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Encyclopedia > Homo sapiens
Human[1]
Fossil range: 0.2–0 Ma
Pleistocene - Recent

Humans depicted on the Pioneer plaque
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Domain: Eukarya
Kingdom: Animalia
Subkingdom: Eumetazoa
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclass: Tetrapoda
Class: Mammalia
Subclass: Theria
Infraclass: Eutheria
Order: Primates
Suborder: Haplorrhini
Infraorder: Simiiformes
Parvorder: Catarrhini
Superfamily: Hominoidea
Family: Hominidae
Subfamily: Homininae
Tribe: Hominini
Subtribe: Hominina
Genus: Homo
Species: H. sapiens
Subspecies: H. s. sapiens
Trinomial name
Homo sapiens sapiens
Linnaeus, 1758

A human is a member of a species of bipedal primates in the family Hominidae (taxonomically Homo sapiensLatin: "wise man" or "knowing man"). DNA and fossil evidence indicates that modern humans originated in east Africa about 200,000 years ago . When compared to other animals and primates, humans have a highly developed brain, capable of abstract reasoning, language, introspection and problem solving. This mental capability, combined with an erect body carriage that frees the forelimbs (arms) for manipulating objects, has allowed humans to make far greater use of tools than any other species. Humans are distributed worldwide, with significant populations inhabiting most land areas of Earth. The human population on Earth is greater than 6.7 billion, as of February 2009, For other uses, see Homo. ... Look up Human in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Precambrian (Pre-Cambrian) is an informal name for the supereon comprising the eons of the geologic timescale that came before the current Phanerozoic eon. ... For other uses, see Cambrian (disambiguation). ... Artist impression of the Ordovician Sea. ... For other uses, see Silurian (disambiguation). ... For the Celtic language, see Southwestern Brythonic language; for the residents of the English county, see Devon. ... The Carboniferous is a geologic period and system that extends from the end of the Devonian period, about 359. ... The Permian is a geologic period that extends from about 299. ... The Triassic is a geologic period that extends from about 251 to 199 Ma (million years ago). ... The Jurassic Period is a major unit of the geologic timescale that extends from about 199. ... // The Cretaceous Period (pronounced ) is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ... Paleogene (alternatively Palaeogene) period is a unit of geologic time that began 65 and ended 23 million years ago. ... Neogene Period is a unit of geologic time consisting of the Miocene, Pliocene, Pleistocene, and Holocene epochs. ... The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) on the geologic timescale is the period from 1,808,000 to 11,550 years BP. The Pleistocene epoch had been intended to cover the worlds recent period of repeated glaciations. ... The illustration on the Pioneer plaque The Pioneer plaques are a pair of aluminum plaques which were placed on board the Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 spacecraft, featuring a pictorial message from humanity, in case either Pioneer 10 or 11 are intercepted by extraterrestrial beings. ... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species remaining extant either in the present day or the near future. ... Least Concern (LC) is an IUCN category assigned to extant species or lower taxa which have been evaluated but do not qualify for any other category. ... The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... Scientific classification redirects here. ... Kingdoms Eukaryotes are organisms with complex cells, in which the genetic material is organized into membrane-bound nuclei. ... Phyla Subkingdom Parazoa Porifera (sponges) Subkingdom Agnotozoa Placozoa Orthonectida Rhombozoa Subkingdom Metazoa Radiata Cnidaria Ctenophora - Comb jellies Bilateria Protostomia Acoelomorpha Platyhelminthes - Flatworms Nemertina - Ribbon worms Gastrotricha Gnathostomulida - Jawed worms Micrognathozoa Rotifera - Rotifers Acanthocephala Priapulida Kinorhyncha Loricifera Entoprocta Nematoda - Roundworms Nematomorpha - Horsehair worms Cycliophora Mollusca - Mollusks Sipuncula - Peanut worms Annelida - Segmented... subgroups Ctenophora Cnidaria Bilateria Eumetazoa is a clade comprising all major animal groups except sponges. ... Typical Classes Subphylum Urochordata - Tunicates Ascidiacea Thaliacea Larvacea Subphylum Cephalochordata - Lancelets Subphylum Myxini - Hagfishes Subphylum Vertebrata - Vertebrates Petromyzontida - Lampreys Placodermi (extinct) Chondrichthyes - Cartilaginous fishes Acanthodii (extinct) Actinopterygii - Ray-finned fishes Actinistia - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Amphibia - Amphibians Reptilia - Reptiles Aves - Birds Mammalia - Mammals Chordates (phylum Chordata) include the vertebrates, together with... Typical classes Petromyzontidae (lampreys) Placodermi - extinct Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fish) Acanthodii - extinct Actinopterygii (ray-finned fish) Actinistia (coelacanths) Dipnoi (lungfish) Amphibia (amphibians) Reptilia (reptiles) Aves (birds) Mammalia (mammals) Vertebrata is a subphylum of chordates, specifically, those with backbones or spinal columns. ... Classes Placodermi Chondrichthyes Acanthodii Osteichthyes Gnathostomata is the group of vertebrates with jaws. ... Classes Synapsida Sauropsida Amphibia A tetrapod (Greek tetrapoda, four-legged) is a vertebrate animal having four feet, legs or leglike appendages. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria For the folk-rock band see The Mammals. ... Infraclasses Metatheria Eutheria This article is about the subclass of mammals. ... Orders[1] Bobolestes Eomaia Maelestes Montanalestes Murtoilestes Prokennalestes Placentalia Superorder Xenarthra: Cingulata (Armadillos) Pilosa (Sloths, True Anteaters) Superorder Afrotheria: Afrosoricida (Tenrecs, etc. ... Families 15, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all the species commonly related to the lemurs, monkeys, and apes, with the latter category including humans. ... Families Tarsiidae Cebidae Aotidae Pitheciidae Atelidae Cercopithecidae Hylobatidae Hominidae The haplorrhines, the dry-nosed primates (the Greek name means simple-nosed), are members of the Haplorrhini clade: the prosimian tarsiers and all of the true simians (the monkeys and the apes, including humans). ... Families Cebidae Nyctipithecidae Pitheciidae Atelidae Cercopithecidae Hylobatidae Hominidae The simians (infraorder Simiiformes) are the primates very common to most people: the monkeys and the apes, including humans. ... Families Cercopithecidae Hylobatidae Hominidae Catarrhini is the unranked group of the Primates, one of the three major divisions of the suborder Haplorrhini. ... Genera Subtribe Panina Pan (chimpanzees) Subtribe Hominina Homo (humans) †Paranthropus †Australopithecus †Sahelanthropus †Orrorin †Ardipithecus †Kenyanthropus For an explanation of very similar terms see Hominid Hominini is the tribe of Homininae that only includes humans (Homo), chimpanzees (Pan), and their extinct ancestors. ... Hominina is a subtribe that inludes Homo sapiens, Australopithecus, as well as prehistoric humans. ... For other uses, see Homo. ... Trinomial nomenclature is a taxonomic naming system that extends the standard system of binomial nomenclature by adding a third taxon. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Bipedalism is standing, or moving for example by walking, running, or hopping, on two appendages (typically legs though it can also include hand walking). ... Families 15, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all the species commonly related to the lemurs, monkeys, and apes, with the latter category including humans. ... Latin name redirects here. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Mitochondrial DNA (some captions in German) Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the DNA located in organelles called mitochondria. ...  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  Geographic East Africa, including the UN subregion and East African Community East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ... Encephalization is defined as the amount of brain mass exceeding that related to an animals total body mass. ... A human brain. ... This article is about the concept of abstraction in general. ... This article is about the psychological process of introspecting. ... Problem solving forms part of thinking. ... A forelimb is an anterior limb on an animals body. ... This article is about the instrument. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... The current estimated world human population is 6,427,631,117. ... One thousand million (1,000,000,000) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001. ...


Like most higher primates, humans are social by nature. Humans are particularly adept at utilizing systems of communication—primarily spoken, gestural, and written language—for self-expression, the exchange of ideas, and organization. Humans create complex social structures composed of many cooperating and competing groups, from families to nations. Social interactions between humans have established an extremely wide variety of traditions, rituals, ethics, values, social norms, and laws, which together form the basis of human society. Humans are distinctive as a species on the Earth by having a perception of beauty and aesthetics at least to a point which results in a material culture. This, when combined with the desire for self-expression and a proportionally large brain-size, has led to innovations such as art, written language, music and science. Families Cebidae Aotidae Pitheciidae Atelidae Cercopithecidae Hylobatidae Hominidae The simians (infraorder Simiiformes) are the higher primates very common to most people: the monkeys and the apes, including humans. ... Two sign language Intepreters working as a team for a school. ... See Social structure of the United States for an explanation of concepts exsistance within US society. ... For other uses, see Family (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ... Social interaction is a dynamic, changing sequence of social actions between individuals (or groups) who modify their actions and reactions due to the actions by their interaction partner(s). ... A tradition is a story or a custom that is memorized and passed down from generation to generation, originally without the need for a writing system. ... Rituals was an American soap opera that ran in syndication from September 1984 to September 1985 in 260 25 minutes episodes. ... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... Value is a term that expresses the concept of worth in general, and it is thought to be connected to reasons for certain practices, policies or actions. ... It has been suggested that Convention (norm) be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... For beauty as a characteristic of a persons appearance, see Physical attractiveness. ... Aesthetics is commonly known as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values, sometimes called judgments of sentiment and taste. ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... Write redirects here. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ...


Humans seek to understand and influence the environment around them by trying to explain and manipulate natural phenomena through philosophy, art, science, mythology, and religion. This natural curiosity has led to the development of advanced tools and skills. Although humans are not the only species to use tools, they are unique in building fires, cooking their food, and clothing themselves; as well as using other advanced technologies. Humans pass down their skills and knowledge to the next generations and so are regarded as dependent upon culture. A phenomenon (plural: phenomena) is an observable event, especially something special (literally something that can be seen from the Greek word phainomenon = observable). ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... For other uses, see Mythology (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the instrument. ... A skill is an ability, usually learned and acquired through training, to perform actions which achieve a desired outcome. ... A large bonfire Fire is a form of combustion. ... Look up cook, Cook in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... (See also List of types of clothing) Introduction Humans often wear articles of clothing (also known as dress, garments or attire) on the body (for the alternative, see nudity). ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... A skill is an ability, usually learned and acquired through training, to perform actions which achieve a desired outcome. ... For other uses, see Knowledge (disambiguation). ... Generations redirects here. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Name

The English adjective human is a Middle English loan from Old French humain, ultimately from Latin hūmānus, the adjective of homō "man". Use as a noun (with a plural humans) dates to the 16th century.[2] The native English term man is now often reserved for male adults, but can still be used for "mankind" in general in Modern English.[3] The word is from Proto-Germanic *mannaz, from a Proto-Indo-European(PIE) root *man-, cognate to Sanskrit manu-. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the... Old French was the Romance dialect continuum spoken in territories corresponding roughly to the northern half of modern France and parts of modern Belgium and Switzerland from around 1000 to 1300. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Look up Mankind in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Mannaz or Manwaz is the Proto-Germanic term for man, in the gender-neutral sense of person, human being. The word developed into Old English man, mann human being, person, (c. ... The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans. ... In Hinduism, Manu is a title accorded the progenitor of mankind, first king to rule this earth, who saves mankind from the universal flood. ...


The generic name Homo is a learned 18th century derivation from Latin homō "man", ultimately "earthly being" (Old Latin hemō, cognate to Old English guma "man", from PIE *dʰǵʰemon-, meaning 'earth' or 'ground').[4] For other uses, see Homo. ... For the Old Latin Bible used before the Vulgate, see Vetus Latina. ... The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans. ...


History

Origin

For more details on this topic, see Anthropology, Human evolution, and Homo (genus).
A reconstruction of Australopithecus afarensis, a human ancestor that had developed bipedalism, but which lacked the large brain of modern humans.

