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Encyclopedia > Homo erectus
Homo erectus
Fossil range: Pleistocene

Homo erectus, Natural History Museum, Ann Arbor, Michigan
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Primates
Family: Hominidae
Genus: Homo
Species: H. erectus
Binomial name
Homo erectus
(Dubois, 1892)
Synonyms

Pithecanthropus erectus
Sinanthropus pekinensis
Javanthropus soloensis
Meganthropus paleojavanicus
The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) on the geologic timescale is the period from 1,808,000 to 11,550 years BP. The Pleistocene epoch had been intended to cover the worlds recent period of repeated glaciations. ... Scientific classification redirects here. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria For the folk-rock band see The Mammals. ... Families 15, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all the species commonly related to the lemurs, monkeys, and apes, with the latter category including humans. ... Latin name redirects here. ... Eugene Dubois (January 28, 1858 - December 16, 1940) was a Dutch anatomist, who earned world-wide fame with the discovery of Homo erectus in Java in 1891. ... Year 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... In scientific nomenclature, synonyms are different scientific names used for a single taxon. ... Pithecanthropus erectus redirects here. ... Trinomial name Homo erectus pekinensis (Black, 1927) Peking Man (sometimes now called Beijing Man), also called Sinanthropus pekinensis (currently Homo erectus pekinensis), is an example of Homo erectus. ...

Homo erectus (Latin: upright man) is an extinct species of the genus Homo, believed to have been the first hominin to leave Africa. Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Genera Subtribe Panina Pan (chimpanzees) Subtribe Hominina Homo (humans) †Paranthropus †Australopithecus †Sahelanthropus †Orrorin †Ardipithecus †Kenyanthropus For an explanation of very similar terms see Hominid Hominini is the tribe of Homininae that only includes humans (Homo), chimpanzees (Pan), and their extinct ancestors. ...


H. erectus originally migrated from Africa during the Early Pleistocene, possibly as a result of the operation of the Saharan pump, around 2.0 million years ago, and dispersed throughout most of the Old World. Fossilized remains 1.8 and 1.0 million years old have been found in Africa (e.g., Lake Turkana[1] and Olduvai Gorge), Europe (Georgia, Spain), Indonesia (e.g., Sangiran and Trinil), Vietnam, and China (e.g., Shaanxi). Early Pleistocene (also known as Lower Pleistocene, or Calabrian) is a stage of the Pleistocene Epoch. ... The Sahara Pump Theory is one which is used to explain the various phases by which African flora and African fauna have left that continent to penetrate the Middle East and possibly, thereafter, the rest of the world. ... For other uses, see Old World (disambiguation). ... View over Lake Turkana Lake Turkana, formerly known as Lake Rudolf, is a lake in the Great Rift Valley in Kenya (although the far northern end of the lake crosses into Ethiopia), which covers a surface area of 6405 km² (2473 mi²), making it the worlds largest permanent desert... Olduvai Gorge, February 2006 Olduvai Gorge from space Topography of Olduvai Gorge The Olduvai Gorge or Oldupai Gorge is commonly referred to as The Cradle of Mankind. ...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ShÇŽnxÄ«; Wade-Giles: Shan-hsi; Postal map spelling: Shensi) is a north-central province of the Peoples Republic of China, and includes portions of the Loess Plateau on the middle reaches of the Yellow River as well as the Qinling Mountains across the...

Contents

History of discoveries

Homo erectus tautavelensis skull
Calvaria "Sangiran II" Original, Collection Koenigswald, Senckenberg Museum

