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Hong Kong - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Hong Kong

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Coordinates: 22°16′42″N 114°9′32″E / 22.27833°N 114.15889°E / 22.27833; 114.15889 Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

This article contains Chinese text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Chinese characters.
Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China [1]
中華人民共和國 香港特別行政區
A flag with a white 5-petalled flower design on solid red background A red circular emblem, with a white 5-petalled flower design in the centre, and surrounded by the words "Hong Kong" and "中華人民共和國香港特別行政區"
Flag Emblem
AnthemMarch of the Volunteers
《義勇軍進行曲》
A panorama overlooking the skyscrapers of Hong Kong at night, with Victoria Harbour in the background
View at night from Victoria Peak
Hong Kong is situated on a peninsula and series of islands on the south coast of China, to the east of the Pearl River Delta and bordered to the north by Guangdong province
Official language(s) Chinese, English[2]
Spoken languages
[citation needed]
Demonym Hongkonger
Government Non-sovereign partial democracy with unelected executive
 -  Chief Executive Donald Tsang
 -  Chief Justice Andrew Li
 -  President of the
Legislative Council
Jasper Tsang
Legislature Legislative Council
Establishment
 -  Treaty of Nanking 29 August 1842 
 -  Japanese occupation of Hong Kong 25 December 1941 –
15 August 1945 
 -  Transfer of sovereignty of Hong Kong 1 July 1997 
Area
 -  Total 1,104 km2 (179th)
426 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) About 60%
Population
 -  2009 estimate 7,055,071[3] (98th)
 -  2009 census 7,026,400 
 -  Density 6460/km2 (3rd)
15,737.9/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $293.311 billion[4] (38th)
 -  Per capita $44,413[4] (10th)
GDP (nominal) 2008 estimate
 -  Total US$223.764 billion[4] (37th)
 -  Per capita US$31,849[4] (27th)
Gini (2007) 43.4[5] 
HDI (2007) 0.944[6] ( very high) (24th)
Currency Hong Kong dollar (HKD)
Time zone HKT (UTC+8)
Date formats yyyy年m月d日 (Chinese)
dd-mm-yyyy (English)
Drives on the left
Internet TLD .hk
Calling code +852

Hong Kong[7] (Chinese: 香港) is one of the two special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China; the other is Macau. Situated on China's south coast and enclosed by the Pearl River Delta and South China Sea,[8] it is renowned for its expansive skyline and deep natural harbour. With land mass of 1,104 km2 (426 sq mi) and a population of seven million people, Hong Kong is one of the most densely populated areas in the world.[9] Hong Kong's population is 95% ethnic Chinese and 5% from other groups.[10] Hong Kong's Han majority originate mainly from Guangzhou and Taishan, both cities in neighbouring Guangdong province.[11] The UTF-8-encoded Japanese Wikipedia article for mojibake, as displayed in ISO-8859-1 encoding. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Hán tá»±: A Chinese character or Han character (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, rarely Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ... The flag of the HKSAR Flag ratio: 2:3 The HKSAR and the PRC flags brandishing at the patio of the Legislative Council. ... Hong Kong Emblem (since 1997) The Coat of arms of Hong Kong is the current devised emblem that came into use on July 1, 1997, when the sovereignty of Hong Kong was transferred to the Peoples Republic of China, and the emblem replaced the colonial Hong Kong Arms, or... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... March of the Volunteers (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is the national anthem of the Peoples Republic of China, written in the midst of the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) by the noted poet and playwright Tian Han with music composed by Nie Er. ... For other places with the same name, see Victoria Peak (disambiguation). ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... en:Cantonese (linguistics) ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... Other Hong Kong topics Culture - Economy Education - Geography - History Hong Kong Portal The Chief Executive (traditional Chinese: ) of Hong Kong is the head of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the Peoples Republic of China, and represents the region. ... Sir Donald Tsang Yam-Kuen, [1] GBM, KBE, JP (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: , born October 7, 1944) has been the Chief Executive of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region since 2005. ... The Hon Andrew Li Kwok-nang, CBE, DLitt (Hon. ... The President of the Legislative Council is the speaker of the Legislative Council of Hong Kong. ... The Honourable Jasper Tsang Yok-sing GBS JP (曾鈺成) (born 1947) is the founding Chairman (1992-2003) of the Democratic Alliance for the Betterment of Hong Kong (DAB), the largest pro-Beijing political party in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. ... A Legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to create, amend and ratify laws. ... The Legislative Council (abbreviated as LegCo; Chinese: 立法會, Pinyin: LìfÇŽ Huì; formerly 立法局, LìfÇŽ Jú) is the unicameral legislature of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Treaty of Nanjing (Chinese: 南京條約, NánjÄ«ng TiáoyuÄ“) is the agreement which marked the end of the First Opium War between the United Kingdom and China. ... The Japanese occupation of Hong Kong began after the Governor of Hong Kong, Sir Mark Young surrendered the territory of Hong Kong to Japan on 25 December 1941 after 18 days of fierce fighting between British and Canadian defenders against Japanese Imperial forces. ... Countries by area. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 1,000 km² and 10,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... Countries by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... This article is a list of countries by percentage of water area in relation to total area (land area and water area). ... Map of countries by population for the year 2007 This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Look up Per capita in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... World map of GDP (Nominal and PPP). ... Look up Per capita in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Map of countries by 2007 GDP (nominal) per capita (IMF, April 2008). ... Graphical representation of the Gini coefficient The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth distribution. ... This page talks about Human Development Index, for other HDIs see HDI (disambiguation) World map indicating Human Development Index (2007). ... This talks about the countries in the Human Development Index, for information on the Human Development Index, please Click Here World map indicating Human Development Index (2007) (Colour-blind compliant map) For red-green color vision problems. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... UTC redirects here. ... A date in a calendar is a reference to a particular day represented within a calendar system. ...  countries with right-hand traffic countries with left-hand traffic The terms right-hand traffic and left-hand traffic refer to regulations requiring all bidirectional traffic to keep either to the right or the left side of the road, respectively. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .hk is the Internet country code top-level domain ( ccTLD) for Hong Kong. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... A Special administrative region (SAR) is an administrative division of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... Map of Pearl River Delta (details) The Pearl River Delta Region (PRD) in China occupies the low-lying areas alongside the Pearl River estuary where the Pearl river flows into the South China Sea. ... Filipino name Tagalog: Timog Dagat Tsina (Dagat Luzon for the portion within Philippine waters) Malay name Malay: Laut China Selatan Portuguese name Portuguese: Mar da China Meridional Vietnamese name Vietnamese: The South China Sea is a marginal sea south of China. ... This article is about the majority ethnic group within China. ... CITIC Plaza Guangzhou (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin:  ; jyutping : Gwong²zau¹) is the capital and a sub-provincial city of Guangdong Province in the southern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Taishan (台山; Mandarin: Táishān; Cantonese: Toisan; Taishanese: Hoisan, Other: Toishan, Toisaan) is a coastal county-level city in Guangdong Province, China. ...


Under the principle of "one country, two systems", Hong Kong runs on economic and political systems different from those of mainland China.[12] Hong Kong is one of the world's leading international financial centres, with a major capitalist service economy characterised by low taxation, free trade and minimum government intervention under the ethos of positive non-interventionism.[13] The Hong Kong dollar is the 9th most traded currency in the world.[14] Portuguese name Portuguese: Um país, dois sistemas One country, two systems is an idea originally proposed by Deng Xiaoping during the early 1980s, then Paramount Leader of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), for the reunification of China. ... ... Two IFC International Finance Centre (IFC) is an integrated commercial development on the waterfront of Hong Kongs Central District. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... Positive non-interventionism is the economic policy of Hong Kong rasied by Charles Philip Haddon-Cave in 1980 (or by John James Cowperthwaite in 1971). ...


Hong Kong's independent judiciary functions under the common law framework.[15] Its political system is governed by the Basic Law of Hong Kong, its constitutional document. Although it has a burgeoning multi-party system, half of its legislature is controlled by small-circle electorate. The Chief Executive of Hong Kong, the head of government, is selected by an 800-person election committee.[16] The political concept of an independent judiciary is that the judges in a countrys legal system should be immune to impeachment or political manipulation. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... Other Hong Kong topics Culture - Economy Education - Geography - History Hong Kong Portal Politics of Hong Kong takes place in a framework of a political system dominated by China, an own legislature, the Chief Executive as the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... The Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the Peoples Republic of China serves as the constitutional document of Hong Kong. ... The Legislative Council (abbreviated as LegCo; Chinese: 立法會, Pinyin: Lìfǎ Huì; formerly 立法局, Lìfǎ Jú) is the unicameral legislature of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Other Hong Kong topics Culture - Economy Education - Geography - History Hong Kong Portal The Chief Executive (traditional Chinese: ) of Hong Kong is the head of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the Peoples Republic of China, and represents the region. ...


Hong Kong became a colony of the British Empire after the First Opium War (1839–42). Originally confined to Hong Kong Island, the colony's boundaries were extended in stages to the Kowloon Peninsula and the New Territories by 1898. It was occupied by Japan during the Pacific War, after which the British resumed control until 1997, when China regained sovereignty.[17][18] The Basic Law stipulates that Hong Kong shall enjoy a "high degree of autonomy" in all matters except foreign relations and military defence.[19] For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ... Combatants Qing China British East India Company Commanders Daoguang Emperor Charles Elliot, Anthony Blaxland Stransham The First Opium War or the First Anglo-Chinese War was fought between the United Kingdom and the Qing Empire in China from 1839 to 1842 with the aim of forcing China to import British... The Kowloon Peninsula, commonly referred to as Kowloon, is a peninsula, in the south of the mainland part of the Hong Kong territory. ... A major road, Kwong Fuk Road in Tai Po, a town in the New Territories. ... The Japanese occupation of Hong Kong began after the Governor of Hong Kong, Sir Mark Young surrendered the territory of Hong Kong to Japan on 25 December 1941 after 18 days of fierce fighting between British and Canadian defenders against Japanese Imperial forces. ... For other uses, see Pacific War (disambiguation). ...

Contents

History

Hong Kong began as a coastal island geographically located in southern China. While small settlements had taken place in the Hong Kong region, with archaeological findings dating back thousands of years, regularly written records were not made until the engagement of Imperial China and the British colony in the territory. Starting out as a fishing village, salt production site and trading ground,[20] it would evolve into a military port of strategic importance and eventually an international financial centre.

ancient sepia image of elevated view of a city and its harbour
Hong Kong in the late nineteenth century was a major trading post of the British Empire.