The scientific study of human evolution encompasses the development of the genus Homo, but usually involves studying other hominids and hominines as well, such as Australopithecus. "Modern humans" are defined as the Homo sapiens species, of which the only extant subspecies is known as Homo sapiens sapiens. Homo sapiens idaltu (roughly translated as "elder wise human"), the other known subspecies, is now extinct.[5] Homo neanderthalensis, which became extinct 30,000 years ago, has sometimes been classified as a subspecies, "Homo sapiens neanderthalensis", but genetic studies now suggest a divergence of the Neanderthal species from Homo sapiens about 500,000 years ago[6]. Similarly, the few specimens of Homo rhodesiensis have also occasionally been classified as a subspecies, but this is not widely accepted. Anatomically modern humans first appear in the fossil record in Africa about 195,000 years ago, and studies of molecular biology give evidence that the approximate time of divergence from the common ancestor of all modern human populations was 200,000 years ago.[7][8][9] The broad study of African genetic diversity headed by Dr. Sarah Tishkoff found the San people to express the greatest genetic diversity among the 113 distinct populations sampled, making them one of 14 "ancestral population clusters".The research also located the origin of modern human migration in south-western Africa, near the coastal border of Namibia and Angola.[10] This article is about the social science. ... For the history of humans on Earth, see History of the world. ... For other uses, see Homo. ... Binomial name Johanson & White, 1978 Australopithecus afarensis is an extinct hominid which lived between 3. ... Bipedalism is standing, or moving for example by walking, running, or hopping, on two appendages (typically legs though it can also include hand walking). ... For the history of humans on Earth, see History of the world. ... For other uses, see Homo. ... For the song by Modest Mouse, see Sad Sappy Sucker. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... This article is about the zoological term. ... For other uses, see Neanderthal (disambiguation). ... Homo rhodesiensis (AKA Rhodesian Man, or Broken Hill Skull) is a homo species resembling Homo neandertalis, but whose remains were found in Africa. ... |group = Bushmen |image = |poptime = 82,000 |popplace = Botswana (55,000), Namibia (27,000) |rels = San Religion |langs = various Khoisan languages |related = Khoikhoi, Xhosa, Zulu, Griqua }} The Bushmen, San, Basarwa, ǃKung or Khwe are indigenous people of the Kalahari Desert, which spans areas of South Africa, Botswana, Namibia and Angola. ...


The closest living relatives of humans are gorillas and chimpanzees, but humans did not evolve from these apes: instead these apes share a common ancestor with modern humans.[11] Humans are probably most closely related to two chimpanzee species: Common Chimpanzee and Bonobo.[11] Full genome sequencing has resulted in the conclusion that "after 6.5 [million] years of separate evolution, the differences between chimpanzee and human are ten times greater than those between two unrelated people and ten times less than those between rats and mice". Suggested concurrence between human and chimpanzee DNA sequences range between 95% and 99%.[12][13][14][15] It has been estimated that the human lineage diverged from that of chimpanzees about five million years ago, and from that of gorillas about eight million years ago. However, a hominid skull discovered in Chad in 2001, classified as Sahelanthropus tchadensis, is approximately seven million years old, which may indicate an earlier divergence.[16] For other uses, see Gorilla (disambiguation). ... Type species Simia troglodytes Blumenbach, 1775 distribution of Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzee, often shortened to chimp, is the common name for the two extant species of apes in the genus Pan. ... Missing link is a term for a transitional form from the fossil record that connects an earlier species to a later one, or which connects two different species to an earlier ancestor. ... Type species Simia troglodytes Blumenbach, 1775 distribution of Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzee, often shortened to chimp, is the common name for the two extant species of apes in the genus Pan. ... Binomial name (Blumenbach, 1775) distribution of Common Chimpanzee. ... For other uses, see Bonobo (disambiguation). ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... An evolutionary lineage (also called a clade) is composed of species, taxa, or individuals that are related by descent from a common ancestor. ... For other uses, see Gorilla (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Brunet et al, 2002 Sahelanthropus tchadensis is a fossil ape, thought to have lived approximately 7 million years ago. ...


Human evolution is characterized by a number of important morphological, developmental, physiological and behavioural changes, which have taken place since the split between the last common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees. The first major morphological change was the evolution of a bipedal locomotor adaptation from an arboreal or semi-arboreal one,[17] with all its attendant adaptations, such as a valgus knee, low intermembral index (long legs relative to the arms), and reduced upper-body strength. In orthopedics, a valgus deformity is a term for the outward angulation of the distal segment of a bone or joint. ...


Later, ancestral humans developed a much larger brain – typically 1,400 cm³ in modern humans, over twice the size of that of a chimpanzee or gorilla. The pattern of human postnatal brain growth differs from that of other apes (heterochrony), and allows for extended periods of social learning and language acquisition in juvenile humans. Physical anthropologists argue that the differences between the structure of human brains and those of other apes are even more significant than their differences in size. In biology, heterochrony is defined as a developmental change in the timing of events, leading to changes in size and shape. ... For the academic journal, see Language Acquisition: A Journal of Developmental Linguistics. ... Physical anthropology, often called biological anthropology, studies the mechanisms of biological evolution, genetic inheritance, human adaptability and variation, primatology, primate morphology, and the fossil record of human evolution. ... A human brain. ...


Other significant morphological changes included: the evolution of a power and precision grip;[18] a reduced masticatory system; a reduction of the canine tooth; and the descent of the larynx and hyoid bone, making speech possible. An important physiological change in humans was the evolution of hidden oestrus, or concealed ovulation, which may have coincided with the evolution of important behavioural changes, such as pair bonding. Another significant behavioural change was the development of material culture, with human-made objects becoming increasingly common and diversified over time. The relationship between all these changes is the subject of ongoing debate.[19][20] In mammalian oral anatomy, the canine teeth, also called cuspids, dogteeth, fangs, or (in the case of those of the upper jaw) eye teeth, are relatively long, pointed teeth. ... The larynx (plural larynges), colloquially known as the voicebox, is an organ in the neck of mammals involved in protection of the trachea and sound production. ... The hyoid bone (Os Hyoideum; Lingual Bone) is a bone in the human neck, not articulated to any other bone; it is supported by the muscles of the neck and in turn supports the root of the tongue. ... Human and bonobo females have concealed ovulation or hidden estrus. ... In archaeology, culture refers to either of two separate but allied concepts: A material culture comprises physical objects from the past, the study of which is the basis of the discipline. ...


The forces of natural selection have continued to operate on human populations, with evidence that certain regions of the genome display directional selection in the past 15,000 years.[21] For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ... In population genetics, directional selection (sometimes referred to as positive selection) occurs when natural selection favors a single allele and therefore allele frequency continuously shifts in one direction. ...


Paleolithic

Artistic expression appeared in the Upper Paleolithic: The Venus of Dolní Věstonice figurine, one of the earliest known depictions of the human body, dates to approximately 29,000–25,000 BP (Gravettian).

Homo sapiens appeared about 200,000 BP, in the Middle Paleolithic. By the beginning of the Upper Paleolithic 50,000 BP, full behavioral modernity, including language, music and other cultural universals had developed. The out of Africa migration is estimated to have occurred about 70,000 years BP. Modern humans subsequently spread to all continents, replacing earlier hominids: they inhabited Eurasia and Oceania by 40,000 BP, and the Americas at least 14,500 years BP.[22] They displaced Homo neanderthalensis and other species descended from Homo erectus (which had inhabited Eurasia as early as 2 million years ago) through more successful reproduction and competition for resources.[23] The term Archaic Homo sapiens refers generally to the earliest members of the species Homo sapiens, which consisted of the Neanderthals of Europe and the Middle East, the Neanderthal-like hominids of Africa and Asia, and the immediate ancestors of all these hominids. ... The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia. ... In the history of art, prehistoric art is all art produced in preliterate cultures (prehistory), beginning somewhere in very late geological history. ... Venus of Dolní Věstonice The Venus of Dolní Věstonice (Věstonická Venuše in Czech) is a Venus figurine, a ceramic statuette of a nude female figure dated to 29,000–25,000 BCE (Gravettian industry). ... Before Present (BP) years are the units of time (counted backwards to the past) used to report raw radiocarbon ages and dates referenced to the BP scale origin in the year AD 1950 (identical to 1950 CE). ... The Gravettian was an industry of the European Upper Palaeolithic. ... The Middle Paleolithic (or Middle Palaeolithic) is the second subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia. ... The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia. ... Behavioral modernity is a term used in anthropology and archeology to refer to an important milestone in the evolution of humans. ... In the history of music, prehistoric music (previously called primitive music) is all music produced in preliterate cultures (prehistory), beginning somewhere in very late geological history. ... For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Oceania (disambiguation). ... For the 2007 comedy film, see Homo Erectus (film). ... For other uses, see Reproduction (disambiguation) Reproduction is the biological process by which new individual organisms are produced. ... Natural resources are commodities that are considered valuable in their relatively unmodified (natural) form. ...


Evidence from archaeogenetics accumulating since the 1990s has lent strong support to the "out-of-Africa" scenario, and has marginalized the competing multiregional hypothesis, which proposed that modern humans evolved, at least in part, from independent hominid populations.[24] Archaeogenetics, a term coined by Colin Renfrew, refers to the application of the techniques of molecular population genetics to the study of the human past. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Geneticists Lynn Jorde and Henry Harpending of the University of Utah propose that the variation in human DNA is minute compared to that of other species. They also propose that during the Late Pleistocene, the human population was reduced to a small number of breeding pairs – no more than 10,000, and possibly as few as 1,000 – resulting in a very small residual gene pool. Various reasons for this hypothetical bottleneck have been postulated, one being the Toba catastrophe theory.[25] Henry Harpending Henry C. Harpending is an anthropologist and population geneticist at the University of Utah, where he is a Distinguished Professor. ... The University of Utah (also The U or the U of U or the UU), located in Salt Lake City, is the flagship public research university in the state of Utah, and one of 10 institutions that make up the Utah System of Higher Education. ... Late Pleistocene (also known as Upper Pleistocene or the Tarantian) is a stage of the Pleistocene Epoch. ... A population bottleneck (or genetic bottleneck) is an evolutionary event in which a significant percentage of a population or species is killed or otherwise prevented from reproducing, and the population is reduced by 50% or more, often by several orders of magnitude. ... Eruption column rising, Mount Redoubt, Alaska According to the Toba catastrophe theory, modern human evolution was affected by a recent, large volcanic event. ...


Transition to civilization

For more details on this topic, see History of the world.
The rise of agriculture, and domestication of animals, led to stable human settlements.

Until c. 10,000 years ago, most humans lived as hunter-gatherers. They generally lived in small nomadic groups known as band societies. The advent of agriculture prompted the Neolithic Revolution, when access to food surplus led to the formation of permanent human settlements, the domestication of animals and the use of metal tools. Agriculture encouraged trade and cooperation, and led to complex society. Because of the significance of this date for human society, it is the epoch of the Holocene calendar or Human Era. The Neolithic Revolution is the term for the first agricultural revolution, describing the transition from nomadic hunting and gathering communities and bands, to agriculture and settlement, as first adopted by various independent prehistoric human societies, in numerous locations on most continents between 10-12 thousand years ago. ... This article is about society beginnings. ... For the history of Earth which includes the time before human existence, see History of the Earth. ... Dogs and sheep were among the first animals to be domesticated. ... In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ... A Band Society is the simplest form of human society. ... The Neolithic Revolution is the term for the first agricultural revolution, describing the transition from nomadic hunting and gathering communities and bands, to agriculture and settlement, as first adopted by various independent prehistoric human societies, in numerous locations on most continents between 10-12 thousand years ago. ... Dogs and sheep were among the first animals to be domesticated. ... The Chalcolithic (Greek khalkos + lithos copper stone) period, also known as the Eneolithic (Aeneolithic) or Copper Age period, is a phase in the development of human culture in which the use of early metal tools appeared alongside the use of stone tools. ... H.E. redirects here. ...


