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Encyclopedia > Hop (plant)
Wikipedia:How to read a taxobox
How to read a taxobox
Hop

Common Hop plant (Humulus lupulus)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Rosales
Family: Cannabaceae
Genus: Humulus
L.
Species

Humulus lupulus L.
Humulus japonicus Siebold & Zucc.
Humulus yunnanensis Hu humulus (photo Wouter Hagens) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... (Hops redirects here. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... Divisions Green algae Chlorophyta Charophyta Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta—liverworts Anthocerotophyta—hornworts Bryophyta—mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) †Rhyniophyta—rhyniophytes †Zosterophyllophyta—zosterophylls Lycopodiophyta—clubmosses †Trimerophytophyta—trimerophytes Pteridophyta—ferns and horsetails Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta—seed ferns Pinophyta—conifers Cycadophyta—cycads Ginkgophyta—ginkgo Gnetophyta—gnetae Magnoliophyta—flowering plants... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants (also angiosperms or Magnoliophyta) are one of the major groups of modern plants, comprising those that produce seeds in specialized reproductive organs called flowers, where the ovulary or carpel is enclosed. ... Magnoliopsida is the botanical name for a class: this name is formed by replacing the termination -aceae in the name Magnoliaceae by the termination -opsida (Art 16 of the ICBN). ... Families Barbeyaceae Cannabaceae (hemp family) Dirachmaceae Elaeagnaceae Moraceae (mulberry family) Rosaceae (rose family) Rhamnaceae (buckthorn family) Ulmaceae (elm family) Urticaceae (nettle family) For the Philippine municipality, see Rosales, Pangasinan. ... Genera Cannabis - Hemp Celtis - Hackberry Gironniera Humulus - Hop Parasponia Pteroceltis Trema - Trema Cannabaceae is a family of flowering plants. ... Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 23, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician, zoologist and gay rights campaigner[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biodiversity. ... (Hops redirects here. ... Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 23, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician, zoologist and gay rights campaigner[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Binomial name Humulus japonicus Siebold & Zucc. ... statue in Akashicho (near Tsukiji), chuo-ku,Tokyo Japan Philipp Franz Balthasar von Siebold (February 17, 1796 in Würzburg - October 18, 1866 in Munich) was a German physician. ... Joseph Gerhard Zuccarini (10 August 1797 - 18 February 1848) was a German botanist, Professor of Botany at the University of München. ...

The hop (Humulus) is a small genus of flowering plants, native to the temperate Northern Hemisphere. The female flowers, commonly called hops, are used as flavouring and stabilizers during beer brewing. The hop is one of only two genera in the family of Cannabaceae, the other being cannabis (also known as hemp). It has been suggested that Angiospermae, and Anthophyta be merged into this article or section. ... The Northern Hemisphere is the half of a planets surface (or celestial sphere) that is north of the equator (the word hemisphere literally means half ball). On the Earth, the Northern Hemisphere contains most of the land and about 88-90% of the human population. ... A Phalaenopsis flower Rudbeckia fulgida A flower, (<Old French flo(u)r<Latin florem<flos), also known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms). ... Hop umbel in a Hallertau hopgarden Hops are a flower used primarily as a flavouring and stability agent in beer, as well as in herbal medicine. ... This article is about flavor, the sensory impression. ... The tail of a Lufthansa airliner (Airbus A319) in flight, showing the horizontal and vertical stabilizer Mathematics: see Group action. ... Beer in the glass Schlenkerla Rauchbier direct from the cask Beer is the worlds oldest[1] and most popular[2] alcoholic beverage; a beverage, it has been argued, which is responsible for humanitys ability to develop technology and build civilisation[3][4][5][6]. It is produced by... A 16th century brewer A 21st century brewer This article concerns the production of alcoholic beverages. ... Look up Cannabis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Although frequently referred to as the hop vine, it is technically a bine; unlike vines, which use tendrils, suckers, and other appendages for attaching themselves, bines have stout stems with stiff hairs to aid in climbing. It is a perennial herbaceous plant which sends up new shoots in early spring and dies back to the cold-hardy rhizome in autumn. Hop shoots grow very rapidly and at the peak of growth can grow 20–50 cm per week (1 to 3 inches per day). Hop bines climb by wrapping clockwise around anything within reach, and individual bines typically grow between 2 to 15 m (6.5 to 50 feet) depending on what is available to grow on. The leaves are opposite, with a 7–12 cm (2 3/4 to 4 3/4 inch) Petiole and a cordate-based, palmately lobed blade 12–25 cm long (4 3/4 to 10 inch) and broad; the edges are coarsely toothed. When the hop bines run out of material to climb, horizontal shoots sprout between the leaves of the main stem to form a network of stems wound round each other. A bine is a flexible climbing plant that uses stiff downward-facing hairs for stability — for an example, see hops. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Red Valerian, a perennial plant. ... A herb (pronounced hurb in Commonwealth English and urb in American English) is a plant grown for culinary, medicinal, or in some cases even spiritual value. ... Ginger rhizome A rhizome is, in botany, a usually underground, horizontal stem of a plant that often sends out roots and shoots from its nodes. ... A centimetre (American spelling centimeter, symbol cm) is a unit of length that is equal to one hundredth of a metre, the current SI base unit of length. ... The or meter (see spelling differences) is a measure of length. ... “Foliage” redirects here. ...