Dutch anatomist Eugene Dubois had been fascinated with Charles Darwin's theories of evolution, so set out to find an early human (1890s). He first described the species as Pithecanthropus erectus ("upright ape-man"), based on a calotte (skullcap) and a modern-looking femur found from the bank of the Solo River at Trinil, in East Java. (This species is now regarded as Homo erectus.) His find is commonly referred to as Java Man. However, thanks to Canadian anatomist Davidson Black's (1921) initial description of a lower molar, which was dubbed Sinanthropus pekinensis, most of the early and spectacular discoveries of this taxon took place at Zhoukoudian in China. German anatomist Franz Weidenreich provided much of the detailed description of this material in several monographs published in the journal Palaeontologica Sinica (Series D). However, nearly all of the original specimens were lost during World War II. High quality Weidenreichian casts do exist and are considered to be reliable evidence; these are curated at the American Museum of Natural History in New York and at the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology in Beijing. The calvaria (or calva, or skullcap) is the roof of the skull. ... Sangiran is an archaeological excavation site at the island of Java in Indonesia. ... Professor Dr. Gustav Heinrich Ralph (often cited as G. H. R.) von Koenigswald (1902-1982) was a distinguished paleontologist and geologist who conducted research on hominins, including Homo erectus. ... T. Rex The Senckenberg Museum in Frankfurt is the largest museum of natural history in Germany. ... Eugene Dubois (January 28, 1858 - December 16, 1940) was a Dutch anthropologist, who earned world-wide fame with the discovery of Homo erectus in Java in 1891. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... Pithecanthropus erectus was the name first given to the Homo erectus specimen, also known as Java Man, by its discoverer Eugène Dubois. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Trinil is a palaeoanthropological site on the banks of the Bengawan Solo River in Java, Indonesia. ... East Java (Indonesian: Jawa Timur) is a province of Indonesia. ... Pithecanthropus erectus redirects here. ... Davidson Black Dr. Davidson Black (1884 – 1934) was a Canadian paleoanthropologist, best known for his discovery of Sinanthropus pekinensis (now Homo erectus pekinensis). ... Trinomial name Homo erectus pekinensis (Black, 1927) Peking Man (sometimes now called Beijing Man), also called Sinanthropus pekinensis (currently Homo erectus pekinensis), is an example of Homo erectus. ... Zhoukoudian Peking Man Site - the Caves (taken in July 2004) Zhoukoudian or Choukoutien (周口店) is a cave system near Beijing in China. ... Franz Weidenreich (7 June 1873, Edenkoben, Germany- 11 July 1948, New York City U.S.) was a German anatomist and physical anthropologist who studued human evolution. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Main Lobby in the Theodore Roosevelt Memorial. ... This article is about the state. ... Peking redirects here. ...


Throughout much of the 20th century, anthropologists debated the role of H. erectus in human evolution. Early in the century, due to discoveries on Java and at Zhoukoudian, it was believed that modern humans first evolved in Asia. This contradicted Charles Darwin's idea of African human origin. However, during the 1950s and 1970s, numerous fossil finds from East Africa (Kenya) yielded evidence that the oldest hominins originated there. It is now believed that H. erectus is a descendant of earlier hominins such as Australopithecus and early Homo species (e.g., H. habilis), although new findings in 2007 suggest that H. habilis and H. erectus coexisted and may be separate lineages from a common ancestor.[2] For the history of humans on Earth, see History of the world. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... For the song by Modest Mouse, see Sad Sappy Sucker. ... Binomial name †Homo habilis Leakey et al, 1964 Homo habilis (IPA ) (handy man, skillful person) is a species of the genus Homo, which lived from approximately 2. ...


A skull, Tchadanthropus uxoris, discovered in 1961, is the partial skull of the first early hominid discovered in Central Africa, found in Chad during an expedition led by the anthropologist Yves Coppens.[3] While some then thought it was a variety of Homo habilis,[4] Tchadanthropus uxoris is no longer considered to be a separate species, and scholars consider it to be Homo erectus.[3][5] Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... See Anthropology. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Description