About 6,000 years ago, the first proto-states developed in Mesopotamia, and in the Sahara/Nile and the Indus Valleys. Military forces were formed for protection, and government bureaucracies for administration. States cooperated and competed for resources, in some cases waging wars. Around 2,000–3,000 years ago, some states, such as Persia, India, China, Rome, and Greece, developed through conquest into the first expansive empires. Influential religions, such as Judaism, originating in the Middle East, and Hinduism, a religious tradition that originated in South Asia, also rose to prominence at this time. Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro, Pakistan. ... Persia redirects here. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... This article is about the ancient kingdom in Greece. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


The late Middle Ages saw the rise of revolutionary ideas and technologies. In China, an advanced and urbanized society promoted innovations and sciences, such as printing and seed drilling. In India, major advancements were made in mathematics, philosophy, religion and metallurgy. The Islamic Golden Age saw major scientific advancements in Muslim empires. In Europe, the rediscovery of classical learning and inventions such as the printing press led to the Renaissance in the 15th and 16th centuries. Over the next 500 years, exploration and colonialism brought much of the Americas, Asia, and Africa under European control, leading to later struggles for independence. The Scientific Revolution in the 17th century and the Industrial Revolution in the 18th–19th centuries promoted major innovations in transport, such as the railway and automobile; energy development, such as coal and electricity; and government, such as representative democracy and Communism. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... During the Islamic Golden Age, usually dated from the 8th century to the 13th century,[1] engineers, scholars and traders of the Islamic world contributed enormously to the arts, agriculture, economics, industry, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, and technology, both by preserving and building upon earlier traditions and by adding many... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... See also: Age of Sail and Afro-Asiatic age of discovery For the computer wargame, Age of Discovery, see Global Diplomacy. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the period in history. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... Higher electricity use per capita correlates with a higher score on the Human Development Index(1997). ... Representative democracy is a form of government founded on the principles of popular sovereignty by the peoples representatives. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ...


With the advent of the Information Age at the end of the 20th century, modern humans live in a world that has become increasingly globalized and interconnected. As of 2008, over 1.4 billion humans are connected to each other via the Internet,[26] and 3.3 billion by mobile phone subscriptions.[27] A university computer lab containing many desktop PCs The transition of communication technology: Oral Culture, Manuscript Culture, Print Culture, and Information Age Information Age is a term that has been used to refer to the present economic era. ... Economic globalization has had an impact on the worldwide integration of different cultures. ...


Although interconnection between humans has encouraged the growth of science, art, discussion, and technology, it has also led to culture clashes and the development and use of weapons of mass destruction. Human civilization has led to environmental destruction and pollution, producing an ongoing mass extinction of other forms of life called the holocene extinction event,[28] that may be further accelerated by global warming in the future.[29] A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... Debate is a formalized system of (usually) logical argument. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... For the Xzibit album, see Weapons of Mass Destruction (album). ... An extinction event (also extinction-level event, ELE) is a period in time when a large number of species die out. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ...


Habitat and population

For more details on this topic, see Demography and World population.
Humans often live in family-based social structures and create artificial shelter

Early human settlements were dependent on proximity to water and, depending on the lifestyle, other natural resources, such as arable land for growing crops and grazing livestock, or seasonally by hunting populations of prey. However, humans have a great capacity for altering their habitats by various methods, such as through irrigation, urban planning, construction, transport, manufacturing goods, deforestation and desertification. With the advent of large-scale trade and transport infrastructure, proximity to these resources has become unnecessary, and in many places, these factors are no longer a driving force behind the growth and decline of a population. Nonetheless, the manner in which a habitat is altered is often a major determinant in population change. Map of countries by population Population growth showing projections for later this century Demography is the statistical study of all populations. ... Map of countries by population — China and India, the only two countries to have a population greater than one billion, together possess more than a third of the worlds population. ... // Water resources are sources of water that are useful or potentially useful to humans. ... Natural resources are commodities that are considered valuable in their relatively unmodified (natural) form. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ... This article is about the hunting of prey by human society. ... Habitat (which is Latin for it inhabits) is the place where a particular species live and grow. ... Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops. ... Urban planning is concerned with the ordering and design of settlements, from the smallest towns to the worlds largest cities. ... For other uses, see Construction (disambiguation). ... Manufacturing (from Latin manu factura, making by hand) is the use of tools and labor to make things for use or sale. ... This article is about the process of deforestation in the environment. ... For the labor union vitiation procedure, see NLRB election procedures#Decertification elections. ...


Technology has allowed humans to colonize all of the continents and adapt to virtually all climates. Within the last few decades, humans have explored Antarctica, the ocean depths, and outer space, although long-term habitation of these environments is not yet possible. With a population of over six billion, humans are among the most numerous of the large mammals. Most humans (61%) live in Asia. The remainder live in the Americas (14%), Africa (14%), Europe (11%), and Oceania (0.5%).


Human habitation within closed ecological systems in hostile environments, such as Antarctica and outer space, is expensive, typically limited in duration, and restricted to scientific, military, or industrial expeditions. Life in space has been very sporadic, with no more than thirteen humans in space at any given time. Between 1969 and 1972, two humans at a time spent brief intervals on the Moon. As of July 2009, no other celestial body has been visited by human beings, although there has been a continuous human presence in space since the launch of the initial crew to inhabit the International Space Station on October 31, 2000. However, other celestial bodies have been visited by human-made objects. An ecosphere Closed Ecological Systems (CES) are ecosystems that do not exchange matter with any part outside the system. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... ISS redirects here. ...


Since 1800, the human population has increased from one billion to over six billion.[30] In 2004, some 2.5 billion out of 6.3 billion people (39.7%) lived in urban areas, and this percentage is expected to continue to rise throughout the 21st century. In February 2008, the U.N. estimated that half the world's population will live in urban areas by the end of the year.[31] Problems for humans living in cities include various forms of pollution and crime,[32] especially in inner city and suburban slums. Benefits of urban living include increased literacy, access to the global canon of human knowledge and decreased susceptibility to rural famines. The current estimated world human population is 6,427,631,117. ... Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... For other uses, see City (disambiguation). ... Air pollution Pollution is the introduction of pollutants (whether chemical substances, or energy such as noise, heat, or light) into the environment to such a point that its effects become harmful to human health, other living organisms, or the environment. ... A famine is an phenomenon in which a large percentage of the population of a region or country are undernourished and death by starvation becomes increasingly common. ...


Humans have had a dramatic effect on the environment. Human activity has contributed to the extinction of numerous species. As humans are rarely preyed upon, they have been described as superpredators.[33] Currently, through land development, combustion of fossil fuels and pollution, humans are thought to be the main contributor to global climate change.[34] This is believed to be a major contributor to the ongoing Holocene extinction event, which is a form of mass extinction. If this continues at its current rate it is predicted that it will wipe out half of all species over the next century.[35][36] Apex predators (also alpha predators, superpredators, or top-level predators) are predators that, as adults, are not normally preyed upon in the wild in significant parts of their ranges. ... Fossil fuels are hydrocarbon-containing natural resources such as coal, petroleum and natural gas. ... Air pollution Pollution is the introduction of pollutants (whether chemical substances, or energy such as noise, heat, or light) into the environment to such a point that its effects become harmful to human health, other living organisms, or the environment. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ... An extinction event (also known as: mass extinction; extinction-level event, ELE) occurs when there is a sharp decrease in the number of species in a relatively short period of time. ...


Biology

For more details on this topic, see Human biology.

Human biology is an interdisciplinary academic field of biology, biological anthropology, and medicine which focuses on humans; it is closely related to primate biology, and a number of other fields. ...

Anatomy

For more details on this topic, see Human anatomy, Human physical appearance, and Anatomically modern humans.
A diagram of a male human skeleton.

Human body types vary substantially. Although body size is largely determined by genes, it is also significantly influenced by environmental factors such as diet and exercise. The average height of an adult human is about 1.5 to 1.8 m (5 to 6 feet) tall, although this varies significantly from place to place.[37][38] The average mass of an adult male is 76–83 kg (168–183 lbs) and 54–64 kg (120–140 lbs) for adult females.[39] Weight can also vary greatly (e.g. obesity). Unlike most other primates, humans are capable of fully bipedal locomotion, thus leaving their arms available for manipulating objects using their hands, aided especially by opposable thumbs. List of bones of the human skeleton Human anatomy is primarily the scientific study of the morphology of the adult human body. ... Variation in the physical appearance of humans is believed by anthropologists to be an important factor in the development of personality and social relations in particular physical attractiveness. ... The Cro-Magnons form the earliest known European examples of Homo sapiens, the species to which modern humans belong. ... This article is about the Male sex. ... Front view of a skeleton of an adult human Back view of a skeleton of an adult human The human skeleton consists of both fused and individual bones supported and supplemented by ligaments, tendons, muscles and cartilage. ... For other uses, see Gene (disambiguation). ... In nutrition, the diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism. ... The term Exercise can refer to: Physical exercise such as running or strength training Exercise (options), the financial term for enacting and terminating a contract Category: ... -1... Weight, in the context of human body weight measurements in the medical sciences and in sports is a measurement of mass, and is thus expressed in units of mass, such as kilograms (kg), or units of force such as pounds (lb). ... A number of animals have evolved so as to be able to travel over the ground. ... For other uses, see Hand (disambiguation). ...


Although humans appear hairless compared to other primates, with notable hair growth occurring chiefly on the top of the head, underarms and pubic area, the average human has more hair follicles on his or her body than the average chimpanzee. The main distinction is that human hairs are shorter, finer, and less heavily pigmented than the average chimpanzee's, thus making them harder to see.[40] This article is about the body feature. ... A hair follicle is part of the skin that grows hair by packing old cells together. ...


The hue of human skin and hair is determined by the presence of pigments called melanins. Human skin hues can range from very dark brown to very pale pink. Human hair ranges from blond to brown to red to most commonly black.[41] This depends on the amount of melanin (an effective sun blocking pigment) in the skin and hair, with hair melanin concentrations in hair fading with increased age, leading to grey or even white hair. Most researchers believe that skin darkening was an adaptation that evolved as a protection against ultraviolet solar radiation. However, more recently it has been argued that particular skin colors are an adaptation to balance folate, which is destroyed by ultraviolet radiation, and vitamin D, which requires sunlight to form.[42] The skin pigmentation of contemporary humans is geographically stratified, and in general correlates with the level of ultraviolet radiation. Human skin also has a capacity to darken (sun tanning) in response to exposure to ultraviolet radiation.[43][44] Humans tend to be physically weaker than other similarly sized primates, with young, conditioned male humans having been shown to be unable to match the strength of female orangutans which are at least three times stronger.[45] Natural Ultramarine pigment in powdered form. ... Broadly, melanin is any of the polyacetylene, polyaniline, and polypyrrole blacks and browns or their mixed copolymers. ... For other uses, see Blond (disambiguation). ... Brunette redirects here. ... Woman with red hair Man with red hair Red hair (also referred to as auburn, ginger, ranga or titian) varies from a deep orange-red through burnt orange to bright copper. ... Japanese man with black hair Indian girl with black hair Black hair is the darkest and most common color of human hair says Tom P. of Burr Ridge, IL. The vast majority of people of non-European descent (Except Veronica) have black hair. ... Human beings have many variations in hair color and texture. ... For other uses, see Ultraviolet (disambiguation). ... Solar irradiance spectrum at top of atmosphere. ... Folic acid (the anion form is called folate) is a B-complex vitamin (once called vitamin M) that is important in preventing neural tube defects (NTDs) in the developing human fetus. ... A woman sunbathing A suntanned arm showing browner skin where it has been exposed. ... This article is about the primate. ...

Constituents of the human body
In a normal man weighing 60kg
Constituent Weight [46] Percent of atoms[46]
Oxygen 38,8 kg 25.5 %
Carbon 10.9 kg 9.5 %
Hydrogen 6.0 kg 63 %
Nitrogen 1.9 kg 1.4 %

Humans have proportionately shorter palates and much smaller teeth than other primates. They are the only primates to have short 'flush' canine teeth. Humans have characteristically crowded teeth, with gaps from lost teeth usually closing up quickly in young specimens. Humans are gradually losing their wisdom teeth, with some individuals having them congenitally absent.[47] This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... The Canine teeth are the long, pointed teeth used for grabbing hold of and tearing apart foods, also called cuspids, dogteeth or fangs. Species that feature them, such as humans and dogs, usually have four, two in the top jaw, two in the lower, on either side of the Incisors. ... Wisdom teeth are the third molars that usually appear between the ages of 16 and 24. ...