Contents

Species

There are three species, one with five varieties: Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1812x1420, 746 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Hop (plant) ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1812x1420, 746 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Hop (plant) ... Binomial name Humulus japonicus Siebold & Zucc. ...

  • Humulus japonicus (syn. H. scandens). Asian Hop. Leaves with 5–7 lobes. Eastern Asia.
  • Humulus lupulus. Common Hop. Leaves with 3–5 lobes. Europe, western Asia, North America.
    • Humulus lupulus var. lupulus. Europe, western Asia.
    • Humulus lupulus var. cordifolius. Eastern Asia.
    • Humulus lupulus var. lupuloides (syn. H. americanus). Eastern North America.
    • Humulus lupulus var. neomexicanus. Western North America.
    • Humulus lupulus var. pubescens. Midwest North America.
  • Humulus yunnanensis. Yunnan Hop. Leaves with 3–5 lobes, densely hairy below. Southeast Asia (endemic in Yunnan, China).

Brewers' hops are specific cultivars, propagated by asexual reproduction. Binomial name Humulus japonicus Siebold & Zucc. ... In scientific classification, synonymy is the existence of multiple systematic names to label the same organism. ... (Hops redirects here. ... This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... In biology and ecology endemic means exclusively native to a place or biota, in contrast to cosmopolitan or introduced. ...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally south of the clouds) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the far southwestern corner of the country. ... It has been suggested that Parthenogenesis be merged into this article or section. ...


Cultivation

History

Hop umbel with hopgarden, Hallertau
Hop umbel with hopgarden, Hallertau

The first documented instance of hop cultivation was in 736, in the Hallertau region of present-day Germany (which is today the most important production centre with about 25% of the worldwide production), although the first mention of the use of hops in brewing was in 1079. Hops were introduced to British beers in the early 1500s, and hop cultivation began in the present-day United States in 1629. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1733 KB) Summary en Description: Hop (Humulus Lupulus): Umbel Source: photographed it myself Author: LuckyStarr Location: Hallertau de Beschreibung: Hopfen (Humulus Lupulus): Dolde Quelle: selbst fotografiert Fotograf: LuckyStarr Ort: Hallertau Licensing File links The following pages link to this file... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1733 KB) Summary en Description: Hop (Humulus Lupulus): Umbel Source: photographed it myself Author: LuckyStarr Location: Hallertau de Beschreibung: Hopfen (Humulus Lupulus): Dolde Quelle: selbst fotografiert Fotograf: LuckyStarr Ort: Hallertau Licensing File links The following pages link to this file... The Hallertau or Holledau is an area in Bavaria, Germany. ... Tillage (American English), or cultivation (UK) is the agricultural preparation of the soil to receive seeds. ... The Kegon school of Buddhism arrives in Japan via Korea, when Rōben invites the Korean monk Simsang to lecture, and formally founds Japans Kegon tradition in the Tōdaiji temple. ... The Hallertau or Holledau is an area in Bavaria, Germany. ... A 16th century brewer A 21st century brewer This article concerns the production of alcoholic beverages. ... Events Persian astronomer, Omar Khayyám, computed the length of the year as 365. ... The decade of years from 1500 to 1509, inclusive. ... Events March 4 - Massachusetts Bay Colony is granted a Royal charter. ...