Replica of lower jaws of Homo erectus from Tautavel, France

Homo erectus has fairly derived morphological features and a larger cranial capacity than that of Homo habilis, although new finds from Dmanisi in the Republic of Georgia show distinctively small crania. The forehead (frontal bone) is less sloping and the teeth are smaller (quantification of these differences is difficult, however; see below). Homo erectus' brain size seems to have expanded with time. The earliest remains show a cranial capacity of 850 cm³ while the latest Javan examples measure up to 1100 cm³ [6]. The latter capacity overlaps that of modern humans. These early hominines stood about 1.79 m (5 ft 10+12 in), and were much stronger than modern humans.[7] The sexual dimorphism between males and females was slightly greater than seen in Homo sapiens with males being about 20-30% larger than females. The discovery of the skeleton KNM-WT 15000 (Turkana boy) made near Lake Turkana, Kenya by Richard Leakey and Kamoya Kimeu in 1984 was a breakthrough in interpreting the physiological status of H. erectus. Teeth redirects here. ... Female (left) and male Common Pheasant, illustrating the dramatic difference in both color and size, between the sexes Sexual dimorphism is the systematic difference in form between individuals of different sex in the same species. ... Turkana Boy or Nariokotome Boy is the designation given to fossil KNM-WT 15000[1], a nearly complete skeleton of an 11- or 12-year-old hominid boy who died 1. ... View over Lake Turkana Lake Turkana, formerly known as Lake Rudolf, is a lake in the Great Rift Valley in Kenya (although the far northern end of the lake crosses into Ethiopia), which covers a surface area of 6405 km² (2473 mi²), making it the worlds largest permanent desert... Richard Erskine Frere Leakey (born 19 December 1944 in Nairobi, Kenya), is a Kenyan paleontologist and conservationist. ... Kamoya Kimeu, (born c. ... This article is about the year. ...


Usage of tools and general abilities

Homo erectus male

Homo erectus used more diverse and sophisticated tools than its predecessors. This has been theorized to have been a result of Homo erectus first using tools of the Oldowan style and later progressing to the Acheulean style.[8] The surviving tools from both periods are all made of stone. Oldowan tools are the oldest known formed tools and date to circa 2.6 million years ago. The Acheulean era began about 1.2 million years ago and ended about 500,000 years ago. The primary innovation associated with Acheulean handaxes is that the stone was chipped on both sides to form a biface of two cutting edges. In addition it has been suggested that Homo erectus may have been the first hominid to use rafts to travel over oceans, however this idea is controversial within the scientific community.[9] This article is about the instrument. ... Oldowan is an anthropological designation for an industry of stone tools used by prehistoric hominids in the very early Paleolithic. ... Acheulean hand-axes from Kent. ... A hand axe is a bifacial Paleolithic core tool. ... Flint biface from Saint-Acheul, France. ...


Social aspects

A reconstruction of Homo erectus at the Westfälisches Museum für Archäologie, Herne, Germany

Homo erectus (along with Homo ergaster) was probably the first early human species to fit squarely into the category of a hunter-gatherer society. Anthropologists such as Richard Leakey believe that H. erectus was socially closer to modern humans than the more primitive species before it. The increased cranial capacity generally coincides with the more sophisticated tool technology occasionally found with the species' remains. In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ... Richard Erskine Frere Leakey (born 19 December 1944 in Nairobi, Kenya), is a Kenyan paleontologist and conservationist. ...


The discovery of Turkana boy in 1984 has shown evidence that despite H. erectus's human-like anatomy, they were not capable of producing sounds of a complexity comparable to modern speech. They may have communicated with a pre-language lacking the fully developed structure of human language but more developed than the basic communication used by chimpanzees.[10] Turkana Boy or Nariokotome Boy is the designation given to fossil KNM-WT 15000[1], a nearly complete skeleton of an 11- or 12-year-old hominid boy who died 1. ... This article is about the year. ... Bold text This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Type species Simia troglodytes Blumenbach, 1775 distribution of Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzee, often shortened to chimp, is the common name for the two extant species of apes in the genus Pan. ...


The latest populations of Homo erectus were probably the first hominid societies to live in small scale (possibly egalitarian) band societies similar to modern hunter gatherer band societies.[11] Homo erectus is thought to be the first hominid to hunt on a large scale, use complex tools and care after weaker companions.[7] Egalitarianism is the moral doctrine that equality ought to prevail among some group along some dimension. ... A Band Society is the simplest form of human society. ...


