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Encyclopedia > Hope
Spes or "Hope"; engraving by Sebald Beham, German c1540
Spes or "Hope"; engraving by Sebald Beham, German c1540

Hope is a belief in a positive outcome related to events and circumstances in one's life. Hope implies a certain amount of despair, wanting, wishing, suffering or perseverance — i.e., believing that a better or positive outcome is possible even when there is some evidence to the contrary. [1] Hope is a confidence in something desired. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 300 × 479 pixelsFull resolution (300 × 479 pixel, file size: 241 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Hope Stocks Metadata This file contains... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 300 × 479 pixelsFull resolution (300 × 479 pixel, file size: 241 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Hope Stocks Metadata This file contains... Hercules fighting the Centaurs , engraving by Sebald Beham Engraving is the practice of incising a design onto a hard, usually flat surface, by cutting grooves into it. ... Adam and Eve, 1543, 84 x 58 mm Fogg Art Museum. ... For other uses, see Believe. ... Look up Circumstance in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Circumstance or circumstances can refer to: Legal terms: Attendant circumstance Exigent circumstance Extenuating circumstances Other: Special Circumstances Pomp and Circumstance Marches Communities of Circumstance This is a disambiguation page — a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Suffering, or pain in this sense,[1] is a basic affective experience of unpleasantness and aversion associated with harm or threat of harm in an individual. ... Look up Endurance in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Beyond the basic definition, usage of the term hope follows some basic patterns which distinguish its usage from related terms:

  • To wish for something with the expectation of the wish being fulfilled. [2]
  • Hopefulness is somewhat different from optimism in that hope is an emotional state, whereas optimism is a conclusion reached through a deliberate thought pattern that leads to a positive attitude. But hope and optimism both can be based in unrealistic belief or fantasy.
  • When used in a religious context, hope carries a connotation of being aware of spiritual truth; see Hope (virtue).
  • In Catholic theology, hope is one of the three theological virtues (faith, hope, and charity), which are spiritual gifts of God. In contrast to the above, it is not a physical emotion but a spiritual grace.
  • Hope is distinct from positive thinking, which refers to a therapeutic or systematic process used in psychology for reversing pessimism.
  • The term false hope refers to a hope based entirely around a fantasy or an extremely unlikely outcome.

Contents

“Positive Attitude” redirects here. ... Allegorical personification of Hope: Hope in a Prison of Despair by Evelyn de Morgan Hope is one of the three theological virtues in Christian tradition. ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... The three Theological Virtues listed in the Bible are: Faith (πίστις) Hope (ἐλπίς) Love (or alternatively: Charity) (ἀγάπη) They occur in the Bible at 1 Corinthians 13:13: And now abideth faith, hope, and love, even these three: but the chiefest of these is love. (Geneva Bible, 1560). ... In Christianity, divine grace refers to the sovereign favour of God for humankind — especially in regard to salvation — irrespective of actions (deeds), earned worth, or proven goodness. ... Attitude is a key concept in social psychology. ... Psychological science redirects here. ... In the Is the glass half empty or half full? phenomenon, the pessimistic approach would be to pick half empty. ... False is the antonym of the adjective true. ... For other uses, see Fantasy (disambiguation). ...

History

Examples of hopes include hoping to get rich, hoping for someone to be cured of a disease, hoping to be done with a term paper, or hoping that a person has reciprocal feelings of love. This article is about the medical term. ... For other uses, see Person (disambiguation). ... This article primarily discusses philosophical ideologies in relation to the subject of romantic love. ...


Hope was personified in Greek mythology as Elpis. When Pandora opened Pandora's Box, she let out all the evils except one: hope. Apparently, the Greeks considered hope to be as dangerous as all the world's evils. But without hope to accompany all their troubles, humanity was filled with despair. It was a great relief when Pandora revisited her box and let out hope as well. It may be worthy to note that in the story, hope is represented as weakly leaving the box but is in effect far more potent than any of the major evils. The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... In Greek mythology, Elpis was the personification of hope, perhaps a child of Nyx and mother of Pheme the goddess of rumour. ... For other uses, see Pandora (disambiguation) and Pandoras box (disambiguation). ...


In some faiths and religions of the world, hope plays a very important role. Buddhists and Muslims for instance, believe strongly in the concepts of free will and hope.


Hope can be passive in the sense of a wish, or active as a plan or idea, often against popular belief, with persistent, personal action to execute the plan or prove the idea. Consider a prisoner of war who never gives up hope for escape and, against the odds, plans and accomplishes this. By contrast, consider another prisoner who simply wishes or prays for freedom, or another who gives up all hope of freedom.