Physiology and genetics

For more details on this topic, see Human physiology.

Human physiology is the science of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of humans in good health, their organs, and the cells of which they are composed. The principal level of focus of physiology is at the level of organs and systems. Most aspects of human physiology are closely homologous to corresponding aspects of animal physiology, and animal experimentation has provided much of the foundation of physiological knowledge. Anatomy and physiology are closely related fields of study: anatomy, the study of form, and physiology, the study of function, are intrinsically tied and are studied in tandem as part of a medical curriculum. Human Physiology is the science of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of humans in good health, their organs, and the cells of which they are composed. ...


Genetics

For more details on this topic, see Human genetics.

Humans are a eukaryotic species. Each diploid cell has two sets of 23 chromosomes, each set received from one parent. There are 22 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes. By present estimates, humans have approximately 20,000–25,000 genes. Like other mammals, humans have an XY sex-determination system, so that females have the sex chromosomes XX and males have XY. The X chromosome carries many genes not on the Y chromosome, which means that recessive diseases associated with X-linked genes, such as haemophilia, affect men more often than women. A karyotype of a human male, showing 46 chromosomes including XY sex chromosomes. ... Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Chromalveolata Protista Alternative phylogeny Unikonta Opisthokonta Metazoa Choanozoa Eumycota Amoebozoa Bikonta Apusozoa Cabozoa Rhizaria Excavata Corticata Archaeplastida Chromalveolata Animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes (IPA: ), organisms whose cells are organized into complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton. ... Ploidy is the number of homologous sets of chromosomes in a biological cell. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... For information about chromosomes in genetic algorithms, see chromosome (genetic algorithm). ... An autosome is a non-sex chromosome. ... For the discernment of an organisms sex, see sexing. ... Drosophila sex-chromosomes The XY sex-determination system is the sex-determination system found in humans, most other mammals, some insects (Drosophila) and some plants (Ginkgo). ... For other uses, see Female (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Male sex. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Dominance relationship. ... Haemophilia (also spelled as hemophilia, from the Greek haima blood and philia to love[1]) is a group of hereditary genetic disorders that impair the bodys ability to control blood clotting or coagulation. ...


Life cycle

A 10mm human embryo at 5 weeks

The human life cycle is similar to that of other placental mammals. The zygote divides inside the female's uterus to become an embryo, which over a period of thirty-eight weeks (9 months) of gestation becomes a human fetus. After this span of time, the fully grown fetus is birthed from the woman's body and breathes independently as an infant for the first time. At this point, most modern cultures recognize the baby as a person entitled to the full protection of the law, though some jurisdictions extend various levels of personhood earlier to human fetuses while they remain in the uterus. A life cycle is a period involving one generation of an organism through means of reproduction, whether through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction. ... The placenta (Latin for cake, referencing its appearance in humans) is an ephemeral organ present in placental vertebrates, such as eutherial mammals and sharks during gestation (pregnancy). ... For other meanings see Zygote (disambiguation). ... This article is about female reproductive anatomy. ... Gestation is the carrying of an embryo or fetus inside a female viviparous animal. ...


Compared with other species, human childbirth is dangerous. Painful labors lasting twenty-four hours or more are not uncommon and sometimes leads to the death of the mother, or the child.[48] This is because of both the relatively large fetal head circumference (for housing the brain) and the mother's relatively narrow pelvis (a trait required for successful bipedalism, by way of natural selection).[49][50] The chances of a successful labor increased significantly during the 20th century in wealthier countries with the advent of new medical technologies. In contrast, pregnancy and natural childbirth remain hazardous ordeals in developing regions of the world, with maternal death rates approximately 100 times more common than in developed countries.[51] Parturition redirects here. ... The pelvis (pl. ... Natural childbirth is a childbirth philosophy that attempts to minimize medical intervention, particularly the use of anesthetic medications and surgical interventions such as episiotomies, forceps and ventouse deliveries and caesarean sections. ...


In developed countries, infants are typically 3–4 kg (6–9 pounds) in weight and 50–60 cm (20–24 inches) in height at birth.[52] However, low birth weight is common in developing countries, and contributes to the high levels of infant mortality in these regions.[53] Helpless at birth, humans continue to grow for some years, typically reaching sexual maturity at 12 to 15 years of age. Females continue to develop physically until around the age of 18, whereas male development continues until around age 21. The human life span can be split into a number of stages: infancy, childhood, adolescence, young adulthood, adulthood and old age. The lengths of these stages, however, have varied across cultures and time periods. Compared to other primates, humans experience an unusually rapid growth spurt during adolescence, where the body grows 25% in size. Chimpanzees, for example, grow only 14%.[54] Baby weighed as AGA Birth weight is the weight of a baby at its birth. ... is the death of infants in the first year of life. ... Sexual maturity is the age/stage when an organism can reproduce. ... Childhood (song) Childhood is a broad term usually applied to the phase of development in humans between infancy and adulthood. ... Teen redirects here. ... Young Adulthood -- The Molding Of The Personal Identity Young adulthood (YA) is a period of life ranging approximately from the age of 18 (in most Western countries) to about 35 years of age, depending on the exact source/country that one is referring to. ... This article is about the human developmental stage. ... Paul Kruger in his old age. ...


There are significant differences in life expectancy around the world. The developed world is generally aging, with the median age around 40 years (highest in Monaco at 45.1 years). In the developing world the median age is between 15 and 20 years. Life expectancy at birth in Hong Kong is 84.8 years for a female and 78.9 for a male, while in Swaziland, primarily because of AIDS, it is 31.3 years for both sexes.[55] While one in five Europeans is 60 years of age or older, only one in twenty Africans is 60 years of age or older.[56] The number of centenarians (humans of age 100 years or older) in the world was estimated by the United Nations at 210,000 in 2002.[57] At least one person, Jeanne Calment, is known to have reached the age of 122 years; higher ages have been claimed but they are not well substantiated. Worldwide, there are 81 men aged 60 or older for every 100 women of that age group, and among the oldest, there are 53 men for every 100 women. Third World is a term originally used to distinguish those nations that neither aligned with the West nor with the East during the Cold War and most were members of the Non-Aligned Movement. ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... A centenarian is a person who has attained the age of 100 years or more. ... UN redirects here. ... Jeanne Louise Calment (February 21, 1875 – August 4, 1997) reached the longest confirmed lifespan in history at 122 years and 164 days. ...

Humans are one of the few species where the female undergoes menopause during the latter stage of life. Menopause is believed to have arisen due to the Grandmother hypothesis, in which it is in the mother's reproductive interest to forego the risks of death from childbirth at older ages in exchange for investing in the viability of her already living offspring.[58] The word menopause literally means the permanent physiological, or natural, cessation of menstrual cycles, from the Greek roots meno (month) and pausis (a pause, a cessation). ... The grandmother hypothesis is meant to explain why menopause, rare in mammal species, arose in human evolution, and how late life infertility could actually confer an evolutionary advantage. ...


The philosophical questions of when human personhood begins and whether it persists after death are the subject of considerable debate. Awareness of their own mortality causes unease or fear for most humans, distinct from the immediate awareness of a threat. Burial ceremonies are characteristic of human societies, often accompanied by beliefs in an afterlife. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... For other uses, see Afterlife (disambiguation). ...


Diet

For more details on this topic, see Diet (nutrition).

For hundreds of thousands of years Homo sapiens employed (and some tribes still do depend on) a hunter-gatherer method as their primary means of food collection, involving combining stationary food sources (such as fruits, grains, tubers, and mushrooms, insect larvae and aquatic molluscs) with wild game, which must be hunted and killed in order to be consumed. It is believed that humans have used fire to prepare and cook food prior to eating since the time of their divergence from Homo erectus.[citation needed] In nutrition, the diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism. ... Game is any animal hunted for food or not normally domesticated (such as venison). ... Cooking is the act of preparing food. ... For the 2007 comedy film, see Homo Erectus (film). ...


Humans are omnivorous, capable of consuming both plant and animal products. Varying with available food sources in regions of habitation, and also varying with cultural and religious norms, human groups have adopted a range of diets, from purely vegetarian to primarily carnivorous. In some cases, dietary restrictions in humans can lead to deficiency diseases; however, stable human groups have adapted to many dietary patterns through both genetic specialization and cultural conventions to utilize nutritionally balanced food sources.[59] The human diet is prominently reflected in human culture, and has led to the development of food science. Omnivores are organisms that consume both plants and animals. ... A selection of produce typical of a vegetarian diet. ... This article deals with meat-eating animals. ... Food science is a discipline concerned with all technical aspects of food, beginning with harvesting or slaughtering, and ending with its cooking and consumption. ...


In general, humans can survive for two to eight weeks without food, depending on stored body fat. Survival without water is usually limited to three or four days. Lack of food remains a serious problem, with about 36 million people starving to death every year.[60] Childhood malnutrition is also common and contributes to the global burden of disease.[61] However global food distribution is not even, and obesity among some human populations has increased to almost epidemic proportions, leading to health complications and increased mortality in some developed, and a few developing countries. The United States Centers for Disease Control (CDC) state that 32% of American adults over the age of 20 are obese, while 66.5% are obese or overweight. Obesity is caused by consuming more calories than are expended, with many attributing excessive weight gain to a combination of overeating and insufficient exercise. In epidemiology, an epidemic (from [[Latin language] epi- upon + demos people) is a disease that appears as new cases in a given human population, during a given period, at a rate that substantially exceeds what is expected, based on recent experience (the number of new cases in the population during... World map indicating Human Development Index (as of 2004). ... A developing country is a country with low average income compared to the world average. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta is recognized as the lead United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people by providing credible information to enhance health decisions, and promoting health through strong partnerships with state health departments and other organizations. ... The calorie is a unit of energy, in particular heat. ... The term Exercise can refer to: Physical exercise such as running or strength training Exercise (options), the financial term for enacting and terminating a contract Category: ...


Over nine thousand years ago, humans developed agriculture,[62] which has substantially altered the kind of food people eat. This has led to increased populations, the development of cities, and because of increased population density, the wider spread of infectious diseases. The types of food consumed, and the way in which they are prepared, has varied widely by time, location, and culture. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This false-colored electron micrograph shows a malaria sporozoite migrating through the midgut epithelia. ...


Sleep

Humans are generally diurnal. The average sleep requirement is between seven and nine continuous hours a day for an adult and nine to ten hours for a child; elderly people usually sleep for six to seven hours. Experiencing less sleep than this is common in modern societies; this sleep deprivation can have negative effects. A sustained restriction of adult sleep to four hours per day has been shown to correlate with changes in physiology and mental state, including fatigue, aggression, and bodily discomfort. For other uses, see Sleep (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Sleep (disambiguation). ... Sleep deprivation is a general lack of the necessary amount of sleep. ...


Psychology

A sketch of the human brain imposed upon the profile of Michelangelo's David. Sketch by Priyan Weerappuli
For more details on this topic, see Human brain and Mind.

The human brain, the focal point of the central nervous system in humans, controls the peripheral nervous system. In addition to controlling "lower", involuntary, or primarily autonomic activities such as respiration and digestion, it is also the locus of "higher" order functioning such as thought, reasoning, and abstraction.[63] These cognitive processes constitute the mind, and, along with their behavioral consequences, are studied in the field of psychology. For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ... Michelangelos David, sculpted from 1501 to 1504, is a masterpiece of Renaissance sculpture and one of Michelangelos two greatest works of sculpture, along with the Pietà. It is the statue of the young Israelite king David alone that almost certainly holds the title of the most recognizable stone... A human brain. ... For other uses, see Mind (disambiguation). ... A human brain. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... The peripheral nervous system (PNS) can be divided into the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... In animal physiology, respiration is the transport of oxygen from the ambient air to the tissue cells and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction. ... For the industrial process, see anaerobic digestion. ... Personification of thought (Greek Εννοια) in Celsus Library in Ephesos, Turkey Thought or thinking is a mental process which allows beings to model the world, and so to deal with it effectively according to their goals, plans, ends and desires. ... For other uses, see Reason (disambiguation). ... This article is about the concept of abstraction in general. ... Mental functions and cognitive processes are terms often used interchangeably (although not always correctly so, the term cognitive tends to have specific implications - see cognitive and cognitivism) to mean such functions or processes as perception, introspection, memory, imagination, conception, belief, reasoning, volition, and emotion--in other words, all the different... For other uses, see Mind (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Psychological science redirects here. ...


