it was the Boy King who had promoted his sudden rise to power and chosen him to be this king's successor. Horemheb also usurped and enlarged Ay's mortuary temple at Medinet Habu for his own use and erased Ay's titulary on the back of a 17 foot colossal statue by carving his own titulary in its place. This statue is now located in the Oriental Institute of Chicago. Kheperkheperure–Irimaat Everlasting are the Manifestations of Re, who does what is right Nomen Itinetjer Ay Gods father, Ay Horus name Kanakht Tekhenkhau The strong bull, the one of glittering crowns Nebty name Sekhempehti dersetet Who is mighty of strength, who subdues the Asiatics Golden Horus Heqamaat sekhepertawy The... .. contains a broken sarcophagus and some bad fresco painting of peculiarly short and graceless proportions. ... Mortuary Temple of Ramesses III, from the air. ... The Oriental Institute (OI) is the University of Chicagos archeology museum and research center for ancient Near Eastern studies. ...


Internal Reform

Upon his accession, Horemheb initiated a comprehensive series of internal reforms meant to curb the gross abuses of power and privileges that had begun under Akhenaten's reign, due to the overcentralization of state power and privileges in the hands of a few officials. He "appointed judges and regional tribunes...reintroduced local religious authorities" and divided legal power "between Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt" between "the Viziers of Thebes and Memphis respectively." [9] For other uses, see Akhenaten (disambiguation). ... Map of Lower and Upper Egypt Ancient Egypt was divided into two kingdoms, known as Upper and Lower Egypt. ... Map of Lower and Upper Egypt Ancient Egypt was divided into two kingdoms, known as Upper and Lower Egypt. ... The Ancient Egyptian adminstrator (tjaty) is often translated as Vizier. ... Thebes Thebes (, Thēbai) is the Greek designation of the ancient Egyptian niwt (The) City and niwt-rst (The) Southern City. It is located about 800 km south of the Mediterranean, on the east bank of the river Nile (). Thebes was the capital of Waset, the fourth Upper Egyptian nome... For other uses, see Memphis. ...


These deeds are recorded in a stela which the king erected at the foot of his Tenth Pylon at Karnak. Sometimes called The Great Edict of Horemheb[10], it is a copy of the actual text of the king's decree to re-establish order to the Two Lands and curb abuses of state authority. The stela's creation and prominent location emphasizes the great importance which Horemheb placed upon domestic reform. Horemheb also reformed the Army and reorganized the Deir el-Medinah workforce in his 7th Year while Horemheb's official, Maya, renewed the tomb of Thutmose IV, which had been disturbed by tomb robbers in his 8th Year. While the king restored the priesthood of Amun, he did not permit the Amun priests from forming a stranglehold on power by deliberately reappointing priests who mostly came from the Egyptian army since he could rely on their personal loyalty.[11] Horemheb was a prolific builder who erected numerous temples and buildings throughout Egypt during his life-time. He constructed the Second, Ninth and Tenth Pylons of the Great Hypostyle Hall, in the Temple at Karnak using recycled talatat blocks from Akhenaten's own monuments here, as building material for the first two Pylons. [12] Deir al-Madinah is the Arabic name of an Ancient Egyptian village that was home to the artisans who built the temples and tombs ordered by the pharaohs and other dignitaries during the New Kingdom period (18th to 20th dynasties) in the Valley of the Kings. ... Menkheperure Established in forms is Re Nomen Thutmose Thoth bore him Consort(s) Nefertari, Iaret, Mutemwiya Issues Amenhotep III, Siatum (?), Amenemhat, Tiaa, Amenemopet, Petepihu, Tentamun Father Amenhotep II Mother Tiaa Died 1391 BC or 1388 BC Burial KV43 Thutmose IV (sometimes read as Thutmosis or Tuthmosis IV and meaning Thoth... Pylon is the Greek term for a monumental gateway of an Egyptian temple. ... Entrance to the Hypostyle Hall The Great Hypostyle Hall of Karnak, located within the Karnak temple complex, in the Precinct of Amon-Re, is one of the most visited monuments of Ancient Egypt. ... Map of Karnak, showing major temple complexes Interior of Temple First pylon of precinct of Amun viewed from the west Al-Karnak (Arabic الكرنك, in Ancient Egypt was named Ipet Sut, the most venerated place) is a small village in Egypt, located on the banks of the River Nile some 2. ... Talatat block in pylon at Karnak Talatat is an Arabic word which is the plural of three. ... For other uses, see Akhenaten (disambiguation). ...


