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Encyclopedia > Homosexuality and Christianity
Religion and homosexuality
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Christian leaders have written about homosexual male-male sexual activities since the first decades of Christianity; female-female sexual behaviour was essentially ignored[1]. Throughout the majority of Christian history most theologians and Christian denominations have viewed homosexual behavior as immoral or sinful. However, in the past century some prominent theologians and Christian religious groups have espoused a wide variety of beliefs and practices towards homosexuals, including the establishment of some 'open and accepting' congregations that actively support LGBT members. Image File history File links Mergefrom. ... The history of early Christianity and homosexuality has been much debated. ... The relationship between religion and homosexuality varies greatly across time and place, within and between different religions and sects, and regarding different forms of homosexuality and bisexuality. ... Information regarding homosexuality in Norse paganism is scant. ... The issue of religion and sexual orientation has become a highly debated topic, involving religious morality, opinion of homosexuality, and questions of civil rights. ... Among Buddhists there is a wide diversity of opinion about homosexuality, although on the whole Buddhism does not condemn homosexuality. ... Exclusive homosexuality in Confucianism is frowned upon, while non-exclusive has been traditionally accepted. ... Hindu views of homosexuality are diverse, as Hinduism is a heterogeneous religion with no central doctrinal authority. ... For age-structured homosexuality, see Pederasty in the Middle East Islamic views on homosexuality are as varied as those of most other major religions and have changed throughout history. ... The subject of homosexuality in Judaism dates back to the Biblical book of Leviticus. ... Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public groups Organization Controversy Scientology views of homosexuality are based on the writings of L. Ron Hubbard, the founder of the Church of Scientology. ... Homosexuality in Shinto has a varied past of periods of acceptance and rejection. ... The supreme religious body of Sikhism teaches that homosexuality is unnatural and ungodly. The Sikh holy book, the Guru Granth Sahib, does not explicitly mention homosexuality. ... It is difficult to determine a single position on homosexuality in Taoism, as the term Taoism is used to describe a number of disparate religious traditions, from organised religious movements such as Quanzhen to Chinese folk religion and even a school of philosophy. ... The Unification Church views heterosexual marriage as Gods ideal (see absolute sex). ... This article belongs in one or more categories. ... Homosexuality in Voodoo is religiously acceptable and homosexuals are allowed to participate in all religious activities. ... Throughout most branches of Wicca, all sexual orientations are considered healthy and positive, provided that individual sexual relationships are healthy and loving. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Morality is a complex of principles based on cultural, religious, and philosophical concepts and beliefs, by which an individual determines whether his or her actions are right or wrong. ... For other uses, see Sin (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Historically, Christian churches have regarded homosexual sex as sinful, based on the Catholic understanding of the natural law and traditional interpretations of certain passages in the Bible. This position is today affirmed by most Christian groups, including the Catholic and Orthodox Churches, the LDS Church and most Protestant denominations, especially among Evangelicals such as the Southern Baptist Convention. However, there has been a minority who interpret these passages differently and argued that homosexuality can be seen as moral. This approach has been taken by a number of churches, notably the liberal congregations within United Church of Christ, the Methodist Church of Great Britain, the Moravian Church, the United Church of Canada, Friends General Conference, and the Anglican Church of Canada. A new denomination, the Metropolitan Community Church, has also come into existence specifically to serve the Christian LGBT community. Some mainline Protestant denominations in the United States have also removed language in their bylaws which suggest that homosexuality is a sinful state of being. The Book of Order used by the PCUSA reflects this change. Similar modifications in position can also be seen in the ELCA and Disciples of Christ. Although acceptance of sexually active GLBT laity has increased in terms of actual practice and in terms of church law, it must be noted that many of these denominations continue to limit leadership and clergy roles for GLBT persons. Fewer than 1% of all Christians belong to congregations that approbate homosexual acts. Natural law or the law of nature (Latin: lex naturalis) is an ethical theory that posits the existence of a law whose content is set by nature and that therefore has validity everywhere. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Coptic Orthodox Pope · Roman Catholic Pope Archbishop of Canterbury · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Faith... The temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints located in Salt Lake City, Utah is the largest attraction in the citys Temple Square. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... List of Christian denominations (or Denominations self-identified as Christian) ordered by historical and doctrinal relationships. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The word evangelicalism often refers to... The Southern Baptist Convention (SBC) is a United States-based cooperative ministry agency serving Baptist churches around the world. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Liberal Christianity, sometimes called... Disambiguation: This article is about the United States denomination known as United Church of Christ. ... The Methodist Church of Great Britain or British Methodist Church is the largest Wesleyan / Methodist body in the United Kingdom, with congregations across Great Britain (although more limited in Scotland). ... A Moravian is a Protestant belonging to a religious movement that originated in Moravia, Czech Republic. ... The United Church of Canada (French: lÉglise Unie du Canada) is Canadas second largest church (after the Roman Catholic Church), and its largest Protestant denomination. ... The Friends General Conference (FGC) is a Quaker organization in the unprogrammed tradition of the Religious Society of Friends which primarily serves affiliated yearly and monthly meetings in the United States. ... Anglican Church of Canada The Anglican Church of Canada (the ACC) is the Canadian branch of the Anglican Communion. ... Logo of the Metropolitan Community Churches The Metropolitan Community Church (in full, The Universal Fellowship of Metropolitan Community Churches or UFMCC, or more commonly MCC) is an international fellowship of Christian congregations. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Book of Order contains the Form of Government, Directory for Worship, and Rules of Discipline for the Presbyterian Church (USA) and is designated Part 2 of the PC(USA) Constitution. ... This article needs cleanup. ... The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America or ELCA is a mainline Protestant denomination headquarted in Chicago, Illinois. ... The insignia of the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ). ... LGBT (or GLBT) is an acronym used as a collective term to refer to lesbians, gays, bisexuals, and transgender people. ... LGBT (or GLBT) is an acronym used as a collective term to refer to lesbians, gays, bisexuals, and transgender people. ...