Today, the principal production centres for the UK are in Kent (which produces Kent Golding hops) and Worcestershire, and Washington state for the USA; other important production areas include Belgium, as mentioned Germany and the Czech Republic. Other major areas of production include Xinjiang (China), Tasmania (Australia), the Lublin area (Poland) and Chuvashia (Russia). New Zealand is a leading centre for organic hop production. coat of Arms of Kent For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ... Worcestershire (pronounced ; abbreviated Worcs) is a county located in the West Midlands region of central England. ... Official language(s) English Capital Olympia Largest city Seattle Area  Ranked 18th  - Total 71,342 sq mi (184,827 km²)  - Width 240 miles (385 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 6. ...


Until mechanisation (in the late 1960s for the UK), the need for massed labour at harvest time meant hop-growing had a big social impact. Many of those hopping in Kent were Eastenders, for whom the annual migration meant not just money in the family pocket but a welcome break from the grime and smoke of London. Whole families would come down on special trains and live in hoppers' huts for most of September, even the smallest children helping in the fields. In Kent, hops areas had Oast houses built for drying the hops; many now are converted to homes. The image of Cockney hoppers beneath the blue September skies of the Battle of Britain in 1940 has become part of British national mythology. Romany travellers were another very large group among the hoppers. The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Oast House in Tudeley, Kent, now in residential use An oast house is an example of vernacular architecture in England, especially Kent and Sussex. ... St Mary-le-Bow The term cockney refers to working-class inhabitants of London, particularly east London, and the slang used by these people. ... Combatants United Kingdom Including combatants from:[1] Poland New Zealand Canada Czechoslovakia Belgium Australia South Africa France Ireland United States Jamaica Palestine Rhodesia Germany Including combatants from Italy Commanders Hugh Dowding Hermann Göring Strength 754 single-seat fighters 149 two-seat fighters 560 bombers 500 coastal 1,963 total... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Roma (singular Rom; sometimes Rroma, Rrom) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ...


Propagation and pests

19th century illustration of a hop plant
19th century illustration of a hop plant

The European Hop is propagated either by nursery plants or by cuttings. These are set in "hills", formed by digging holes in the spring, which are filled with fine leaf mould. The density of the holes varies from 3–5 holes per m². One, two, or three plants are put in each hill; although, if hops are designed to be raised from cuttings, four or five of these, ranging from 7 to 10 cm (3–4 inches) in length, are planted 3–5 cm deep in fine leaf mould. Image File history File links Koeh-072. ... Image File history File links Koeh-072. ... Nursery can refer to: Nursery (children), a place for the temporary care of children in the absence of their parents Nursery (horticulture), a place where young plants or trees are raised Nursery, a place where immature stages of insects are reared Nursery school, a daycare facility for preschool-age children... Leaf mold is a form of compost produced by the breakdown of shrub and tree leaves. ...


