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Encyclopedia > Hood Canal Bridge

The Hood Canal Bridge is located in Washington state in the USA on Washington State Route 104 and connects the Olympic Peninsula and the Kitsap Peninsula across the Hood Canal. It is 7,869 feet (2,398 m) long, making it the longest floating bridge in the world located in a saltwater tidal basin, and the third longest floating bridge overall. It was the second concrete floating bridge constructed in Washington State and first opened in 1961. Since that time, it has become a vital link for local residents, freight haulers, commuters, and recreational travelers. The convenience it provides has had a major impact on economic development, especially in eastern Jefferson County. Official language(s) None Capital Olympia Largest city Seattle Area  Ranked 18th  - Total 71,342 sq mi (184,824 km²)  - Width 240 miles (385 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 6. ... State Route 104 is a state highway in the U.S. state of Washington. ... The Olympic Peninsula is the large arm of land in western Washington state that lies across Puget Sound from Seattle. ... The Kitsap Peninsula, at times called the Indian Peninsula or the Great Peninsula, is the arm of land in Washington state (USA) that lies west of Seattle across Puget Sound and east of the Olympic Peninsula across Hood Canal. ... Great Bend of Hood Canal from the southeast Hood Canal, is a fjord off Puget Sound in the U.S. state of Washington, with an average width of 1. ... A pontoon bridge Pontoon bridges are floating bridges supported by floating pontoons with sufficient buoyancy to support the bridge and dynamic loads. ... Jefferson County is a county located in the U.S. state of Washington and named after Thomas Jefferson. ...


The full title of the Hood Canal Bridge, the William A. Bugge bridge, was named after the director of the Department of Highways, William A. Bugge (1900-1992), from 1949 to 1963 who was a leader in the planning and construction of the bridge. The bridge, however, has continued to be popularly known as the Hood Canal Bridge. William Adair Bugge (July 10, 1900 - November 14, 1992) was a civil engineer who played a major role in the development of the transportation infrastructure of the West Coast of the United States during the latter half of the 20th century. ...

Contents

History

Design, fabrication, and construction

The design and planning process for the Hood Canal Bridge took nearly a decade amid criticism from some engineers throughout that time. Critics questioned the use of floating pontoons over salt water, especially at a location where tide fluctuations vary as much as eighteen feet and the funneling effect of the Hood Canal might magnify the intensity of winds and tides. The depth of the water, however, made construction of support columns for other bridge types prohibitively expensive. A pontoon boat, like this small pleasure boat, typically floats and balances by means of two pontoons oriented in the direction of travel. ...


The pontoons for the bridge were fabricated in the Duwamish Waterway in Seattle, Washington. During fabrication two of the pontoons sank. When they were attached for the first time, and then towed into place and anchored, sea conditions in the Hood Canal were too severe and the pontoons were returned to a nearby bay until a better method of attaching could be devised. The architects and the contractor decided the design was faulty. A new contractor was hired and the design modified. It was decided to use a large rubber dam between each of the two pontoons as they were attached, clean the concrete surfaces of all marine growth, epoxy, and tension them with a number of cables welded to a variety of attachment points. This system seemed to work from when the bridge opened in 1961 until the disaster of 1979. The Duwamish River is the name of the lower 12 miles (19 km) of Washington states Green River. ... Nickname: The Emerald City Location of Seattle in King County and Washington Coordinates: Country United States State Washington County King County Incorporated December 2 1869 Mayor Greg Nickels Area    - City 369. ... Epoxy or polyepoxide is a thermosetting epoxide polymer that cures (polymerizes and crosslinks) when mixed with a catalyzing agent or hardener. Most common epoxy resins are produced from a reaction between epichlorohydrin and bisphenol-A. The first commercial attempts to prepare resins from epichlorohydrin occurred in 1927 in the United...


1979 sinking

The Hood Canal Bridge suffered catastrophic failure during the February 13, 1979 Windstorm. During the night the bridge had withstood sustained winds of up to 85 mph (137 km/h) and gusts estimated at 120 mph (193 km/h), and finally succumbed in the early morning of February 13. The western drawspan and the pontoons of the western half had broken loose and sank, despite the drawspan being opened to relieve lateral pressure. Catastrophic failure is a sudden and total (or near total) failure which not only cannot be recovered from (the system which experiences it may be destroyed beyond any reasonable possibility of repair), but also frequently causes injury, death, or significant damage to other, often unrelated systems. ... February 13, 1979 Windstorm Overview During the early morning of February 13, 1979, an intense wave cyclone moved across southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia. ... February 13 is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


At the time of the failure, the bridge had been closed to highway traffic and the tower crew had evacuated; no casualties resulted. Evidence points to blown-open hatches allowing flooding of the pontoons as the cause of the sinking.