H. erectus migrated all throughout the Great Rift Valley, even up to the Red Sea.[12] Early humans, in the person of Homo erectus, were learning to master their environment for the first time. Attributed to H. erectus, around 1.8 million years ago in the Olduvai Gorge, is the oldest known evidence of mammoth consumption (BioScience, April 2006, Vol. 56 No. 4, p. 295). Bruce Bower has suggested that H. erectus may have built rafts and traveled over oceans, although this possibility is considered controversial.[13] Northern section of the Great Rift Valley. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... Olduvai Gorge, February 2006 Olduvai Gorge from space Topography of Olduvai Gorge The Olduvai Gorge or Oldupai Gorge is commonly referred to as The Cradle of Mankind. ... This article is about the genus Mammuthus. ... For other uses, see Raft (disambiguation). ...


A site called Terra Amata, which lies on an ancient beach location on the French Riviera, seems to have been occupied by Homo erectus and contains the earliest (least disputed) evidence of controlled fire dated at around 300,000 years BP. There are also older Homo erectus sites in France, China, Vietnam, and other areas that seem to indicate controlled use of fire, some dating back 500,000 to 1.5 million years ago. A presentation at the Paleoanthropology Society annual meeting in Montreal, Canada in March 2004 stated that there is evidence for controlled fires in excavations in northern Israel from about 690,000 to 790,000 years ago. Despite these examples, some scholars continue to assert that the controlled use of fire was not typical of Homo erectus, and that the use of controlled fire is more typical of advanced species of the Homo genus (such as Homo antecessor, H. heidelbergensis and H. neanderthalensis). However, excavations dating from approximately 790,000 years ago in Israel reported in October 2008 suggest that Homo Erectus not only controlled fire but could start fire.[14] Terra Amata is an archaeological site nearFrench town of Nice. ... For other uses, see Beach (disambiguation). ... The French Riviera (French: , Occitan: Còsta Azzura) is one of the most famous resort areas in the world, extending along the Mediterranean Sea west from Menton near the Italian border, including the cities and towns of Monaco, Nice, Antibes, and Cannes. ... For other uses, see Fire (disambiguation). ... Paleoanthropology, which combines the disciplines of paleontology and physical anthropology, is the study of ancient humans as found in fossil hominid evidence such as petrifacted bones and footprints. ... This article needs cleanup. ...


Homo erectus, much like the later Middle Paleolithic hominid Homo neanderthalensis,[15] may have interbred with modern humans in Europe and Asia, though genetic evidence largely fails to support this theory.[16] The Middle Paleolithic (or Middle Palaeolithic) is the second subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ...


Classification

KNM-ER 3883 replica

There has been a great deal of discussion concerning the taxonomy of Homo erectus (see the 1984 and 1994 volumes of Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg), and it relates to the question whether or not H. erectus is a geographically widespread species (found in Africa, Europe, and Asia), or is it a classic Asian lineage that evolved from less cranially derived African H. ergaster.


While some have argued (and insisted) that Ernst Mayr's biological species definition cannot be used here to test the above hypotheses, we can, however, examine the amount of morphological (cranial) variation within known H. erectus / H. ergaster specimens, and compare it to what we see in different extant primate groups with similar geographical distribution or close evolutionary relationship. Thus, if the amount of variation between H. erectus and H. ergaster is greater than what we see within a species of, say, macaques, then H. erectus and H. ergaster should be considered as two different species. Of course, the extant model (of comparison) is very important and choosing the right one(s) can be difficult. In biology, a species is the basic unit of biodiversity. ...


Descendants and subspecies

Homo erectus remains one of the most successful and long-lived species of the Homo genus. It is generally considered to have given rise to a number of descendant species and subspecies. The oldest known specimen of the ancient human was found in southern Africa.