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Inspiration · Hermeneutics This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh to refer to its canon, which corresponds to the Protestant Old Testament. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... The canonical list of the Books of the Bible differs among Jews, and Catholic, Protestant, and Eastern Orthodox Christians, even though there is a great deal of overlap. ... A biblical canon is a list of Biblical books which establishes the set of books which are considered to be authoritative as scripture by a particular Jewish or Christian community. ... The biblical apocrypha includes texts written in the Jewish and Christian religious traditions that either were accepted into the biblical canon by some, but not all, Christian faiths, or are frequently printed in Bibles despite their non-canonical status. ... The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ... This article is about a list of ten religious commandments. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... The Resurrection—Tischbein, 1778. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The Sermon on the... In Christian tradition, the Great Commission is the instruction of the resurrected Jesus Christ to his disciples, that they spread the faith to all the world. ... The Bible has been translated into many languages. ... The efforts of translating the Bible from its original languages into over 2,000 others have spanned more than two millennia. ... Biblical inspiration is the doctrine in Christian theology concerned with the divine origin of the Bible and what the Bible teaches about itself. ... Biblical Hermeneutics, part of the broader hermeneutical question, relates to the problem of how one is to understand Holy Scripture. ...


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The Bible and homosexuality

The Bible is regarded by many Christians as inspired by God. Others view it as recording God's relationship with humanity and includes within it certain moral teachings. Passages from the Bible commonly used in the debate over homosexuality include Genesis 19:4-29, Leviticus 18 and 21, Romans 1:18-32, 1 Timothy 1:10, 1 Corinthians 6:9-10 and Jude 1:7. The arguments over these passages have centered on the extent to which these passages are still relevant; whether they refer only to certain sexual acts or to homosexual orientation; and how they should be interpreted, understood and applied. A mediæval copy of the Bible. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... A moral is a one sentence remark made at the end of many childrens stories that expresses the intended meaning, or the moral message, of the tale. ... Leviticus 18 is a chapter of the Biblical book of Leviticus. ... The Epistle to the Romans is one of the letters of the New Testament canon of the Christian Bible. ...


History of Christianity and homosexuality

The history of early Christianity and homosexuality has been much debated. ...

Early Christianity

The surviving writings of the Church Fathers about homosexual behavior declare its sinful nature. [1]. In his fourth homily on Romans [2], St. John Chrysostom argued in the fourth century that homosexual intercourse is worse than murder and so degrading that it constitutes a kind of punishment in itself, and that its enjoyment actually makes it worse, "for suppose I were to see a person running naked, with his body all besmeared with mire, and yet not covering himself, but exulting in it, I should not rejoice with him, but should rather bewail that he did not even perceive that he was doing shamefully." He also said: Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers... John Chrysostom (349– ca. ...

But nothing can there be more worthless than a man who has pandered himself. For not the soul only, but the body also of one who hath been so treated, is disgraced, and deserves to be driven out everywhere.