Because of his unexpected rise to the throne, Horemheb had had two tombs constructed for himself: the first – when he was a mere nobleman (at Saqqara near Memphis), and the other – in the Valley of the Kings, in Thebes, in tomb KV57, as king. His Chief Wife was Queen Mutnedjmet but she failed to bear him a successor. He is not known to have any children by his first wife Amenia either. Saqqara Saqqara or Sakkara, Saqqarah (Arabic: سقارة) is a vast, ancient burial ground in Egypt, featuring the worlds oldest standing step pyramid (). It is located some 30 km south of modern-day Cairo and covers an area of around 7 km by 1. ... For other uses, see Memphis. ... Location of the valley in the Theban Hills, West of the Nile, October 1988 (red arrow shows location) The Valley of the Kings (Arabic: وادي الملوك Wadi Biban el-Muluk; Gates of the King)[1] is a valley in Egypt where for a period of nearly 500 years from the 16th to... Thebes Thebes (, ThÄ“bai) is the Greek designation of the ancient Egyptian niwt (The) City and niwt-rst (The) Southern City. It is located about 800 km south of the Mediterranean, on the east bank of the river Nile (). Thebes was the capital of Waset, the fourth Upper Egyptian nome... Tomb KV57, located in the Valley of the Kings, in Egypt was used for the burial of Horemheb of the Eighteenth dynasty. ... The Egyptian noblewoman Mutnedjmet (or Mutnodjmet) was the second wife of Horemheb, the last ruler of the Eighteenth Dynasty. ... Amenia was an Egyptian noble woman and the first wife of Horemheb, the last ruler of the Eighteenth Dynasty. ...


Reign Length

Despite some scholarly debate, Horemheb's Highest Year date is likely attested in a hieratic graffito written on the shoulder of a now fragmented statue from his mortuary temple in Karnak which mentions the appearance of the king himself, or a royal cult statue representing the king, for a religious feast. The ink graffito reads "Year 27, first Month of Shemu day 9, the day on which Horemheb, who loves Amun and hates his enemies entered" the temple for this event. (JNES 25[1966], p.123) Donald Redford, in a BASOR 211(1973) #37 footnote observes that the use of Horemheb's name and the addition of a long "Meryamun" (Beloved of Amun) epithet in the graffito suggests a living, eulogised king rather than a long deceased king. Rolf Krauss, in a DE 30(1994) paper, has argued that this date may well reflect Horemheb's accession where a Feast or public holiday was traditionally proclaimed to honour the accession date of a deceased or a current king. Krauss supports his hypothesis with evidence from Ostraca IFAO 1254 which was initially published by Jac Janssen in a BIFAO 84(1984) paper under the title "A Curious Error." The ostraca records the number of days on which an unknown Deir el-Medinah workman was absent from work and covers the period from Year 26 III Peret day 11 to Year 27 II Akhet day 12 before breaking off. The significant fact here is that a Year change occurred in the ostraca from Year 26 to Year 27 around the interval IV Peret day 28 and I Shemu day 13. The Year 27 date of Horemheb is located within this interval and would reflect Horemheb's accession date, Krauss suggests. Ay's accession date occurred somewhere in the month of III Peret. [13] Since Manetho gives Ay reign of 4 years and 1 month, this ruler would have died sometime around the month of IV Peret or the first half of I Shemu at the very latest. This is precisely the time period noted in Ostraca IFAO 1254. The fact that the ostraca records the case of only one worker rather than an entire group of workmen means the necropolis scribe cannot be presumed – at first glance – to have committed a dating error in altering the unknown king's Year date in the interval between IV Peret 28 and I Shemu 13. Development of hieratic script from hieroglyphs; after Champollion. ... The Graffito (archaeology), {plural Graffiti), have been created by humans, since Homo sapiens have been traversing this planet. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... An ostracon with Pericles name written on it (c. ... Deir al-Madinah is the Arabic name of an Ancient Egyptian village that was home to the artisans who built the temples and tombs ordered by the pharaohs and other dignitaries during the New Kingdom period (18th to 20th dynasties) in the Valley of the Kings. ...


