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Encyclopedia > Homemaker
"Good Housekeeping" magazine is one of several periodicals related to housekeeping which homemakers may read.

A homemaker handles household responsibilities as one's main daily activity. It is an occupation, often full-time, chiefly concerned with the maintenance of the home environment. The occupation is typically taken by one adult of a household, such as a parent of a child unless all working age individuals in the household work full-time. If the homemaker is part of the family, a female homemaker is usually a housewife; a male homemaker is usually a househusband. The domestic consumption work[1][2] of homemakers provide goods and services directly within a household, such as cooking meals, childcare, household repairs, or the manufacture of clothes and gifts. Common tasks include cleaning, cooking, and looking after children. Home Construction has been around since pre-history. ... The household is the basic unit of analysis in many microeconomic and government models. ... Look up Occupation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A stereotypical housewife A homemaker is a person whose prime occupation is to care for their family and home. ... A stereotypical housewife A homemaker is a person whose prime occupation is to care for their family and home. ... Childcare (also written child care[1] and babycare) is the act of caring for and supervising minor children. ...

Contents

History

In contemporary history, a househusband is a term used to describe a male parent who is the main caregiver of the children and is the homemaker of the household. The role of housewife is that of a female homemaker that is main caregiver of the children. Historically, gender roles in world civilization see the private parenting responsibilities go to the housewife, while the public social parenting responsibilities are carried out by the father. This has become less separate and well defined role areas in the western cultures. The homemaker foundations are home, cooking, textiles, pottery, storage, manufacturing, music, language, medicine and teaching.[3] A stereotypical housewife A homemaker is a person whose prime occupation is to care for their family and home. ... Caregiver may refer to: A voluntary caregiver An assisted living situation A nursing home A hospice care situation Category: ... A stereotypical housewife A homemaker is a person whose prime occupation is to care for their family and home. ... A bagpiper in military uniform. ...


General functions

Housework is not always a lifetime commitment: many, for economic or personal reasons, return to the workplace. In previous decades, there were a large amount of mandatory courses for young to learn the skills of homemaking. In high school, courses included cooking, nutrition, home economics, family and consumer science (aka F.A.C.S) and food and cooking hygiene. This last one can be the reason of the tradition that a homemaker is always portrayed wearing an apron. More recently, these courses have been mostly abolished, and many youth in high school and college would be more likely to explore resources on the topic of child development and managing children's behavior. The following section cover various functions and responsibilities of homemakers. Cooking is the act of preparing food. ... The Nutrition Facts table indicates the amounts of nutrients which experts recommend you limit or consume in adequate amounts. ... Family and consumer sciences, human sciences, human ecology or home economics, is an academic discipline which combines aspects of consumer science, nutrition, cooking, parenting and human development, interior decoration, textiles, family economics, housing, apparel design and resource management as well as other related subjects. ... Food and cooking hygiene includes a number of routines which should be followed to avoid potentially severe health hazards. ... This article is about the garment. ...


Household tools

The method and function of housework are different in the industrial world and in other countries, with the balance of convenience, labor-saving devices and easier methods in the industrial homemaker's favor. The reason for this is that mechanical invention has been applied extensively to different tasks of the home. The inventiveness has turned to the making of mechanical labor-savers not only in shop and office, but for the benefit of the homemaker as well. There are on the market literally thousands of household tools, devices and equipment for every possible need of the home. It only remains for the homemaker to choose among them wisely.[3] Domestic technology is the incorporation of applied science into the home. ... For the musical form, see Invention (music). ...


Another reason for the great supply and demand for household labor savers in the industrial world is that the homemaker has to face the increasingly complex problem of scarce domestic help. With cheap labor, the need for the mechanical replacers of labor, or "mechanical servants," will not been keenly be felt there. Though, the majority of homemakers are performing their own household tasks. It is to this class of homemakers who are actively concerned in the work of the home that the labor-saver and improved modern tool most appeal. The homemaker's time and effort are worth conserving by every means. Homemakers should therefore, be eager to buy and use all the household tools which will save her strength and time and liberate her from household drudgery.[3] This article is about the instrument. ...


