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Encyclopedia > Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford
Horace Walpole

Horace Walpole by Joshua Reynolds 1756
National Portrait Gallery, collection London .
Born September 24, 1717(1717-09-24)
Flag of the United Kingdom London, England, UK
Died March 2, 1797
Flag of the United Kingdom Berkeley Square, London, England, UK
Occupation Author, Politician
Parents Robert Walpole and Catherine Shorter

Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford (24 September 17172 March 1797), more commonly known as Horace Walpole, was a politician, writer, architectural innovator and cousin of Lord Nelson. His Letters are highly readable, and give a vivid picture of the more intellectual part of the aristocracy of his period. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Sir Joshua Reynolds in a self-portrait Colonel Acland and Lord Sydney, The Archers, 1769. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 4 — The Netherlands, Britain & France sign Triple Alliance February 26-March 6 What is now the northeastern United States was paralyzed by a series of blizzards that buried the region. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... London — containing the City of London — is the capital of the United Kingdom and of England and a major world city. With over seven million inhabitants (Londoners) in Greater London area, it is amongst the most densely populated areas in Western Europe. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem specific to England — the United Kingdom anthem is God Save the Queen. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1797 (MDCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Berkeley Square in 1830. ... London — containing the City of London — is the capital of the United Kingdom and of England and a major world city. With over seven million inhabitants (Londoners) in Greater London area, it is amongst the most densely populated areas in Western Europe. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem specific to England — the United Kingdom anthem is God Save the Queen. ... Authorship redirects here. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. ... In the United Kingdom, the Prime Minister is the head of government, exercising many of the executive functions nominally vested in the Sovereign, who is head of state. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 4 — The Netherlands, Britain & France sign Triple Alliance February 26-March 6 What is now the northeastern United States was paralyzed by a series of blizzards that buried the region. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1797 (MDCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Vice-Admiral Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, KB (29 September 1758 – 21 October 1805) was a English admiral famous for his participation in the Napoleonic Wars, most notably in the Battle of Trafalgar, a decisive British victory in the war, where he lost his life. ...

Contents

Biography

He was born in London, the youngest son of British Prime Minister Robert Walpole. He was educated at Eton College and King's College, Cambridge. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford, KG, KB, PC (26 August 1676 – 18 March 1745) was a British statesman who is generally regarded as having been the first Prime Minister of Great Britain. ... The Kings College of Our Lady of Eton beside Windsor, commonly known as Eton College or just Eton, is a public school (privately funded and independent) for boys, founded in 1440 by King Henry VI. It is located in Eton, Berkshire, near Windsor in England, situated north of Windsor... Full name The King’s College of Our Lady and St Nicholas in Cambridge Motto Veritas et Utilitas Truth and usefulness Named after Henry VI Previous names - Established 1441 Sister College(s) New College, Oxford Provost Prof. ...


After university, Walpole went on the Grand Tour with the poet Thomas Gray, but they quarrelled, and Walpole returned to England in 1741 and entered Parliament. He was never politically ambitious, but remained an MP even after the death of his father in 1745 left him a man of independent means. The interior of the Pantheon in the 18th century, painted by Giovanni Paolo Panini In the 18th century, the Grand Tour was a kind of education for wealthy British noblemen, wherein the primary educational value was exposure to the cultured artifacts of antiquity and the Renaissance as well as the... Thomas Gray Thomas Gray (December 26, 1716 – July 30, 1771), was an English poet, classical scholar and professor of history at Cambridge University. ... // Events April 10 - Austrian army attack troops of Frederick the Great at Mollwitz August 10 - Raja of Travancore defeats Dutch East India Company naval expedition at Battle of Colachel December 19 - Vitus Bering dies in his expedition east of Siberia December 25 - Anders Celsius develops his own thermometer scale Celsius... // Events May 11 - War of Austrian Succession: Battle of Fontenoy - At Fontenoy, French forces defeat an Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverian army including the Black Watch June 4 – Frederick the Great destroys Austrian army at Hohenfriedberg August 19 - Beginning of the 45 Jacobite Rising at Glenfinnan September 12 - Francis I is elected...


His lasting architectural creation is Strawberry Hill, the home he built in Twickenham, south-west London in which he revived the Gothic style many decades before his Victorian successors. This fanciful concoction of neo-Gothic began a new architectural trend.[1] Strawberry Hill is an affluent area of the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames near Twickenham. ... Twickenham is a suburb in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames, south west London. ... Neo-gothic architecture is an American branch of the Gothic revival style that was imported from England in the 1830s. ...