In Human, All Too Human, existential philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche had this to say about hope: Human, All Too Human (Menschliches, Allzumenschliches) is a book by Friedrich Nietzsche, originally published in 1878. ... Existentialism is a philosophical movement that posits that individuals create the meaning and essence of their lives, as opposed to deities or authorities creating it for them. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) (IPA: ) was a nineteenth-century German philosopher and philologist. ...


Zeus did not want man to throw his life away, no matter how much the other evils might torment him, but rather to go on letting himself be tormented anew. To that end, he gives man hope. In truth, it is the most evil of evils because it prolongs man's torment.


It is also important to consider the relation between Hope and Utopia. Ernst Bloch in "Principle of Hope" (1986) traces the human search for a wide range of utopias. Bloch locates utopian projects not only in the social and political realms of the well-known utopian theorists (Marx, Hegel, Lenin) but also in a multiplicity of technical, architectural, geographical utopias, and in multiple works of art (opera, literature, music, dance, film). For Bloch hope permeates everyday life and it is present in countless aspects of popular culture phenomenon such as jokes, fairy tales, fashion or images of death. In his view Hope remains in the present as an open setting of latency and tendencies. Ernst Simon Bloch (IPA: , July 8, 1885 – August 4, 1977) was a German Marxist philosopher and atheist theologian. ...


Martin Seligman in his book Learned Optimism (1990) strongly criticizes the role of churches in the promotion of the idea that the individual has little chance or hope of affecting his or her life. He acknowledges that the social and cultural conditions, such as serfdom and the caste system weighed heavily against the freedom of individuals to change the social circumstances of their lives. Almost as if to avoid the criticism, in his book What You Can Change and What You Can't, he is careful to outline the extent that people can hold out hope for personal action to change some of the things that affect their lives. Martin E.P. Seligman (Albany, New York, 12 August 1942) is an American psychologist and writer. ... Serf redirects here. ... The word Caste is derived from the Portuguese word casta, meaning lineage, breed or race. ...


More recently, psychologist Anthony Scioli (2006) has developed an integrative theory of hope that consists of four elements: attachment, mastery, survival, and spirituality. This approach incorporates contributions from psychology, anthropology, philosophy and theology as well as classical and contemporary literature and the arts.[3] Spirituality, in a narrow sense, concerns itself with matters of the spirit. ... Psychological science redirects here. ... This article is about the social science. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... This article is about (usually written) works. ...


Socio-cognitive perspective

From socio-cognitive viewpoint, hope is closely related to cognitive decision-making and can be considered its critical factor, such as risk dependent danger . In real situations, human agent's decision depends on the comparison of his/her danger perception and the hope indicator, which can be assessed as a value proportional to the probability of an event and its expected outcome/payoff/benefits [4] Socio-cognitive may relate to systems, processes, functions, models, as well as can indicate the branch of science, engineering or technology, such as socio-cognitive research, socio-cognitive interactions. ... For Decision making in groups, see Group decision making. ... For the Parker Brothers board game, see Risk (game) For other uses, see Risk (disambiguation). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Look up agent in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


There also is some evidence to suggest that in adverse situations, hope may be worse than hopelessness for overall well-being. For example, people sentenced to life imprisonment without the possibility of parole adjust better to their situation than prisoners who retain the possibility of parole. Similarly, patients who underwent a permanent colostomy showed higher life satisfaction 6 months after the operation than those who underwent a potentially reversible colostomy.[5] Life imprisonment or life incarceration is a sentence of imprisonment for a serious crime, often for most or even all of the criminals remaining life, but in fact for a period which varies between jurisdictions: many countries have a maximum possible period of time (usually 7 to 50 years... A colostomy is a surgical procedure that involves connecting a part of the colon onto the anterior abdominal wall, leaving the patient with an opening on the abdomen called a stoma. ...


See also

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Hope

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Look up chance in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the Parker Brothers board game, see Risk (game) For other uses, see Risk (disambiguation). ...

