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Encyclopedia > Homelessness
A homeless man in Paris.

Homelessness is the condition and social category of people who lack housing, because they cannot afford, pay for, or are otherwise unable to maintain regular, safe, and adequate housing. This article is about the capital of France. ...

The term homelessness may also include people whose primary nighttime residence is in a homeless shelter, in an institution that provides a temporary residence for individuals intended to be institutionalized, or in a public or private place not designed for use as a regular sleeping accommodation for human beings.[1][2]

An estimated 100 million people worldwide are homeless.[3]

The United States Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) defines a "chronically homeless" person as "an unaccompanied homeless individual with a disabling condition who has either been continuously homeless for a year or more, or has had at least four episodes of homelessness in the past three years."[4] The United States Department of Housing and Urban Development, often abbreviated HUD, is a Cabinet department of the United States government. ...


History of homelessness

Great Depression: man lying down on pier, New York City docks, 1935.

For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ...

Great Britain and the USA

Early history through the 1800s

Following the Peasants' Revolt, British constables were authorised under a 1383 statute to collar vagabonds and force them to show their means of support; if they could not, the penalty was gaol.[5] Under a 1495 statute, vagabonds could be sentenced to the stocks for three days and nights; in 1530, whipping was added. The presumption was that vagabonds were unlicensed beggars.[5] In 1547, a bill was passed that subjected vagrants to some of the more extreme provisions of the criminal law, namely two years servitude and branding with a "V" as the penalty for the first offense and death for the second. One arriving in the American colonies in the 18th century were transported convicts. Large numbers of vagabonds were transported along with ordinary criminals.[6] Peasants revolt redirects here. ... For the painter, see John Constable. ... For other uses, see Jail (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see stock (disambiguation). ... Whipping on a post Flagellation is the act of whipping (Latin flagellum, whip) the human body. ... Beggars in Samarkand, 1905 Begging includes the various methods used by persons to obtain money, food, shelter, or other necessities from people they encounter during the course of their travels. ... This article is about people who have been convicted of a crime. ...

In the 16th century in England, the state first tried to give housing to vagrants instead of punishing them, by introducing bridewells to take vagrants and train them for a profession. In the 17th and 18th centuries, these were replaced by workhouses but these were intended to discourage too much reliance on state help. (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... The Bridewell Palace was rebuilt for Henry VIII in 1515-1520 on the site of an earlier palace. ... Former workhouse at Nantwich, dating from 1780 A workhouse was a place where people who were unable to support themselves could go to live and work. ...

In 1848 Lord Ashley referred to more than 30,000 'naked, filthy, roaming lawless and deserted children', in and around London.[7] The Earl of Shaftesbury by Carlo Pellegrini, 1869 Anthony Ashley Cooper, 7th Earl of Shaftesbury (1801 – 1885), styled Lord Ashley from 1811 to 1851, was an English politician and philanthropist, one of the best-known of the Victorian era. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...

Although not specifically about the homeless, Jacob Riis wrote about, documented, and photographed the poor and destitute in New York City tenements in the late 1800s. He also wrote a ground-breaking book including such material in How the Other Half Lives in 1890. Jacob Riis in 1906 Jacob August Riis (May 3, 1849 - May 26, 1914), a Danish-American muckraker journalist, photographer, and social reformer, was born in Ribe, Denmark. ... An apartment building, block of flats or tenement is a multi-unit dwelling made up of several (generally four or more) apartments (US) or flats (UK). ... How the Other Half Lives: Studies Among the Tenements of New York was a pioneering work of photojournalism by Jacob Riis, a Danish immigrant reporter, published in 1890, in which he documented the squalid living conditions in the slums of New York City. ...

Early 20th century

Riis' book later inspired Jack London's The People of the Abyss (1903). This raised public awareness, causing some changes in building codes and some social conditions. For other persons named Jack London, see Jack London (disambiguation). ... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ...

These were later replaced by dormitory housing ("spikes") provided by local boroughs, and these were researched by the writer George Orwell. By the 1930s in England, there were 30,000 people living in these facilities. In the 1960s, the nature and growing problem of homelessness changed for the worse in England, with public concern growing. George Orwell is the pen name of Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903[1][2] – 21 January 1950) who was an English writer and journalist well-noted as a novelist, critic, and commentator on politics and culture. ...