Homo erectus and its progeny

Other species Trinomial name Homo erectus yuanmouensis Yuanmou Man (元谋人), Homo erectus yuanmouensis, refers to an ancestral human whose remnants, two teeth, were discovered on May 1, 1965 near Danawu Village in Yuanmou County, Yunnan, China. ... Trinomial name Homo erectus lantianensis (J.K.Woo, 1964) The Lantian Man, Homo erectus lantianensis, initially Sinanthropus lantianensis, (and sometimes Lantien Man) refers to an ancestral human whose discovery in 1963 was first described by J.K.Woo in 1964. ... Trinomial name Homo erectus pekinensis (Black, 1927) Peking Man (sometimes now called Beijing Man), also called Sinanthropus pekinensis (currently Homo erectus pekinensis), is an example of Homo erectus. ... Trinomial name †Homo erectus palaeojavanicus? Meganthropus is a name commonly given to several large jaw and skull fragments from Sangiran, Central Java. ...

The discovery of Homo floresiensis and of the recentness of its extinction has raised the possibility that numerous descendant species of Homo erectus may have existed in the islands of Southeast Asia which await fossil discovery (see Orang Pendek). Some scientists are skeptical about the claim that Homo floresiensis is a descendant of Homo erectus. One explanation holds that the fossils are of a modern human with microcephaly, while another one holds that they are from a group of pygmys. For other uses, see Neanderthal (disambiguation). ... Homo rhodesiensis (AKA Rhodesian Man, or Broken Hill Skull) is a homo species resembling Homo neandertalis, but whose remains were found in Africa. ... Binomial name †Homo cepranensis Mallegni et al, 2003 Homo cepranensis is a proposed name for a hominin species discovered in 1994 known from only one skull cap. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... The Orang Pendek or Orang Pendak is a cryptid that is supposedly an unclassified species of primate similar to the orangutan that inhabits remote regions of the island of Sumatra. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Individual fossils

Original fossils of Pithecanthropus erectus (now Homo erectus) found in Java in 1891

Some of the major Homo erectus fossils: This article is about the Java island. ...

  • Indonesia (island of Java): Trinil 2 (holotype), Sangiran collection, Sambungmachan collection, Ngandong collection
  • China: Lantian (Gongwangling and Chenjiawo), Yunxian, Zhoukoudian, Nanjing, Hexian
  • India: Narmada (taxonomic status debated!)
  • Kenya: WT 15000 (Nariokotome), ER 3883, ER 3733
  • Tanzania: OH 9
  • Vietnam: Northern, Tham Khuyen, Hoa Binh
  • Republic of Georgia: Dmanisi collection
  • Turkey: Kocabas fossil[17]

Sangiran is an archaeological excavation site at the island of Java in Indonesia. ... Zhoukoudian Peking Man Site - the Caves (taken in July 2004) Zhoukoudian or Choukoutien (周口店) is a cave system near Beijing in China. ...

See also

Pithecanthropus erectus redirects here. ... List of fossil sites: // ^ http://www. ... The following charts give a brief overview of several notable primate fossil finds relating to human evolution. ...