Generally regarded as more capable of these higher order activities, the human brain is believed to be more "intelligent" in general than that of any other known species. While some have larger brains or higher brain to body mass ratios, and some are capable of creating structures and using simple tools—mostly through instinct and mimicry—human technology is vastly more complex, and is constantly evolving and improving through time.


Although being vastly more advanced than many species in cognitive abilities, most of these abilities are known in primitive form among other species. Modern anthropology has tended to bear out Darwin's proposition that "the difference in mind between man and the higher animals, great as it is, certainly is one of degree and not of kind".[64] For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ...


Consciousness and thought

For more details on this topic, see Consciousness and Cognition.

Humans are one of only nine species to pass the mirror test—which tests whether an animal recognizes its reflection as an image of itself—along with all the great apes (gorillas, chimpanzees, orangutans, bonobos), Bottlenose dolphins, Asian elephants, European Magpies and Orcas.[65] Most human children will pass the mirror test at 18 months old.[66] However, the usefulness of this test as a true test of consciousness has been disputed (see mirror test), and this may be a matter of degree rather than a sharp divide. Monkeys have been trained to apply abstract rules in tasks.[67] Consciousness defies definition. ... Look up Cognition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The mirror test is a measure of self-awareness developed by Gordon Gallup Jr in 1970. ... For an explanation of similar terms, see Hominid. ... Species Gorilla gorilla Gorilla beringei The gorilla, the largest of the primates, is a ground-dwelling herbivore that inhabits the forests of central Africa. ... Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzees, also called chimps, are the common name for two species in the genus Pan. ... For the chess opening, see Sokolsky Opening. ... For other uses, see Bonobo (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Tursiops truncatus Montagu, 1821 The Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) is the most common and well-known dolphin species. ... Binomial name Elephas maximus Linnaeus, 1758 Asian Elephant range The Asian Elephant, sometimes known as the Indian Elephant (Elephas maximus) is one of the three living species of elephant, and the only living species of the genus Elephas. ... Binomial name Pica pica Linnaeus, (1758) The European Magpie (Pica pica) is a resident breeding bird throughout Europe, much of Asia, and northwest Africa. ... Binomial name Orcinus orca Linnaeus, 1758 Orca range (in blue) The orca (Orcinus orca), commonly known as the killer whale, and sometimes called the grampus, is the largest member of the oceanic dolphin family. ... The mirror test is a measure of self-awareness developed by Gordon Gallup Jr in 1970. ...


The human brain perceives the external world through the senses, and each individual human is influenced greatly by his or her experiences, leading to subjective views of existence and the passage of time. Humans are variously said to possess consciousness, self-awareness, and a mind, which correspond roughly to the mental processes of thought. These are said to possess qualities such as self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and one's environment. The extent to which the mind constructs or experiences the outer world is a matter of debate, as are the definitions and validity of many of the terms used above. The philosopher of cognitive science Daniel Dennett, for example, argues that there is no such thing as a narrative centre called the "mind", but that instead there is simply a collection of sensory inputs and outputs: different kinds of "software" running in parallel.[68] Psychologist B.F. Skinner argued that the mind is an explanatory fiction that diverts attention from environmental causes of behavior,[69] and that what are commonly seen as mental processes may be better conceived of as forms of covert verbal behavior.[70][71] This article is about the senses of living organisms (vision, taste, etc. ... This article is in need of attention. ... For the philosophical movement, see Existentialism. ... Consciousness defies definition. ... For the feeling that one is being watched, see self-consciousness. ... Personification of thought (Greek Εννοια) in Celsus Library in Ephesos, Turkey Thought or thinking is a mental process which allows beings to model the world, and so to deal with it effectively according to their goals, plans, ends and desires. ... Not to be confused with sapience. ... Not to be confused with sentience. ... In philosophy, the issue of personal identity concerns many numbers of loosely related issues, in particular persistence, change, time, and sameness. ... Cognitive science is usually defined as the scientific study either of mind or of intelligence (e. ... Daniel Clement Dennett (born March 28, 1942 in Boston, Massachusetts) is a prominent American philosopher whose research centers on philosophy of mind, philosophy of science and philosophy of biology, particularly as those fields relate to evolutionary biology and cognitive science. ... Burrhus Frederic Skinner (March 20, 1904 _ August 18, 1990) was an American psychologist and author. ...


Humans study the more physical aspects of the mind and brain, and by extension of the nervous system, in the field of neurology, the more behavioral in the field of psychology, and a sometimes loosely defined area between in the field of psychiatry, which treats mental illness and behavioral disorders. Psychology does not necessarily refer to the brain or nervous system, and can be framed purely in terms of phenomenological or information processing theories of the mind. Increasingly, however, an understanding of brain functions is being included in psychological theory and practice, particularly in areas such as artificial intelligence, neuropsychology, and cognitive neuroscience. Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system. ... Phenomenology is a Philosophical movement that stated that the “self” was linked to our perceptions of our immediate experiences. ... In general, information processing is the changing (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer. ... AI redirects here. ... Neuropsychology is a branch of psychology and neurology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relate to specific psychological processes and overt behaviors. ... The field of cognitive neuroscience concerns the scientific study of the neural mechanisms underlying cognition and is a branch of neuroscience. ...


The nature of thought is central to psychology and related fields. Cognitive psychology studies cognition, the mental processes' underlying behavior. It uses information processing as a framework for understanding the mind. Perception, learning, problem solving, memory, attention, language and emotion are all well researched areas as well. Cognitive psychology is associated with a school of thought known as cognitivism, whose adherents argue for an information processing model of mental function, informed by positivism and experimental psychology. Techniques and models from cognitive psychology are widely applied and form the mainstay of psychological theories in many areas of both research and applied psychology. Largely focusing on the development of the human mind through the life span, developmental psychology seeks to understand how people come to perceive, understand, and act within the world and how these processes change as they age. This may focus on intellectual, cognitive, neural, social, or moral development. Cognitive Psychology is the school of psychology that examines internal mental processes such as problem solving, memory, and language. ... Look up Cognition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Mental functions and cognitive processes are terms often used interchangeably (although not always correctly so, the term cognitive tends to have specific implications - see cognitive and cognitivism) to mean such functions or processes as perception, introspection, memory, imagination, conception, belief, reasoning, volition, and emotion--in other words, all the different... In general, information processing is the changing (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer. ... In psychology, cognitivism is a theoretical approach to understanding the mind, which argues that mental function can be understood by quantitative, positivist and scientific methods, and that such functions can be described as information processing models. ... In general, information processing is the changing (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer. ... Positivism is a philosophy that states that the only authentic knowledge is knowledge that is based on actual sense experience. ... Experimental psychology approaches psychology as one of the natural sciences, and therefore assumes that it is susceptible to the experimental method. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Kohlbergs stages of moral development were developed by Lawrence Kohlberg to explain the development of moral reasoning. ...


Some philosophers divide consciousness into phenomenal consciousness, which is experience itself, and access consciousness, which is the processing of the things in experience.[72] Phenomenal consciousness is the state of being conscious, such as when they say "I am conscious." Access consciousness is being conscious of something in relation to abstract concepts, such as when one says "I am conscious of these words." Various forms of access consciousness include awareness, self-awareness, conscience, stream of consciousness, Husserl's phenomenology, and intentionality. The concept of phenomenal consciousness, in modern history, according to some, is closely related to the concept of qualia. Social psychology links sociology with psychology in their shared study of the nature and causes of human social interaction, with an emphasis on how people think towards each other and how they relate to each other. The behavior and mental processes, both human and non-human, can be described through animal cognition, ethology, evolutionary psychology, and comparative psychology as well. Human ecology is an academic discipline that investigates how humans and human societies interact with both their natural environment and the human social environment. The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Intentionality, originally a concept from scholastic philosophy, was reintroduced in contemporary philosophy by the philosopher and psychologist Franz Brentano in his work Psychologie vom Empirischen Standpunkte. ... Redness is the canonical quale. ... The scope of social psychological research. ... Animal cognition, is the title given to a modern approach to the mental capacities of animals other than humans. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Evolutionary psychology (EP) attempts to explain mental and psychological traits—such as memory, perception, or language—as adaptations, that is, as the functional products of natural selection or sexual selection. ... A brain of a cat Psychologists and scientists do not always agree on what should be considered Comparative Psychology. ... Human ecology is an academic discipline that deals with the relationship between humans and their natural, social and created environments. ... // An academic discipline, or field of study, is a branch of knowledge which is taught or researched at the college or university level. ... Young people interacting within an ethnically diverse society. ... The social environment is the direct influence of a group of individuals and their contributions to this environment, as both groups and individuals who are in frequent communication with each other within their cultural or socio-economical strata, which create role identity(-ies) and guide the individuals self (sociology...


Motivation and emotion

For more details on this topic, see Motivation and Emotion.

Motivation is the driving force of desire behind all deliberate actions of human beings. Motivation is based on emotion—specifically, on the search for satisfaction (positive emotional experiences), and the avoidance of conflict. Positive and negative is defined by the individual brain state, which may be influenced by social norms: a person may be driven to self-injury or violence because their brain is conditioned to create a positive response to these actions. Motivation is important because it is involved in the performance of all learned responses. Within psychology, conflict avoidance and the libido are seen to be primary motivators. Within economics, motivation is often seen to be based on incentives; these may be financial, moral, or coercive. Religions generally posit divine or demonic influences. Motivation is a word used to refer to the reason or reasons for engaging in a particular behavior, especially human behavior. ... For other uses, see Emotion (disambiguation). ... Motivation is a word used to refer to the reason or reasons for engaging in a particular behavior, especially human behavior. ... Action, as a concept in philosophy, is what an agent can do, as for instance humans as agents can do. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... In sociology, a norm, or social norm, is a pattern of behavior expected within a particular society in a given situation. ... Self-harm (SH) is deliberate injury to ones own body. ... For other uses, see Violence (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ... Psychological science redirects here. ... For other uses, see Libido (disambiguation). ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... For the game developer, see Incentive Software. ... FINANCIAL is the weekly English-language newspaper with offices in Tbilisi, Georgia and Kiev, Ukraine. ... This article is about the use of the moral in storytelling. ... Coercion is the practice of compelling a person to act by employing threat of force. ... “Fiend” redirects here. ...


Happiness, or the state of being happy, is a human emotional condition. The definition of happiness is a common philosophical topic. Some people might define it as the best condition that a human can have—a condition of mental and physical health. Others define it as freedom from want and distress; consciousness of the good order of things; assurance of one's place in the universe or society. For other uses, see Happiness (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Mental health is a term used to describe either a level of cognitive or emotional wellbeing or an absence of a mental disorder. ... For other uses, see Freedom. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). ... Young people interacting within an ethnically diverse society. ...


Emotion has a significant influence on, or can even be said to control, human behavior, though historically many cultures and philosophers have for various reasons discouraged allowing this influence to go unchecked. Emotional experiences perceived as pleasant, such as love, admiration, or joy, contrast with those perceived as unpleasant, like hate, envy, or sorrow. There is often a distinction made between refined emotions that are socially learned and survival oriented emotions, which are thought to be innate. Human exploration of emotions as separate from other neurological phenomena is worthy of note, particularly in cultures where emotion is considered separate from physiological state. In some cultural medical theories emotion is considered so synonymous with certain forms of physical health that no difference is thought to exist. The Stoics believed excessive emotion was harmful, while some Sufi teachers (in particular, the poet and astronomer Omar Khayyám) felt certain extreme emotions could yield a conceptual perfection, what is often translated as ecstasy. For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... For other uses, see Love (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hate (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Envy (disambiguation). ... Look up sorrow in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy, founded by Zeno of Citium in Athens in the early third century BC. It proved to be a popular and durable philosophy, with a following throughout Greece and the Roman Empire from its founding until all the schools of philosophy were ordered closed... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... For other people, places or with similar names of Khayam, see Khayyam (disambiguation). ... This article is about informal use of the term. ...