Politics

Following his father's politics, he was a devotee of King George II and Queen Caroline, siding with them against their son, Frederick, Prince of Wales, about whom Walpole wrote spitefully in his memoirs. Caroline of Ansbach (later Queen Caroline; Wilhelmina Charlotte Caroline; 1 March 1683 – 20 November 1737) was the queen consort of George II. // Margravine Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach was born on 1 March 1683, at Ansbach in Germany, the daughter of Johann Friedrich, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach and his second wife...


Walpole was a frequent visitor to Boyle Farm, Thames Ditton, to meet both the Boyle-Walsinghams and Lord Hertford. Boyle Farm was the earlier name of the Home of Compassion, a mansion on the banks of the River Thames in Thames Ditton, Surrey. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Francis-Seymour Conway, 1st Marquess of Hertford (July 5, 1718 – June 14, 1784) was born in Chelsea, England, and died in Surrey, England. ...


His father was created Earl of Orford in 1742. Horace's elder brother, the 2nd Earl of Orford (c.17011751), passed the title on to his son, the 3rd Earl of Orford (17301791). When the 3rd Earl died unmarried, Horace Walpole became the 4th Earl of Orford. When Horace Walpole died in 1797 the title became extinct. The title of Earl of Orford was created several times in British history - in the Peerage of England in 1697, in the Peerage of Great Britain in 1742 for former prime minister Robert Walpole, and in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in 1806 for Lord Walpole, Walpoles distant... Robert Walpole, 2nd Earl of Orford, 1st Baron Walpole (1701–31 March 1751), known as the Lord Walpole from 1723 to 1745, was a British peer. ... Events January 18 - Frederick I becomes King of Prussia. ... Events Adam Smith is appointed professor of logic at the University of Glasgow March 25 - For the last time, New Years Day is legally on March 25 in England and Wales. ... Events Pope Clement XII elected September 17 - Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Ahmed III (1703-1730) to Mahmud I (1730-1754) Anna Ivanova (Anna I of Russia) became czarina Births April 16 - Henry Clinton, British general (d. ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Writings

Strawberry Hill had its own printing press which supported Horace Walpole's intensive literary activity.[2] The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ...


In 1764, he published his Gothic novel, The Castle of Otranto, setting a literary trend to go with the architecture. From 1762 on, he published his Anecdotes of Painting in England, based on George Vertue's manuscript notes. His memoirs of the Georgian social and political scene, though heavily biased, are a useful primary source for historians. 1764 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Strawberry Hill, an English villa in the Gothic revival style, built by seminal Gothic writer Horace Walpole The gothic novel was a literary genre that belonged to Romanticism and began in the United Kingdom with The Castle of Otranto (1764) by Horace Walpole. ... The Castle of Otranto is a 1764 novel by Horace Walpole. ... 1762 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... George Vertue (1684-1756) was a British engraver and antiquary, whose notebooks on British art of the first half of the 18th century are a valuable source for the period. ...


In one of the numerous letters, from January 28, 1754, he coined the word serendipity which he said was derived from a "silly fairy tale" he had read, The Three Princes of Serendip. The oft-quoted epigram, "This world is a comedy to those that think, a tragedy to those that feel," is from a letter of Walpole's to Anne, Countess of Ossory, on 16 August, 1776. The original, fuller version was in what he wrote to Sir Horace Mann on 31 Dec., 1769: "I have often said, and oftener think, that this world is a comedy to those that think, a tragedy to those that feel – a solution of why Democritus laughed and Heraclitus wept." Look up Serendipity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The three princes of serendip were three men who were on a mission but they always found something that was irrelivent but needed in reality. ... An epigram is a short poem with a clever twist at the end or a concise and witty statement. ...


The Orford Walpoles were not related to the popular Twentieth Century novelist, Hugh Walpole (1884–1941). (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s The 20th century lasted from 1901 to 2000 in the Gregorian calendar (often from (1900 to 1999 in common usage). ... Sir Hugh Walpole, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1934 Sir Hugh Seymour Walpole (March 13, 1884 - June 1, 1941) was an English novelist. ...