A homeless man lives in a sewer, Vienna, Austria, 1900.
Although The Bowery once was synonymous with homelessness, it has since become an avenue of high-priced luxury condominiums that jockey for space with its past.

The number of people living "rough" in the streets had increased dramatically. However, beginning with the Conservative administration's Rough Sleeper Initiative, the number of people sleeping rough in London fell dramatically. This initiative was supported further by the incoming Labour administration from 2009 onwards with the publication of the 'Coming in from the Cold' strategy published by the Rough Sleepers Unit, which proposed and delivered a massive increase in the number of hostel bed spaces in the capital and an increase in funding for street outreach teams, who work with rough sleepers to enable them to access services. For the art of stitching, see Sewing. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... Categories: US geography stubs | Streets in Manhattan ...

In general, in most countries, many towns and cities had an area which contained the poor, transients, and afflicted, such as a "skid row". In New York City, for example, there was an area known as "the Bowery", traditionally, where alcoholics were to be found sleeping on the streets, bottle in hand. The term skid row or skid road is used to refer to a run-down or dilapidated urban area. ... The Bowery is a very well-known street in Manhattan that more or less marks the boundary between Chinatown and Little Italy on one side and the Lower East Side on the other — running from Chatham Square in the south to Astor Place in the north. ... This article needs cleanup. ...

This resulted in rescue missions, such as America's first rescue mission, the New York City Rescue Mission, founded in 1872 by Jerry and Maria McAuley.[8]

The Bowery Mission in New York City in the 1800s
Children sleeping in Mulberry Street - Jacob Riis photo New York, United States of America (1890)

In smaller towns, there were hobos, who temporarily lived near train tracks and hopped onto trains to various destinations. Especially following the American Civil War, a large number of homeless men formed part of a counterculture known as "hobohemia" all over America.[9] New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total...

The Great Depression of the 1930s caused a devastating epidemic of poverty, hunger, and homelessness. There were two million homeless people migrating across the United States.[10] For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ...

Later 20th century

However, modern homelessness, started as a result of the economic stresses in society, reduction in the availability of affordable housing, such as single room occupancies (SROs), for poorer people. In the United States, in the 1970s, the deinstitutionalisation of patients from state psychiatric hospitals was a precipitating factor which seeded the homeless population, especially in urban areas such as New York City.[11] The expression single room occupancy or, more commonly SRO, refers to a building that houses people in single rooms. ... Deinstitutionalisation is the practice of moving people (especially those with mental disorders and developmental disability) from mental institutions into community-based or family-based environments. ...

The Community Mental Health Act of 1963 was a pre-disposing factor in setting the stage for homelessness in the United States.[12] Long term psychiatric patients were released from state hospitals into SROs and supposed to be sent to community mental health centers for treatment and follow-up. It never quite worked out properly, the community mental health centers mostly did not materialize, and this population largely was found living in the streets soon thereafter with no sustainable support system.[13][14] The Community Mental Health Act of 1963 (CMHA) (also known as the Community Mental Health Centers Construction Act) (Public Law 88-164) was an act to provide Federal funding for community mental health centers. ...

Also, as real estate prices and neighborhood pressure increased to move these people out of their areas, the SROs diminished in number, putting most of their residents in the streets.

Other populations were mixed in later, such as people losing their homes for economic reasons, and those with addictions (although alcoholic hobos had been visible as homeless people since the 1890s, and those stereotypes fueled public perceptions of homeless people in general), the elderly, and others.

Many places where people were once allowed freely to loiter, or purposefully be present, such as churches, public libraries and public atriums, became stricter as the homeless population grew larger and congregated in these places more than ever. As a result, many churches closed their doors when services were not being held, libraries enforced a "no eyes shut" and sometimes a dress policy, and most places hired private security guards to carry out these policies, creating a social tension. Many public toilets were closed.

This banished the homeless population to sidewalks, parks, under bridges, and the like. They also lived in the subway and railroad tunnels in New York City. They seemingly became socially invisible, which was the intention of many of the enforcement policies.