The Council of Ancyra (314) prescribed a penance of at least twenty years' duration for those guilty of "bestial lust" [3]. There is dispute whether this reference is to homosexuality or bestiality [4]. An important ecclesiastical synod was held at Ancyra, the seat of the Roman administration for the province of Galatia, in 314. ... Look up Bestiality in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Not everyone agrees that the wealth of condemnations are fully characteristic of early Christianity. Namely, historian John Boswell has argued that Adelphopoiesis, a Christian rite for uniting two persons of the same sex as brothers or sisters, amounted to an approved outlet for romantic and indeed sexual love between couples of the same sex. He drew attention to Saints Sergius and Bacchus, whose icon depicts the two standing together with Jesus between or behind them, a position he identifies with a pronubus or "best man". Professor John Boswell John Eastburn Boswell (March 20, 1947 - December 24, 1994), was a prominent historian and a professor at Yale University. ... According to John Boswell, the 4th century Christian martyrs Saint Sergius and Saint Bacchus were united in the ritual of adelphopoiesis. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Detail of a 7th century icon of Saints Sergius and Bacchus “Saint Sergius” redirects here. ... Look up icon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ...

Saints Sergius and Bacchus

Others have argued that the union created was more like blood brotherhood; and that this icon is a typical example of an icon depicting two saints who were martyred together, with the usual image of Christ that appears on many religious icons, and therefore that there is no indication that it depicts a wedding. In Boswell's essay The Church and the Homosexual [5], he attributes Christianity's denunciations of homosexuality to alleged rising intolerance in Europe in the 12th century, which he claims was also reflected in other ways. Saints Sergius and Bacchus. ... Saints Sergius and Bacchus. ... The Norwegian warrior Orvar-Odd bids a last farewell to his blood brother, the Swedish warrior Hjalmar, by Mårten Eskil Winge (1866). ... In traditional Christian iconography, Saints are often depicted as having halos. ... For other uses, see Martyr (disambiguation). ... Christ is the English term for the Greek word (Christós), which literally means The Anointed One. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ...

The Middle Ages

St. Thomas Aquinas
St. Thomas Aquinas

The most influential theologian of the Medieval period was Saint Thomas Aquinas, regarded by Catholics as a Doctor of the Church. His moral theology contained a strong element of teleological natural law. On his view, not all things to which a person might be inclined are "natural" in the morally relevant sense; rather, only the inclination to the full and proper expression of the human nature, and inclinations which align with that inclination, are natural. Contrary inclinations are perversions of the natural in the sense that they do seek a good, but in a way destructive of good. [6] [7] [8] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (727x800, 187 KB) Description: Title: de: Triumph des Hl. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (727x800, 187 KB) Description: Title: de: Triumph des Hl. ... The cathedral Notre Dame de Paris, a significant architectural contribution of the High Middle Ages. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225 - March 7, 1274) was a Catholic philosopher and theologian in the scholastic tradition, who gave birth to the Thomistic school of philosophy, which was long the primary philosophical approach of the Roman Catholic Church. ... In Roman Catholicism, a Doctor of the Church (Latin doctor, teacher, from Latin docere, to teach) is a saint from whose writings the whole Christian Church is held to have derived great advantage and to whom eminent learning and great sanctity have been attributed by a proclamation of a pope... Ethics is a branch of philosophy dealing with right and wrong in human behaviour. ... Teleology (telos: end, purpose) is the philosophical study of design, purpose, directive principle, or finality in nature or human creations. ... Natural law or the law of nature (Latin: lex naturalis) is an ethical theory that posits the existence of a law whose content is set by nature and that therefore has validity everywhere. ...


This view points from the natural to the Divine, because (following Aristotle) he said all people seek happiness; but according to Aquinas, happiness can only finally be attained through the Beatific Vision [9]. Therefore all sins are also against the natural law. But the natural law of many aspects of life is knowable apart from special revelation by examining the forms and purposes of those aspects. It is in this sense that Aquinas considered homosexuality unnatural, since it involves a kind of partner other than the kind to which the purpose of sexuality points. Indeed, he considered it second only to bestiality as an abuse of sexuality [10] [11]. Aristotle (Greek: Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... In Roman Catholic theology, the beatific vision is the eternal, direct perception of God enjoyed by those who are in Heaven, imparting supreme happiness or blessedness. ... Revelation of the Last Judgment by Jacob de Backer Revelation is an uncovering or disclosure via communication from the divine of something that has been partially or wholly hidden or unknown, which could not be known apart from the unveiling (Goswiller 1987 p. ...