While some homemakers are "handy" with tools, the fact remains that most homemakers are unfamiliar with the different principles involved in mechanical tools and devices. The homemaker, however, are called to have knowledge of the principles of applied mechanics. Courses in school physics unfortunately leaves a student with but little practical knowledge applied to the tools and equipment to be found in every home. The more a homemaker knows about tools the more intelligent the homemaker will be as a buyer. Knowledge saves homemakers from the useless expense of buying worthless equipment, and makes homemaker interested in purchasing the good tools and high-class equipment which will help greatly in saving time and labor.[3]


Cooking

Food examples

Most modern-day houses contain sanitary facilities and a means of preparing food. A kitchen is a room or part of a room used by the Homemaker for cooking and food preparation. In the West, a modern kitchen is typically equipped with a stove, a sink with hot and cold running water, a refrigerator and kitchen cabinets. Many homemakers use a microwave oven, a dishwasher and other electric appliances. The main function of a kitchen is cooking or preparing food but it may also be used for dining and entertaining. E. Coli bacteria under magnification Sanitation is the hygienic disposal or recycling of waste, as well as the policy and practice of protecting health through hygienic measures. ... Cooking is the act of preparing food. ... A kitchen is a room used for food preparation and sometimes entertainment. ... Cooking is the act of preparing food. ... Cooking is the act of preparing food for consumption. ... A stove is a heat-producing device. ... For other uses, see Sink (disambiguation). ... Fridge redirects here. ... Kitchen cabinets are the built-in furniture installed in many kitchens for storage of food, cooking equipment, and often silverware and dishes for table service. ... Microwave oven A microwave oven, or microwave, is a kitchen appliance employing microwave radiation primarily to cook or heat food. ... A Dishwasher A two drawer DishDrawer dishwasher. ... In general terms, eating is the process of consuming something edible. ... Entertainment is an amusement or diversion intended to hold the attention of an audience or its participants. ...


Cooking is the process of preparing food by applying heat, selecting, measuring and combining of ingredients in an ordered procedure for producing safe and edible food. The process encompasses a vast range of methods, tools and combinations of ingredients to alter the flavor, appearance, texture, or digestibility of food. Factors affecting the final outcome include the variability of ingredients, ambient conditions, tools, and the skill of the individual doing the actual cooking. Cooking is the act of preparing food. ... This article is about ingredients in general. ... This article is about flavor as a sensory impression. ... For the industrial process, see anaerobic digestion. ... This article is about the instrument. ...


The diversity of cooking worldwide is a reflection of the aesthetic, agricultural, economic, cultural, social and religious diversity throughout the nations, races, creeds and tribes across the globe. Applying heat to a food usually, though not always, chemically transforms it, thus changing its flavor, texture, consistency, appearance, and nutritional properties. Methods of cooking that involve the boiling of liquid in a receptacle have been practised at least since the 10th millennium BC, with the introduction of pottery. For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Liquid (disambiguation). ... Pottery on display in Dilli Haat, Delhi, India. ...


Housekeeping

Housekeeping tools

Housekeeping by the homemaker is the care and control of property, ensuring its maintenance and proper use and appearance. A home is a place of residence.[4] In a private home a maid or housekeeper might be employed to do the housekeeping. Housework is work done by the act of housekeeping. Some housekeeping is housecleaning and some housekeeping is home chores. Home chores are housework that needs to be done at regular intervals,[5] Housekeeping includes the budget and control of expenditures, preparing meals and buying food, paying the heat bill, and cleaning the house.[6] Outdoor housecleaning chores include removing leaves from rain gutters, washing windows, sweeping doormats, cleaning the pool, putting away lawn furniture, and taking out the trash.[7] Housekeeping is the maintenance of a clean environment, usually in a house, but it also applies to industrial, commercial, and institutional settings. ... For other uses, see Home (disambiguation). ... A residence may be a house, a place to live, like a nursing home. ... A maidservant or in current usage maid is a female employed in domestic service. ... A housekeeper is a person responsible for the cleaning and maintenance of (usually residential premises. ... A household chore is a specific piece of work required to be done as a duty or for a specific fee, related to or used in the running of a household. ...