Human settlement in the area now known as Hong Kong dates back to the late Paleolithic and early Neolithic era,[21] but the name Hong Kong (香港) did not appear on written record until the Treaty of Nanking of 1842.[22] The area's earliest recorded European visitor was Jorge Álvares, a Portuguese explorer who arrived in 1513.[23][24] For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ... // The Paleolithic is a prehistoric era distinguished by the development of stone tools. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... The Treaty of Nanjing (Chinese: 南京條約, NánjÄ«ng TiáoyuÄ“) is the agreement which marked the end of the First Opium War between the United Kingdom and China. ... Jorge Álvares (died July 8, 1521) was a Portuguese explorer. ...


In 1839, the refusal by Qing Dynasty authorities to import opium resulted in the First Opium War between China and Britain. Hong Kong Island became occupied by British forces in 1841, and was formally ceded to Britain under the Treaty of Nanking at the end of the war. The British established a crown colony with the founding of Victoria City the following year. In 1860, after China's defeat in the Second Opium War, the Kowloon Peninsula and Stonecutter's Island were ceded to Britain under the Convention of Peking. In 1898, under the terms of the Convention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory, Britain obtained a 99-year lease of Lantau Island and the adjacent northern lands, which became known as the New Territories.[25] Hong Kong's territory has remained unchanged to the present. Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... Combatants Qing China British East India Company Commanders Daoguang Emperor Charles Elliot, Anthony Blaxland Stransham The First Opium War or the First Anglo-Chinese War was fought between the United Kingdom and the Qing Empire in China from 1839 to 1842 with the aim of forcing China to import British... A United Kingdom overseas territory (formerly known as a dependent territory or earlier as a crown colony) is a territory that is under the sovereignty and formal control of the United Kingdom but is not part of the United Kingdom proper (Great Britain and Northern Ireland). ... Hong Kong became a British colony in 1842. ... Combatants Qing China United Kingdom French Empire Commanders Unknown Michael Seymour James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin Jean-Baptiste Louis Gros The Second Opium War or Arrow War was a war of the United Kingdom and France against the Qing Dynasty of China from 1856 to 1860. ... The Kowloon Peninsula, commonly referred to as Kowloon, is a peninsula, in the south of the mainland part of the Hong Kong territory. ... Stonecutters Island (昂船洲) is a former island in Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong. ... The Convention of Peking (October 18, 1860), also known as the First Convention of Peking, was a treaty between the Qing Government of China and the British Empire, and between China and France, and China and Russia. ... The Convention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory (aka. ... Map of Lantau Island, Hong Kong Lantau Island, also Lantao, based on the old local name of Lantau Peak (Traditional Chinese: ; lit. ... A major road, Kwong Fuk Road in Tai Po, a town in the New Territories. ...


During the first half of the 20th century, Hong Kong was a free port, serving as an entrepôt of the British Empire. The British introduced an education system based on their own model, while the local Chinese population had little contact with the European community of wealthy tai-pans settled near Victoria Peak.[25] A free port (porto franco) or free zone (US: Foreign-Trade Zone) is a port or area with relaxed jurisdiction with respect to the country of location. ... An entrepôt is a trading centre, or simply a warehouse, where merchandise can be imported and exported without paying import duties, often at a profit. ... For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ... A tai-pan (大班) was a foreign businessman doing business in China or Hong Kong in the 19th century. ... For other places with the same name, see Victoria Peak (disambiguation). ...


In conjunction with its military campaign in the Second World War, the Empire of Japan invaded Hong Kong on 8 December 1941. The Battle of Hong Kong ended with British and Canadian defenders surrendering control of the colony to Japan on 25 December. During the Japanese occupation, civilians suffered widespread food shortages, rationing, and hyper-inflation due to forced exchange of currency for military notes. Hong Kong lost more than half of its population in the period between the invasion and Japan's surrender in 1945, when the United Kingdom resumed control of the colony.[26] Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Anthem Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Capital Tokyo Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1868–1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912–1926 Emperor Taishō  - 1926–1989 Emperor Shōwa Prime Minister  - 1885-1888, 1892-1896, 1898, 1900-1901 Itō Hirobumi  - 1888-1889 Kuroda Kiyotaka  - 1889-1891 Yamagata Aritomo  - 1906-1908, 1911-1912 Saionji Kinmochi... Combatants British Army Canadian Army British Indian Army Royal Hong Kong Regiment Imperial Japanese Army Commanders Mark Aitchison Young Christopher Michael Maltby Sakai Takashi Strength 15,000 troops 50,000 troops Casualties 4,500 killed 8,500 POWs 706 killed 1,534 wounded Pacific campaigns 1941-42 Pearl Harbor – Thailand... The Japanese occupation of Hong Kong began after the Governor of Hong Kong, Sir Mark Young surrendered the territory of Hong Kong to Japan on 25 December 1941 after 18 days of fierce fighting between British and Canadian defenders against Japanese Imperial forces. ... A famine is an phenomenon in which a large percentage of the population of a region or country are undernourished and death by starvation becomes increasingly common. ... Gasoline ration stamps being printed as a result of the 1973 oil crisis Rationing is the controlled distribution of resources and scarce goods or services. ... A 500,000,000,000 (500 billion) Serbian dinar banknote circa 1993, the largest nominal value ever officially printed in Serbia, the final result of hyperinflation. ...


Hong Kong's population recovered quickly as a wave of migrants from China arrived for refuge from the ongoing Chinese Civil War. When the People's Republic of China was proclaimed in 1949, more migrants fled to Hong Kong in fear of persecution by the Communist Party.[25] Many corporations in Shanghai and Guangzhou also shifted their operations to Hong Kong.[25] Belligerents Nationalist Party of China Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China and also the worlds largest political party. ... CITIC Plaza Guangzhou (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin:  ; jyutping : Gwong²zau¹) is the capital and a sub-provincial city of Guangdong Province in the southern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


As textile and manufacturing industries grew with the help of population growth and low cost of labour, Hong Kong rapidly industrialised, with its economy becoming driven by exports, and living standards rising steadily.[27] The construction of Shek Kip Mei Estate in 1953 marked the beginning of the public housing estate programme, designed to cope with the huge influx of immigrants. Trade in Hong Kong accelerated even further when Shenzhen, immediately north of Hong Kong, became a special economic zone of the PRC, and established Hong Kong as the main source of foreign investment to China.[28] With the development of the manufacturing industry in southern China beginning in the early 1980s, Hong Kong's competitiveness in manufacturing declined and its economy began shifting toward a reliance on the service industry, which enjoyed high rates of growth in the 1980s and 1990s, and absorbed workers released from the manufacturing industry.[29] Mei Ho House, Shek Kip Mei Estate near Tai Po Road Shek Kip Mei Estate (Chinese: 石硤尾邨) is the first public housing estate in Hong Kong. ... For other uses, see Shenzhen (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In 1983, Hong Kong was reclassified from a British crown colony to a dependent territory. However with the lease of the New Territories due to expire within two decades, the governments of Britain and China were already discussing the issue of Hong Kong's sovereignty. In 1984 the two countries signed the Sino-British Joint Declaration, agreeing to transfer sovereignty to the People's Republic of China in 1997,[25] and stipulating that Hong Kong would be governed as a special administrative region, retaining its laws and a high degree of autonomy for at least fifty years after the transfer. The Hong Kong Basic Law, which would serve as the constitutional document after the transfer, was ratified in 1990, and the transfer of sovereignty occurred at midnight on 1 July 1997, marked by a handover ceremony at the Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre.[25] Location of the British Overseas Territories The British Overseas Territories are fourteen[1] territories which the United Kingdom considers to be under its sovereignty, but not as part of the United Kingdom itself. ... The Sino-British Joint Declaration, formally known as the Joint Declaration of the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of the Peoples Republic of China on the Question of Hong Kong, was signed by the Prime Ministers of the Peoples... Handover ceremony of Hong Kong in 1997: The Union Flag lowered and the Flag of China raised. ...


Hong Kong's economy was affected by the Asian financial crisis, and the H5N1 avian influenza, both in 1997. After a gradual recovery, Hong Kong suffered again due to an outbreak of SARS in 2003.[30] Today, Hong Kong continues to serve as an important global financial centre, but faces uncertainty over its future role with a growing mainland China economy, and its relationship with the PRC government in areas such as democratic reform and universal suffrage.[31]-1... All text and figures relate to mainland China only, unless stated. ...

Etymology

The characters "香港"

The name "Hong Kong" is an approximate phonetic rendering of the Cantonese pronunciation of the spoken Cantonese or Hakka name "香港", meaning "fragrant harbour" in English.[32] This article is on all of the Yue dialects. ...


Before 1842, the name Hong Kong originally referred to a small inlet (now Aberdeen Harbour/Little Hong Kong) between the island of Ap Lei Chau and the south side of Hong Kong Island. The inlet was one of the first points of contact between British sailors and local fishermen.[33] For the harbour serving the Scottish city of Aberdeen, see Transport in Aberdeen. ... Ap Lei Chau (鴨脷洲), or Aberdeen Island, is an island of Hong Kong, located south-west of Hong Kong Island, next to Aberdeen Harbour and Aberdeen Channel, with an area of 1. ...


The reference to fragrance may refer to the harbour waters sweetened by the fresh water estuarine influx of the Pearl River, or to the incense factories lining the coast to the north of Kowloon, which was stored around Aberdeen Harbour for export, before the development of Victoria Harbour.[32] In 1842, the Treaty of Nanking was signed, and the name Hong Kong was first recorded on official documents to encompass the entirety of the island.[34] Pearl River in Guangzhou Pearl River at night, Guangzhou The Zhu Jiang, (Chinese: 珠江 Pinyin: Zhū Jiāng), or Pearl River or less commonly the Canton River, is Chinas third longest river (2,200 km, after the Yangtze River and the Yellow River), and second largest by volume (after the... Burning incense Incense is composed of aromatic biotic materials. ... Victoria Harbour The night view of the Victoria Harbour with the skyscrapers in Central behind, viewed from Tsim Sha Tsui Victoria Harbour (Traditional Chinese: 維多利亞港; Simplified Chinese: 维多利亚港; Cantonese Jyutping: wai4 do1 lei6 aa3 gong2; Mandarin Pinyin: Wéiduōlìyà Gǎng) is the harbour between the Kowloon Peninsula and the...