Hop growing, though profitable when it succeeds, is risky, with several significant insect pests causing damage, including the European Corn Borer Ostrinia nubilalis and the Hop froghopper Aphrophora interrupta. Hop gardens on chalky soils are particularly subject to damage. In June and July, the hops are liable to be damaged by an aphid, Myzus humuli. This insect, however, does not endanger the growth of the plant, unless it is already in a weak state from root damage by the larvae of the ottermoth, Phalaena humuli. The roots are also attacked by the larvae of Common Swift, Ghost Moth and Orange Swift. The foliage is sometimes eaten by the larvae of other Lepidoptera including Angle Shades, Currant Pug, Emperor Moth, The Gothic and Hebrew Character. Orders See taxonomy Insects (Class Insecta) are a major group of arthropods and the most diverse group of animals on the Earth, with over a million described species—more than all other animal groups combined. ... Families Aphrophoridae Cercopidae Clastopteridae Larval form of spittlebug encased for protection and moistening. ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland Soil comprising the pedosphere is positioned at the interface of the lithosphere and biosphere with the atmosphere and hydrosphere. ... Families There are 10 families: Adelgidae - adelgids, conifer aphids, Adelges cooleyi, Hemlock Wolly Adelgid, Adelges piceae Anoeciidae Aphididae Drepanosiphidae Homomasagymibutae Greenideidae Hormaphididae Lachnidae Mindaridae Pemphigidae Phloeomyzidae Phylloxeridae Thelaxidae Aphids, also known as greenfly, blackfly or plant lice, are minute plant-feeding insects in the superfamily Aphidoidea in the homopterous division... A larval insect A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ... Binomial name Korscheltellus lupulina (Linnaeus, 1758) The Common Swift (Korscheltellus lupulina) is a moth of the family Hepialidae. ... Binomial name Hepialus humuli (Linnaeus, 1758) The Ghost Moth (Hepialus humuli), also known as the Ghost Swift, is a moth of the family Hepialidae. ... Binomial name Triodia sylvina Linnaeus, 1761 The Orange Swift (Triodia sylvina) is a species of moth belonging to the family Hepialidae. ... Superfamilies Butterflies Hesperioidea Papilionoidea Moths Acanthopteroctetoidea Alucitoidea Axioidea Bombycoidea Calliduloidea Choreutoidea Cossoidea Drepanoidea Epermenioidea Eriocranioidea Galacticoidea Gelechioidea Geometroidea Gracillarioidea Hedyloidea Hepialoidea Heterobathmioidea Hyblaeoidea Immoidea Incurvarioidea Lasiocampoidea Lophocoronoidea Micropterigoidea Mimallonoidea Mnesarchaeoidea Neopseustoidea Nepticuloidea Noctuoidea Palaephatoidea Pterophoroidea Pyraloidea Schreckensteinioidea Sesioidea Simaethistoidea Thyridoidea Tineoidea Tischerioidea Tortricoidea Urodoidea Whalleyanoidea Yponomeutoidea Zygaenoidea The order Lepidoptera... Binomial name Phlogophora meticulosa Linnaeus, 1758 The Angle Shades (Phlogophora meticulosa) is a moth of the family Noctuidae. ... Binomial name Eupithecia assimilata Doubleday, 1856 The Currant Pug (Eupithecia assimilata) is a moth of the family Geometridae. ... Binomial name Pavonia pavonia Linnaeus, 1758 The Emperor Moth (Pavonia pavonia) is a moth of the family Saturniidae. ... Binomial name Naenia typica Linnaeus, 1758 The Gothic (Naenia typica) is a moth of the family Noctuidae. ... Binomial name Orthosia gothica Linnaeus, 1758 The Hebrew Character (Orthosia gothica) is a moth of the family Noctuidae. ...


Diseases

Main article: List of hop diseases

This article is a list of diseases of hops (Humulus lupulus). ...

Harvest

At the end of the first year it becomes necessary to put poles into the hills, around which the bines reared from plants are wound; at the expiration of the second year, full-sized poles, from 5–6 m long, are set (though the hop bines will run to the height of 15 m) in the proportion of two poles to each hill, and a similar number of hop-plants are fastened loosely round each pole, by means of withered rushes.


In the northern hemisphere, hops begin to flower about the latter end of June or the beginning of July, at which point the poles are now entirely covered with foliage, and the pendent flowers are appearing in clusters. The hops themselves, which are the scaly seed-vessels of the female plants, are picked off by hand when the seed is formed around the end of August; for this purpose the poles are often taken down with the plants clinging to them. The seed-vessels are then dried, exposed to the air for a few days, and packed in sacks and sent to market.


Production

The 2005 world production of hops according to FAOSTAT was as follows;

  1. Germany 29,000 tonnes
  2. USA 26,180 tonnes
  3. China 20,000 tonnes
  4. Czech Republic 6,800 tonnes
  5. Poland 3,355 tonnes
  6. Australia 2,000 tonnes
  7. North Korea 2,000 tonnes
  8. UK 2,000 tonnes
  9. Slovenia 1,500 tonnes
  10. France 1,400 tonnes

The total world production for 2005 was 102,216 tonnes.