Housecleaning by the homemaker is the systematic process of making a home neat and clean. This may be applied more broadly that just an individual home, or as a metaphor for a similar "clean up" process applied elsewhere such as a procedural reform. In the process of housecleaning general cleaning activities are completed, such as disposing of rubbish, storing of belongings in regular places, cleaning dirty surfaces, dusting and vacuuming. The details of this are various and complicated enough that many books have been published on the subject. How-to sites on the internet have many articles on housecleaning. Tools include the vacuum cleaner, broom and mop. Supplies such as cleaning solutions and sponges are sold in grocery stores and elsewhere. Professional cleaners can be hired for less frequent or specialist tasks such as cleaning blinds, rugs, and sofas. Professional services are also offered for the basic tasks. Safety is a consideration because some cleaning products are toxic and some cleaning tasks are physically demanding. Green cleaning refers to cleaning without causing pollution. The history of housecleaning has links to the advancement of technology. This article is about waste matter. ... Look up dust in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Regular canister vacuum cleaner for home use. ... Regular canister vacuum cleaner for home use. ... broom A broom is a cleaning tool consisting of stiff fibres attached to, and roughly parallel to, a cylindrical handle, the broomstick. ... For the acronym, see MOP. For other uses, see Mops (disambiguation). ... Laundry detergents are just one of many possible uses for detergents Detergent is a compound, or a mixture of compounds, intended to assist cleaning. ... Toxic redirects here, but this is also the name of a song by Britney Spears; see Toxic (song) Look up toxic and toxicity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Green cleaning has been coined to describe a trend away from chemically-reactive and toxic cleaning products which emit volatile organic compounds [VOCs]. It can also describe the way residential and commercial cleaning products are manufactured. ...


Laundry

Laundry tools

Laundry refers to the act of washing clothing and linens, the place where that washing is done, and/or that which needs to be, is being, or has been laundered. Various chemicals may be used to increase the solvent power of water, such as the compounds in soaproot or yucca-root used by Native American tribes. Soap, a compound made from lye (from wood-ash) and fat, is an ancient and very common laundry aid. Modern washing machines typically use powdered or liquid laundry detergent in place of more traditional soap. Once clean, the clothes have been wrung out — twisted to remove most of the water. Then they were hung up on poles or clotheslines to air dry, or sometimes just spread out on clean grass. Italian street, with laundry hung to dry Laundry can be: items of clothing and other textiles that require washing the act of washing clothing and textiles the room of a house in which this is done // Man and woman washing linen in a brook, from William Henry Pynes Microcosm... Washing is one way of cleaning, namely with water and often some kind of soap or detergent. ... A baby wearing many items of winter clothing: headband, cap, fur-lined coat, shawl and sweater. ... Torn linen cloth, recovered from the Dead Sea Linen is a material made from the fibers of the flax plant. ... Species Chlorogalums angustifolium Chlorogalum grandiflorum Chlorogalum parviflorum Chlorogalum pomeridianum Chlorogalum purpureum The Soap Plants, Soaproots or Amoles are the genus Chlorogalum of flowering plants. ... For other uses, see Soap (disambiguation). ... Lye is a caustic solution used for glass and soap making. ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... Front-loading washing machine. ... A display of laundry detergent Laundry detergent, or washing powder, is a substance which is a type of detergent that is added when one is washing laundry to help get the laundry cleaner. ...