Governance

HongKongLegcoBuilding2.jpg Other Hong Kong topics Culture - Economy Education - Geography - History Hong Kong Portal Politics of Hong Kong takes place in a framework of a political system dominated by China, an own legislature, the Chief Executive as the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... Other Hong Kong topics Culture - Economy Education - Geography - History Hong Kong Portal The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the Peoples Republic of China (Traditional Chinese: ; see pronunciation; conventional short name Hong Kong Government, 香港政府), led by the Chief Executive is responsible for the administration of Hong... Elections are held in Hong Kong when certain offices in the government need to be filled. ...


Government House rightview.jpg
Top: The Legislative Council of Hong Kong.
Bottom: Government House, the official residence of the Chief Executive.

In accordance with the Sino-British Joint Declaration, and reflecting the policy known as "one country, two systems", Hong Kong enjoys a high degree of autonomy as a special administrative region in all areas except defence and foreign affairs.[35] The declaration stipulates that the region maintain its capitalist economic system and guarantees the rights and freedoms of its people for at least 50 years beyond the 1997 handover.[36] The Basic Law is the constitutional document that outlines the executive, legislative and judicial authorities of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, although final authority for interpreting the Basic Law rests with the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress.[37] The Legislative Council (abbreviated as LegCo; Chinese: 立法會, Pinyin: Lìfǎ Huì; formerly 立法局, Lìfǎ Jú) is the unicameral legislature of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The facade of the Government House. ... Other Hong Kong topics Culture - Economy Education - Geography - History Hong Kong Portal The Chief Executive (traditional Chinese: ) of Hong Kong is the head of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the Peoples Republic of China, and represents the region. ... The Sino-British Joint Declaration, formally known as the Joint Declaration of the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of the Peoples Republic of China on the Question of Hong Kong, was signed by the Prime Ministers of the Peoples... Portuguese name Portuguese: Um país, dois sistemas One country, two systems is an idea originally proposed by Deng Xiaoping during the early 1980s, then Paramount Leader of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), for the reunification of China. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... A constitution is a system, often codified in a written document, which establishes the rules and principles by which an organization is governed. ... The Standing Committee of the National Peoples Congress (NPCSC; Chinese: 全国人民代表大会常务委员会, pinyin: Quánguó Rénmín Dàibiǎo Dàhuì Chángwù Wěiyuánhuì) is a committee of about 150 members of the National Peoples Congress (NPC) of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), which...


The primary institutions of government are: The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Separation of powers is a term coined by French political Enlightenment thinker Baron de Montesquieu[1][2], is a model for the governance of democratic states. ...

The implementation of the Basic Law and universal suffrage have been major issues of political debate since the transfer of sovereignty. In 2002, the government's proposed anti-subversion bill pursuant to Article 23 of the Basic Law, which required the enactment of laws prohibiting acts of treason and subversion against the Chinese government, was met with fierce opposition, and eventually shelved.[19][42][43] Debate between pro-Beijing groups and Pan-democracy camp characterises Hong Kong's political scene, with the latter supporting a faster pace of democratisation.[44] The Executive Council (ExCo) of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the Peoples Republic of China is an organ in the Executive branch of the political structure of Hong Kong. ... Other Hong Kong topics Culture - Economy Education - Geography - History Hong Kong Portal The Chief Executive (traditional Chinese: ) of Hong Kong is the head of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the Peoples Republic of China, and represents the region. ... Other Hong Kong topics Culture - Economy Education - Geography - History Hong Kong Portal This page discusses the college of electors in Hong Kong politics. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with State Council of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Hong Kong civil service is managed by 11 policy bureaux in the Government Secretariat, and 67 departments and agencies, mostly staffed by civil servants. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Meritocracy is a system of a government or another organization wherein appointments are made *who* makes the appointments - ultimately, it is the people (all members of the group). ... The Legislative Council (abbreviated as LegCo; Chinese: 立法會, Pinyin: LìfÇŽ Huì; formerly 立法局, LìfÇŽ Jú) is the unicameral legislature of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Universal suffrage (also general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to all adults, without distinction as to race, sex, belief, intelligence, or economic or social status. ... A functional constituency, in Hong Kong politics, refers to professional and special interest groups involved in the electoral process. ... The President of the Legislative Council is the speaker of the Legislative Council of Hong Kong. ... It has been suggested that Speakers of the House be merged into this article or section. ... The Judiciary of Hong Kong is responsible for the administration of justice in Hong Kong. ... The High Court (Traditional Chinese: ) in Hong Kong consists of the Court of Appeal and the Court of First Instance. ... The Court of Final Appeal (終審法院) is the court with the final adjudication power on laws of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the Peoples Republic of China . ... The Court of First Instance is one of two courts in the High Court (formerly known as the Supreme Court) structure in Hong Kong. ... The District Courts are the lower court system in Hong Kong, have both criminal and civil jurisdictions. ...

Legal system and judiciary

In contrast to mainland China's civil law system, Hong Kong continues to follow the English Common Law tradition established during British rule. Her legal system is completely independent from the legal system of China.[45] Hong Kong's courts are permitted to refer to decisions rendered by courts of other common law jurisdictions as precedents,[15] and judges from other common law jurisdictions are allowed to sit as non-permanent judges of the Court of Final Appeal.[15] The legal system of Hong Kong is based on the rule of law and the independence of the Judiciary. ... The Judiciary of Hong Kong is responsible for the administration of justice in Hong Kong. ... The night view of the Central as viewed from Tsim Sha Tsui on the opposite side of the Victoria Harbour Central (Chinese: 中環; Jyutping: zung1 waan4; Cantonese IPA: ; Pinyin: Zhōnghuán) is an area located in Central and Western District, Hong Kong Island, Hong Kong. ... For specific national Supreme Courts, see Category:National supreme courts. ... For other uses of civil law, see civil law. ... The common-law legal system forms a major part of the law of many countries, especially those with a history as British territories or colonies. ... Precedent is the principle in law of using the past in order to assist in current interpretation and decision-making. ...


Structurally, Hong Kong's court system consists of the Court of Final Appeal, the High Court, which is made up of the Court of Appeal and the Court of First Instance, and the District Court, which includes the Family Court.[41] Other adjudicative bodies include the Lands Tribunal, the Magistrates' Courts, the Juvenile Court, the Coroner's Court, the Labour Tribunal, the Small Claims Tribunal, and the Obscene Articles Tribunal.[41] Justices of the Court of Final Appeal are appointed by Hong Kong's Chief Executive.[15] The Family Court deals with cases relating to divorces and welfare maintenance for children. ...


The Department of Justice is the government department responsible for handling legal matters, and its responsibilities involve providing legal advice to the government, criminal prosecution, civil representation, legal and policy drafting and reform, and international legal cooperation between different jurisdictions.[45] Apart from prosecuting criminal cases, lawyers of the Department of Justice also appear in court on behalf of the government in all civil and administrative lawsuits against the government.[45] As protector of the public interest, it may apply for judicial reviews and may intervene in any cases involving greater public interest.[46] The Basic Law, which serves as the constitutional document of the Hong Kong SAR, protects the Department of Justice from any interference by the government when exercising its control over criminal prosecution.[47] This department replaced the former Legal Department (律政司) of the colonial government of Hong Kong. ... Public interest is a term used to denote political movements and organizations that are in the public interest—supporting general public and civic causes, in opposition of private and corporate ones (particularistic goals). ... Judicial review is the power of a court to review the actions of public sector bodies in terms of their legality or constitutionality. ...

Administrative districts

New Territories Islands Kwai Tsing North Sai Kung Sha Tin Tai Po Tsuen Wan Tuen Mun Yuen Long Kowloon Kowloon City Kwun Tong Sham Shui Po Wong Tai Sin Yau Tsim Mong Hong Kong Island Central and Western Eastern Southern Wan Chai Islands Islands Islands Islands Islands Islands Islands Islands Islands Islands Islands Kwai Tsing North Sai Kung Sai Kung Sai Kung Sai Kung Sai Kung Sai Kung Sai Kung Sha Tin Tai Po Tai Po Tai Po Tai Po Tai Po Tai Po Tsuen Wan Tsuen Wan Tsuen Wan Tuen Mun Tuen Mun Tuen Mun Tuen Mun Yuen Long Kowloon City Kwun Tong Sham Shui Po Wong Tai Sin Yau Tsim Mong Central and Western Eastern Southern Southern Wan ChaiThe main territory of Hong Kong consists of a peninsula bordered to the north by Guangdong province, an island to the south east of the peninsula, and a smaller island to the south. These areas are surrounded by numerous much smaller islands.

Hong Kong has a unitary system of government, no local government exists since the two municipal councils were abolished in 2000. As such there is no formal definition for its cities and towns. Administratively, Hong Kong is subdivided into 18 geographic districts, each represented by a district council whose role is to advise the government on local matters such as public facilities, community programmes, cultural activities and environmental improvements.[50] A major road, Kwong Fuk Road in Tai Po, a town in the New Territories. ... The Islands District (離島區) is one of the 18 districts of Hong Kong. ... Kwai Tsing (Chinese: 葵青區, Jyutping: kwai4 cing1 keoi1, pinyin: kuí qÄ«ng qÅ«) is one of the 18 districts of Hong Kong. ... Location within the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Click here for satellite image) District Council Chairman Lau Tin-sang Constituencies 16 Area   â€“Land   â€“Water 168 km² km² km² Population   â€“Total (2006)   â€“Density 280,730 2,055/km² Latitude Longitude Official website: North District Council North District (Traditional Chinese: ) is the... Sai Kung (西貢; pinyin: Xi1gong4; Cantonese: sai1 gung3) is the second-largest of the 18 districts of Hong Kong. ... District slogan: none Location within Hong Kong S.A.R. (Click here for satellite image) District Council Chairman WAI Kwok-hung, JP Area   â€“Land   â€“Water 60 km² km² km² Population   â€“Total (2001)   â€“Density > 600,000 /km² Latitude Longitude 22°39 N 114°21 E Official website: Sha Tin District Council... Location within the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region ([ Click here for satellite image]) District Council Chairman Cheng Chun-ping, JP Constituencies 19 Area   â€“Land   â€“Water 148. ... Tsuen Wan (荃灣區) is one of the 18 districts of Hong Kong. ... For a town in Hong Kong, see Tuen Mun. ... Yuen Long District (元朗區, Jyutping: jyun4 long5, pinyin: YuánlÇŽng, used to be known as Un Long), is one of the districts of Hong Kong located in the northwest of the New Territories. ... In modern day Hong Kong, Kowloon refers to the urban area made up of Kowloon Peninsula and New Kowloon, bordered by the Lei Yue Mun strait in the east, Mei Foo Sun Chuen and Stonecutters Island in the west, Tates Cairn and Lion Rock in the north, and... Sovereign state  Peoples Republic of China Administrative region  Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Location within the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Satellite image) District Officer Miss Agnes Wong, JP Constituencies 22 Area   â€“Land   â€“Water 9. ... Sovereign state  Peoples Republic of China Administrative region  Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Location within the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region ([{{{google}}} Satellite image]) District Council Chairman Chan Chung-bun, BBS, JP Constituencies 34 Area   â€“Land   â€“Water 11. ... Sham Shui Po District (深水埗區) is one of 18 districts of Hong Kong. ... Wong Tai Sin (黃大仙; Pinyin Huang2da4xian1) is one of the 18 districts of Hong Kong. ... Sovereign state  Peoples Republic of China Administrative region  Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Location within the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Satellite image) District Council Chairman Chan Man-yu Constituencies 16 Area   â€“Land   â€“Water 6. ... Location within the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Click here for satellite image) District Council Chairman Chan Tak-chor Constituencies 15 Area   â€“Land   â€“Water 12. ... The Eastern district (東區) is one of the 18 districts of Hong Kong. ... The Southern District (南區) is one of the 18 districts of Hong Kong. ... ... The territory of Hong Kong is divided in 18 administrative districts (Population as of 2000) Hong Kong Island Central and Western (274,400) Eastern (620,800) Southern (282,400) Wan Chai (190,300) Kowloon (New Kowloon included) Kowloon City (406,000) Kwun Tong (564,700) Sham Shui Po (372,200... A unitary authority is a type of local authority, which has a single tier and is responsible for all local government functions within its area. ... Local governments are administrative offices that are smaller than a state. ... The following is a list of cities, towns and new towns in Hong Kong. ... The District Councils (區議會 and formerly District Boards) are district organizations in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR). ...