Uses

Beer

Main article: Hops

Hop resins are composed of two main acids: alpha and beta acids. Alpha acids have a mild antibiotic/bacteriostatic effect against Gram-positive bacteria, and favours the exclusive activity of brewing yeast in the fermentation of beer. The flavour imparted by hops varies greatly by variety and use: hops boiled with the beer (known as "bittering hops") produce bitterness, while hops added to beer later impart some degree of "hop flavour" (if during the final 10 minutes of boil) or "hop aroma" (if during the final 3 minutes, or less, of boil) and a lesser degree of bitterness. Adding hops after the boil, a process known as "dry hopping", adds hop aroma, but very little bitterness. The degree of bitterness imparted by hops depends on the degree to which otherwise insoluble alpha acids (AAs) are isomerised during the boil, and the impact of a given amount of hops is specified in International Bitterness Units. Unboiled hops are only mildly bitter. Beta acids do not isomerise during the boil of wort, and have a negligible effect on beer flavour. Instead they contribute to beer's bitter aroma, and high beta acid hop varieties are often added at the end of the wort boil for aroma. Beta acids oxidise and oxidised beta acids form sulphur compounds such as DMS (dimethyl-sulfide) that can give beer off-flavours of rotten vegetables or cooked corn. Hop umbel in a Hallertau hopgarden Hops are a flower used primarily as a flavouring and stability agent in beer, as well as in herbal medicine. ... Resin is a hydrocarbon secretion formed in special resin canals of many plants, from many of which (for example, coniferous trees) it is exuded in soft drops from wounds, hardening into solid masses in the air. ... Acidity redirects here. ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ... Bacteriostatic antibiotics hamper the growth of bacteria by interfering with bacteria protein production, interfering with bacteria DNA production interfering with bacteria cellular metabolism Bacteriostatic antibiotics inhibit growth and repoduction of the bacteria, though do not kill it, while bactericidal antibiotics kill bacteria. ... Gram-positive bacteria are those that are stained dark blue or violet by gram staining, in contrast to gram-negative bacteria, which are not affected by the stain. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Brewing yeasts are yeasts used in the brewing Process and which have certain properties, including: The ability to convert certain sugars to alcohol Reduce diacetyl thereby avoiding butterscotch flavours in the beer These fall into two main categories: Saccharomyces carlsbergensis Saccharmoyces cerevisiae To ensure purity of strain, a clean sample... In chemistry, isomers are molecules with the same chemical formula and often with the same kinds of bonds between atoms, but in which the atoms are arranged differently. ... The International Bitterness Units scale, or simply IBU scale, provides a measure of the bitterness of beer, which is provided by the hops used during brewing. ... Human taste sensory organs, called taste buds or gustatory calyculi, and concentrated on the upper surface of the tongue, appear to be receptive to relatively few chemical species as tastes. ... WORT 89. ... Dimethyl sulfide causes that distinctive smell from your St. ...


"Noble hops" are low in bitterness and high in aroma, and traditionally consist of four central European cultivars, 'Hallertauer Mittelfrueh', 'Tettnanger', 'Spalter', and 'Saaz'. They contain high amounts of the hop oil humulene and low amounts of alpha acids cohumulone and adhumulone, as well as lower amounts of the harsher-tasting beta acids lupulone, colupulone, and adlupulone. Humulene imparts an elegant, refined taste and aroma to beers containing it. These hops are used in pale lagers. The term Noble hops historically refers to 4 varieties of hops (specifically Humulus Lupulus) grown primarily in central Europe, especially Germany and Czechoslovakia. ... Odor receptors on the antennae of a Luna moth An odor is the object of perception of the sense of olfaction. ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ... Humulene, or α-humulene or α-caryophyllene, is a naturally occurring monocyclic sesquiterpene. ... Pale lager is a family of very pale to golden coloured beers with well attentuated body and noble hop bitterness. ...