Washing machines and dryers are now fixtures in homes around the world. In some parts of the world, including the USA, Canada, and Switzerland, apartment buildings and dormitories often have laundry rooms, where residents share washing machines and dryers. Usually the machines are set to run only when money is put in a coin slot. In other parts of the world, apartment buildings with laundry rooms are uncommon, and each apartment may have its own washing machine. Those without a machine at home or the use of a laundry room must either wash their clothes by hand or visit a commercial laundromat. A red brick apartment block in central London, England, on the north bank of the Thames An apartment building, block of flats or tenement is a multi-unit dwelling made up of several (generally four or more) apartments (US) or flats (UK). ... A typical American college dorm room Another typical not-so-clean college dorm room Watterson Towers, Illinois State University Potomac Hall, second-largest dormitory at James Madison University in Harrisonburg, Virginia. ... A currency detector is a device that determines if a piece of currency is, or is not, counterfeit. ... A laundromat in California powered by solar panels on the roof. ...


A clothes dryer is a household appliance that is used to remove moisture from a load of clothing and other textiles, generally shortly after they are cleaned in a washing machine. Most dryers consist of a rotating drum called a tumbler through which heated air is circulated to evaporate the moisture from the load. The tumbler is rotated relatively slowly in order to maintain space between the articles in the load. In most cases, the tumbler is belt-driven by an induction motor. Using these machines may cause clothes to shrink, become less soft (due to loss of short soft fibers/ lint) and fade. For these reasons, as well as environmental concerns, many people use open air methods such as a clothes line and clotheshorse. An electric clothes dryer A clothes dryer or tumble dryer is a household appliance that is used to remove the residual moisture from a load of clothing and other textiles, generally shortly after they are cleaned in a washing machine. ... A baby wearing many items of winter clothing: headband, cap, fur-lined coat, shawl and sweater. ... This article is about the type of fabric. ... For other uses, see Drum (disambiguation). ... Evaporation is the process whereby atoms or molecules in a liquid state (or solid state if the substance sublimes) gain sufficient energy to enter the gaseous state. ... Induction Motor (IM) is one kind of AC motor where power is supplied to the rotating device by induction. ... For the professional wrestling move, see Professional wrestling attacks#Clothesline. ... A clothes horse A clotheshorse (often written as two words, ie clothes horse) refers to a frame (usually wooden, metal or plastic) upon which clothes are hung after washing to enable them to dry. ...


Laundry starch is used in the laundering of clothes. Starch was widely used in Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries to stiffen the wide collars and ruffs of fine linen which surrounded the necks of the well-to-do. During the 19th century and early 20th century, it was stylish to stiffen the collars and sleeves of men's shirts and the ruffles of girls' petticoats by applying starch to them as the clean clothes were being ironed. Aside from the smooth, crisp edges it gave to clothing, it served practical purposes as well. Dirt and sweat from a person's neck and wrists would stick to the starch rather than to the fibers of the clothing, and would easily wash away along with the starch. After each laundering, the starch would be reapplied. Today the product is sold in aerosol cans for home use. Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8, chemical formula (C6H10O5)n,[1]) is a mixture of amylose and amylopectin (usually in 20:80 or 30:70 ratios). ... Italian street, with laundry hung to dry Laundry can be: items of clothing and other textiles that require washing the act of washing clothing and textiles the room of a house in which this is done // Man and woman washing linen in a brook, from William Henry Pynes Microcosm... A baby wearing many items of winter clothing: headband, cap, fur-lined coat, shawl and sweater. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... == Ruff of c. ... Business shirt A shirt is a cloth garment for the upper body. ... Madame de Pompadour in an elaborately embroidered gown with matching petticoat, 1760s A petticoat or underskirt is an article of clothing for women; specifically an undergarment to be worn under a skirt, dress or sari. ... For other uses, see Ironing (disambiguation). ... Look up dust in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... SWEAT is an OLN/TSN show hosted by Julie Zwillich that aired in 2003-2004. ... Aerosol spray can Aerosol spray is a type of canister that sprays an aerosol when its button is pressed or held down. ...