There are a total of 534 district councils seats, 405 of which are elected, while the rest are appointed by the Chief Executive and 27 ex officio chairmen of rural committees.[50] The government's Home Affairs Department communicates government policies and plans to the public through the district offices.[51] This page includes English translations of several Latin phrases and abbreviations such as . ... Home Affairs Department - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...

Military

As a British Colony and later territory, defence was provided by the British military under the command of the Governor of Hong Kong who was ex officio Commander-in-chief.[52] When the People's Republic of China assumed sovereignty in 1997, the British barracks were replaced by a garrison of the People's Liberation Army, comprising ground, naval, and air forces, and under the command of the Chinese Central Military Commission.[18] Hong Kong Military Service Corps (HKMSC) (Chinese: 香港軍事服務團) was a British army unit and part of the British garrison in Hong Kong (see British Forces Overseas Hong Kong). ... The Hong Kong Garrison of the Peoples Liberation Army entering Hong Kong for the first time in 1997. ... Location of the British Overseas Territories The British Overseas Territories are fourteen[1] territories which the United Kingdom considers to be under its sovereignty, but not as part of the United Kingdom itself. ... The armed forces of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the British Armed Forces or Her Majestys Armed Forces, and sometimes legally the Armed Forces of the Crown[1], encompasses a navy, army, and an air force. ... Flag of the Governor of Hong Kong, 1959–1997 The Governor of Hong Kong (Traditional Chinese: ; abbreviated 港督) was a British official who ruled Hong Kong during the colonial period between 1841 and 1997 and was ex-officio Commander-in-Chief and Vice-Admiral of Hong Kong. ... Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ... The Military of Hong Kong consists of the Hong Kong Garrison of the Peoples Republic of Chinas Peoples Liberation Army (or PLA). ... The Central Military Commission (Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) refers to one of two bodies within the Peoples Republic of China, either to the Central Military Commission of the Peoples Republic of China, a state organ, or the Central Military Commission of the Communist Party, a party organ. ...


The Basic Law protects local civil affairs against interference by the garrison, and members of the garrison are made subject to Hong Kong laws. The Hong Kong Government remains responsible for the maintenance of public order; however, it may request the PRC government for help from the garrison in maintaining public order and in disaster relief. The PRC government is responsible for the costs of maintaining the garrison.[19]

Geography and climate

natural slopes with conurbation in the distance
The hilly terrain of Kowloon and Hong Kong Island
Topographical satellite image with enhanced colours showing areas of vegetation and conurbation. Purple areas around the coasts indicate the areas of urban development.
Areas of urban development and vegetation are visible in this false-colour satellite image.

Hong Kong is located on China's south coast, 60 km (37 mi) east of Macau on the opposite side of the Pearl River Delta. It is surrounded by the South China Sea on the east, south, and west, and borders the Guangdong city of Shenzhen to the north over the Shenzhen River. The territory's 1,104 km2 (426 sq mi) area consists of Hong Kong Island, the Kowloon Peninsula, the New Territories, and over 200 offshore islands, of which the largest is Lantau Island. Of the total area, 1,054 km2 (407 sq mi) is land and 50 km2 (19 sq mi) is inland water. In addition Hong Kong claims territorial waters to a distance of 3 nautical miles (5.6 km). The land area makes Hong Kong the 179th largest inhabited territory in the world.[3][8] Other Hong Kong topics Culture - Economy Education - History - Politics Hong Kong Portal The Geography of Hong Kong primarily consists of three main territories: Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and the New Territories. ... Other Hong Kong topics Culture - Economy Education - History - Politics Hong Kong Portal The climate of Hong Kong is a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cwa), just short of being a tropical wet-and-dry climate. ... In modern day Hong Kong, Kowloon refers to the urban area made up of Kowloon Peninsula and New Kowloon, bordered by the Lei Yue Mun strait in the east, Mei Foo Sun Chuen and Stonecutters Island in the west, Tates Cairn and Lion Rock in the north, and... Map of Pearl River Delta (details) The Pearl River Delta Region (PRD) in China occupies the low-lying areas alongside the Pearl River estuary where the Pearl river flows into the South China Sea. ... Filipino name Tagalog: Timog Dagat Tsina (Dagat Luzon for the portion within Philippine waters) Malay name Malay: Laut China Selatan Portuguese name Portuguese: Mar da China Meridional Vietnamese name Vietnamese: The South China Sea is a marginal sea south of China. ... The Kowloon Peninsula, commonly referred to as Kowloon, is a peninsula, in the south of the mainland part of the Hong Kong territory. ... A major road, Kwong Fuk Road in Tai Po, a town in the New Territories. ... Map of Lantau Island, Hong Kong Lantau Island, also Lantao, based on the old local name of Lantau Peak (Traditional Chinese: ; lit. ... Map of Sealand and the United Kingdom, with territorial water claims of 3nm and 12nm shown. ... Countries by area. ...


As much of Hong Kong's terrain is hilly to mountainous with steep slopes, less than 25% of the territory's landmass is developed, and about 40% of the remaining land area is reserved as country parks and nature reserves.[53] Most of the territory's urban development exists on Kowloon peninsula, along the northern edge of Hong Kong Island and in scattered settlements throughout the New Territories.[54] The highest elevation in the territory is at Tai Mo Shan, at a height of 957 metres (3,140 ft) above sea level.[55] Hong Kong's long, irregular and curvaceous coast line provides it with many bays, rivers and beaches.[56] Although Hong Kong is regarded as one of the worlds great cities, out of the total 1,092 km² of land, about three-quarters is countryside. ... A nature reserve is an area of importance for wildlife, flora, fauna or features of geological or other special interest, which is reserved and managed for conservation and to provide special opportunities for study or research. ... Urban, city, or town planning, deals with design of the built environment from the municipal and metropolitan perspective. ... Tai Mo Shan Road, and Tai Mo Shan peak in distance Tai Mo Shan capped in the mist Tai Po, as seen from top of Tai Mo Shan. ... Hong Kong has a long coastline which is full of twists and turns with many bays and beaches. ...


Despite Hong Kong's reputation of being intensely urbanised, the territory has made much effort to promote a green environment,[57] and recent growing public concern has prompted the severe restriction of further land reclamation from Victoria Harbour. Awareness of the environment is growing as Hong Kong suffers from increasing pollution compounded by its geography and tall buildings. Approximately 80% of the city's smog originates from other parts of the Pearl River Delta.[58] Urbanization is the degree of or increase in urban character or nature. ... Air pollution is considered serious problem in Hong Kong. ...


Situated just south of the Tropic of Cancer, Hong Kong's climate is humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cwa). Summer is hot and humid with occasional showers and thunderstorms, and warm air coming from the southwest. It is also the time when typhoons are most likely, sometimes resulting in flooding or landslides. Winter weather usually starts sunny and becomes cloudier towards February, with the occasional cold front bringing strong, cooling winds from the north. The most pleasant seasons are spring, although changeable, and autumn, which is generally sunny and dry.[59] Hong Kong averages 1,948 hours of sunshine per year,[60] while the highest and lowest ever recorded temperatures at the Hong Kong Observatory are 36.1 °C (97.0 °F) and 0.0 °C (32.0 °F), respectively.[61] For the novel by Henry Miller, see Tropic of Cancer (novel). ... The humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa) is a climate zone characterized by hot, humid summers and chilly to mild winters. ... Köppen climate classification The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. ... This article is about weather phenomena. ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ...

panorama: looking down on a city of skyscrapers, land mass in the distance separated by a body of water
A view from Hong Kong Island, looking north over Central district, the harbour and Kowloon
Climate data for Hong Kong
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 18.6
(65.5)
18.6
(65.5)
21.5
(70.7)
25.1
(77.2)
28.4
(83.1)
30.4
(86.7)
31.3
(88.3)
31.1
(88)
30.2
(86.4)
27.7
(81.9)
24.0
(75.2)
20.3
(68.5)
25.6
(78.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) 16.1
(61)
16.3
(61.3)
18.9
(66)
22.5
(72.5)
25.8
(78.4)
27.9
(82.2)
28.7
(83.7)
28.4
(83.1)
27.6
(81.7)
25.3
(77.5)
21.4
(70.5)
17.8
(64)
23.1
(73.6)
Average low °C (°F) 14.1
(57.4)
14.4
(57.9)
16.9
(62.4)
20.6
(69.1)
23.9
(75)
26.1
(79)
26.7
(80.1)
26.4
(79.5)
25.6
(78.1)
23.4
(74.1)
19.4
(66.9)
15.7
(60.3)
21.1
(70)
Rainfall mm (inches) 24.9
(0.98)
52.3
(2.059)
71.4
(2.811)
188.5
(7.421)
329.5
(12.972)
388.1
(15.28)
374.4
(14.74)
444.6
(17.504)
287.5
(11.319)
151.9
(5.98)
35.1
(1.382)
34.5
(1.358)
2,382.7
(93.807)
Humidity 73 78 82 83 84 82 81 82 79 74 70 69 78.1
Avg. rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm) 5.60 9.47 10.47 11.67 15.47 18.77 17.77 17.43 14.80 8.10 5.67 4.27 139.49
Sunshine hours 141.7 93.8 89.6 101.8 138.6 158.3 214.9 189.7 171.8 191.1 178.2 173.3 1,842.9
Source: Hong Kong Observatory [62]