West-half reconstruction and 1982 re-opening

Efforts to repair the bridge began immediately and Washington Secretary of Transportation William A. Bulley secured a commitment of federal emergency relief money for the project. On June 15, 1979 actual work began with the removal of the west truss and transport for storage. The Washington State Department of Transportation attempted to mitigate the impact of the disaster by redirecting traffic to US Highway 101 to drive around the 50 mile (80 km) Hood Canal and by re-establishing the Washington State ferry run between Lofall and South Point across the canal just south of the bridge. This route had been discontinued after the 1961 bridge opening and the state needed to re-acquire access to and restore operational conditions on both landings. During the course of the closure an additional ferry route was temporarily added between Edmonds and Port Townsend. U.S. Highway 101, or U.S. Route 101 (U.S. 101), is a north-south highway that is aligned along the Pacific West Coast of the United States. ... Great Bend of Hood Canal from the southeast Hood Canal, is a fjord off Puget Sound in the U.S. state of Washington, with an average width of 1. ... Washington state maintains the largest fleet of passenger and auto ferries in the United States and the third largest in the world. ... Edmonds is a city located in Snohomish County, Washington. ... Port Townsend is a city located in Jefferson County, Washington. ...


The Hood Canal Bridge re-opened to vehicular traffic on October 25, 1982. The west-half replacement had been designed and constructed in less than three years using $100 million in federal emergency bridge replacement funds at a total cost of $143 million. October 25 is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The bridge re-opened as a toll bridge, but tolls were lifted in 1985 after a court ruling that the insurance settlement constituted repayment of the construction bonds, and since federal funds were used in re-constructing the bridge, the Washington State Department of Transportation could not charge tolls after the bonds were retired. Paying toll on passing a bridge. ...


East-half replacement

The Washington State Department of Transportation is a pioneer in designing and building floating bridges, and holds the record for the first and the longest floating bridges. Four of the 11 permanent floating bridges in the world are in the Puget Sound region. The Washington State Department of Transportation, or WSDOT, led by a Secretary and overseen by the Governor, is a Washington governmental agency that constructs, maintains, and regulates the use of the states transportation infrastructure. ...


Currently, the Washington State Department of Transportation is improving this lifeline between the Olympic and Kitsap Peninsulas by replacing the east-half floating portion of the bridge, the east and west approach spans, the east and west transition spans and updating the west-half electrical system. The total cost of the project, about $471 million, is being paid by state, federal and agency funds. Beginning in May 2009, the bridge will be closed to traffic for six to eight weeks when the old pontoons of the east-half are cut away and the new pontoons are floated into position, cabled together and connected by cables to large anchors on the sea floor. The transition spans and center draw span will also be replaced during this closure.


The pontoons and anchors for the bridge could not be built at the bridge site due to space and facility limitations. WSDOT evaluated different sites at which to build during a site selection process. The Port Angeles graving dock was chosen for its accessibility to water and land as well as the work force. Before purchase, the National Historic Preservation Act required archaeologists to perform a review of the historical site. At that time, “there was no evidence of historic properties or cultural resources” (NEPA Re-evaluation Consultation, FHWA) and WSDOT was able to purchase the site and begin construction.


Within the first two weeks of construction, artifacts were found from an ancestral burial ground from an ancient village called Tse-whit-zen. WSDOT stopped all work on the site and the appropriate steps were taken and a government-to-government consultation process began among the Lower Elwha Klallam Tribe, WSDOT, the Federal Highway Administration, the Army Corps of Engineers and the State Historical Preservation Office. On August 14, 2006, WSDOT agreed to donate the site to the Lower Elwha Klallam tribe, rebury all remains uncovered, and pay $2.5 million in damages. [1]


It is believed that this discovery may be documentation of the first time that Natives and non-Natives began to interact on this shore. These historical findings will be investigated thoroughly by the Lower Elwha Klallam Tribe and archaeologists. As the Lower Elwha Klallam Tribe begins to learn more about their ancestors, they will be able to educate the public about the importance of these findings.