Personal life

Walpole's sexual orientation has been the subject of speculation. He never married, engaging in a succession of unconsummated flirtations with unmarriageable women, and counted among his close friends a number of women such as Anne Seymour Damer and Mary Berry named by a number of sources as lesbian.[3] Many contemporaries described him as effeminate (one political opponent called him "a hermaphrodite horse").[4] The academic Timothy Mowl, in his biography Horace Walpole: The Great Outsider offers the theory that Walpole was openly homosexual, and infers that he had an affair with Thomas Gray, dropping him during their Grand Tour in favour of Lord Lincoln (later the 2nd Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne).[5][6] Nevertheless, there is no explicit evidence despite Walpole's extensive correspondence, and previous biographers such as Lewis, Fothergill and Robert Wyndham Ketton-Cremer have interpreted him as asexual.[7] Anne Seymour Damer, née Conway, (1748–1828) was an English sculptor. ... Mary Berry (1763-1852) was an English author, born at Kirkbridge, Yorkshire. ... A lesbian is a woman who is romantically and sexually attracted only to other women. ... The 1st-century BC sculpture The Reclining Hermaphrodite, in the Museo Nazionale Romano, Palazzo Massimo Alle Terme in Rome A hermaphrodite is an organism that possesses both male and female sex organs during its life. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... Henry Fiennes Pelham-Clinton, 2nd Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne, KG, PC (16 April 1720 – 22 February 1794) was born in London, the second son of the 7th Earl of Lincoln. ... Duke of Newcastle is a title which has been created several times in the peerages of England and Great Britain. ...


Formal styles from birth to death

// Events January 4 — The Netherlands, Britain & France sign Triple Alliance February 26-March 6 What is now the northeastern United States was paralyzed by a series of blizzards that buried the region. ... // Events April 10 - Austrian army attack troops of Frederick the Great at Mollwitz August 10 - Raja of Travancore defeats Dutch East India Company naval expedition at Battle of Colachel December 19 - Vitus Bering dies in his expedition east of Siberia December 25 - Anders Celsius develops his own thermometer scale Celsius... // Events April 10 - Austrian army attack troops of Frederick the Great at Mollwitz August 10 - Raja of Travancore defeats Dutch East India Company naval expedition at Battle of Colachel December 19 - Vitus Bering dies in his expedition east of Siberia December 25 - Anders Celsius develops his own thermometer scale Celsius... // Events January 24 - Charles VII Albert becomes Holy Roman Emperor. ... // Events January 24 - Charles VII Albert becomes Holy Roman Emperor. ... 1768 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1768 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1797 (MDCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

Trivia

When Walpole's cat Selma died, Thomas Gray wrote a poem Ode on the Death of a Favourite Cat, Drowned in a Tub of Gold Fishes. Thomas Gray Thomas Gray (December 26, 1716 – July 30, 1771), was an English poet, classical scholar and professor of history at Cambridge University. ...


References

  1. ^ Verberckmoes, Johan (2007). Geschiedenis van de Britse eilanden. Leuven: Uitgeverij Acco Leuven, 77. ISBN 978 90 334 6549 9. 
  2. ^ Verberckmoes, p.77
  3. ^ Rictor Norton (Ed.), "A Sapphick Epistle, 1778", Homosexuality in Eighteenth-Century England: A Sourcebook. 1 December 1999, updated 23 February 2003 <http://www.infopt.demon.co.uk/sapphick.htm> Retrieved on 2007-08-16
  4. ^ Paul Langford, "Walpole, Horatio , fourth earl of Orford (1717–1797)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, May 2005 accessed 19 Aug 2007
  5. ^ Horace Walpole: The Great Outsider, Timothy Mowl, John Murray, 1998, ISBN 0719556198
  6. ^ Who's Horry now?, Bevis Hillier, The Spectator, September 14, 1996
  7. ^ Queering Horace Walpole, George E Haggerty, SEL Studies in English Literature 1500-1900 46.3 (2006) 543-562, Johns Hopkins University Press

See also

Wanderer above the sea of fog by Caspar David Friedrich Romanticism is an artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that originated in 18th century Western Europe during the Industrial Revolution. ...

External links

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Parliament of Great Britain (1707–1800)
Preceded by
Thomas Copleston
Isaac le Heup
Member for Callington
with Thomas Copleston 1741–1748,
Edward Bacon 1748–1754

1741–1754
Succeeded by
Sewallis Shirley
John Sharpe
Preceded by
The Lord Luxborough
The Hon. Thomas Howard
Member for Castle Rising
with The Hon. Thomas Howard

1754–1757
Succeeded by
The Hon. Thomas Howard
Charles Boone
Preceded by
Sir John Turner, Bt
Horatio Walpole
Member for Kings Lynn
with Sir John Turner, Bt

1757–1768
Succeeded by
Sir John Turner, Bt
Thomas Walpole
Peerage of Great Britain
Preceded by
George Walpole
Earl of Orford
1791–1797
Succeeded by
Extinct
Baron Walpole
1791–1797
Succeeded by
Horatio Walpole

  Results from FactBites:
 
Horace Walpole (248 words)
Horace Walpole (1717-1797), 4th Earl of Orford[?] was a politician, writer and leader of the Gothic revival.
The son of prime minister Robert Walpole, he was born Horatio Walpole on September 24, 1717 in London, England.
Walpole's home, Strawberry Hill[?], near Twickenham, was a fanciful concoction of neo-Gothic which began a new architectural trend.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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