Maintenance

Homemakers that follow predictive maintenance techniques determine the condition of in-service equipment in order to predict when maintenance should be performed. This approach offers cost savings over routine or time-based maintenance, because tasks are performed only when warranted. Homemakers that follow preventive maintenance methods ensure that household equipment and the house are in satisfactory operating condition by providing for inspection, detection, and correction of incipient failures either before they occur or before they develop into major defects. Maintenance, Repair and Operations or Maintenance, Repair and Overhaul (MRO), is fixing any sort of mechanical or electrical device should it get out of order or broken (repair) as well as performing the routine actions which keep the device in working order (maintenance) or prevent trouble from arising (preventive maintenance). ... Renovation at the Parthenon Refurbishment (restoration) is the process of major maintenance or minor repair of an item, either aesthetically or mechanically. ... Predictive maintenance (PdM) techniques help determine the condition of in-service equipment in order to predict when maintenance bumpersqwat should be performed. ... Preventive maintenance (PM) has the following meanings: The care and servicing by personnel for the purpose of maintaining equipment and facilities in satisfactory operating condition by providing for systematic inspection, detection, and correction of incipient failures either before they occur or before they develop into major defects. ...


Home maintenance

Home maintenance involves the diagnosis and resolution of problems in a home, and is related to home maintenance to avoid such problems. Many types of maintenance are "Do it yourself" (DIY) projects. Maintenance is not necessarily the same as home improvement, although many improvements can result from repairs or maintenance. Often the costs of larger repairs will justify the alternative of investment in full-scale improvements. It may make just as much sense to upgrade a home system (with an improved one) as to repair it or incur ever-more-frequent and expensive maintenance for an inefficient, obsolete or dying system. For a DIY project, also useful is the established limits on time and money investments before a repair (or list of repairs) become overwhelming and discouraging, and less likely to ever be completed. Home repair involves the diagnosis and resolution of problems in a home, and is related to home Maintenance to avoid such problems. ... See also: DIY Network, a cable TV network. ... For other uses, see Home Improvement (disambiguation). ...


Lawn maintenance

Homemakers that have a lawn responsibility adhere to seasonal lawn care practices, which vary to some extent depending on the climate zone and type of grass that is grown (whether cool season or warm season varieties). Various recognized method used by homemakers in lawn care are observed in any area. At spring or early summer, homemakers seed, sod, or sprig a yard when the ground is warmer. Summer lawn care by homemakers have lawn mower at high cutting for cool season grass, and lower cutting for warm season lawns. At the autumn time, lawns are mowed by homemakers at a lower height and thatch buildup that occurs in warm season grasses are removed.[8] Homemakers do add sandy loam and apply fertilizer, containing some type of wetting agent. Cool season lawns are planted in the autumn with adequate rainfall. Lawn care in the winter is minimal, requiring only light feedings of organic material, such as green-waste compost, and minerals to encourage earthworms and beneficial microbes. The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... The Köppen Climate Classifications are the standard incriments by which geographers and climatologists classify the climate of a particular part of the world. ... For other uses, see Grass (disambiguation). ... Loam field Loam is soil composed of sand, silt, and clay in relatively even concentration (about 40-40-20% concentration respectively). ...


Management

Household management by the homemaker is the act of overseeing the organizational, financial, and day-to-day operations of a house or estate. It differs from housekeeping, which consists of the physical maintenance and cleaning of a house. Household management is the act of overseeing the organizational, financial, and day-to-day operations of a house or estate. ... Housekeeping is the maintenance of a clean environment, usually in a house, but it also applies to industrial, commercial, and institutional settings. ...