Economy

Hong Kong was once described by Milton Friedman as the world’s greatest experiment in laissez-faire capitalism[63], and it maintains a highly developed capitalist economy, ranked the freest in the world by the Index of Economic Freedom for 15 consecutive years.[64][65][66] It is an important centre for international finance and trade, with one of the greatest concentration of corporate headquarters in the Asia-Pacific region, and is known as one of the Four Asian Tigers for its high growth rates and rapid development between the 1960s and 1990s. In addition, Hong Kong's gross domestic product, between 1961 and 1997, has grown by 180 times while per capita GDP rose by 87 times.[67][68][69] This article is about precipitation. ... The term humidity is usually taken in daily language to refer to relative humidity. ... The Economy of Hong Kong is widely believed, and some argue incorrectly, to be the most economically free in the world. ... International Finance Centre (abbr. ... The night view of the Central as viewed from Tsim Sha Tsui on the opposite side of the Victoria Harbour Central (Chinese: 中環; Jyutping: zung1 waan4; Cantonese IPA: ; Pinyin: Zhōnghuán) is an area located in Central and Western District, Hong Kong Island, Hong Kong. ... Milton Friedman (July 31, 1912 – November 16, 2006) was an American Nobel Laureate economist and public intellectual. ... Laissez-faire is short for laissez faire, laissez passer, a French phrase meaning to let things alone, let them pass. First used by the eighteenth century Physiocrats as an injunction against government interference with trade, it is now used as a synonym for strict free market economics. ... In economics, a capitalist is someone who owns capital, presumably within the economic system of capitalism. ... Map of Economic Freedom released by the Heritage Foundation. ... Korean name Hangul: Skyline of Central, Hong Kongs financial centre (viewed from Victoria Peak, Hong Kong) Seoul, the capital of South Korea The skyline of Singapores town area at dusk. ... GDP redirects here. ...


The Hong Kong Stock Exchange is the sixth largest in the world, with a market capitalisation of US$2.97 trillion as at October 2007. In 2009, Hong Kong raised 22 percent of worldwide IPO capital, making it the largest centre of initial public offerings in the world.[70] Hong Kong's currency is the Hong Kong dollar, which has been pegged to the U.S. dollar since 1983.[71] Market capitalization, often abbreviated to market cap, mkt. ... USD redirects here. ... IPO redirects here. ... // A currency board is a monetary authority which is required to maintain an exchange rate with a foreign currency. ...


The Government of Hong Kong has traditionally played a mostly passive role in the economy, with little by way of industrial policy and almost no import or export controls. Market forces and the private sector were allowed to determine practical development. Under the official policy of "positive non-interventionism", Hong Kong is often cited as an example of laissez-faire capitalism. Following the Second World War, Hong Kong industrialised rapidly as a manufacturing centre driven by exports, and then underwent a rapid transition to a service-based economy in the 1980s.[72] There were always, however, significant deviations from pure market theory, with a government monopoly on the supply of land, and very tight concentrations of business activity in some sectors, as well as the monopolistic Jockey Club.[63] An industrial policy is any government regulation or law that encourages the ongoing operation of, or investment in, a particular industry. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Positive non-interventionism is the economic policy of Hong Kong rasied by Charles Philip Haddon-Cave in 1980 (or by John James Cowperthwaite in 1971). ... Laissez-faire capitalism is, roughly stated, the doctrine that the free market functions to the greatest good when left unfettered and unregulated by government. ...


Hong Kong matured to become a financial centre in the 1990s, but was greatly affected by the Asian financial crisis in 1998, and again in 2003 by the SARS outbreak. A revival of external and domestic demand has led to a strong recovery, as cost decreases strengthened the competitiveness of Hong Kong exports and a long deflationary period ended.[73][74]


However, initiated by the later colonial governments and continued since 1997, government intervention has steadily increased, with the introduction of export credit guarantees, a compulsory pension scheme, a minimum wage, anti-discrimination laws and a state mortgage backer.[63] Export Credit Agencies (ECAs) are national public institutions which act as finance companies for private domestic entities who do business abroad. ... Mandatory Provident Fund (Traditional Chinese: ), often abbreviated as MPF (強積金), is a compulsory saving scheme for the retirement of residents in Hong Kong. ... The minimum wage is the minimum rate a worker can legally be paid (usually per hour) as opposed to wages that are determined by the forces of supply and demand in a free market. ... President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964. ...


The territory has little arable land and few natural resources, so it imports most of its food and raw materials. Hong Kong is the world's eleventh largest trading entity,[75] with the total value of imports and exports exceeding its gross domestic product. Hong Kong is the world's largest re-export centre.[76] Much of Hong Kong's exports consist of re-exports, which are products made outside of the territory, especially in mainland China, and distributed via Hong Kong. Even before the transfer of sovereignty, Hong Kong had established extensive trade and investment ties with the mainland, and now enables it to serve as a point of entry for investment flowing into the mainland. At the end of 2007, there were 3.46 million people employed full-time, with the unemployment rate averaging 4.1%, the fourth straight year of decline.[77] Hong Kong's economy is dominated by the service sector, which accounts for over 90% of its GDP, while industry now constitutes just 9%. Inflation was at 2% in 2007, and Hong Kong's largest export markets are mainland China, the United States, and Japan.[3][78]


As of 2009, Hong Kong is the fifth most expensive city for expatriates, behind Tokyo, Osaka, Moscow, and Geneva. In 2008, Hong Kong was ranked sixth, and in 2007, it was ranked fifth.[79] In 2009, Hong Kong was ranked third in the Ease of Doing Business Index.[80] This is a list of the worlds most expensive cities, according to the Mercer Human Resource Consulting Cost of Living Surveys. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Osaka (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Geneva (disambiguation). ... World map of the Ease of Doing Business Index. ...

Demographics

busy street scene at night, with lit advertising panels
Hong Kong is one of the most densely populated areas in the world, at 6,200 people per km².

The territory's population is 7.03 million. In 2009, Hong Kong had a low birth rate of 11.7 per 1,000 population and a fertility rate of 1,032 children per 1,000 women.[81] However, the population in Hong Kong continues to grow due to the influx of immigrants from mainland China, approximating 45,000 per year. A daily quota of 150 people from Mainland China with family ties in Hong Kong are granted a 'one way permit'.[82] Life expectancy in Hong Kong is 79.8 years for males and 86.1 years for females, as of 2009, among the highest in the world. Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... The Big Buddha, on Lantau Island, Hong Kong Tian Tan Buddha from afar Buddhistic statues praising the Tian Tan Buddha Tian Tan Buddha (Traditional Chinese: ) is a large bronze statue of the Buddha, completed in 1993, and located at Ngong Ping, Lantau Island, in Hong Kong. ... Map of Lantau Island, Hong Kong Lantau Island, also Lantao, based on the old local name of Lantau Peak (Traditional Chinese: ; lit. ... Hong Kong is one of the most densely populated areas in the world with an overall density of some 6,300 people per square kilometre. ...


About 95% of the people of Hong Kong are of Chinese descent,[83] the majority of whom are Cantonese, Taishanese, Hakka and Chiu Chow. Hong Kong's Han majority originate mainly from the two regions of Guangzhou and Taishan areas in Guangdong Province.[5] The remaining 5% of the population is composed of non-ethnic Chinese forming a highly visible group despite their smaller numbers.[83] In addition, there are in excess of 300,000 foreign domestic helpers from Indonesia and the Philippines, according to official figures.[84] Cantonese people (Traditional Chinese: 廣東人; Simplified Chinese: 广东人; Pinyin: GuÇŽngdōng rén; Jyutping: gwong2 dung1 yan4), broadly speaking, are persons originating from the present-day Guangdong province in southern China. ... Hakka (Chinese: 客家; pinyin: kèjiā, literal meaning guest families) are a Han Chinese people whose ancestors are said to originate from around Henan and Shanxi in northern China over 2700 years ago. ... The Teochew are a subgroup of the Han Chinese people who primarily live in coastal eastern Guangdong in China, and represent one of the three major ethnic groups in the province. ... CITIC Plaza Guangzhou (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin:  ; jyutping : Gwong²zau¹) is the capital and a sub-provincial city of Guangdong Province in the southern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Taishan (台山; Mandarin: Táishān; Cantonese: Toisan; Taishanese: Hoisan, Other: Toishan, Toisaan) is a coastal county-level city in Guangdong Province, China. ... Not to be confused with the former Kwantung Leased Territory in north-eastern China. ... Foreign domestic helpers meeting on their typical Sunday day of rest at Statue Square in Central. ...


Taishanese Cantonese have played a major role in Hong Kong's success that they have dominated in Hong Kong's Entertainment Industry, such as Lai Man-Wai (Father of Hong Kong Cinema), Andy Lau, Joey Yung, Beyond (band), Kenny Kwan and Eric Tsang, and Hong Kong's Business Industry, such as Bank of East Asia (東亞銀行), Lee Kum Kee (李錦記), Hang Lung Properties, Maxim's Catering (美心), Hysan Development Company Limited and Li & Fung (利豐) just to name a few. Lai Man-Wai (黎民偉) (1893 - 1953), now known as Father of Hong Kong Cinema, was the director of the first Hong Kong movie Zhuangzi Tests His Wife (莊子試妻) in 1913. ... Andy Lau Tak-Wah (born September 27, 1961) is a Hong Kong Cantopop star, movie actor and producer. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Beyond was a famous rock band in Hong Kong that was founded in 1983. ... Kenny Kwan Chi-Bun (Traditional Chinese: 關智斌, born December 30, 1980 in the Philippines) is a Hong Kong singer. ... Eric Tsang Chi-wai (Chinese: ; pinyin: ZÄ“ng ZhìwÄ›i; born April 14, 1953) is a prolific Hong Kong actor, film director, film producer and television host best known for hosting the Super Trio Series on TVB over the course of 10 years. ... The Bank of East Asia (Traditional Chinese: 東亞銀行) (HKSE: 0023) often abbreviated to BEA, is the largest independent chinese bank in Hong Kong. ... Image:Lee Kum Kee. ... Maxims Food Production Centre in Hong Kongs Tai Po Industrial Estate. ... Under Construction This Page is undergoing Construction, please be patient Hysan Development Company Limited Established in the 1920s by Lee Hysan and the Lee family, as a property investment, development and management company. ... Li & Fung (Trading) Limited is a premier global trading group managing the supply chain for high-volume, time-sensitive consumer goods. ...