In modern scientific thought, certain refined emotions are considered a complex neural trait innate in a variety of domesticated and non-domesticated mammals. These were commonly developed in reaction to superior survival mechanisms and intelligent interaction with each other and the environment; as such, refined emotion is not in all cases as discrete and separate from natural neural function as was once assumed. However, when humans function in civilized tandem, it has been noted that uninhibited acting on extreme emotion can lead to social disorder and crime. This is a list of animals that have been domesticated by humans. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria For the folk-rock band see The Mammals. ...


Sexuality and love

For more details on this topic, see Love and Human sexuality.

Human sexuality, besides ensuring biological reproduction, has important social functions: it creates physical intimacy, bonds, and hierarchies among individuals; may be directed to spiritual transcendence (according to some traditions); and in a hedonistic sense to the enjoyment of activity involving sexual gratification. Sexual desire, or libido, is experienced as a bodily urge, often accompanied by strong emotions such as love, ecstasy and jealousy. The extreme importance of sexuality in the human species can be seen in a number of physical features, among them hidden ovulation, external scrotum and penile design suggesting sperm competition, the absence of an os penis, permanent secondary sexual characteristics, the forming of pair bonds based on sexual attraction as a common social structure and sexual ability in females outside of ovulation. These adaptations indicate that the importance of sexuality in humans is on a par with that found in the Bonobo, and that the complex human sexual behaviour has a long evolutionary history. For other uses, see Love (disambiguation). ... This article is about human sexual perceptions. ... This article is about human sexual perceptions. ... For other uses, see Libido (disambiguation). ... This article is about informal use of the term. ... The baculum (also penis bone, penile bone or os penis) is a bone found in the penis of most mammals. ... Secondary sex characteristics are traits that distinguish the two sexes of a species, but that are not directly part of the reproductive system. ... For other uses, see Bonobo (disambiguation). ... This article is about evolution in biology. ...


Human sexual choices are usually made in reference to cultural norms, which vary widely. Restrictions are sometimes determined by religious beliefs or social customs. The pioneering researcher Sigmund Freud believed that humans are born polymorphously perverse, which means that any number of objects could be a source of pleasure. According to Freud, humans then pass through five stages of psychosexual development (and can fixate on any stage because of various traumas during the process). For Alfred Kinsey, another influential sex researcher, people can fall anywhere along a continuous scale of sexual orientation (with only small minorities fully heterosexual or homosexual). Recent studies of neurology and genetics suggest people may be born with a predisposition to one sexual orientation or another.[73][74] Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... The concept of psychosexual development, as envisioned by Sigmund Freud at the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth century, is a central element in the theory of psychology. ... The concept of psychosexual development, as envisioned by Sigmund Freud at the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth century, is a central element in the theory of psychology. ... Alfred Charles Kinsey (June 23, 1894 – August 25, 1956), was an American biologist and professor of entomology and zoology who in 1947 founded the Institute for Research in Sex, Gender and Reproduction at Indiana University, now called the Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender and Reproduction. ...


Culture

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Human society statistics
World population 6.7 billion (July 23, 2009 estimate)
Population density 12.7 per km² (4.9 mi²) by total area
43.6 per km² (16.8 mi²) by land area
Largest agglomerations Tokyo, Seoul, Mexico City, New York City, Lagos, Mumbai, Jakarta, São Paulo, Delhi, Osaka-Kobe-Kyoto, Shanghai, Manila, Hong Kong-Shenzhen, Los Angeles, Kolkata, Moscow, Cairo, Buenos Aires, London, Beijing, Karachi, Dhaka
Languages with over 100 million speakers
(source: The 30 Most Spoken Languages of the World)
Mandarin: 1120 million
English: 510 million
Hindi: 490 million
Spanish: 425 million
Arabic: 255 million
Russian: 254 million
Portuguese: 218 million
Bengali: 215 million
Malay: 175 million
French: 130 million
Japanese: 127 million
German: 123 million
Persian: 110 million
Urdu: 104 million
Punjabi: 103 million
Currencies

U.S. dollar, Euro, Yen, Pound, Rupee, Australian Dollar, Ruble, Canadian Dollar, Yuan among many others Map of countries by population — China and India, the only two countries to have a population greater than one billion, together possess more than a third of the worlds population. ... In the study of human settlements, an agglomeration is an extended city or town area comprising the built-up area of a central place (usually a municipality) and any suburbs or adjacent satellite towns. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... Short name Statistics Location map Map of location of Seoul. ... Nickname: Location of Mexico City Coordinates: , Country Federal entity Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded c. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... For other uses, see Lagos (disambiguation). ... , Bombay redirects here. ... Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. ... This article is about the city. ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... ÅŒsaka-Kōbe-Kyōto is the name of a metropolitan area that is centered around the cities of Osaka in the Osaka prefecture, Kobe in the Hyogo prefecture, and Kyoto in the Kyoto prefecture. ... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of the word, see Manila (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Shenzhen (disambiguation). ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... , “Calcutta” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Buenos Aires (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Peking redirects here. ... Not to be confused with Karachay-Cherkessia. ... Dhaka (previously Dacca; Bengali: Ḍhākā; IPA: ) is the capital of Bangladesh and the principal city of Dhaka District. ... This article is on all of the Northern Chinese dialects. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Bangla redirects here. ... Not to be confused with the Malayalam language, spoken in India. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... Punjabi redirects here. ... A currency is a unit of exchange, facilitating the transfer of goods and services. ... USD redirects here. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... Yen redirects here. ... GBP redirects here. ... “INR” redirects here. ... ISO 4217 Code AUD User(s) Australia 6 countries and territories Kiribati Nauru Tuvalu Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Norfolk Island Inflation 4. ... ISO 4217 Code RUB User(s) Russia and self-proclaimed Abkhazia and South Ossetia Inflation 7% Source Rosstat, 2007 Subunit 1/100 kopek (копейка) Symbol руб kopek (копейка) к Plural The language(s) of this currency is of the Slavic languages. ... C$ redirects here. ... CNY and RMB redirect here. ...

GDP (nominal) $36,356,240 million USD
($5,797 USD per capita)
GDP (PPP) $51,656,251 million IND
($8,236 per capita)
For more details on this topic, see Culture.

Culture is defined here as a set of distinctive material, intellectual, emotional, and spiritual features of a social group, including art, literature, sport, lifestyles, value systems, traditions, rituals, and beliefs. The link between human biology and human behavior and culture is often very close, making it difficult to clearly divide topics into one area or the other; as such, the placement of some subjects may be based primarily on convention. Culture consists of values, social norms, and artifacts. A culture's values define what it holds to be important or ethical. Closely linked are norms, expectations of how people ought to behave, bound by tradition. Artifacts, or material culture, are objects derived from the culture's values, norms, and understanding of the world. In economics, nominal value refers to any price or value expressed in money of the day, as opposed to real value, which adjusts for the effect of inflation. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... Look up Per capita in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... The international dollar is a hypothetical unit of currency that has the same purchasing power that the U.S. dollar has in the United States at a given point in time. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... In archaeology, an artifact or artefact is any object made or modified by a human culture, and often one later recovered by some archaeological endeavor. ... Value redirects here. ... It has been suggested that Convention (norm) be merged into this article or section. ... In archaeology, culture refers to either of two separate but allied concepts: An archaeological culture is a pattern of similar artefacts and features found within a specific area over a limited period of time. ...


Language

For more details on this topic, see Language.

The capacity humans have to transfer concepts, ideas and notions through speech and writing is unrivaled in known species. Unlike the call systems of other primates that are closed, human language is far more open, and gains variety in different situations. The human language has the quality of displacement, using words to represent things and happenings that are not presently or locally occurring, but elsewhere or at a different time.[47] In this way data networks are important to the continuing development of language. The faculty of speech is a defining feature of humanity, possibly predating phylogenetic separation of the modern population. Language is central to the communication between humans, as well as being central to the sense of identity that unites nations, cultures and ethnic groups. The invention of writing systems at least 5,000 years ago allowed the preservation of language on material objects, and was a major step in cultural evolution. The science of linguistics describes the structure of language and the relationship between languages. There are approximately 6,000 different languages currently in use, including sign languages, and many thousands more that are considered extinct. A phylogeny (or phylogenesis) is the origin and evolution of a set of organisms, usually of a species. ... For the journal, see Linguistics (journal). ... An extinct language is a language which no longer has any native speakers, in contrast to a dead language, which is is a language which has stopped changing in grammar, vocabulary, and the complete meaning of a sentence. ...


Spirituality and religion

For more details on this topic, see Spirituality and Religion.

Religion is generally defined as a belief system concerning the supernatural, sacred or divine, and moral codes, practices, values, institutions and rituals associated with such belief. Although the psychology of religion is an active area of study, the evolution and the history of the first religions are not well understood.[75][76] However, in the course of its development, religion has taken on many forms that vary by culture and individual perspective. Some of the chief questions and issues religions are concerned with include life after death (commonly involving belief in an afterlife), the origin of life, the nature of the universe (religious cosmology) and its ultimate fate (eschatology), and what is moral or immoral. A common source in religions for answers to these questions are transcendent divine beings such as deities or a singular God, although not all religions are theistic—many are nontheistic or ambiguous on the topic, particularly among the Eastern religions. Spirituality, belief or involvement in matters of the soul or spirit, is one of the many different approaches humans take in trying to answer fundamental questions about humankind's place in the universe, the meaning of life, and the ideal way to live one's life. Though these topics have also been addressed by philosophy, and to some extent by science, spirituality is unique in that it focuses on mystical or supernatural concepts such as karma and God. Spirituality, in a narrow sense, concerns itself with matters of the spirit. ... For other uses, see Believe. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Morality. ... Psychology of religion is psychologys theory of religious experiences and beliefs. ... There are a number of models regarding the ways in which religions come into being and develop. ... For other uses, see Afterlife (disambiguation). ... For the definition, see Life. ... For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). ... Religious cosmologies are ways of explaining the history and evolution of the universe based, at least in part, on the acceptance of principles that cannot be justified by accepted scientific arguments (those are otherwise generally considered via physical cosmology). ... This box:      The ultimate fate of the universe is a topic in physical cosmology. ... For other uses, see Eschatology (disambiguation). ... Morality (from the Latin manner, character, proper behavior) has three principal meanings. ... In religion, transcendence is a condition or state of being that surpasses, and is independent of, physical existence. ... For other uses, see Divinity (disambiguation) and Divine (disambiguation). ... See also: List of deities Look up deity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Theism is the belief in the existence of one or more divinities or deities. ... Nontheism is a term that covers a range of both religious and nonreligious attitudes characterized by the absence of—or the rejection of—theism or any belief in a personal god or gods. ... Eastern religion refers to religions that are mostly either Indian or Chinese in origin: The Dharma faiths of Hinduism, Sikhism, Jainism and Buddhism; and the Chinese religious philosophies of Taoism and Confucianism. ... For other uses, see Soul (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Spirit (disambiguation). ... This article is about the concept of the meaning of life. ... Mysticism (ancient Greek mysticon = secret) is meditation, prayer, or theology focused on the direct experience of union with divinity, God, or Ultimate Reality, or the belief that such experience is a genuine and important source of knowledge. ... For other uses, see Karma (disambiguation). ...