References

  1. ^ http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/hope hope. (n.d.). The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Retrieved March 18, 2008, from Dictionary.com website: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/hope
  2. ^ hope - Definitions from Dictionary.com
  3. ^ Scioli, A. (2006). Hope and Spirituality in the Age of Anxiety. In R. Estes (Ed.),Advancing Quality of Life in a Turbulent World. New York: Springer.
  4. ^ Adam Maria Gadomski, Risk Based Reasoning in Decision-Making for Emergency-Management. Proc. of SRA-Europe Annual Conference "Risk Analysis: Opening The Process", Paris, France,1998. see also: (ppt)
  5. ^ Krakovsky, Marina. "Hope Can Be Worse Than Hopelessness", The New York Times, 2007-12-09. Retrieved on 2007-12-31. 
Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Emotion (disambiguation). ... This is a list of emotions. ... For other uses, see Acceptance (disambiguation). ... For the change in vowel and consonant quality in Celtic languages, see Affection (linguistics). ... Alertness is the the process of paying close and continuous attention. ... Look up ambivalence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the emotion. ... For other uses, see Angst (disambiguation). ... Annoyance is an unpleasant mental state that is characterized by such effects as irritation and distraction from ones conscious thinking. ... Anticipation is an emotion involving pleasure (and sometimes anxiety) in considering some expected or longed-for good event, or irritation at having to wait. ... Anxiety is a physiological state characterized by cognitive, somatic, emotional, and behavioral components[1]. These components combine to create the feelings that we typically recognize as anger and known as fear, apprehension, or worry. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Resentment is an emotion, from ressentiment, a French word, meaning malice, anger, being rancorous. The English word has the sense of feeling bitter. ... Boring and Bored redirect here. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Compassion is best described as an understanding of the emotional state of another; not to be confused with empathy. ... For other uses, see Contempt (disambiguation). ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... Severe confusion of a degree considered pathological usually refers to loss of orientation (ability to place oneself correctly in the world by time, location, and personal identity), and often memory (ability to correctly recall previous events or learn new materal). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up desire in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Depression. ... Disappointment is the emotion felt when a strongly held expectation of something desired is not met. ... A woman showing disgust. ... This article is about the mental state. ... This article is about informal use of the term. ... Embarrassment is an unpleasant emotional state experienced upon having a socially or professionally unacceptable act or condition witnessed by or revealed to others. ... This article is about emotional capacity. ... For other uses, see Emptiness (disambiguation). ... Enthusiasm (Greek: enthousiasmos) originally meant inspiration or possession by a divine afflatus or by the presence of a God. ... For other uses, see Envy (disambiguation). ... This article is about a feeling, for other meanings see epiphany (disambiguation). ... Euphoria (Greek ) is a medically recognized emotional state related to happiness. ... Fanaticism is an emotion of being filled with excessive, uncritical zeal, particularly for an extreme religious or political cause, or with an obsessive enthusiasm for a pastime or hobby. ... For other uses, see Fear (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Gratification is the positive emotional response (happiness) to a fulfillment of desire. ... For other uses, see Gratitude (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Anticipatory Grief be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the emotion. ... For other uses, see Happiness (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hate (disambiguation). ... Homesickness is generally described as a feeling of longing for ones familiar surroundings. ... Look up despair in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Horror is the feeling of revulsion that usually occurs after something frightening is seen, heard, or otherwise experienced. ... Hostile redirects here. ... Etymology: Late Latin humiliatus, past participle of humiliare, from Latin humilis low. ... Hysteria is a diagnostic label applied to a state of mind, one of unmanageable fear or emotional excesses. ... Inspiration in artistic composition refers to an irrational and unconscious burst of creativity. ... Jealous redirects here. ... Look up kindness in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Limerence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Loneliness is an emotional state in which a person experiences a powerful feeling of emptiness and isolation. ... For other uses, see Love (disambiguation). ... A demon sating his lust in a 13th century manuscript Lust is any intense desire or craving for self gratification and excitement. ... Melancholy redirects here. ... Panic is the primal urge to run and hide in the face of imminent danger. ... Patience, engraving by Hans Sebald Beham, 1540 Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: patience Patience is the ability to endure waiting, delay, or provocation without becoming annoyed or upset, or to persevere calmly when faced with difficulties. ... Not to be confused with Empathy, Sympathy, or Compassion. ... This article is about the emotion. ... Rage, tacuinum sanitatis casanatensis (XIV century) Rage, in psychiatry, is a mental state that is one extreme of the intensity spectrum of anger. ... Regret is an intelligent (and/or emotional) dislike for personal past acts and behaviors. ... People feel remorse when reflecting on their actions that they believe are wrong. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Righteous indignation is an emotion one feels when one gets angry over perceived mistreatment, insult, or malice. ... Sadness is a mood that displays feeling of disadvantage and loss. ... Look up Schadenfreude in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... For other uses, see Shame (disambiguation). ... In humans, shyness is the feeling of apprehension or lack of confidence experienced in regard to social association with others, e. ... ... Suffering, or pain in this sense,[1] is a basic affective experience of unpleasantness and aversion associated with harm or threat of harm in an individual. ... For other uses, see Surprise. ...

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Regulate the regulators :...of the centre for research and development in higher education at Liverpool Hope University, having been vice-chancellor of Southampton Solent...
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Hope offered a course with considerable breadth which has provided an excellent base to underpin my proposed research.
Hope - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (418 words)
Hope is subordinate to faith, in that while hope is emotional, faith carries a divinely-inspired and informed form of positive belief.
Hope is typically contrasted with despair, and because despair connotes an ignorance of religious faith, hope likewise carries a connotation being aware of spiritual truth.
Hope is distinct from positive thinking, which refers to a therapeutic or systematic process used in psychology for reversing pessimism.
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