There is a South Asian population of Indians, Pakistanis and Nepalese. Some Vietnamese refugees have become permanent residents of Hong Kong. There are also a number of Europeans (mostly British), Americans, Australians, Canadians, Japanese, and Koreans working in the city's commercial and financial sector.[85] Residents from mainland China do not have the right of abode in Hong Kong, nor are they allowed to enter the territory freely.[42] An anti-discrimination poster in Admiralty MTR station illustrates a few targeted South Asian cultures. ... For other uses, see Boat people (disambiguation). ... ...


Hong Kong's de facto official language is Cantonese, a Chinese language originating from Guangdong Province to the north of Hong Kong.[86] English is also an official language, and according to a 1996 by-census is spoken by 3.1% of the population as an everyday language and by 34.9% of the population as a second language.[87] Signs displaying both Chinese and English are common throughout the territory. Since the 1997 handover, an increase in immigrants from mainland China and greater integration with the mainland economy have brought an increasing number of Mandarin speakers to Hong Kong.[88] Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngw n) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: H nyǔ, Hu yǔ, or Zhōngw n) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... Guangdong (Simplified Chinese: 广东; Traditional Chinese: 廣東; pinyin: Guǎngdōng; Wade-Giles: Kuang-tung; Kwangtung in older transliteration; Cantonese: gwong2 dung1), is a province on the south coast of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Map of eastern China and Taiwan, showing the historic distribution of Mandarin Chinese in light brown. ...


Hong Kong enjoys a high degree of freedom, guaranteed by the Basic Law. 90% of Hong Kong's population practises a mix of local religions,[3] most prominently Buddhism (mainly Chinese Mahayana), Confucianism, and Taoism.[89][90][91] A Christian community of around 600,000 exists,[92][93] forming about 8% of the total population, and is nearly equally divided between Catholics and Protestants, although other, smaller Christian communities exist including the Latter-Day Saints[94] and Jehovah's Witnesses.[95] There are also Sikh, Muslim, Jewish, Hindu and Bahá'í communities.[92] Religious freedom after the 1997 handover is guaranteed under the Basic Law. The practice of Falun Gong is tolerated; the Anglican and Roman Catholic churches each freely appointing its own bishops, unlike in mainland China.[96] Religion in Hong Kong is part and parcel of the culture of Hong Kong. ... Buddhism is a Dharmic religion and philosophy[1] with between 230 to 500 million adherents worldwide. ... Seated Buddha, from the Chinese Tang Dynasty, Hebei province, ca. ... A Confucian temple in Wuwei, Peoples Republic of China. ... Taoism (pronounced or ; also spelled Daoism) refers to a variety of related philosophical and religious traditions and concepts. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... For other uses, see The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (disambiguation). ... Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ), founded on the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev and nine successive gurus in fifteenth century Northern India, is the fifth-largest religion in the world. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Hinduism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia var skin=vector, stylepath=http://bits. ... This article is about the generally recognized global religious community. ... The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen guarantees freedom of religion, as long as religious activities do not infringe on public order in ways detrimental to society. ... Falun Gong, (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; literally Practice of the Wheel of Law) also known as Falun Dafa, (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; lit. ... Hong Kong Sheng Kung Hui (HKSKH) (Traditional Chinese:香港聖公會) is the episcopal church (Anglican Church) in Hong Kong and Macao. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ...

Society

Although statistically Hong Kong's income gap is the worst in Asia Pacific, crude measures such as the Gini coefficient mask structural changes that have enhanced economic stability and prosperity. As noted in a 1999 United Nations report [97] deterioration in the Gini coefficient since the mid-1980s was been due to structural transformations that created more high paying jobs than lower skilled ones, and – importantly – “the economic system does not entrench income disparity.” This point was reiterated by the Government Economist several times[98][99] as well as by the Director of the Census and Statistics Department.[100] Economic inequality refers to disparities in the distribution of economic assets and income. ... Map showing general definition of Asia-Pacific The term Asia-Pacific or APAC generally applies to littoral East Asia, Southeast Asia and Australasia near the Pacific Ocean, plus the states in the ocean itself (Oceania). ...

Education

3-storey red brick building with gabled roof adjacent to 7-storey modern building with flat roof
A view over the University of Hong Kong
A complex of white medium-rise buildings on a lush hillside, with a body of water in the foreground
HKUST Campus as seen from Port Shelter

Hong Kong's education system roughly follows the system in England,[101] although international systems exist. The government maintains a policy in which the medium of instruction is Cantonese (母語教學),[102] with written Chinese and English. In secondary schools, 'biliterate and trilingual' proficiency is emphasised, and Mandarin language education has been increasing.[103] The Programme for International Student Assessment ranked Hong Kong's education system as the second best in the world.[104] Education in Hong Kong has a similar system to that of the United Kingdom, in particular the English education system of Hong Kong was modernized by the British in 1861. ... The University of Hong Kong (commonly abbreviated as HKU, pronounced as Hong Kong U) is the oldest and most prestigious tertiary institution in Hong Kong. ... Education in England is the responsibility of Department for Education and Skills at national level and, in the case of publicly funded compulsory education, of Local Education Authorities. ... Medium of instruction is the language that is used in teaching. ... This article is on all of the Northern Chinese dialects. ... The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is a triennial world-wide test of 15-year-old schoolchildrens scholastic performance, the implementation of which is coordinated by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). ...


Hong Kong's public schools are operated by the Education Bureau. The system features a non-compulsory three-year kindergarten, followed by a compulsory six-year primary education, a three-year junior secondary education, a non-compulsory two-year senior secondary education leading to the Hong Kong Certificate of Education Examinations and a two-year matriculation course leading to the Hong Kong Advanced Level Examinations.[105] For other uses, see Kindergarten (disambiguation). ... A primary school in Český Těšín, Poland Primary education is the first stage of compulsory education. ... Secondary education - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The Hong Kong Certificate of Education Examination (HKCEE, 香港中學會考) is a standardized examination which most local students sit for at the end of their 5-year secondary education. ... Look up matriculation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Hong Kong Advanced Level Examination (HKALE, 香港高級程度會考), or more commonly known as the A-level, conducted by the Hong Kong Examinations and Assessment Authority (HKEAA), is normally taken by senior students at the end of their matriculation in Hong Kong. ...


However, starting with Form 1 students of 2006, all students receive 3 years of compulsory junior and 3 years compulsory senior secondary education. Most comprehensive schools in Hong Kong fall under three categories: the rarer public schools; the more common subsidised schools, including government aids and grant schools; and private schools, often run by Christian organisations and having admissions based on academic merit rather than on financial resources. Outside this system are the schools under the Direct Subsidy Scheme and private international schools. For the film of this title, see Private School (film). ... The Direct Subsidy Scheme is a system instituted by the Hong Kong Education and Manpower Bureau (a division of the Hong Kong government) as a means to enhance the quality of private schools in Hong Kong at the kindergarten, primary, and secondary levels. ... International schools are private schools that cater mainly to children who are not nationals of the host country, often the children of the staff of international businesses, international organizations, embassies, missions, or missionary programs. ...


There are nine public universities in Hong Kong, and a number of private higher institutions, offering various bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees, other higher diplomas and associate degree courses. The University of Hong Kong, the oldest institution of tertiary education in the territory, was referred by Quacquarelli Symonds as a "world-class comprehensive research university"[106] and was ranked 24th on the 2009 THES - QS World University Rankings,[107] making it 1st in Asia.[108] The Hong Kong University of Science & Technology and Chinese University of Hong Kong are ranked 35 and 46, respectively, making them rank 4th and 2nd, respectively, in Asia.[108] Higher Education in Hong Kong means any education higher than secondary education, including professional, technical and academic. ... The University of Hong Kong (commonly abbreviated as HKU, pronounced as Hong Kong U) is the oldest and most prestigious tertiary institution in Hong Kong. ... Students attend a lecture at a tertiary institution. ... Quacquarelli Symonds, or QS for short, is a company specializing in education and study abroad. ... The THES - QS World University Rankings is an annual publication of university rankings around the world, published by The Times Higher Education Supplement (THES) and Quacquarelli Symonds (QS). ... The idyllic HKUST campus is built on a steep hillside overlooking the South China Sea. ... CUHK Science Building, commonly known as the rice cooker The Chinese University of Hong Kong, commonly referred to as CUHK, is the second oldest university in Hong Kong; it is also the only collegiate university in the city. ...

Culture

A bronze statue on a pedestal, with the city skyline in the background. The pedestal is designed in the image of four clapperboards forming a box. The statue is of a woman wrapped in photographic film, looking straight up, with her left hand stretched upwards and holding a glass sphere containing a light.
A statue on the Avenue of Stars, a tribute to Hong Kong cinema

Hong Kong is frequently described as a place where "East meets West", reflecting the culture's mix of the territory's Chinese roots with the culture brought to it during its time as a British colony.[109] One of the more noticeable contradictions is Hong Kong's balancing of a modernised way of life with traditional Chinese practices. Concepts like feng shui are taken very seriously, with expensive construction projects often hiring expert consultants, and are often believed to make or break a business.[110] Other objects like Ba gua mirrors are still regularly used to deflect evil spirits, and buildings often lack any floor number that has a 4 in it, due to its similarity to the word for "die" in Cantonese. The fusion of east and west also characterises Hong Kong's cuisine, where dim sum, hot pot and fast food restaurants coexist with haute cuisine.[111] The culture of Hong Kong can best be described as a foundation that began with China, and then leaned West for much of the 20th century under constructive British colonialism. ... Martial artist and movie star 李小龍 Bruce Lees sculpture in the Avenue of Stars, Hong Kong The Avenue of Stars (Chinese: ), modelled on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, is located along the Victoria Harbour waterfront in Tsim Sha Tsui, Hong Kong. ... The cinema of Hong Kong is one of the three major threads in the history of Chinese language cinema, alongside the cinema of China, and the cinema of Taiwan. ... Fēng Shuǐ (風水 – literally, wind and water pronounced fung shuway), which may be more than 3000 years old, is the ancient practice of placement to achieve harmony with the environment. ... Bagua zhang (八卦掌 in pinyin: bā guà zhǎng) (Pa Kua Chang, Bagua Quan, Pa kua chüan, Bagua, Pakua, Pakua boxing) is one of the three major internal Chinese martial arts, the other two of which are Xingyiquan (形意拳) and Taijiquan (太極拳). ... In Chinese culture, certain numbers are believed by some to be auspicious (吉利) or inauspicious (不利) based on the Chinese word that the number name sounds similar to. ... Dim sum (Chinese: 點心; Cantonese IPA: dɪm2sɐm1; Pinyin: diǎnxīn; Wade-Giles: tien-hsin; literally dot heart or order heart, meaning order to ones hearts content; also commonly translated as touch the heart, dotted heart, or snack), a Cantonese term, is usually a light meal or brunch, eaten sometime... Raw meats ready to be cooked. ... Fast food is food prepared and served quickly at a fast-food restaurant or shop at low cost. ...