Janssen, in his original BIFAO paper, noted the curious fact that no known New Kingdom Pharaohs who reigned for a quarter of a century including Ramesses II and Ramesses III had their accession date in this time frame and suggests the Year change was an error committed on behalf of the scribe. He then attributed the ostraca to Ramesses III, whose accession date was I Shemu day 26 and expressed his view that the scribe may have inadvertently implemented the Year change two weeks early instead. Janssen also observed that the palaeography of the ostraca suggests a date in the 20th Dynasty partly because it followed the later New Kingdom form of writing and due to its provenance in the Grand Putit region, which features numerous Dynasty 20 ostracas. However, this form of writing is also attested in monuments of Ramesses II and it would, therefore, not be unexpected to find it in a document from the very late 18th Dynasty since the transition from the Early New Kingdom to the Late New Kingdom Form of writing had already occurred prior to the end of Horemheb's reign, as Frank Yurco once noted. Indeed, Janssen's palaeographical reference for his paper–Prof. Georges Posener–himself suggested a date in the 19th Dynasty due to the form of the wsf (absent) and akhet (inundation) text. As Janssen himself writes (p.305), a few 19th Dynasty ostracas have been found in the Grand Putit area prior to the 20th Dynasty's intensive exploitation of this region. This does not exclude some late 18th Dynasty work here either. Secondly, both Janssen and Krauss stress in their papers that the relative scarcity of the hieratic text in Ostraca IFAO 1254 precludes a clear dating of the document to Ramesses III's reign and that palaeography, in general, does not give a precise date for a document's creation. Hence, a dating of the ostraca to Horemheb's reign on the basis of the Year change is eminently plausible. On other matters, a damaged wall fragment painting from the Petrie Collection mentions Horemheb's 15th or 25th Year. Usermaatre-setepenre The Justice of Re is Powerful, Chosen of Re Nomen Ramesses (meryamun) Born of Re, (Beloved of Amun) Horus name [2] Kanakht Merymaa Golden Horus [2] Userrenput-aanehktu[1] Consort(s) Henutmire, Isetnofret, Nefertari Maathorneferure Issue Bintanath, Khaemweset, Merneptah, Amun-her-khepsef, Meritamen see also: List of children... Usermaatre Meryamun Powerful one of Maat and Ra, Beloved of Amun Nomen Ramesse Hekaiunu Ra bore him, Ruler of Heliopolis Consort(s) Iset Ta-Hemdjert, Tiye Issue Ramesses IV, Ramesses VI, Ramesses VIII, Amun-her-khepeshef, Khaemwaset, Meryamun, Meryatum, Montuherkhopshef, Pareherwenemef, Pentawer, Duatentopet (?) Father Setnakht Mother Tiye-Mereniset Died... History of Ancient Egypt, Nineteenth Dynasty The Nineteenth Dynasty was founded by Vizier Ramesses I, to whom Pharaoh Horemheb chosed as his successor to the throne. ... or The Season of the Inundation (transliteration of the Egyptian term is Axt, and it is occasionally written as Akhet [1]) is the first season in the ancient Egyptian calendar. ...


Another important Text–The Inscription of Mes–from Mes' 19th Dynasty tomb records that a court case was initiated by a rival branch of Mes' family in Year 59 of Horemheb. Since the Mes inscription was composed during the reign of Ramesses II when the Amarna-era Pharaohs were struck from the official king-lists, the Year 59 Horemheb date certainly includes the nearly 17 Year reign of Akhenaten, the 1 year independent reign of Smenkhkare, the 9 year reign of Tutankhamun and the 4 year reign of Ay. Once all these rulers reigns are deducted from the Year 59 date, Horemheb would still have easily enjoyed a reign of 26-27 Years. At a well known 1987 Conference from Gothenburg Sweden, Kenneth Kitchen astutely noted that any attempt to explain away the Year 59 Horemheb date as a "scribal error" fails to consider the long and volumnious listed series of court trials and legal setbacks which Mes' family endured in order to win back control over certain valuable lands which had been stolen from his family's line. Indeed, Mes likely ordered the protracted legal dispute--which is presented as a series of court depositions and testimonies of various plaintiffs and witnesses--to be inscribed on his tomb walls in order to create a permanent ('carved in stone') record of his family's ultimately victorious struggle to win back these lands. Mes, hence, could hardly be expected to forget the beginning of his family's legal tribulations in Year 59 of Horemheb. Kitchen also observes in his paper that Horemheb's extensive building projects at Karnak supported the theory of a long reign for this Pharaoh and stressed that "a good number of the undated 'late 18th Dynasty' private monuments that are in both Egypt and the world's Museums must, in fact, belong to his reign." Horemheb, hence, probably died after a reign of 27 or 28 Years. Usermaatre-setepenre The Justice of Re is Powerful, Chosen of Re Nomen Ramesses (meryamun) Born of Re, (Beloved of Amun) Horus name [2] Kanakht Merymaa Golden Horus [2] Userrenput-aanehktu[1] Consort(s) Henutmire, Isetnofret, Nefertari Maathorneferure Issue Bintanath, Khaemweset, Merneptah, Amun-her-khepsef, Meritamen see also: List of children... For other uses, see Gothenburg (disambiguation). ... Emeritus Professor Kenneth A. Kitchen (University of Liverpool publicity photograph, 2006). ...