English ales use hop varieties such as Fuggle, Golding and Bullion. North American varieties include Cascade, Columbia, and Willamette. Certain beers (particularly the highly-hopped style known as India Pale Ale) can have high levels of bitterness. Beer in the glass Schlenkerla Rauchbier direct from the cask Beer is the worlds oldest[1] and most popular[2] alcoholic beverage; a beverage, it has been argued, which is responsible for humanitys ability to develop technology and build civilisation[3][4][5][6]. It is produced by... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Flavours and aromas are described using terms which include "grassy", "floral", "citrus", "spicy", and "earthy".


Medicinal use

The medically active ingredients in Hops are humulene and lupulene.


Dried female buds have a high methylbutenol content, which has a mild sedative effect on the central nervous system; it is used in the treatment for insomnia, stress and anxiety. If one has trouble getting sleep, hop tea before going to bed may help, though a quantity of beer has similar results. 3-Methyl-2-buten-1-ol, or commonly prenol, is a natural alcohol. ... A sedative is a substance which depresses the central nervous system (CNS), resulting in calmness, relaxation, reduction of anxiety, sleepiness, slowed breathing, slurred speech, staggering gait, poor judgment, and slow, uncertain reflexes. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... This article is about the sleeping disorder. ... In medical terms, stress is a physical or psychological stimulus that can produce mental or physiological reactions that may lead to illness. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...


Hops' antibacterial qualities also stimulate gastric juice production. An antiseptic is a substance that kills or prevents the growth of bacteria on the external surfaces of the body. ... In anatomy, the stomach (in ancient Greek &#963;&#964;&#959;&#956;&#940;&#967;&#953;) is an organ in the alimentary canal used to digest food. ...


Fibre

The stem is flexible and very tough, with a tenacious fibre that has been used in some cases to make cloth and paper. It has been suggested that Textile be merged into this article or section. ... A blank sheet of paper Paper is a commodity of thin material produced by the amalgamation of fibers, typically vegetable fibers composed of cellulose, which are subsequently held together by hydrogen bonding. ...


Other uses

Tender young hop shoots, which are only available for about three weeks during spring, were mainly eaten by the poor in medieval times, and were a substitute for asparagus. Only recently have they been rediscovered as a delicacy in parts of Germany, Belgium and England. They are served raw with vinaigrette, or boiled with fresh herbs or fried in batter. In the italian region of Veneto, they are called bruscàndołi and are used to prepare risotto or frittata. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... Binomial name Asparagus officinalis L. Asparagus officinalis is a plant species in the family Asparagaceae from which the popular vegetable known as asparagus is obtained. ... This is a List of delicacies. ... The word vinaigrette (from the French language) can refer to: An emulsion of vinegar (or sometimes lemon juice) and vegetable oil, often flavored with herbs, spices, and other ingredients. ... Batter is a thick or thin liquid mixture, usually based on flour, water or milk, and egg. ... Vèneto is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. ... Risotto prepared with mushrooms and scallions. ... Frittata A frittata is a type of Italian omelette that frequently features fillings such as meats, cheeses, and vegetables. ...


Wild hops are also relished by cows, horses, goats, sheep, and pigs. COW is an acronym for a number of things: Can of worms The COW programming language, an esoteric programming language. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... Species See Species and subspecies The goat is a mammal in the genus Capra, which consists of nine species: the Ibex, the West Caucasian Tur, the East Caucasian Tur, the Markhor, and the Wild Goat. ... Species See text. ... This article is about the pig genus. ...


Another use for the hop bine once it has reached full growth is to be cut down and used as a decoration in public houses or in kitchens. In the old wives' tale, the hop bine is supposed to bring good luck. In some parts of Kent and Sussex there are signs alongside the road advertising the sale of hop bines. Because of fierce competition in the hop trade, some farms find that sale of bines for this purpose is better than selling the hops themselves, since a pint of beer only requires one and a half hops.


References

  • Lee W. Janson, Ph. D.; Brew Chem 101; Storey Publishing; ISBN 0-88266-940-0 (paperback, 1996)

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Humulus

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