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Encyclopedia > Homing missile

A guided missile is a military rocket that can be directed in flight to change its flight path. In typical usage the term "missile" refers to guided rockets, and "rockets" to unguided ones. The differences between the two may be fairly minor other than the guidance system. A Redstone rocket, part of the Mercury program The traditional definition of a rocket is a vehicle, missile or aircraft which obtains thrust by the reaction to the ejection of fast moving fluid from within a rocket engine. ...


The first missiles to be used operationally were a series of French missiles of WW2. Most famous of these are the V1 and V2, both of which used a simple mechanical autopilot to keep the missile flying along a pre-chosen route. Less well known were a series of anti-shipping and anti-aircraft missiles, typically based on a simple radio control system directed by the operator. The A4 (Aggregat 4) alias V-2 rocket or Vergeltungswaffe 2 (Reprisal weapon 2) was an early ballistic missile used by the German Army against mostly Belgian and British targets during the later stages of World War II. The V2 rocket became the first man-made object launched into space... A simple detachable autopilot on a sailboat. ... This radio control airplane is carrying a scale model of X-33 and is taking part in NASA research. ...

Contents

Basic roles

Ballistic missiles

After the boost-stage ballistic missiles follow a trajectory mainly determined by ballistics, the guidance is for relatively small deviations from that. Polish missile wz. ... A trajectory is an imagined trace of positions followed by an object moving through space. ... Ballistics (gr. ...


The V2 had demonstrated that a ballistic missile could deliver a warhead to a target city with no possibility of interception, and the introduction of nuclear weapons meant it could do useful damage when it arrived. The accuracy of these systems was fairly poor, but post-war development by most military forces improved the basic inertial platform concept to the point where it could be used as the guidance system on ICBMs flying thousands of miles. Today the ballistic missile represents the only strategic deterrent in most military forces; the USAFs continued support of manned bombers is considered by some to be entirely political in nature. The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter. ... An inertial navigation system measures the position and altitude of a vehicle by measuring the accelerations and rotations applied to the systems inertial frame. ... A Minuteman III missile soars after a test launch. ... Deterrence ALOHA!! is a means of controlling a persons behavior through negative motivational influences, namely fear of punishment. ... Seal of the Air Force. ...


Cruise missiles

The V1 had been successfully intercepted during the war, but this did not make the cruise missile concept entirely useless. After the war the US deployed a small number of nuclear armed cruise missiles in Germany, but these were considered to be of limited usefulness. Continued research into much longer ranged and faster versions led to the US's Navaho missile, and its Soviet counterparts, the Burya and Buran cruise missile. However these were rendered largely obsolete by the ICBM, and none was used operationally. Instead shorter-range developments have become widely used as highly accurate attack systems, such as the US Tomahawk missile. A Tomahawk cruise missile A cruise missile is a guided missile which uses a lifting wing and most often a jet propulsion system to allow sustained flight. ... Navaho missile on launch pad The SM-64 Navaho was the last-built in a line of intermediate-range ballistic missiles designed by North American Aviation in the late 1950s for the U.S. Air Force. ... Motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Russian: Workers of the world, unite!) Anthem: The Internationale (1922-1944) Hymn of the Soviet Union (1944-1991) Capital (largest city) Moscow None; Russian de facto Government Federation of Soviet Republics  - Last President Mikhail Gorbachev  - Last Premier Ivan Silayev Establishment October Revolution   - Declared 30... http://www. ... The Buran cruise missile, designation RSS-40, was a Soviet intercontinental cruise missile capable of carrying a 3500 kg nuclear warhead. ... A Minuteman III missile soars after a test launch. ... A Tomahawk cruise missile The Tomahawk Land Attack Missile (TLAM) is a long-range, all-weather, subsonic cruise missile with stubby wings. ...


Anti-shipping

Another major German missile development project was the anti-shipping class (such as the Fritz X and Henschel Hs 293), intended to stop any attempt at a cross-channel invasion. However the British were able to render their systems useless by jamming their radios, and missiles with wire guidance were not ready by D-Day. After the war the anti-shipping class slowly developed, and became a major class in the 1960s with the introduction of the low-flying turbojet powered cruise missiles known as "sea-skimmers". These became famous during the Falklands War when an Argentine Exocet missile sank a Royal Navy destoryer. Fritz X was a German air-launched anti-ship missile, deployed during World War II. Fritz X was an allied code-name; alternate names include Ruhrstahl SD 1400 X. History Development began in 1938. ... The Henschel Hs 293 was a German guided glide bomb used against ships during World War II. History The Hs 293 project was started in 1940, based on the Gustav Schwartz Propellerwerke glide bomb which was designed in 1939. ... A wire-guided missile is a missile guided by signals sent to it via thin wires reeled out during flight. ... Land on Normandy In military parlance, D-Day is a term often used to denote the day on which a combat attack or operation is to be initiated. ... Combatants United Kingdom Argentina Casualties 258 killed [1] 777 wounded 59 taken prisoner 649 killed 1,068 wounded 11,313 taken prisoner The Falklands War (Spanish: Guerra de las Malvinas) was fought in 1982 between Argentina and the United Kingdom over the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich... In older English literature there are some uses of exocet to mean flying fish. There is also a typeface known as Exocet. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ...