Succession

Under Horemheb, Egypt's power and confidence was once again restored after the internal chaos of the Amarna period; this situation set the stage for the rise of the 19th Dynasty under such ambitious Pharaohs like Seti I and Ramesses II. Horemheb is believed to have unsuccessfully attempted to father an heir to the throne since the mummy of his second wife was found with a foetus in it. Geoffrey Martin in his excavation work at Saqqara states that the burial of Horemheb's second wife Mutnedjmet was located at the bottom of a shaft to the rooms of Horemheb's Saqqara tomb. He notes that "a fragment of an alabaster vase inscribed with a funerary text for the chantress of Amun and King's Wife Mutnodjmet, as well as pieces of a statuette of her [was found here]...The funerary vase in particular, since it bears her name and titles would hardly have been used for the burial of some other person."[14] Amarna The site of Amarna (commonly known as el-Amarna or incorrectly as Tel el-Amarna; see below) (Arabic: العمارنة al-‘amārnä) is located on the east bank of the Nile River in the modern Egyptian province of al-Minya, some 58 km (38 miles) south of the city of... Menmaatre Eternal is the Strength of Re[1] Nomen Seti Merenptah He of the god Seth, beloved of Ptah[2] Horus name Kanakht Khaemwaset-Seankhtawy Nebty name Wehemmesut Sekhemkhepesh Derpedjetpesdjet Golden Horus Wehemkhau Weserpedjutemtawnebu[3] Consort(s) Queen Tuya Issue Tia, Amennefernebes, Ramesses II, Henutmire (?) Father Ramesses I Mother Sitre... Usermaatre-setepenre The Justice of Re is Powerful, Chosen of Re Nomen Ramesses (meryamun) Born of Re, (Beloved of Amun) Horus name [2] Kanakht Merymaa Golden Horus [2] Userrenput-aanehktu[1] Consort(s) Henutmire, Isetnofret, Nefertari Maathorneferure Issue Bintanath, Khaemweset, Merneptah, Amun-her-khepsef, Meritamen see also: List of children... The Egyptian noblewoman Mutnedjmet (or Mutnodjmet) was the second wife of Horemheb, the last ruler of the Eighteenth Dynasty. ...

Expert analysis subsequently showed that the bones represented part of the skull and other portions of the body, including the pelvis, of an adult female who had given birth several times. Furthermore, she had lost all her teeth early in life, and was therefore only able to eat soft foods for much of the time. She died in her mid-forties, perhaps in childbirth, for with her bones were those of a foetus or newborn child. The [tomb] plunderers had evidently dragged the two mummies, mother and child, from the burial chamber below, and broken them open in the pillared hall above. The balance of probability, taking into account the evidence of the objects inscribed for Mutnodjmet, is that the adult bones are those of the queen herself and that she died in attempting to provide her husband the Pharaoh with an heir to the throne.[15]