Although the exact level of religiosity can be hard to measure,[77] a majority of humans professes some variety of religious or spiritual belief, although some are irreligious: that is lacking or rejecting belief in the supernatural or spiritual. Other humans have no religious beliefs and are atheists, scientific skeptics, agnostics or simply non-religious. Humanism is a philosophy which seeks to include all of humanity and all issues common to human beings; it is usually non-religious. Additionally, although most religions and spiritual beliefs are clearly distinct from science on both a philosophical and methodological level, the two are not generally considered mutually exclusive; a majority of humans holds a mix of both scientific and religious views. The distinction between philosophy and religion, on the other hand, is at times less clear, and the two are linked in such fields as the philosophy of religion and theology. This section does not cite its references or sources. ... Atheist redirects here. ... Agnosticism is the philosophical and theological view that the existence of God, gods or deities is either unknown or inherently unknowable. ... Irreligion or irreligiousness is the absence of religious belief. ... For the specific belief system, see Humanism (life stance). ... Philosophy of religion is the rational study of the meaning and justification ( or rebuttal) of fundamental religious claims, particularly about the nature and existence of God (or gods, or the divine). ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ...

Confucius (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kung-fu-tzu), lit. ... Chongming County (崇明县, pinyin: Chóngmíng Xiàn) is the only county under the jurisdication of Shanghai, China. ... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ...

Philosophy and self-reflection

For more details on this topic, see Philosophy, Human self-reflection, and Human nature.

Philosophy is a discipline or field of study involving the investigation, analysis, and development of ideas at a general, abstract, or fundamental level. It is the discipline searching for a general understanding of reality, reasoning and values. Major fields of philosophy include logic, metaphysics, epistemology, philosophy of mind, and axiology (which includes ethics and aesthetics). Philosophy covers a very wide range of approaches, and is used to refer to a worldview, to a perspective on an issue, or to the positions argued for by a particular philosopher or school of philosophy. For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... The Thinker by Auguste Rodin: An artists impression of Homo sapiens Human self-reflection is the basis of philosophy and is present from the earliest historical records. ... For other uses, see Human nature (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Logic (from Classical Greek λόγος logos; meaning word, thought, idea, argument, account, reason, or principle) is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. ... Plato (left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy investigating principles of reality transcending those of any particular science. ... Theory of knowledge redirects here: for other uses, see theory of knowledge (disambiguation) Epistemology (from Greek επιστήμη - episteme, knowledge + λόγος, logos) or theory of knowledge is a branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge. ... A phrenological mapping of the brain. ... Axiology, from the Greek axia (αξια, value, worth), is the study of value or quality. ... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... Aesthetics is commonly known as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values, sometimes called judgments of sentiment and taste. ... This article is about the radio show. ...


Humans often consider themselves the dominant species on Earth, and the most advanced in intelligence and ability to manage their environment. This belief is especially strong in modern Western culture. Alongside such claims of dominance is often found radical pessimism because of the frailty and brevity of human life.[citation needed] For this articles equivalent regarding the East, see Eastern culture. ... This article is about life in general. ...


Art, music, and literature

For more details on this topic, see Art, Music, and Literature.
Allegory of Music (ca. 1594), a painting of a woman writing sheet music by Lorenzo Lippi.

Artistic works have existed for almost as long as humankind, from early pre-historic art to contemporary art. Art is one of the most unusual aspects of human behaviour and a key distinguishing feature of humans from other species. This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... This article is about (usually written) works. ... For other uses , see Painting (disambiguation). ... Sheet music is written representation of music. ... Lorenzo Lippi Lorenzo Lippi (1606, Florence - 1664, Florence) was an Italian painter and poet. ... Stonehenge, England, erected by Neolithic peoples ca. ...


As a form of cultural expression by humans, art may be defined by the pursuit of diversity and the usage of narratives of liberation and exploration (i.e. art history, art criticism, and art theory) to mediate its boundaries. This distinction may be applied to objects or performances, current or historical, and its prestige extends to those who made, found, exhibit, or own them. In the modern use of the word, art is commonly understood to be the process or result of making material works that, from concept to creation, adhere to the "creative impulse" of human beings. Art is distinguished from other works by being in large part unprompted by necessity, by biological drive, or by any undisciplined pursuit of recreation. For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... The term multiculturalism generally refers to a state of both cultural and ethnic diversity within the demographics of a particular social space. ... A narrative is a construct created in a suitable medium (speech, writing, images) that describes a sequence of fictional or non-fictional events. ... This article is about the academic discipline of art history. ... Monkeys as Judges of Art, 1889, Gabriel von Max. ... The Mona Lisa Although today the word art usually refers to the visual arts, the concept of what art is has continuously changed over centuries. ...


Music is a natural intuitive phenomenon based on the three distinct and interrelated organization structures of rhythm, harmony, and melody. Listening to music is perhaps the most common and universal form of entertainment for humans, while learning and understanding it are popular disciplines. There are a wide variety of music genres and ethnic musics. Literature, the body of written—and possibly oral—works, especially creative ones, includes prose, poetry and drama, both fiction and non-fiction. Literature includes such genres as epic, legend, myth, ballad, and folklore. Intuition is an unconscious form of knowledge. ... A stilt-walker entertaining shoppers at a shopping centre in Swindon, England Entertainment is an activity designed to give pleasure or relaxation to an audience (although in the case of a computer game the audience may be only one person). ... For other uses, see Discipline (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Folk music, in the original sense of the term, is music by and of the people. ... This article is about (usually written) works. ... For the book by Chuck Palahniuk titled Non-fiction, see Stranger Than Fiction: True Stories. ... For other meanings of epic, see Epic. ...


Tool use and technology

For more details on this topic, see Tool and Technology.
An archaic Acheulean stone tool

Stone tools were used by proto-humans at least 2.5 million years ago.[78] The controlled use of fire began around 1.5 million years ago. Since then, humans have made major advances, developing complex technology to create tools to aid their lives and allowing for other advancements in culture. Major leaps in technology include the discovery of agriculture - what is known as the Neolithic Revolution; and the invention of automated machines in the Industrial Revolution. In modern times, the invention of the Internet has allowed humans to share information faster than ever before. The use of electricity as power is vital in the modern human world. This article is about the instrument. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... Acheulean hand-axes from Kent. ... The Neolithic Revolution is the term for the first agricultural revolution, describing the transition from nomadic hunting and gathering communities and bands, to agriculture and settlement, as first adopted by various independent prehistoric human societies, in numerous locations on most continents between 10-12 thousand years ago. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... Electricity (from New Latin Ä“lectricus, amberlike) is a general term for a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. ...


Archaeology attempts to tell the story of past or lost cultures in part by close examination of the artifacts they produced. Early humans left stone tools, pottery and jewelry that are particular to various regions and times. The 2000-year-old remains of Ancient Rome, Italy, are being excavated and mapped by these archaeologists Roman theater, Alexandria, Egypt Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from Greek: αρχαίος, archaios, combining form in Latin archae-, ancient; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the science that studies human cultures through the recovery, documentation, analysis... In archaeology, an artifact or artefact is any object made or modified by a human culture, and often one later recovered by some archaeological endeavor. ... Ancient stone tools A stone tool is, in the most general sense, any tool made of stone. ... Pottery on display in Dilli Haat, Delhi, India. ... Jewelry (the American spelling; spelled jewellery in Commonwealth English) consists of ornamental devices worn by persons, typically made with gems and precious metals. ...


Race and ethnicity

For more details on this topic, see Race (classification of human beings), Race and genetics, Historical definitions of race, and Ethnic group.

Humans often categorize themselves in terms of race or ethnicity, sometimes on the basis of differences in appearance. Human racial categories have been based on both ancestry and visible traits, especially skin color, hair texture and facial features. Most current genetic and archaeological evidence supports a recent single origin of modern humans in East Africa.[79] Current genetic studies have demonstrated that humans on the African continent are most genetically diverse.[80] However, compared to many other animals, human gene sequences are remarkably homogeneous.[81][82][83][84] The predominance of genetic variation occurs within racial groups, with only 5 to 15% of total variation occurring between groups.[85] Ethnic groups, on the other hand, are more often linked by linguistic, cultural, ancestral, and national or regional ties. Self-identification with an ethnic group is based on kinship and descent. Race and ethnicity can lead to variant treatment and impact social identity, giving rise to racism and the theory of identity politics. In the last few centuries science has had an important influence on everyday notions of race. ... The term Ethnicity redirects here. ... Kinship and descent is one of the major concepts of cultural anthropology. ... In biology, a trait or character is a genetically inherited feature of an organism. ... Human skin colour can range from almost black to nearly colorless (appearing pinkish white due to the blood in the skin) in different people. ...  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  Geographic East Africa, including the UN subregion and East African Community East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ... Kinship and descent is one of the major concepts of cultural anthropology. ... Social Identity Theory is a theory formed by Henri Tajfel and John Turner to understand the psychological basis of intergroup discrimination. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... Identity politics is the political activity of various social movements for self-determination. ...


There is no scientific consensus of a list of the human races, and some anthropologists even question the notion of human "race". [86] For example, a color terminology for race includes the following in a classification of human races: White (e.g. Europeans), Negroes (e.g. Sub-Saharan Africa), Red (e.g. Native Americans) and Yellow (e.g. East Asians).


Society, government, and politics

The United Nations complex in New York City, which houses one of the largest human political organizations in the world.
For more details on this topic, see Society.
For more details on this topic, see Government, Politics, and Sovereign state.

Society is the system of organizations and institutions arising from interaction between humans. A state is an organized political community occupying a definite territory, having an organized government, and possessing internal and external sovereignty. Recognition of the state's claim to independence by other states, enabling it to enter into international agreements, is often important to the establishment of its statehood. The "state" can also be defined in terms of domestic conditions, specifically, as conceptualized by Max Weber, "a state is a human community that (successfully) claims the monopoly of the 'legitimate' use of physical force within a given territory."[87] UN redirects here. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Young people interacting within an ethnically diverse society. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... This article discusses states as sovereign political entities. ... Young people interacting within an ethnically diverse society. ... This article discusses states as sovereign political entities. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... Sovereignty is the exclusive right to have control over an area of governance, people, or oneself. ... For the politician, see Max Weber (politician). ...


Government can be defined as the political means of creating and enforcing laws; typically via a bureaucratic hierarchy. Politics is the process by which decisions are made within groups. Although the term is generally applied to behavior within governments, politics is also observed in all human group interactions, including corporate, academic, and religious institutions. Many different political systems exist, as do many different ways of understanding them, and many definitions overlap. The most common form of government worldwide is a republic[citation needed], however other examples include monarchy, Communist state, military dictatorship and theocracy. All of these issues have a direct relationship with economics. For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... This article is about the sociological concept. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about a form of government in which the state operates under the control of a Communist Party. ... A military dictatorship is a form of government wherein the political power resides with the military; it is similar but not identical to a stratocracy, a state ruled directly by the military. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      For other uses, see Theocracy (disambiguation). ...


War

For more details on this topic, see War.
The atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki immediately killed over 120,000 humans.

War is a state of widespread conflict between states or other large groups of humans, which is characterized by the use of lethal violence between combatants or upon civilians. It is estimated that during the 20th century between 167 and 188 million humans died as a result of war.[88] A common perception of war is a series of military campaigns between at least two opposing sides involving a dispute over sovereignty, territory, resources, religion or other issues. A war between internal elements of a state is a civil war.-1... The mushroom cloud over Hiroshima after the dropping of Little Boy. ... For other uses, see Violence (disambiguation). ... In the military sciences, a military campaign encompasses related military operations, usually conducted by a defense or fighting force, directed at gaining a particular desired state of affairs, usually within geographical and temporal limitations. ... Sovereignty is the exclusive right to have control over an area of governance, people, or oneself. ... Rainforest on Fatu-Hiva, Marquesas Islands Natural resources are naturally occurring substances that are considered valuable in their relatively unmodified (natural) form. ... This article is about the definition of the specific type of war. ...