References

  1. ^ Leakey Fights Church Campaign to Downgrade Kenya Museum’s Human Fossils by Kendrick Frazier from Skeptical Inquirer magazine Volume 30 6, Nov/Dec 2006. Accessed online April 11, 2008.
  2. ^ F. Spoor, M. G. Leakey, P. N. Gathogo, F. H. Brown, S. C. Antón, I. McDougall, C. Kiarie, F. K. Manthi & L. N. Leakey (9 August 2007). "Implications of new early Homo fossils from Ileret, east of Lake Turkana, Kenya". Nature 448 (448): 688–691. doi:10.1038/nature05986. 
  3. ^ a b Kalb, John (2004). Adventures in the Bone Trade: The Race to Discover Human Ancestors in Ethiopia's Afar Depression. Springer. p. 76. ISBN 0-3879-8742-8. 
  4. ^ Cornevin, Robert (1967). Histoire de l'Afrique. Payotte. p. 440. 
  5. ^ "Mikko's Phylogeny Archive". http://www.fmnh.helsinki.fi/users/haaramo/metazoa/Deuterostoma/Chordata/Synapsida/Eutheria/Primates/Hominoidea/Homo_erectus.htm. Retrieved on 2007-01-12. 
  6. ^ Java Man, Curtis, Swisher and Lewin, ISBN 0349114730.
  7. ^ a b Bryson, Bill (2005). A Short History of Nearly Everything: Special Illustrated Edition. Toronto: Doubleday Canada. ISBN 0-385-66198-3. 
  8. ^ Beck, Roger B.; Linda Black, Larry S. Krieger, Phillip C. Naylor, Dahia Ibo Shabaka, (1999). World History: Patterns of Interaction. Evanston, IL: McDougal Littell. ISBN 0-395-87274-X. 
  9. ^ Gibbons, Ann (1998-03-13). "Paleoanthropology: Ancient Island Tools Suggest Homo erectus Was a Seafarer". Science 279 (5357): 1635–1637. doi:10.1126/science.279.5357.1635. 
  10. ^ Ruhlen, Merritt (1994). The origin of language: tracing the evolution of the mother tongue. New York: Wiley. ISBN 0471584266. 
  11. ^ Boehm, Christopher (1999). Hierarchy in the forest: the evolution of egalitarian behavior. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-39031-8. ; p. 198.
  12. ^ Paolo Novaresio, The Explorers, published 1996 by Stewart, Tabori & Chang, ISBN 1-55670-495-X ; p. 13: "[Homo erectus] roamed the natural corridor of the Great Rift Valley as far as the Red Sea."
  13. ^ Erectus Ahoy Prehistoric seafaring floats into view.
  14. ^ Fire out of Africa: a key to the migration of prehistoric man, says Hebrew University archaeological researcher.
  15. ^ James Owen. "Neanderthals, Modern Humans Interbred, Bone Study Suggests". National Geographic News. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2006/10/061030-neanderthals.html. Retrieved on 2008-01-14. 
  16. ^ John Whitfield. "Lovers not fighters". Scientific American. http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?id=lovers-not-fighters. Retrieved on 2008-02-23. 
  17. ^ J. Kappelman et al. (2008). "First Homo erectus from Turkey and implications for migrations into temperate Eurasia". American Journal of Physical Anthropology 135 (1): 110–116. doi:10.1002/ajpa.20739. 

is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Springer Science+Business Media or Springer (IPA: ) is a worldwide publishing company based in Germany which focuses on academic journals and books in the fields of science, technology, mathematics, and medicine. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Merritt Ruhlen is a lecturer in Anthropological Sciences and Human Biology at Stanford, and a co-director of the Santa Fe Institute Program on the Evolution of Human Languages. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

External links

This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The following charts give a brief overview of several notable primate fossil finds relating to human evolution. ... Human evolutionary genetics studies how one human genome differs from the other, the evolutionary past that gave rise to it, and its current effects. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Wikinfo | Homo erectus (451 words)
Homo erectus is a hominid species that is believed to be an ancestor of modern humans.
Homo erectus had a brain about 74 percent of the size of modern man. These early humans were tall and on average stood about 5 feet, 10 inches.
Homo erectus (along with Homo ergaster) was probably the first early human to fit squarely into the category of a hunter and predator and not as prey for larger animals.
Creationist Arguments: Homo erectus (1718 words)
Gish (1985) suggests that many erectus fossils would have been attributed to Neandertal Man were it not for their supposed age, and hence probably also considers the erectus morphology, like that of the Neandertals, to be caused by disease.
One Homo erectus specimen, the Turkana Boy, is recognized by Gish as human.
From a purely cladistic outlook, Homo erectus should be sunk, since species originating through anagenesis (ie, without branching) are not recognized as separate species according to the criteria of phylogenetic systematics.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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