Household purchasing

Household purchasing refers to homemaker's attempt to acquire goods or services to accomplish the goals of the household. Though there are several households that attempt to set standards in the purchasing process, processes can vary greatly between households. Typically the word “purchasing” is not used interchangeably with the word “procurement”, since procurement typically includes other concepts. Home makers decide the market goods that the household will buy, such as the groceries which have been bough at a grocer's. Purchasing refers to a function in business whereby the enterprise obtains the inputs for what it produces, as well as other goods and services it requires. ... Purchasing refers to a function in business whereby the enterprise obtains the inputs for what it produces, as well as other goods and services it requires. ... Look up Procurement in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Supermarket produce section A supermarket is a store that sells a wide variety of goods including food and alcohol, medicine, clothes, and other household products that are consumed regularly. ... A grocer is a dealer in staple foodstuffs, such as meats, produce or dairy products, and other household supplies. ...


Another important purchase handled by homemakers is the power source used for appliances. Home or other building heating may include boilers, furnaces, and water heaters. Compressed natural gas is used in rural homes without connections to piped-in public utility services, or with portable grills. However, due to being less economical than LPG, LPG (Propane) is the dominant source of rural gas for natural gas-powered ranges and/or ovens, natural gas-heated clothes dryers, heating/cooling and central heating. The amount of usages is determined by factors such as natural gas prices. A furnace is a device for heating air or any other fluid. ... A trio of propane hot water heaters. ... Typical North America vehicles carry this diamond shape symbol, meaning it is running on compressed natural gas fuel. ... Sign in a rural area in Dalarna, Sweden Qichun, a rural town in Hubei province, China Rural areas (also referred to as the country, countryside) are settled places outside towns and cities. ... A plumber wrench for working on pipes and fittings A complex arrangement of rigid steel piping, stop valves regulate flow to various parts of the building. ... A public utility is a company that maintains the infrastructure for a public service. ... It has been suggested that Gas grill parts be merged into this article or section. ... 45 kg LPG cylinders Liquefied petroleum gas (also called LPG, LP Gas, or autogas) is a mixture of hydrocarbon gases used as a fuel in heating appliances and vehicles, and increasingly replacing chlorofluorocarbons as an aerosol propellant and a refrigerant to reduce damage to the ozone layer. ... An electric clothes dryer A clothes dryer or tumble dryer is a household appliance that is used to remove the residual moisture from a load of clothing and other textiles, generally shortly after they are cleaned in a washing machine. ... HVAC may also stand for High-voltage alternating current HVAC systems use ventilation air ducts installed throughout a building that supply conditioned air to a room through rectangular or round outlet vents, called diffusers; and ducts that remove air from return-air grilles Fire-resistance rated mechanical shaft with HVAC... Note: in the broadest sense, air conditioning can refer to any form of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning. ... For the Grand Central Records albums, see Central Heating (Grand Central album) and Central Heating 2. ... Natural gas prices are now strongly influenced by worldwide markets, since the development of large pipeline networks in North America, Europe and Asia and of long distance ocean shipment of liquified natural gas beginning in the 1960s. ...


Servants

French Maid dusting.

Homemakers manage household workers or "domestic servants". The "servant problem" is due to the fact that people formerly engaged in household service have entered industries and prefer these conditions with high pay and freer hours to the more confining conditions which govern housework at present. Even with normal industrial conditions, there is every indication that service for the home will be increasingly more difficult to obtain — and also to keep. It is therefore worth while for any employer of household labor to study the "servant problem,"[9] understand its causes, and particularly give attention to the relation and attitude between the homemaker and any employee an individual may engage.[3] A maidservant or in current usage maid is a female employed in domestic service. ... For other uses, see Butler (disambiguation). ... A poster featuring an illustration of a stereotypical uniformed maid A domestic worker, or simply domestic, is a servant who works within their employers household. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A poster featuring an illustration of a stereotypical uniformed maid A domestic worker, or simply domestic, is a servant who works within their employers household. ...