Since Horemheb remained childless, he appointed his Vizier, Paramesse as his chosen successor before his death both to reward Paramesse's loyalty and because the latter had both a son and grandson to secure Egypt's royal succession. Paramesse employed the name Ramesses I upon assuming power and founded the 19th Dynasty of the New Kingdom. While the decorations of Horemheb's KV57 tomb walls was still unfinished upon his death, this situation is not unprecedented: Amenhotep II's tomb was also not fully completed when he was buried but this ruler enjoyed a reign of 26 Years. The Ancient Egyptian adminstrator (tjaty) is often translated as Vizier. ... Menpehtyre Eternal is the Strength of Re[2] Nomen Ra-messes Re has fashioned him[1] Consort(s) Queen Sitre Issue Seti I Died 1290 BC Burial KV16 Menpehtyre Ramesses I (traditional English: Ramesses or Rameses ) was the founding Pharaoh of Ancient Egypts 19th dynasty. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Nineteenth Dynasty. ... Tomb KV57, located in the Valley of the Kings, in Egypt was used for the burial of Horemheb of the Eighteenth dynasty. ... Aakheperure Great are the forms of Re Nomen Amenhotep Heka Iunu Amun is Satisfied, Ruler of Heliopolis Horus name Ka Nakht Wer Pekhty Strong Bull, Great of Power Nebty name User Fau Sekha Em Wast Powerful of Splendour, Appearing in Thebes Golden Horus Ity Sekhemef em Tau Neb Who seizes...


Fictional representations

  • Horemheb also appears as a major character in P.C. Doherty's trilogy of historical novels, "An Evil Spirit Out of the West", "The Season of the Hyaena" and "The Year of the Cobra".
  • Horemheb was also a major character in Mika Waltari's historical fiction international bestseller, "Sinuhe, The Egyptian". He was portrayed in the film adaption "The Egyptian" (1954) by Victor Mature.

Paul C. Doherty (born 1946, Middlesbrough) is an English writer, with a doctorate in history from the University of Oxford, who writes historical mysteries and novels under the pennames Anna Apostolou, Michael Clynes, Ann Dukthas, C. L. Grace, Paul Harding, and Vanessa Alexander. ... The Egyptian (in Finnish Sinuhe egyptiläinen) is a historical novel by Mika Waltari. ... The Egyptian is a 1954 epic film made in Cinemascope by 20th Century Fox, directed by Michael Curtiz and produced by Darryl F. Zanuck. ... Victor Mature (29 January 1913 – 4 August 1999), an American film actor, was born in Louisville, Kentucky to a Tyrolean father, Marcellus George Mature, a cutler, and a Swiss-American mother, Clara Mature. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Peter Clayton, Chronicle of the Pharaohs, Thames & Hudson Ltd, 1994. p.136
  2. ^ Alan Gardiner, "The Coronation of King Haremhab," JEA 39 (1953), pp.14, 16 & 21
  3. ^ [1]
  4. ^ Nicolas Grimal, A History of Ancient Egypt, Blackwell:1992, p.242
  5. ^ Grimal, op. cit., p.242
  6. ^ Grimal, op. cit., p.242
  7. ^ Wolfgang Helck, Urkunden der 18. Dynastie: Texte der Hefte 20-21 (Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, 1984), pp.1908-1910
  8. ^ Tomb 23 in the western annex of the Valley of the Kings; see Porter & Moss, Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyph Texts, Reliefs and Parts, vol. 1, part 2, (Oxford Clarendon Press:1960), pp. 550-551
  9. ^ Nicolas Grimal, pp.243
  10. ^ The Great Edict of Horemheb
  11. ^ Peter Clayton, Chronicle of the Pharaohs, Thames & Hudson Ltd, 1994. p.137
  12. ^ Grimal, op.cit., p.243 and 303
  13. ^ J. von Beckerath, Chronologie des Pharaonischen Ägypten, Mainz, (1997), p.201
  14. ^ G. Martin, The Hidden Tombs of Memphis, Thames & Hudson (1991), pp.97-98
  15. ^ G. Martin, op. cit., 97-98

References

  • Alan Gardiner, The Inscription of Mes: A Contribution to Egyptian Juridical Procedure, Untersuchungen IV, Pt. 3 (Leipzig: 1905).
  • Jürgen von Beckerath, Chronologie des pharaonischen Ägypten, MÄS 46, Philip Von Zabern, Mainz: 1997
  • Nicholas Grimal, A History of Ancient Egypt, (Blackwell Books: 1992), pp.243-244 and p.303.
  • Jac Janssen, A Curious Error, BIFAO 84(1984), pp.303-306.
  • K.A. Kitchen, The Basis of Egyptian Chronology in relation to the Bronze Age," Volume 1: pp.37-55 in "High, Middle or Low?: Acts of an International Colloquim on absolute chronology held at the University of Gothenburg 20-22 August 1987." (ed: Paul Aström).
  • Rolf Krauss, "Nur ein kurioser Irrtum oder ein Beleg für die Jahr 26 und 27 von Haremhab?" Discussions in Egyptology 30, 1994, pp.73-85.

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