On December 21, 2004, Governor Locke and Secretary MacDonald announced that WSDOT would stop pontoon and anchor construction at the Tse-whit-zen site in Port Angeles and begin searching for a more suitable place to build.


Many sites were considered but the best option to be found by WSDOT was in Tacoma, Wash. at Concrete Technology. The Tacoma site is owned by Concrete Technology Corporation and was submitted by Floating Concrete Bridges (FCB) Facility group. Concrete Technology was one of three properties identified by WSDOT in March 2005 as the most feasible pontoon construction sites.


thumb July 26, 2006- An aerial view of the Concrete Technology graving dock in Tacoma, Wash. Image File history File linksMetadata 7-26-2006_HCB_Arial_Photos_017. ...


Construction began on the new east-half floating pontoons at Concrete Technology in April 2006. Fourteen pontoons will be built in four cycles at the site. Completed pontoons will be floated out of the graving dock in Tacoma and transported to Seattle for outfitting at Todd Shipyards. Outfitting includes adding all electrical and mechanical parts, connecting the pontoons into sections and building the roadway on top of the pontoons. Another three pontoons, built during the west-half bridge replacement in the early 1980s, will be retrofitted in Seattle.


When the project is complete, the Hood Canal Bridge will be wider, safer, and more affordable to maintain, protecting lives and livelihoods for decades to come.


Usage

Enlarge
USS Ohio (SSBN-726), maneuvers through the drawspan of the Hood Canal Bridge returning to her homeport in Bangor, Washington.

In planning for a prolonged closure of the bridge for the east-half replacement, the Washington State Department of Transportation conducted a five-day survey of bridge usage in early June 1998 in order to assess closure impact and plan effective mitigation strategies. The survey was in three stages: A video camera count of traffic on weekdays (Tuesday and Wednesday) and a weekend (Friday through Sunday) to estimate average volume; the use of that video to record license plate numbers for vehicle registration addresses to assess which communities would be most affected; and the mailing of a questionnaire to the registered owners of those vehicles seeking information on trip origin, destination, and purpose, and choice of travel alternatives during a bridge closure. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1903x1101, 663 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Hood Canal Bridge ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1903x1101, 663 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Hood Canal Bridge ... USS Ohio (SSBN-726), the lead ship of her class of nuclear-powered fleet ballistic missile submarines, was the fourth ship of the United States Navy to be named for the 17th state. ... Bangor, Washington is a U.S. Navy base, as of 2004 part of Naval Base Kitsap, located on Washington states Kitsap Peninsula. ...


The video count produced a weekday average of 14,915 trips/day and a weekend average of 18,759 trips/day. The vehicle registration information indicated that a majority of trips were by residents of from communities near the bridge. The most represented communities were, in numerical order, Port Ludlow (8%), Port Townsend (7%), Port Angeles (6%), Seattle (6%), Sequim (5%), Poulsbo (5%), Bremerton (4%), Port Hadlock (2%), and Silverdale (2%). Port Ludlow is a census-designated place located in Jefferson County, Washington. ... Port Townsend is a city located in Jefferson County, Washington. ... Port Angeles is a city in Clallam County, Washington, United States. ... Nickname: The Emerald City Location of Seattle in King County and Washington Coordinates: Country United States State Washington County King County Incorporated December 2 1869 Mayor Greg Nickels Area    - City 369. ... Sequim is a city in Clallam County, Washington, United States. ... Poulsbo is a waterfront city in Kitsap County, Washington, United States. ... Sinclair Inlet and Puget Sound Naval Shipyard (left), Dyes Inlet (middle distance) and Manette and Warren Avenue Bridges (left to right) across Port Washington Narrows Bremerton is a city in Kitsap County, Washington, USA. The population was 37,259 at the 2000 census. ... Port Hadlock-Irondale is a census-designated place located in Jefferson County, Washington. ... Silverdale is a census-designated place located in Kitsap County, Washington. ...