St. Peter Damian

An earlier Doctor of the Church, St. Peter Damian, wrote the Liber Gomorrhianus, an extended attack on both homosexuality and masturbation [12]. He portrayed homosexuality as a counter-rational force undermining morality, religion, and society itself [13], and in need of strong suppression lest it spread even and especially among clergy [14]. Image File history File links StPeterDamian. ... Image File history File links StPeterDamian. ... Pietro Damiani (Saint Peter Damian, also Pier Damiani -- c. ...


Hildegard of Bingen, born seven years after the death of St. Peter Damian, reported seeing visions and recorded them in Scivias (short for Scito vias Domini, "Know the Ways of the Lord" [15]). In Book II Vision Six, she quotes God as condemning same-sex intercourse, including lesbianism; "a woman who takes up devilish ways and plays a male role in coupling with another woman is most vile in My sight, and so is she who subjects herself to such a one in this evil deed". Illumination from the Liber Scivias showing Hildegard receiving a vision and dictating to her scribe Hildegard of Bingen (German: Hildegard von Bingen; Latin: Hildegardis Bingensis; 1098 – 17 September 1179), also known as Blessed Hildegard and Saint Hildegard, was a German magistra who founded two womens communities (Rupertsberg in 1150...


Her younger contemporary Alain de Lille personified the theme of sexual sin in opposition to nature in The Complaint of Nature by having nature herself denounce sexual immorality and especially homosexuality as rebellion against her direction, terming it confusion between masculine and feminine and between subject and object. The Complaint also includes a striking description of the neglect of womanhood: Alain de Lille (Alanus de Insulis) (c. ...

Though all the beauty of man humbles itself before the fairness of woman, being always inferior to her glory; though the face of the daughter of Tyndaris is brought into being and the comeliness of Adonis and Narcissus, conquered, adores her; for all this she is scorned, although she speaks as beauty itself, though her godlike grace affirms her to be a goddess, though for her the thunderbolt would fail in the hand of Jove, and every sinew of Apollo would pause and lie inactive, though for her the free man would become a slave, and Hippolytus, to enjoy her love, would sell his very chastity. Why do so many kisses lie untouched on maiden lips, and no one wish to gain a profit from them?[16]

The tone of the denunciations often indicate a more than theoretical concern. Archbishop Ralph of Tours had his lover John installed as bishop of Orleans with agreement of both the King of France and Pope Urban II [17]. In 1395 there was a transvestite homosexual prostitute arrested in London with some records surviving [18], and the Twelve Conclusions of the Lollards included the denunciation of priestly celibacy as a cause of sodomy [19]. Pope Urban II (1042 – July 29, 1099), born Otho of Lagery (alternatively: Otto or Odo), was a Pope from 1088 to July 29, 1099. ... Events End of reign of Hungary by Capet-Anjou family. ... The Twelve Conclusions of the Lollards are preserved in their original English form (other Latin summaries survive) in Roger Dymoks Against the Twelve Heresies of the Lollards, an elaborate refutation of each of the heresies, written in 1396-97 for Richard II. The original conclusions were presented to parliament... John Wyclif gives his Bible translation to Lollards Lollardy or Lollardry was the political and religious movement of the Lollards from the late 14th century to early in the time of the English Reformation. ...


Early Modernity

Frontispiece to the first edition of the King James Version
Frontispiece to the first edition of the King James Version

King James I of England and VI of Scotland commissioned the translation of the King James Version of the Bible, also known as the Authorized Version, which is generally considered the most important Bible translation into English, having extensive influence on Anglophone Christianity, English literature, and the later development of the English language itself. Some revisionist historians have said, based upon an assortment of contemporary accounts, that James had male lovers throughout his life, beginning with Esmé Stewart, 1st Duke of Lennox, and was not much interested in his wife. This was open enough that the saying "Elizabeth was King: now James is Queen" has survived [20]. Responding to criticism of his sexuality, James adopted a severe stance towards sodomy. His book on kingship, Basilikon Doron, lists sodomy among those “horrible crimes which ye are bound in conscience never to forgive.” Frontispiece to the King James Bible, 1611 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Frontispiece to the King James Bible, 1611 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... James Stuart (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old. ... The King James or Authorized Version of the Bible is an English translation of the Christian Bible first published in 1611. ... The term English literature refers to literature written in the English language, including literature composed in English by writers not necessarily from England; Joseph Conrad was Polish, Robert Burns was Scottish, James Joyce was Irish, Dylan Thomas was Welsh, Edgar Allan Poe was American, Salman Rushdie is Indian, V.S... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Esmé Stewart, 1st Duke of Lennox, 1st Earl of Lennox (1542–May 26, 1583) was the son of John Stewart, 5th Seigneur dAubigny. ... Basilikon Doron means royal gift. ...