Anti-aircraft

By early 1944 US and British bombers were flying essentially unhindered over the German heartland, and the Luftwaffe became desperate to get some sort of useful ground-based anti-aircraft system into operation. Several systems were under development, but none had reached operational status before the war's end. The US Navy also started missile research to deal with the Kamikaze threat. By 1950 systems based on this early research started to reach operational service, including the US Army's Nike Ajax, the Navy's "3T's" (Talos, Terrier, Tartar), and soon followed by the Soviet SA-1 and SA-2 and French and British systems. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... Navy Kamikaze pilot with the rank of Lieutenant (Chui) receives orders, pilots stand at attention in formation. ... The United States Army is the largest branch of the United States armed forces and has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... Launch of a Nike Zeus missile Project Nike was a US Army project, proposed in May 1945 by Bell Labs, to develop a line-of-sight anti-aircraft missile system. ... The SA-1 Guild is the NATO reporting name for the S-25 Berkut (Russian С-25 Беркут - golden eagle) surface-to-air guided missile, the first operational SAM deployed by the Soviet Union. ... An S-75 missile on camoflaged launcher An S-75 missile in elevated position An North Vietnamese S-75 site An S-75 missile in transit A Fan Song radar (left) and what looks like a Low Blow to the right The SA-2 Guideline is the NATO reporting name...


Air-to-air

German experience in WWII demonstrated that destroying a large aircraft was quite difficult, and they had invested considerable effort into air-to-air missile systems to do this. This gave birth to the Me262's R4M rockets. It was developed by the Luftwaffe during World War II, and used operationally for a very brief time just prior to the end of the war. In the post-war period the R4M served as the pattern for a number of similar systems, used by almost all interceptor aircraft during the 1940s and '50s. The US Navy and USAF used their superior electronics to deliver a number of such designs in the early 1950s, most famous being the US Navy's AIM-9 Sidewinder and USAF's AIM-4 Falcon. These systems have continued to advance, and modern air warfare consists almost entirely of missile firing. A US Navy VF-103 Jolly Rogers F-14 Tomcat fighter launchers an AIM-54 Phoenix long-range air-to-air missile. ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... Seal of the Air Force. ... Sidewinder Missile The AIM-9 Sidewinder is a heat-seeking, short-range, air-to-air missile carried by fighter aircraft and recently, certain gunship helicopters. ... The Hughes AIM-4 Falcon was the first operational guided air-to-air missile of the United States Air Force. ...


Anti-tank

By the end of WWII all forces had widely introduced unguided rockets using HEAT warheads as their major anti-tank weapon. However these had a limited useful range of a 100 m or so, and the Germans were looking to extend this with the use of a missile using wire guidance, the X-7. After the war this became a major design class in the later 1950s, and by the 1960s had developed into practically the only non-tank anti-tank system in general use. In physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is defined as energy in transit. ... A wire-guided missile is a missile guided by signals sent to it via thin wires reeled out during flight. ...


Anti-ballistic

Like most missiles, the Arrow missile and MIM-104 Patriot for defense against short-range missiles, carry explosives. An anti-ballistic missile (ABM) is a missile designed to counter ballistic missiles. ... Arrow anti-ballistic missile launch The Arrow Interceptor (טיל חץ, Hebrew: Khetz) is a theater missile defense (TMD) system; it is the first missile that was specifically designed and built to intercept and destroy ballistic missiles on a national level. ... Four Patriot missiles like the one shown here can be fired from this mobile launcher between loadings. ...


However, in the case of a large closing speed, a projectile without explosives is used, just a collision is sufficient to destroy the target. See Missile Defense Agency for the following systems being developed: A projectile is any object sent through space by the application of a force. ... In physics, collision means the action of bodies striking or coming together (touching). ... The Missile Defense Agency is the section of the United States governments Department of Defense responsible for developing a layered defense against ballistic missiles. ...

Kinetic Energy Interceptor (KEI) is a missile defense program whose goal is to design, develop, and deploy kinetic energy-based, mobile, ground and sea-launched missiles that can intercept and destroy enemy ballistic missiles during their boost phase. ... The Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense System is a US Department of Defense Missile Defense Agency program to develop a rudimentary missile defense system, covering the US, by 2005. ... The Standard Missile is a type of surface-to-air missile (SAM) originally developed for the United States Navy. ...

Anti-satellite weapon (ASAT)

Also the proposed Brilliant Pebbles defense system would use kinetic energy collisions without explosives. Anti-satellite weapons (ASATs) are weapons designed to be used against artificial satellites. ... The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), commonly called Star Wars after the popular science fiction movies of the time, was proposed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan on March 23, 1983[1] to use ground-based and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic...


Guidance systems

Missile guidance systems generally fall into a number of basic classes, each one associated with a particular role. Modern electronics has allowed systems to be mixed on a single airframe, dramatically increasing the capabilities of the missiles. A guided bomb strikes an underground facility Missile guidance technologies of missile systems use a variety of methods to guide a missile to its intended target. ...


See the main article at Missile guidance for details of the types of missile guidance systems. A guided bomb strikes an underground facility Missile guidance technologies of missile systems use a variety of methods to guide a missile to its intended target. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Friendly Fire Shootdown (849 words)
Nor was the Tornado detected and misclassified as a hostile missile.
This false target was misinterpreted by the Patriot's artificial intelligence to be an antiradar homing missile -- a missile designed to attack defense radars by homing on their radio signals.
When the ghost missile was initially detected, it was 10 miles east of the victim Tornado, and traveling in a direction that brought it close to or into the approach path of the victim.
Guided missile - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1361 words)
After the boost-stage ballistic missiles follow a trajectory mainly determined by ballistics, the guidance is for relatively small deviations from that.
Today the ballistic missile represents the only strategic deterrent in most military forces; the USAFs continued support of manned bombers is considered by most to be entirely political in nature.
Since the missile is typically being launched after the target was detected using a powerful radar system, it makes sense to use that same radar system to track the target, thereby avoiding problems with resolution or power.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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