The questionnaires revealed that a majority of trips were to and/or from communities near the bridge. On the weekend 48% of westbound trips originated on the north and central Kitsap Peninsula, with 88% of the destinations in areas near Port Ludlow, Port Townsend, Sequim, and Port Angeles. For weekday trips, nearly 55% of westbound trips originated in northern or central Kitsap County with 90% of the destinations in the Port Ludlow, Port Townsend, Sequim, and Port Angeles areas. A large number of eastbound weekday morning trips appeared to be for commuting purposes, with 92% of originating in Port Ludlow, Port Townsend, Sequim, or Port Angeles, and 60% with central or northern Kitsap County as a destination, and 32% ending in King and Snohomish counties. The evening westbound trips seemed to mirror the morning patterns. When asked the purpose of their trips, respondents reported that for weekend trips 21% were for recreational, 21% for social, 19% for personal, 18% for work, 6% for business, and 4% for medical reasons. For weekday trips 33% were for work, 17% for personal, 14% for business, 11% for medical, 9% for social, and 8% for recreational reasons. The Kitsap Peninsula, at times called the Indian Peninsula or the Great Peninsula, is the arm of land in Washington state (USA) that lies west of Seattle across Puget Sound and east of the Olympic Peninsula across Hood Canal. ... King County redirects here; you may be looking for King County, Texas. ... Snohomish County is a county located in the U.S. state of Washington. ...


Interesting Facts

  • The overall bridge length is 7,869 feet (2,398 m). It has a center draw span opening of 600 feet (183 m).
  • The east approach span weighs more than 3,800 tons (3.4 Mg) and the west approach span weighs more than 1,000 tons (907 Mg)
  • Average daily traffic across the Hood Canal Bridge is approximately 15,000 vehicles. Peak volumes reach 20,000 vehicles on summer weekends.
  • The water depth below the pontoons ranges from 80 to 340 feet (24 to 104 m). In its marine environment, the bridge is exposed to tide swings of 16.5 feet (5 m).
  • During inclement weather, the draw span is retracted (closing the bridge to vehicle traffic) when winds of 40 miles per hour (64 km/h) or more are sustained for 15 minutes.

Historical Construction Facts

  • Construction of the current Hood Canal Bridge, located on State Route (SR) 104, began January 1958 and opened to traffic on August 12, 1961.
  • Cost to construct the original bridge was $26.6 million.
  • The pontoons for the floating bridge were originally constructed at a graving dock along the Duwamish River in Seattle and towed by tug boats to the bridge site.
  • After the west half of the bridge sank in 1979, the costs for replacement of the west half and rehabilitation of the east-half was $143 million. The bridge reopened in October 1982 after three years of construction.

Sources

  • Burows, Alyssa. "Bulley, William A. (b. 1925)" in the HistoryLink.org Cyberpedia Library, Essay 7289. March 28, 2005 (retrieved July 24, 2006).
  • Burows, Alyssa. "William Adair Bugge assumes duties as Director of Highways on July 1, 1949" in the HistoryLink.org Timeline Library, Essay 7256. March 5, 2005 (retrieved July 24, 2006).
  • Hamilton, Charles. "Hood Canal Bridge opens on August 12, 1961" in the HistoryLink.org Timeline Library, Essay 7280. March 17, 2005 (retrieved July 24, 2006).
  • Hood Canal Bridge East-Half Replacement Closure Mitigation Plan — Preferred Options. Washington State Department of Transportation and Bucher, Willis & Ratliff Corporation. February 2000. [1]
  1. ^ Associated Press. "Settlement reached in Indian burial site" http://www.myrtlebeachonline.com/mld/myrtlebeachonline/news/breaking_news/15274953.htm August 14, 2006 (accessed September 19, 2006)

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Hood Canal Bridge - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2039 words)
The Hood Canal Bridge is located in Washington state on Washington State Route 104 and connects the Olympic Peninsula and the Kitsap Peninsula across the Hood Canal.
The full title of the Hood Canal Bridge, the William A. Bugge bridge, was named after the director of the Department of Highways, William A. Bugge (1900-1992), from 1949 to 1963 who was a leader in the planning and construction of the bridge.
The bridge re-opened as a toll bridge, but tolls were lifted in 1985 after a court ruling that the insurance settlement constituted repayment of the construction bonds, and since federal funds were used in re-constructing the bridge, the Washington State Department of Transportation could not charge tolls after the bonds were retired.
Hood River Floating Bridge (1966 words)
The eastern half of the floating bridge was originally constructed in 1961 and is nearing the end of its structural life.
The Hood Canal Bridge was named in honor of William A. Bugge by the Washington Highway Commission at the request of the Washington State Senate on July 12, 1977.
William A. Bugge was director of the Department of Highways from 1949 to 1963, and was a leader in the planning and construction of the bridge.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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