An Italian text published anonymously in 1652 by Antonio Rocco, L'Alcibiade fanciullo a scola, was about a teacher's successful attempt to persuade the much younger Alcibiades to have sex with him. Although set in ancient Greece, it includes much anacronistic material, especially pertaining to Christian arguments, and denounces the story of Sodom and Gomorrah as a fiction made up by the Hebrew elders. [21] // Events April 6 - Dutch sailor Jan van Riebeeck establishes a resupply camp for the Dutch East India Company at the Cape of Good Hope, and founded Cape Town. ... Alcibiades Cleiniou Scambonides (Greek: ; English /ælsɪbaɪədi:z/; 450 BC–404 BC), also transliterated as Alkibiades, was a prominent Athenian statesman, orator, and general. ...


In France a similar text, Histoire de Dom Bougre, Portier des Chartreux, written in 1741, mocks biblical injunctions and extols same-sex love, as does Voltaire's The Bible finally explained (1776). It was followed by the Marquis de Sade who in his Dialogue entre un prêtre et un moribond of 1782 denounces religion (and other morality codes) as "man-made." In England the pseudo-Byronian poem "Don Leon" (written in the voice of Byron but of uncertain authorship, published in 1866) vehemently denounced the abusive treatment inflicted on homosexuals as based on a dubious tale. Histoire de Dom Bougre, Portier des Chartreux is a French text from 1741. ... // Events April 10 - Austrian army attack troops of Frederick the Great at Mollwitz August 10 - Raja of Travancore defeats Dutch East India Company naval expedition at Battle of Colachel December 19 - Vitus Bering dies in his expedition east of Siberia December 25 - Anders Celsius develops his own thermometer scale Celsius... Year 1776 (MDCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1782 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ...

I grant that casuists the Bible quote,
And tell us how God’s tardy vengeance smote
Lot's native town with brimstone from the sky,
To punish this impure delinquency,
Unmindful that the drunkard's kiss defiled
(Whilst yet the embers smoked), his virgin child.
But reason doubts the Jewish prophet’s tale. Lot and his Daughters, Hendrik Goltzius, 1616. ...

Modern theological interpretations

Some arguments about the meaning and morality of “homosexuality” hinge on the fact that the term homosexual and the conceptualization of homosexuality as an enduring relationship similar to a heterosexual relationship, rather than only sexual activity with someone of the same sex, is development within the 19th century[2]. Apart from this, Many of the debates among Christians have roots in questions about the sources of authority different Christians believe represent God's purest or most definitive message. More generally: which kinds of arguments should be persuasive to Christians, and which do not possess the weight necessary to determine opinions and policies. Such is also the case with the issues related to the morality and inclusion of LGBT persons in Christian life. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Christianities regard Sacred Tradition and Ecumenical councils as co-authoritative with scripture, and the ordinary Magisterium is authoritative in Catholic theology [22]. The Catholic Church bases all of its teachings on Sacred Tradition and Sacred Scripture (The Bible). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      An Ecumenical Council (also sometimes Oecumenical... Magisterium (from the Latin magister, teacher) is a technical ecclesiastical term in Catholicism referring to the teaching ability and authority of the Pope and those Bishops who are in union with him. ...


Methodism derives doctrine from the Wesleyan Quadrilateral, which consists of an evaluation of the synthesis of Scripture, tradition, reason, and experience. [23] There are also differing positions about how great a role is played by continuing revelation (see Cessationism and Secular theology). Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      For school of ancient Greek medicine... The Wesleyan Quadrilateral is a methodology for theological reflection that is credited to John Wesley, leader of the Methodist movement in the late 18th Century. ... In Christian theology, cessationism is the view that the charismatic gifts of the Holy Spirit, such as tongues, prophecy and healing, ceased being practiced early on in Church history. ... The field of secular theology, a subfield of liberal theology advocated by Anglican bishop John A. T. Robinson somewhat paradoxically combines secularism and theology. ...


In conservative strains of Protestant Christianity, Scripture is understood to be the only truly definitive authority (a position called Sola Scriptura). Exegesis, or the reasoned study of the text to discover its own meaning, is the central concern for believers in Sola Scriptura. The classic formulation of Sola Scriptura regards "good and necessary deduction" from Scripture as authoritative; what these deductions might be is a frequent subject of controversy. [24] [25] [26] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      This article is about theological concept. ... Exegesis (from the Greek to lead out) involves an extensive and critical interpretation of an authoritative text, especially of a holy scripture, such as of the Old and New Testaments of the Bible, the Talmud, the Midrash, the Quran, etc. ...