Work strategies

In Sociology 'household work strategy' is the division of labour between members of a household, whether implicit or the result of explicit decision–making, with the alternatives weighed up in a simplified type of cost-benefit analysis.[1][2] It is a plan for the relative deployment of household members' time between the three domains of employment: The household is the basic unit of analysis in many microeconomic and government models. ... This article is about work. ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge [1]) is the scientific or systematic study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous... Division of labour is the specialisation of cooperative labour in specific, circumscribed tasks and roles, intended to increase efficiency of output. ... Cost-benefit analysis is an important technique for project appraisal: the process of weighing the total expected costs against the total expected benefits of one or more actions in order to choose the best or most profitable option. ... This article is about work. ...

  1. in the market economy, including home-based self-employment second jobs, in order to obtain money to buy goods and services in the market;
  2. domestic production work, such as cultivating a vegetable patch or raising chickens, purely to supply food to the household; and
  3. domestic consumption work to provide goods and services directly within the household, such as cooking meals, child–care, household repairs, or the manufacture of clothes and gifts.

Household work strategies may vary over the life-cycle, as household members age, or with the economic environment; they may be imposed by one person or be decided collectively[10]. A market economy (also called a free market economy or a free enterprise economy) is an economic system in which the production and distribution of goods and services take place through the mechanism of free markets (though completley useless to some dumbasses) guided by a free price system. ...


See also

The terms handyperson, handywoman, or handyman, describe someone competent in a variety of small skills or inventive or ingenious in repair or maintenance work; somebody who earns money by the experience and skill to perform a variety of small jobs and/or odd jobs in and around your home. ... Taylorism redirects here. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b http://www.essex.ac.uk/Sociology/people/staff/pahl.shtm
  2. ^ a b Divisions of Labour Ray Pahl (1984)
  3. ^ a b c d e Frederick, C. (1919).
  4. ^ "'Home' - Definitions from Dictionary.com". Dictionary.com. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/home. Retrieved on 2008-05-08. 
  5. ^ Gove, Philip et al. 1961. Webster’s Third New International Dictionary of the English Language Unabridged. Springfield, Massachusetts: G & C Merriam Company
  6. ^ Ansley, Clark et al. 1935. The Columbia Encyclopedia in One Volume. Morningside Heights, NY: Columbia University Press.
  7. ^ Smallin, Donna. 2006. Cleaning Plain & Simple. Storey Publishing, North Adams, MA.
  8. ^ Lawn experts are divided in their opinions on this.
  9. ^ The social stigma which commonly attaches to the appellation "servant." Naturally, "servant" still carries with it the old world idea of an inferior, a dependent or subordinate. And in this country of democracy, whose very air breathes the idea that "all men are created free and equal" (meaning with equal opportunities), neither men nor women like to be in positions of implied inferiority to the people for-whom they work. It is only fair to acknowledge that household service is still the only occupation for some where this inferiority is implied, or often keenly felt by the worker. The adoption of the modern employer-employee basis means, first, that in mind the hoomemaker does not think of the household worker as an inferior. Second, instead of calling employyee servant, the individual is a household assistant, a household helper, or "houseworker", which counteracts social stigma.
  10. ^ http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O88-householdworkstrategy.html

Dictionary. ...

References

  • Lopata, H. Z. (1994). Circles and settings: Role changes of American women. SUNY series in gender and society. Albany: State University of New York Press. "Homemaker" Page 137+.
  • Arnold, E. (1993). Voices of American homemakers. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
  • Harvey, L. S. (1920). Food facts for the home-maker. Boston: Houghton Mifflin company.
  • Frederick, C. (1919). Household engineering; Scientific management in the home. Chicago: American school of home economics.
  • Snedden, D. (1919). Vocational homemaking education: Some problems and proposals. New York City: Teachers College, Columbia University.
  • Kinne, H., & Cooley, A. M. (1914). Shelter and clothing: A textbook of the household arts. New York: Macmillan.

Further reading

  • Friendly Visiting Among the Poor By Mary Ellen Richmond. "The Homemaker", Page 64+.
  • How to Perform the 4 Key Responsibilities of a Career Professional Homemaker, eHow.
  • The new face of homemakers; American Demographics, BNET.

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