Hong Kong is a recognised global centre of trade, and calls itself an 'entertainment hub'.[112] Its martial arts film genre gained a high level of popularity in the late 1960s and 1970s. Several Hollywood performers and martial artists have originated from Hong Kong cinema, notably Bruce Lee, Jackie Chan, Chow Yun-fat, and Yuen Woo-ping. A number of Hong Kong film-makers have also achieved widespread fame in Hollywood, such as John Woo, Wong Kar-wai and Stephen Chow.[112] Homegrown films such as Chungking Express, Infernal Affairs, Shaolin Soccer, Rumble in the Bronx, and In the Mood for Love have gained international recognition. Hong Kong is the centre for Cantopop music, which draws its influence from other forms of Chinese music and Western genres, and has a multinational fanbase.[113] Hawaiian State Grappling Championships. ... Hollywood redirects here. ... The cinema of Hong Kong is one of the three major threads in the history of Chinese language cinema, alongside the cinema of China, and the cinema of Taiwan. ... Bruce Lee (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: Lǐ Xiǎolóng; Cantonese Yale: Léih Síulùhng; November 27, 1940 – July 20, 1973) was a Chinese-American martial artist, philosopher, instructor, and martial arts actor widely regarded as the most influential martial artist of the 20th century and a... Chan Kong-Sang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), also known as Jackie Chan Sing Lung (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) or Jackie Chan SBS, (born on April 7, 1954) is a Chinese martial artist, action star, actor, director, screenwriter, film producer, singer and stunt performer. ... Chow Yun-Fat (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) (born May 18, 1955) is a Hong Kong actor. ... Yuen Woo-ping on the set of Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon This is a Chinese name; the family name is Yuen. ... For other uses, see John Woo (disambiguation). ... Wong Kar-wai (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Cantonese Yale: Wòhng Gà Waih; Shanghainese Latin method: Wan Kawe; born July 17, 1958) is a Hong Kong film director known for his visually unique, highly stylized art films. ... Stephen Chow Sing-Chi, born June 22, 1962, is a Hong Kong scriptwriter, film director, producer and actor. ... Chungking Express (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally Chongqing jungle) is a 1994 Hong Kong film written and directed by Wong Kar-wai. ... For other uses of internal affairs, see internal affairs. ... Shaolin Soccer is a 2001 Hong Kong comedy film directed by acclaimed Hong Kong comedian, actor and director, Stephen Chow. ... Rumble in the Bronx (紅番區; Hong faan kui in Cantonese) is an action-comedy movie starring Jackie Chan and Anita Mui. ... In the Mood for Love is a 2000 Hong Kong art film directed by Wong Kar-wai, starring Maggie Cheung and Tony Leung Chiu Wai. ... Cantopop (Chinese: 粵語流行曲) is a colloquial portmanteau for Cantonese popular music. It is also referred to as HK-pop, short for Hong Kong popular music. It is categorized as a subgenre of Chinese popular music within C-pop. ... Music of China appears to date back to the dawn of Chinese civilization, and documents and artifacts provide evidence of a well-developed musical culture as early as the Zhou Dynasty (1122 BC _ 256 BC). ...


The Hong Kong government supports cultural institutions such as the Hong Kong Heritage Museum, the Hong Kong Museum of Art, the Hong Kong Academy for Performing Arts, and the Hong Kong Philharmonic Orchestra. Also, the government's Leisure and Cultural Services Department subsidises and sponsors international performers brought to Hong Kong. Many international cultural activities are organised by the government, consulates, and privately. The Leisure and Cultural Services Department (Chinese: 康樂及文化事務署) , often abbreviated as LCSD, is a department in the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Hong Kong has two licensed terrestrial broadcastersATV and TVB. There are three local and a number of foreign suppliers of cable and satellite services.[114] The production of Hong Kong's soap dramas, comedy series and variety shows reach audiences throughout the Chinese-speaking world. Magazine and newspaper publishers in Hong Kong distribute and print in both Chinese and English, with a focus on sensationalism and celebrity gossip. The media is relatively free from official interference compared to mainland China, although the Far Eastern Economic Review points to signs of self-censorship by journals whose owners have close ties to or business interests in the PRC, but state that even Western media outlets are not immune to growing Chinese economic power.[115] There are two free-to-air television services in Hong Kong: Asia Television Ltd (ATV): operates one English-language (World) and one Chinese-language (Home) channel. ... Asia Television Limited (logo aTV) (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) was Hong Kongs first television station under Rediffusion. ... -1... Pay Television Services in Hong Kong Hong Kong Cable Television Ltd (CableTV): controlled by Wharf Holdings, operates over one hundred channels with programmes broadcast in English, Cantonese, Putonghua and other languages. ... Media in Hong Kong is available to the public conveniently in various forms, namely: television and radio channels, newspapers, magazines and the World Wide Web. ... Censorship in the Peoples Republic of China is the limiting or suppressing of the publishing, dissemination, and viewing of certain information in the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... A cover of the then-weekly Far Eastern Economic Review in September 2003 The Far Eastern Economic Review (Chinese: 遠東經濟評論; also referred to as FEER) is an English language Asian news magazine. ...


Hong Kong offers wide recreational and competitive sport opportunities despite its limited land area. It sends delegates to international competition, namely the Olympic Games and Asian Games, and played host to the equestrian events during the 2008 Summer Olympics.[116] There are major multipurpose venues like Hong Kong Coliseum and MacPherson Stadium. Hong Kong's steep terrain and extensive trail network makes it ideal for hiking, with expansive views over the territory, and its rugged coastline provides many beaches for swimming.[117] Asian Games Logo The Asian Games, also called the Asiad, is a multi-sport event held every four years among athletes from all over Asia. ... The 2008 Summer Olympics (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad, will be celebrated from August 8, 2008, to August 24, 2008, with the opening ceremony commencing at 08:08:08 pm CST (12:08:08 UTC) at the Beijing National Stadium in... Facade of Hong Kong Coliseum. ... Hong Kong has a long coastline which is full of twists and turns with many bays and beaches. ...

Architecture

According to Emporis, there are 7,650 skyscrapers in Hong Kong, putting the city at the top of world rankings.[118] The high density and tall skyline of Hong Kong's urban area is due to a lack of available sprawl space, with the average distance from the harbour front to the steep hills of Hong Kong Island at 1.3 km (0.81 mi),[119] much of it reclaimed land. This lack of space causing demand for dense, high-rise offices and housing, has resulted in 36 of the world's 100 tallest residential buildings being in Hong Kong,[120] and more people living or working above the 14th floor than anywhere else on Earth, making it the world's most vertical city.[121][122] Bank of China Tower at night. ... For other uses, see Skyscraper (disambiguation). ... Urban density is a term used in urban planning and urban design to refer to the number of people inhabiting a given urbanized area. ... For other uses, see Skyline (disambiguation). ... Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... -1...


As a result of the lack of space and demand for construction, few older buildings remain, and the city is instead becoming a centre for modern architecture. The International Commerce Centre (ICC), at 484 m (1,588 ft) high, is the tallest building in Hong Kong and also the third tallest in the world, by height to roof measurement. [123] The tallest building prior to the ICC is Two International Finance Centre, at 415 m (1,362 ft) high.[124] Other recognisable skyline features include the HSBC Headquarters Building, the triangular-topped Central Plaza with its pyramid-shaped spire, The Center with its night-time multi-coloured neon light show, and I. M. Pei's Bank of China Tower with its sharp, angular façade. According to the Emporis website, the city skyline has the biggest visual impact of all world cities.[125] Notable remaining historical assets include the Tsim Sha Tsui Clock Tower, the Central Police Station, and the remains of Kowloon Walled City. Modern architecture, not to be confused with contemporary architecture, is a term given to a number of building styles with similar characteristics, primarily the simplification of form and the elimination of ornament. ... International Commerce Centre is a 118 story, 484 m skyscraper under construction in West Kowloon, Hong Kong; as part of the Union Square project built on top of the MTR Kowloon Station. ... Two IFC International Finance Centre (IFC) is an integrated commercial development on the waterfront of Hong Kongs Central District. ... HSBC Hong Kong Headquarters The HSBC Hong Kong headquarters building (officially HSBC Main Building) is located along the southern side of Statue Square, in Central, at the location of the old City Hall, Hong Kong (built 1869, demolished 1933). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... A screen showing financial news at The Center, an office complex in Central. ... Ieoh Ming Pei (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; b. ... West façade of the Notre-Dame de Strasbourg Cathedral A facade (or façade) is the exterior of a building – especially the front, but also sometimes the sides and rear. ... The Clock Tower The Clock Tower is a landmark in Hong Kong. ... The Central Police Station is located at Hollywood Road, in Central, Hong Kong. ... This article is about the former unique residential block in Hong Kong. ...


There are many development plans in place, including the construction of new government buildings,[126] waterfront redevelopment in Central,[127] and a series of projects in West Kowloon.[128] More high-rise development is set to take place on the other side of Victoria Harbour in Kowloon, as the 1998 closure of the nearby Kai Tak Airport lifted strict height restrictions.[129] Panorama of Tamar site Close up view of Tamar site Tamar site (添馬艦), 4. ... In modern day Hong Kong, Kowloon (九龍, Mandarin: Jiulong, lit. ... Kai Tak Airport (Traditional Chinese: ) was the international airport of Hong Kong from 1925 until 1998. ...