Liberal Christians tend to regard the Bible as the record of human doings, composed of humans encountering the Divine within their specific historical context. They often interpret passages of the Bible as being less a record of actual events, but rather stories illustrating how to live ethically and authentically in relation to God. Such Christians might, for instance, see Christ's death and resurrection in terms not of actual physical reanimation, but in terms of the good news of Jesus' teaching: that God's children are no longer slaves to the power of death. A liberal Christian might regard the Gospel of Matthew's insistence of Jesus' virgin birth not as an actual fact, but as a jibe by the author at the Roman Emperor, who claimed to be a god and who also claimed to have been born of a virgin.[3] Alternately, they might note stories of the Virgin Birth as a much-needed position to be taken with the Gospel's Jewish audience, lest that audience imply that Jesus' birth was illegitimate, therefore making Jesus ineligible for the title Messiah, a primary claim which Christians had to protect in order to be taken seriously by Jews. The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον, Kata Maththaion or Kata Matthaion) is a synoptic gospel in the New Testament, one of four canonical gospels. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... In Judaism, the Messiah (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ; Aramaic: , ; Arabic: , ; the Anointed One) at first meant any person who was anointed with oi on rising to a certain position among the ancient Israelites, at first that of High priest, later that of King and also that of a prophet. ...


Modern gay theologian and apologist Justin R. Cannon teaches what he calls "Inclusive Orthodoxy." He explains on his ministry website: "Inclusive Orthodoxy is the belief that the Church can and must be inclusive of lgbt individuals without sacrificing the Gospel and the Apostolic teachings of the Christian faith."[27] Cannon's ministry takes a unique approach quite distinct from modern liberal Christians. His ministry affirms the divine inspiration of the Bible, the authority of Tradition, and affirms "...that there is a place within the full life and ministry of the Christian Church for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender Christians, both those who are called to lifelong celibacy and those who are partnered."[28] Justin R. Cannon (b. ...


Most professional exegetes consider the Bible, to a greater or lesser degree, to be a document of its time (see form criticism). While they may hold the document as sacred, and most certainly as central to Christianity, they are also aware of the historical and cultural context in which it was originally written through archaeological and form critical study. Some scholars feel that in addition to its spiritual components, portions of the text merely reflect the human authors' beliefs and feelings about God at the time of its writing, and their cultural sensibilities. The influence of such persons may reflect a heightened spiritual consciousness, or may simply represent people attempting to explain the world as best they could given the tools of the time. Such scholars purport that passages in scripture related to slavery, war, genocide, female marginalization, and homosexuality may not necessarily be about God's wishes, but rather about the predominant culture's opinions at the time of the passage's writing. Exegesis (from the Greek to lead out) involves an extensive and critical interpretation of a text, especially of a holy scripture, such as of the Old and New Testaments of the Bible, the Talmud, the Midrash, the Quran, etc. ... Form criticism is a method of biblical criticism applied as a means of analyzing the typical features of texts, especially their conventional forms or structures, in order to relate them to their sociological contexts. ...


Choice and free will

The existence and nature of free will is a topic in philosophy of mind and theology. Incompatibilism is the view that determinism is at odds with free will, while compatibilism holds the two are not contradictory. Compatibilists such as Hobbes generally claim that a person acts freely only in the case where the person willed the act and the person could (hypothetically) have done otherwise if the person had decided to; what matters, Hobbes believed, is that choices are the results of desires and preferences, and are not overridden by force. (See Compatibilism and incompatibilism.) [29] [30] Free-Will is a Japanese independent record label founded in 1986. ... A Phrenological mapping of the brain. ... “Hobbes” redirects here. ... Compatibilism is the belief that free will and determinism are in fact compatible and capable of co-existence (people who hold this belief are known as compatibilists). ...


In the history of theology, debates about the issue have happened between Augustine and Pelagius [31], Martin Luther and Erasmus, and the Calvinists and Arminians [32] [33]. At the Councils of Orange, Western Christianity officially adopted a form of compatibilist determinism known as original sin, according to which the sin of Adam and Eve has corrupted the whole human race such that humans are unable to refrain from sin, yet remain accountable, and cannot even desire holiness apart from Divine intervention [34]. However, belief in free will remains popular and many even regard free will as a basic doctrine of Christianity. “Augustinus” redirects here. ... Pelagius (ca. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... Desiderius Erasmus in 1523 Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (also Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam) (October 27, probably 1466 – July 12, 1536) was a Dutch humanist and theologian. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Calvinism is a theological... For the Armenian nationality, see Armenia or the Armenian language. ... The Councils of Orange (or the Synods of Orange) comprised two synods held at Orange, France. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Western Christianity is a... “Original Sin” redirects here. ... Michelangelos Creation of Adam, from the Sistine Chapel. ...


