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Encyclopedia > Homologous series

In chemistry, a homologous series is a series of organic compounds with a similar general formula, possessing similar chemical properties due to the presence of the same functional group, and shows a gradation in physical properties as a result of increase in molecular size and mass (see relative molecular mass). For example, ethane has a higher boiling point than methane since it has more Van der Waals forces with neighbouring molecules. This is due to the increase in the number of atoms making up the molecule. Organic compounds in the same homologous series vary by a CH2. Chemistry - the study of atoms, made of nuclei (conglomeration of center particles) and electrons (outer particles), and the structures they form. ... Benzene is the simplest of the arenes, a family of organic compounds An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon and hydrogen; therefore, carbides, carbonates, carbon oxides and elementary carbon are not organic (see below for more on the definition controversy... A chemical formula (also called molecular formula) is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific groups of atoms within molecules, that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. ... The molecular mass of a substance (less accurately called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW) is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ...


Alkanes (paraffins), alkenes (olefins), methoxyethane (ethers), and alkynes (acetylenes) form such series in which members differ in mass by 14, 12, and 10 atomic mass units, respectively. For example, the alkane homologous series begins with methane (CH4), ethane (C2H6), propane (C3H8), butane (C4H10), and pentane (C5H12), each member differing from the previous one by a CH2 group (or 14 atomic mass units). Chemical structure of methane, the simplest alkane Alkanes are chemical compounds that consists only of the elements carbon (C) and hydrogen (H) (i. ... The chemical structure of ethylene, the simplest alkene. ... An alkene in organic chemistry is an unsaturated hydrocarbon containing at least one carbon to carbon double bond. ... Methoxyethane, also known as methyl ethyl ether, is a colorless gaseous ether with a medicine-like odor. ... Ethers can refer to: In internet routing, the term associated with hosts In Organic chemistry, the plural of ether This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The structural formula of 2-butyne, a simple alkyne-containing molecule Alkynes are hydrocarbons that have at least one triple bond between two carbon atoms, with the formula CnH2n-2. ... Acetylene (systematic name: ethyne) is the simplest alkyne hydrocarbon, consisting of two hydrogen atoms and two carbon atoms connected by a triple bond. ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula CH4. ... Ethane is a chemical compound with chemical formula C2H6. ... Propane is a three-carbon alkane, normally a gas, but compressible to a liquid that is transportable. ... Butane, also called n-butane, is the unbranched alkane with four carbon atoms, CH3CH2CH2CH3. ... Pentane (also known as amyl hydride or skellysolve) is an alkane hydrocarbon with the chemical formula CH3(CH2)3CH3. ... The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom at rest, most often expressed in unified atomic mass units. ...


Similarly, there is the alcohol homologous series that starts with methanol (CH4O), ethanol (C2H6O), as primary alcohols, isopropanol (C3H8O) as a simple secondary alcohol, and a simple tertiary alcohol is tert-butanol (C4H10O). Functional group of an alcohol molecule. ... Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naptha or wood spirits, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH. It is the simplest alcohol, and is a light, volatile, colourless, flammable, poisonous liquid with a distinctive odor that is somewhat milder and sweeter than ethanol (ethyl alcohol). ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... Isopropyl alcohol or isopropanol is a common name for 2-propanol, an alcohol commonly used for application to the skin, and popularly referred to as rubbing alcohol. ... Butanol or butyl alcohol (sometimes also called biobutanol when produced biologically), is an alcohol with a 4 carbon structure and the molecular formula of C4H10O. It is primarily used as a solvent, as an intermediate in chemical synthesis, and as a fuel. ...


Even while the general formula are the same, they have different structures that can lead the exact same compound to different properties, although they will always present the same chemical properties while as a homologous compound.


Compounds in each set have the same little group of atoms called the functional group. Most chemical properties of organic compounds are due to the presence of the functional group. In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific groups of atoms within molecules, that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. ... An organic compound is any of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon, with exception of carbides, carbonates and carbon oxides. ... In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific groups of atoms within molecules, that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. ...

Homologous series General formula Example Functional group
Alkanes CnH2n + 2 (n more than or equal to 1) CH4, n = 1
Alkenes CnH2n (n more than or equal to 2) C2H4, n = 2 C = C
Alkynes CnH2n − 2 (n more than or equal to 2) C2H2, n = 2 C ≡ C
Alcohols CnH2n + 1OH (n more than or equal to 1) CH4O, n = 1 - OH
Carboxylic acids CnH2nCO2 H(n more than or equal to 1) CH2O2, n = 1 - COOH

Where n represents the number of carbon atoms present. An alkane in organic chemistry is a type of hydrocarbon in which the molecule has the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms and so has no double bonds (they are saturated). ... An alkene is one of the three classes of unsaturated hydrocarbons that contain at least one carbon-carbon double bond and have the general molecular formula of CnH2n (the other two being alkynes and arenes). ... Alkynes are hydrocarbons that have at least one triple bond between carbon atoms. ... In general usage, alcohol (from Arabic al-khwl الكحول, or al-ghawl الغول) refers almost always to ethanol, also known as grain alcohol, and often to any beverage that contains ethanol (see alcoholic beverage). ... Structure of a carboxylic acid The 3D structure of the carboxyl group A space-filling model of the carboxyl group Carboxylic acids are organic acids characterized by the presence of a carboxyl group, which has the formula -C(=O)OH, usually written -COOH or -CO2H. [1] Carboxylic acids are Bronsted...


Homologization

Homologization is any chemical process converting one member of a homologues series to the next. For example the reaction of aldehydes and ketones with diazomethane or methoxymethylenetriphenylphosphine effectively inserts a methylene unit in the hydrocarbon chain and the reaction product is the next homologue. Chain homologization in sugars occurs in the Kiliani-Fischer synthesis. sulfur sucks--207. ... An aldehyde. ... Ketone group A ketone(key tone) is either the functional group characterized by a carbonyl group (O=C) linked to two other carbon atoms or a chemical compound that contains this functional group. ... Diazomethane is the chemical compound CH2N2. ... Methoxymethylenetriphenylphosphine is a Wittig reagent with used as an reagent in the homologization of aldehydes and ketones to extended aldehydes, an organic reaction first reported in 1958 . ... In chemistry, methylene is a divalent functional group CH2 derived formally from methane. ... The Kiliani-Fischer synthesis is a method for synthesizing monosaccharides. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Homologous Series - Search Results - MSN Encarta (168 words)
Homologous Series, family of organic (carbon-based) compounds with the same functional group but with a different number of carbon atoms—that is, a...
The saturated open-chain hydrocarbons form a homologous series called the alkane, or paraffin, series.
In chemistry, a homologous series is a series of organic compounds with a similar general formula, possessing similar chemical properties due to the presence of the same functional group, and shows a...
JEE Syllabus : IIT JEE Syllabus (1806 words)
Arithmetic, geometric and harmonic progressions, arithmetic, geometric and harmonic means, sums of finite arithmetic and geometric progressions, infinite geometric series, sums of squares and cubes of the first n natural numbers.
Transition elements (3d series): Definition, general characteristics, oxidation states and their stabilities, colour (excluding the details of electronic transitions) and calculation of spin-only magnetic moment; Coordination compounds: nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds, cis-trans and ionisation isomerisms, hybridization and geometries of mononuclear coordination compounds (linear, tetrahedral, square planar and octahedral).
Preparation, properties and reactions of alkanes: Homologous series, physical properties of alkanes (melting points, boiling points and density); Combustion and halogenation of alkanes; Preparation of alkanes by Wurtz reaction and decarboxylation reactions.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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