There have been a wide variety of rapidly advancing tactics throughout the history of war, ranging from conventional war to asymmetric warfare to total war and unconventional warfare. Techniques include hand to hand combat, the use of ranged weapons, and ethnic cleansing. Military intelligence has often played a key role in determining victory and defeat. Propaganda, which often includes information, slanted opinion and disinformation, plays a key role in maintaining unity within a warring group, and/or sowing discord among opponents. In modern warfare, soldiers and armoured fighting vehicles are used to control the land, warships the sea, and aircraft the sky. These fields have also overlapped in the forms of marines, paratroopers, naval aircraft carriers, and surface-to-air missiles, among others. Satellites in low Earth orbit have made outer space a factor in warfare as well, although no actual warfare is currently known to be carried out in space. The military concept of Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA) is a theory about the future of warfare, often connected to technological and organizational recommendations for change in the United States military and others. ... Military tactics (Greek: TaktikÄ“, the art of organizing an army) are the collective name for methods for engaging and defeating an enemy in battle. ... Conventional warfare means a form of warfare conducted by using conventional military weapons and battlefield tactics between two or more nation-states in open confrontation. ... Asymmetric warfare originally referred to war between two or more actors or groups whose relative power differs significantly. ... Total war is a military conflict in which nations mobilize all available resources in order to destroy another nations ability to engage in war. ... Battlespace Weapons Tactics Strategy Organization Logistics Lists War Portal         Unconventional warfare (abbreviated UW) is the opposite of conventional warfare. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Close Quarters Combat. ... A ranged weapon is any weapon that launches a projectile or that is a projectile itself. ... For the video game, see Ethnic Cleansing (computer game). ... A Norwegian soldier (a Corporal, armed with an MP-5) A soldier is a person who has enlisted with, or has been conscripted into, the armed forces of a sovereign country and has undergone training and received equipment to defend that country or its interests. ... An armoured fighting vehicle (AFV) is a military vehicle, protected by armour and armed with weapons. ...


Trade and economics

Buyers and sellers bargain in Chichicastenango Market, Guatemala.
For more details on this topic, see Trade and Economics.

Trade is the voluntary exchange of goods, services and a form of economics. A mechanism that allows trade is called a market. The original form of trade was barter, the direct exchange of goods and services. Modern traders instead generally negotiate through a medium of exchange, such as money. As a result, buying can be separated from selling, or earning. The invention of money (and later credit, paper money and non-physical money) greatly simplified and promoted trade. Because of specialization and division of labor, most people concentrate on a small aspect of manufacturing or service, trading their labour for products. Trade exists between regions because different regions have an absolute or comparative advantage in the production of some tradable commodity, or because different regions' size allows for the benefits of mass production. Chichicastenango, also known as Santo Tomás Chichicastenango, is a town in the El Quiché department of Guatemala, known for its traditional Maya Indian culture. ... This article is about economic exchange. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... Look up Market in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Barter is a type of trade that do not use any medium of exchange, in which goods or services are exchanged for other goods and/or services. ... In classical economics and all micro-economics labour is one of three factors of production, the others being land and capital. ... Credit as a financial term, used in such terms as credit card, refers to the granting of a loan and the creation of debt. ... Division of labour is the breakdown of labour into specific, circumscribed tasks for maximum efficiency of output in the context of manufacturing. ... A country has an absolute advantage economically over another, in a particular good, when it can produce that good more efficiently. ... In economics, David Ricardo is credited for the principle of comparative advantage to explain how it can be beneficial for two parties (countries, regions, individuals and so on) to trade if one has a lower relative cost of producing some good. ... Mass production is the production of large amounts of standardised products on production lines. ...


Economics is a social science which studies the production, distribution, trade and consumption of goods and services. Economics focuses on measurable variables, and is broadly divided into two main branches: microeconomics, which deals with individual agents, such as households and businesses, and macroeconomics, which considers the economy as a whole, in which case it considers aggregate supply and demand for money, capital and commodities. Aspects receiving particular attention in economics are resource allocation, production, distribution, trade, and competition. Economic logic is increasingly applied to any problem that involves choice under scarcity or determining economic value. Mainstream economics focuses on how prices reflect supply and demand, and uses equations to predict consequences of decisions. The social sciences are groups of academic disciplines that study the human aspects of the world. ... Microeconomics (or price theory) is a branch of economics that studies how individuals, households, and firms make decisions to allocate limited resources,[1] typically in markets where goods or services are being bought and sold. ... In economics, aggregate supply is the total supply of goods and services by a national economy during a specific time period. ... In economics, aggregate demand is the total demand for goods and services in the economy (Y) during a specific time period. ... Capital has a number of related meanings in economics, finance and accounting. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In strategic planning, a resource-allocation decision is a plan for using available resources, for example human resources, especially in the near term, to achieve goals for the future. ... For other uses, see Competition (disambiguation). ... In general, the economic value of something is how much a product or service is worth to someone relative to other things (often measured in money). ... The supply and demand model describes how prices vary as a result of a balance between product availability at each price (supply) and the desires of those with purchasing power at each price (demand). ...


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Dr Colin Groves is a Professor of Biological Anthropology at the Australian National University in Canberra, Australia. ... OED stands for Oxford English Dictionary Office of Enrollment & Discipline This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This page lists direct English translations of common Latin phrases, such as veni vidi vici and et cetera. ... OED stands for Oxford English Dictionary Office of Enrollment & Discipline This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Indogermanisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch (The Indo-European Etymological Dictionary) by the Czech scholar and Irish nationalist Julius Pokorny, was published in 1959. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Frans B.M. de Waal, PhD (b. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... BBC Two (or BBC2 as it was formerly styled) was the second UK television station to be aired by the BBC. History The channel was scheduled to begin at 7:20pm on April 20, 1964 and show an evening of light entertainment, starting with the comedy show The Alberts and... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Scientific American is a popular-science magazine, published (first weekly and later monthly) since August 28, 1845, making it the oldest continuously published magazine in the United States. ... The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an organization that promotes cooperation between scientists, defends scientific freedom, encourages scientific responsibility and supports scientific education for the betterment of all humanity. ... Edward Osborne Wilson (born June 10, 1929) is an American biologist (Myrmecology, a branch of entomology), researcher (sociobiology, biodiversity), theorist (consilience, biophilia), and naturalist (conservationism). ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The Newsweek logo Newsweek is a weekly news magazine published in New York City and distributed throughout the United States and internationally. ... Satellite image of Africa, showing the ecological break that defines the sub-Saharan area Sub-Saharan Africa is a geographical term used to describe the area of the African continent which lies south of the Sahara, or those African countries which are fully or partially located south of the Sahara. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The United Nations Development Programe (UNDP), the United Nations global development network, is the largest multilateral source of development assistance in the world. ... Jared M. Diamond (born September 10, 1937) is an American evolutionary biologist, physiologist, and biogeographer. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... UN redirects here. ... UN redirects here. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, political activist, author and lecturer. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... For the politician, see Max Weber (politician). ...

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This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The following charts give a brief overview of several notable primate fossil finds relating to human evolution. ... Human evolutionary genetics studies how one human genome differs from the other, the evolutionary past that gave rise to it, and its current effects. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Genera Subfamily Ponginae Pongo - Orangutans Gigantopithecus (extinct) Sivapithecus (extinct) Subfamily Homininae Gorilla - Gorillas Pan - Chimpanzees Homo - Humans Paranthropus (extinct) Australopithecus (extinct) Sahelanthropus (extinct) Ardipithecus (extinct) Kenyanthropus (extinct) Pierolapithecus (extinct) (tentative) The Hominids (Hominidae) are a biological family which includes humans, extinct species of humanlike creatures and the other great apes... Phyla Subkingdom Parazoa Porifera (sponges) Subkingdom Agnotozoa Placozoa Orthonectida Rhombozoa Subkingdom Metazoa Radiata Cnidaria Ctenophora - Comb jellies Bilateria Protostomia Acoelomorpha Platyhelminthes - Flatworms Nemertina - Ribbon worms Gastrotricha Gnathostomulida - Jawed worms Micrognathozoa Rotifera - Rotifers Acanthocephala Priapulida Kinorhyncha Loricifera Entoprocta Nematoda - Roundworms Nematomorpha - Horsehair worms Cycliophora Mollusca - Mollusks Sipuncula - Peanut worms Annelida - Segmented... Typical Classes Subphylum Urochordata - Tunicates Ascidiacea Thaliacea Larvacea Subphylum Cephalochordata - Lancelets Subphylum Myxini - Hagfishes Subphylum Vertebrata - Vertebrates Petromyzontida - Lampreys Placodermi (extinct) Chondrichthyes - Cartilaginous fishes Acanthodii (extinct) Actinopterygii - Ray-finned fishes Actinistia - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Amphibia - Amphibians Reptilia - Reptiles Aves - Birds Mammalia - Mammals Chordates (phylum Chordata) include the vertebrates, together with... Orders Subclass Monotremata Monotremata Subclass Marsupialia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Subclass Placentalia Xenarthra Dermoptera Desmostylia Scandentia Primates Rodentia Lagomorpha Insectivora Chiroptera Pholidota Carnivora Perissodactyla Artiodactyla Cetacea Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Proboscidea Sirenia The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals primarily characterized by the presence of mammary... For the ecclesiastical use of this term, see primate (religion) Families 13, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all lemurs, monkeys, and apes, including humans. ... Families Tarsiidae Cebidae Aotidae Pitheciidae Atelidae Cercopithecidae Hylobatidae Hominidae The haplorrhines, the dry-nosed primates (the Greek name means simple-nosed), are members of the Haplorrhini clade: the prosimian tarsiers and all of the true simians (the monkeys and the apes, including humans). ... This article is about the primate. ... This article is about the primate. ... Binomial name Pongo pygmaeus (Linnaeus, 1760) The Bornean Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) is a species of orangutan native to the island of Borneo. ... Binomial name Lesson, 1827 The Sumatran Orangutan (Pongo abelii) is the rarer of the two species of orangutans. ... For other uses, see Gorilla (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Gorilla gorilla Savage, 1847 Subspecies G. g. ... Binomial name Gorilla beringei Matschie, 1903 Subspecies G. b. ... Type species Simia troglodytes Blumenbach, 1775 distribution of Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzee, often shortened to chimp, is the common name for the two extant species of apes in the genus Pan. ... Binomial name (Blumenbach, 1775) distribution of Common Chimpanzee. ... For other uses, see Bonobo (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Homo. ... This article is about the biological superfamily. ... Research into non-human great ape language has involved teaching gorillas, chimpanzees, and orangutans to communicate with human beings and with each other using sign language, physical tokens, and lexigrams; see Yerkish. ... The Great Ape Trust is a 200-acre ape sanctuary and language study in Des Moines, Iowa that houses orangutans and bonobos. ... Dian Fossey (January 16, 1932, San Francisco, California – December 26, 1985, Virunga Mountains, Rwanda) was an American zoologist who completed an extended study of eight gorilla groups. ... Dr Biruté Marija Filomena Galdikas, OC Ph. ... Dame Jane Goodall, DBE, PhD, (born 3 April 1934 as Valerie Jane Morris Goodall) is an English UN Messenger of Peace, primatologist, ethologist, and anthropologist. ... The Chimpanzee Genome Project is an effort to determine the DNA sequence of the genome of the closest living human relatives. ... The Human Genome Project (HGP) is an international scientific research project. ... Families 15, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all the species commonly related to the lemurs, monkeys, and apes, with the latter category including humans. ... Advocates of Great Ape personhood consider common chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, and orangutans (the hominid apes) to be persons. ... A Great Ape research ban, or severe restrictions on the use of non-human great apes in research, is currently in place in the Netherlands, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Sweden, Germany and Japan, and has been proposed in Austria. ... The Great Ape Project, founded by Italian philosopher Paola Cavalieri and Australian philosopher Peter Singer, is campaigning to have the United Nations endorse a Declaration on Great Apes. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... The logo of The Great Ape Project, which aims to expand moral equality to great apes, and to foster greater understanding of them by humans. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Ape extinction, particularly great ape extinction, is one of the most widely held biodiversity concerns. ... This is a list of apes of encyclopedic interest. ... This is a list of fictional apes (Bonobos, Chimpanzees, Gorillas, Orangutans, and Gibbons) and other non-human higher primates. ... For the history of humans on Earth, see History of the world. ... This article is about the book. ...



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