Among those who assert that homosexuality and Christianity are incompatible, the question of how voluntary homosexuality is, and what voluntariness might mean in this context, is a central concern in considering its morality. The Catholic Church regards homosexual intercourse itself as sinful, not homosexual attraction, although the attraction is still considered as a temptation to sin [35]. The ex-gay movement believes that homosexual orientation is also a choice, or changeable, and claims cases of people who have ceased to be homosexual [36]. Long-term studies conducted by the American Psychiatric Association have observed that sexual orientation is not chosen (although there are psychologists in the employ of Exodus Ministries and Focus on the Family who take an opposite view; see Robert Skinner), and many homosexuals state that they do not choose to be homosexual [37]. PFOX, Parents and Friends of Ex-Gays, claim changes in sexual orientation are possible; claiming that the existence of Ex-Gays proves homosexuality can be overcome. The existence of ex-gays notwithstanding, The American Psychiatric Association evaluates all "ex-gay" operations such as those enacted by Exodus International to be emotionally destructive to its recipients and has noted quite high failure rates among such cases.[citation needed] The ex-gay or exodus movement claims that homosexuals can become heterosexual or otherwise leave homosexuality behind through counselling, prayer, and other therapies if they choose to do so. ... Due to the epidemic of medical errors, readers are cautioned to be aware that the American Psychiatric Association isnt immune to this. ... Exodus Ministries is a non-denominational Christian organization, based in the United States, which attempts to help those who are released from prison. ... The graphic identity of Focus on the Family is intended to recall old time traditional values. ...


Positions of specific denominations

Homosexuality and Christianity
Anglican
Baptist
Eastern Orthodox
Latter-day Saints
Lutheran
Methodist
Metropolitan Community Church
Presbyterian
Religious Society of Friends (Quaker)
Roman Catholic
United Church of Christ
Uniting Church in Australia
Detailed list
v  d  e

The many Christian denominations vary in their position on homosexuality, from seeing it as sinful, through being divided on the issue, to seeing it as moral. Among those that see it as sinful, there is further variance regarding whether it is the homosexual orientation that is immoral, or only homosexual acts. The issue of homosexuality is controversial in the Anglican Communion. ... There is a diversity of views of members of Baptist churches on homosexuality. ... The Eastern Orthodox Church is particular in its view of sin. ... Main article: Sexuality and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints In The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, homosexuality is officially seen as a set of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, and not an immutable condition or an indication of an innate identity (Oaks 1995). ... Lutheran viewpoints concerning homosexuality are diverse because Lutherans are not centrally organized. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Methodism. ... Logo of the Metropolitan Community Churches The Metropolitan Community Church (in full, The Universal Fellowship of Metropolitan Community Churches or UFMCC, or more commonly MCC) is an international fellowship of Christian congregations. ... // The Presbyterian Church (USA), the largest U.S. Presbyterian body, is sharply divided over the issue of homosexuality. ... The views of Quakers toward homosexuality encompass a range from complete acceptance and celebration of gay marriages, to the view that homosexuality is abhorrent and sinful. ... The Roman Catholic Church considers human sexual behavior that it sees as properly expressed to be sacred, almost sacramental in nature. ... ... Logo of the UCA The Uniting Church in Australia (UCA) was formed on June 22, 1977 when the Methodist Church of Australasia, Presbyterian Church of Australia and Congregational Union of Australia came together under the Basis of Union document. ... This is a list of Christian denominational positions on homosexuality. ... This is a list of Christian denominational positions on homosexuality. ... List of Christian denominations (or Denominations self-identified as Christian) ordered by historical and doctrinal relationships. ...


Activism against Christian policies

Some Christian groups have been the target of protests by gay rights groups such as ACT UP, Outrage! and the Sisters of Perpetual Indulgence because of practices they consider oppressive towards LGBT people. ACT-UP, or the Aids Coalition to Unleash Power, is a diverse, non-partisan group of individuals . ... LGBT rights Around the world · By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Persecution Violence OutRage! is a direct action campaigning group in the United Kingdom which was formed to fight for the rights of lesbian, gay and bisexual people. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