Daytime skyline of HK Island, with Victoria Harbour in front
A panoramic view of northern Hong Kong Island between North Point in the east (left) and Kennedy Town in the west (right)
Hong Kong Island skyline at night
A panoramic view of the Hong Kong Island skyline at night.

Transport

Hong Kong's double-decker bus

Hong Kong has a highly developed transportation network. Over 90% of daily travels (11 million) are on public transport,[130] making it the highest such percentage in the world.[131] Payment can be made using the Octopus card, a stored value system introduced by the MTR, which is now widely accepted on railways, buses and ferries, and well as accepted for cash at other outlets.[132] This article is an overview of the term Panorama. ... North Point is a mixed-use urban area on the north of Hong Kong Island in Hong Kong, between Causeway Bay and Quarry Bay. ... Kennedy Town (堅尼地城) is at the western end of Central and Western District, Hong Kong Island, Hong Kong. ... This article is an overview of the term Panorama. ... This article is about the metro system in Hong Kong. ... Hong Kong has a highly developed and sophisticated transportation network, encompassing both public and private transport. ... Obverse side of a standard adult card. ...


The city's rapid transit system, MTR, has 150 stations, which serve 3.4 million people a day.[133] Hong Kong Tramways, which has served the territory since 1904, covers the northern parts of Hong Kong Island.[134] Double-decker buses were introduced to Hong Kong in 1949, and are now almost exclusively used; single-decker buses remain in use for routes with lower demand or roads with lower load capacity. Most normal franchised bus routes in Hong Kong operate until 1 a.m. Public light buses serve most parts of Hong Kong, particularly areas where standard bus lines cannot reach or do not reach as frequently, quickly or directly. “Mass Transit” redirects here. ... This article is about the metro system in Hong Kong. ... A London AEC Routemaster, RML 2473 (JJD 473D), on route 7 approaching Ladbroke Grove tube station in April 2002. ... A green public minibus awaiting at the station at Tsim Sha Tsui. ...


The Star Ferry service, founded in 1888, operates four lines across Victoria Harbour and provides scenic views of Hong Kong's skyline for its 53,000 daily passengers.[135] It acquired iconic status following its use as a setting on The World of Suzie Wong. Travel writer Ryan Levitt considered the main Tsim Sha Tsui to Central crossing one of the most picturesque in the world.[136] Other ferry services are provided by operators serving outlying islands, new towns, Macau and cities in mainland China. Hong Kong is also famous for its junks traversing the harbour, and small kai-to ferries that serve remote coastal settlements. Lower deck of a Star Ferry in the morning Old Star Ferry Pier in Central, Hong Kong. ... Victoria Harbour The night view of the Victoria Harbour with the skyscrapers in Central behind, viewed from Tsim Sha Tsui Victoria Harbour (Traditional Chinese: 維多利亞港; Simplified Chinese: 维多利亚港; Cantonese Jyutping: wai4 do1 lei6 aa3 gong2; Mandarin Pinyin: Wéiduōlìyà Gǎng) is the harbour between the Kowloon Peninsula and the... The World of Suzie Wong is a 1957 novel written by Richard Mason, which has since been adapted into both a play and a film. ... The territory of Hong Kong consists of a mainland area and 236 islands. ... A junk is a Chinese sailing vessel. ... A kai-to carrying passengers to the outlying islands off the Sai Kung Peninsula in Hong Kong Passengers boarding a larger kai-to to Peng Chau at the Discovery Bay Kai-to pier in Nim Shue Wan. ...


Hong Kong Island's steep, hilly terrain calls for some unusual ways of getting up and down the slopes. It was initially served by sedan chair, steeply ascending the side of a mountain.[137] The Peak Tram, the first public transport system in Hong Kong, has provided vertical rail transport between Central and Victoria Peak since 1888.[138] In Central and Western district, there is an extensive system of escalators and moving pavements, including the longest outdoor covered escalator system in the world, the Mid-Levels escalator.[139] A Sedan chair, revived at the Turkish Village of the Worlds Columbian Exposition, 1893 A Sedan chair is an enclosed windowed chair with an upholstered interior suitable for a single occupant, which was carried by two porters, one in front, one behind, using wooden rails that passed through metal... The Peak Tram approaching the upper terminus The Peak Tramway (traditional Chinese: ) is a funicular railway in Hong Kong, which carries both tourists and residents to the upper levels of Hong Kong Island. ... Location within the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Click here for satellite image) District Council Chairman Chan Tak-chor Constituencies 15 Area   â€“Land   â€“Water 12. ... An entrance to the Central-Mid-levels escalator. ...


Hong Kong International Airport is a leading air passenger gateway and logistics hub in Asia and one of the world's busiest airports in terms of international passenger and cargo movement, serving more than 47 million passengers and handling 3.74 million tonnes of cargo in 2007.[140] It replaced the overcrowded Kai Tak Airport in Kowloon in 1998, and has been rated as the world's best airport in a number of surveys.[141] Over 85 airlines operate at the two-terminal airport and it is the primary hub of Cathay Pacific, Dragonair, Air Hong Kong, Hong Kong Airlines and Hong Kong Express. Kai Tak Airport (Traditional Chinese: ) was the international airport of Hong Kong from 1925 until 1998. ... Cathay Pacific Airways Limited (traditional Chinese: ; SEHK: 0293, OTCBB: CPCAY) is the largest airline and flag carrier of Hong Kong. ... For other uses of this term, see Dragonair. ... Cargo aircraft of Air Hong Kong taken in Narita Airport. ... Not to be confused with Hong Kong Airways. ... Hong Kong Express is also the title of a television drama serie produced by SBS of Korea The Hong Kong Express Airways Limited (港聯航空) is an airline based at Hong Kong International Airport. ...

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ This is the official convention employed on the Chinese text of the Hong Kong regional emblem, the text of the Hong Kong Basic Law, and the Government of Hong Kong Website, although "Hong Kong Special Administrative Region" and "Hong Kong" is also accepted.
  2. ^ The Basic Law of Hong Kong states that the official languages are "Chinese and English". Yearbook.gov.hk It does not explicitly specify the standard for "Chinese". While Standard Mandarin and Simplified Chinese characters are used as the spoken and written standards in mainland China, Cantonese and Traditional Chinese characters are the long-established de facto standards in Hong Kong. See also: Bilingualism in Hong Kong
  3. ^ a b c d "Hong Kong". The World Factbook. CIA. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/hk.html. Retrieved 16 October 2009. 
  4. ^ a b c d "Hong Kong". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2008/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2004&ey=2008&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=532&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=40&pr.y=4. Retrieved 9 October 2008. 
  5. ^ "Human Development Report 2009 – Gini Index". United Nations Development Programme. http://hdrstats.undp.org/en/indicators/161.html. Retrieved 10 November 2009. 
  6. ^ "Hong Kong, China (SAR)". United Nations Development Programme. http://hdrstats.undp.org/en/countries/country_fact_sheets/cty_fs_HKG.html. Retrieved 10 November 2009. 
  7. ^ The name was often written as Hongkong until the government adopted the current form in 1926 (Hongkong Government Gazette, Notification 479, 3 September 1926). Nevertheless, some century-old organisations still use the name, such as the Hongkong Post, Hongkong Electric and The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation. While the names of most cities in the People's Republic of China are romanised into English using Pinyin, the official English name is Hong Kong rather than the pinyin Xianggang.
  8. ^ a b "Geography and Climate, Hong Kong" (PDF). Census and Statistics Department, The Government of Hong Kong SAR. http://www.censtatd.gov.hk/FileManager/EN/Content_810/geog.pdf. Retrieved 10 January 2007. 
  9. ^ Ash, Russell (2006). The Top 10 of Everything 2007. Hamlyn. p. 78. ISBN 0-600-61532-4. 
  10. ^ "Population by Ethnicity, 2001 and 2006". Census and Statistics Department, Hong Kong Government. http://www.censtatd.gov.hk/hong_kong_statistics/statistical_tables/index.jsp?htmlTableID=139&excelID=&chartID=&tableID=139&ID=&subjectID=1. Retrieved 9 September 2008. 
  11. ^ Cicred.org
  12. ^ So, Alvin Y. Lin, Nan. Poston, Dudley L. Contributor Professor, So, Alvin Y. [2001] (2001). The Chinese Triangle of Mainland China, Taiwan and Hong Kong. Greenwood Publishing. ISBN 0-313-30869-1.
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  17. ^ "Joint Declaration of the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of the People's Republic of China on the Question of Hong Kong". 19 December 1984. http://www.cmab.gov.hk/en/issues/jd2.htm. ""The Government of the People's Republic of China declares that to recover the Hong Kong area (including Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and the New Territories, hereinafter referred to as Hong Kong) is the common aspiration of the entire Chinese people, and that it has decided to resume the exercise of sovereignty over Hong Kong with effect from 1 July 1997."" 
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  36. ^ Section 3(5) of the Sino-British Joint Declaration states that the social and economic systems and lifestyle in Hong Kong will remain unchanged, and mentions rights and freedoms ensured by law. Section 3(12) states in part, "The above-stated basic policies of the People's Republic of China ... will remain unchanged for 50 years."
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Further reading

  • Fu, Poshek and David Deser. The Cinema of Hong Kong: History, Arts, Identity. Poshek Fu, David Deser. Cambridge University Press. 2002. 346 pages. ISBN 0-521-77602-3.
  • Ngo, Tak-Wing. Hong Kong's History: State and Society Under Colonial Rule (Asia's Transformations). . Routledge. 1 August 1999. 205 pages. ISBN 0-415-20868-8.
  • Shuyong, Liu. An Outline History of Hong Kong. Liu Shuyong. 291 pages. ISBN 7-119-01946-5.
  • Tsang, Steve. A Modern History of Hong Kong (2007) excerpt and text search
  • Welsh, Frank. A Borrowed Place: The History of Hong Kong (3rfd ed. 1998), 624 pages. ISBN 1-56836-002-9.
  • Mathematical Modelling of Hong Kong Political and Economical Development. Derek Lam. Guangzhou Academic Press. 18 February 1986. 23 pages.
  • Forts and Pirates – A History of Hong Kong. Hong Kong History Society. Hyperion Books. December 1990. ISBN 962-7489-01-8.
  • Endacott, G. B., ed. An Eastern Entrepot: A Collection of Documents Illustrating the History of Hong Kong (1964) 293 pp
  • Tsang, Steve. Government and Politics: A Documentary History of Hong Kong. (1995), 312pp online edition

External links

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