See also

This is a list of Christian denominational positions on homosexuality. ... The blessing of same-sex unions is currently an issue about which some Christian Churches are at present in disagreement with the traditional views. ... The relationship between religion and homosexuality varies greatly across time and place, within and between different religions and sects, and regarding different forms of homosexuality and bisexuality. ... The history of early Christianity and homosexuality has been much debated. ... The ex-gay or exodus movement claims that homosexuals can become heterosexual or otherwise leave homosexuality behind through counselling, prayer, and other therapies if they choose to do so. ... A number of different studies have suggested that the prevalence of homosexuality among Roman Catholic priests is anywhere from 15% to 50%. Regardless of the precise figure, it has been suggested that the incidence of homosexuality in the Roman Catholic priesthood is much higher than in the general population. ... Queer Theology is exploration of the nature of God and human-kinds relationship with God through the experience of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people (although, as used within this field of theology, the term Queer can extend beyond LGBT people). ... Dennis Jernigan is a singer-songwriter of contemporary Christian music. ... A mediæval copy of the Bible. ...

References

  • Bates, Stephen (2004). A Church at War: Anglicans and Homosexuality. I.B. Tauris. ISBN 1-85043-480-8.
  • Boswell, John (1980). Christianity, social tolerance, and homosexuality: Gay people in Western Europe from the beginning of the Christian era to the fourteenth century. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-06710-6
  • Crompton, Louis, et al.; Homosexuality and Civilization Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2003. ISBN 0-674-01197-X
  • Gagnon, Robert A.J. (2002). The Bible and Homosexual Practice: Texts and Hermeneutics. Abingdon Press. ISBN 0-687-02279-7
  • Harvey, John F., O.S.F.S. (1996). The Truth about Homosexuality: The Cry of the Faithful, introduction by Benedict J. Groeschel, C.F.R.. Ignatius Press. ISBN 0-89870-583-5.
  • Helminiak, Daniel A. (2000). "Frequently Asked Questions About Being Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, or Transgender and Catholic" Dignity USA. <<http://www.dignityusa.org/faq.html>>
  • Hildegard of Bingen, "Scivias," Columba Hart and Jane Bishop, translators; New York: Paulist Press, 1990
  • Johansson, Warren "Whosoever Shall Say To His Brother, Racha." Studies in Homosexuality, Vol XII: Homosexuality and Religion and Philosophy. Ed. Wayne Dynes & Stephen Donaldson. New York & London: Garland, 1992. pp. 212-214
  • Saletan, William (29 November 2005). "Gland Inquisitor". Slate.

Daniel A. Helminiak is the author of What the Bible Really Says About Homosexuality. ... Illumination from the Liber Scivias showing Hildegard receiving a vision and dictating to her scribe Hildegard of Bingen (German: Hildegard von Bingen; Latin: Hildegardis Bingensis; 1098 – 17 September 1179), also known as Blessed Hildegard and Saint Hildegard, was a German magistra who founded two womens communities (Rupertsberg in 1150... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Slate is an online news and culture magazine created in 1996 by former New Republic editor Michael Kinsley and owned by Microsoft (as part of MSN). ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ [Spong, J.S. 2005. The Sins of Scripture. Harper Collins ISBN # 02-06-076205-5]
  2. ^ Foucault, Michel (1986). The History of Sexuality. Pantheon Books. ISBN 0394417755
  3. ^ Warren Carter. Matthew and the Margins: a Sociopolitical and Religious Reading. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 2000.

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Homosexuality and Christianity - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2436 words)
In 1395 there was a transvestite homosexual prostitute arrested in London with some records surviving [18], and the Twelve Conclusions of the Lollards included the denunciation of priestly celibacy as a cause of sodomy [19].
Liberal Christians consider the Bible a document of the human authors' beliefs and feelings about God at the time of its writing, which may reflect a heightened spiritual consciousness, or which may simply be primitive and wrong; liberal Christians often dismiss Biblical teachings, especially accounts of miracles such as the Virgin Birth.
At the Councils of Orange, Western Christianity officially adopted a form of compatibilist determinism known as original sin, according to which the sin of Adam and Eve has corrupted the whole human race such that humans are unable to refrain from sin, yet remain accountable, and cannot even desire holiness apart from Divine intervention [33].
Christianity - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5357 words)
Western Christianity in the Middle Ages was characterized by cooperation and conflict between the secular rulers and the Church under the Pope, and by the development of scholastic theology and philosophy.
As the European Enlightenment took hold, Christianity was confronted with the discoveries of science (including the heliocentric model and the theory of evolution), and with the development of biblical criticism (linked to the development of Christian Fundamentalism) and modern political ideologies such as Liberalism, Nationalism and Socialism.
Christian mobs, sometimes with the government support, have destroyed pagan temples and oppressed adherents of paganism (such as the philosopher Hypatia of Alexandria, who was murdered by a Christian mob).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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