The homeless shelters, which were generally night shelters, made the homeless leave in the morning to whatever they could manage and return in the evening when the beds in the shelters opened up again for sleeping. There were some daytime shelters where the homeless could go, instead of being stranded on the streets, and they could be helped, get counseling, avail themselves of resources, meals, and otherwise spend their day until returning to their overnight sleeping arrangements. An example of such a day center shelter model is Saint Francis House in Boston, Massachusetts, founded in the early 1980s, which opens for the homeless all year long during the daytime hours and was originally based on the settlement house model.[15] Saint Francis House is a nonprofit, nonsectarian, ecumenical daytime shelter, primarily for the homeless, located in downtown Boston, Massachusetts, and founded in the early 1980s. ... Boston redirects here. ... The settlement movement started in London. ...

Many homeless keep all their possessions with them since they have no access to storage.

There was also the reality of the "bag" people, the shopping cart people, and the soda can collectors (known as binners or dumpster divers) who sort through garbage to find items to sell, trade and eat. These people carried around all their possessions with them all the time since they had no place to store them. Look up storage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

If they had no access to or capability to get to a shelter and possible bathing, or access to toilets and laundry facilities, their hygiene was lacking. This again created social tensions in public places.

These conditions created an upsurge in tuberculosis and other diseases in urban areas. Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ...

In 1979, a New York City lawyer, Robert Hayes, brought a class action suit before the courts, Callahan v. Carey, against the City and State, arguing for a person's state constitutional "right to shelter". It was settled as a consent decree in August 1981. The City and State agreed to provide board and shelter to all homeless men who met the need standard for welfare or who were homeless by certain other standards. By 1983 this right was extended to homeless women.

A homeless person's shelter.

By the mid-1980s, there was also a dramatic increase in family homelessness. Tied into this was an increasing number of impoverished and runaway children, teenagers, and young adults, which created a new sub-stratum of the homeless population (street children or street youth).-1... Afghan street urchin smiles for the camera in downtown Kabul, Afghanistan (June 2003). ...

Also, in the 1980s, in the United States, some federal legislation was introduced for the homeless as a result of the work of Congressman Stewart B. McKinney. In 1987, the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act was enacted. The McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act of 1986 (Pub. ...

Several organizations in some cities, such as New York and Boston, tried to be inventive about help to the swelling number of homeless people. In New York City, for example, in 1989, a street newspaper was created called "Street News" which put some homeless to work, some writing, producing, and mostly selling the paper on streets and trains.[16] Street newspapers, sometimes called homeless newspapers (in either case newspapers is sometimes shortened to papers) are small, local newspapers written for (and often by) homeless people. ...

It was written pro bono by a combination of homeless, celebrities, and established writers. In 1991, in England, a street newspaper, following on the New York model was established, called The Big Issue and was published weekly.[17] Its circulation grew to 300,000. Chicago has StreetWise which has the largest circulation of its kind in the United States, thirty thousand. Boston has a Spare Change newspaper built on the same model as the others: homeless helping themselves. Founded by John Bird in September 1991, The Big Issue is a magazine in the United Kingdom that is edited by professional journalists and sold by homeless people. ... Streetwise has a number of different meanings: Streetwise was a small hatchback made by the MG Rover Group, called the Rover Streetwise, Wisdom in a particular subject. ... Spare Change is a newspaper published through the efforts of the Homeless Empowerment Project, a grassroots organization created to help end homelessness (from their website, [1]). As of 2004, each vendor of the paper typically receives $.75 for every $1. ...

Seattle has Real Change, a $1 newsletter that directly benefits the homeless and also reports on economic issues in the area. Portland, Oregon has "Street Roots", with articles and poetry by homeless writers, sold on the street for a dollar. More recently, Street Sense, in Washington, D.C. has gained a lot of popularity and helped many make the move out of homelessness. Students in Baltimore, MD have opened a satellite office for that street paper as well (www.streetsense.org).

21st century

In 2002, research showed that children and families were the largest growing segment of the homeless in America,[18][19] and this has presented new challenges, especially in services, to agencies. Back in the 1990s, a teenager from New York, Liz Murray, was homeless at fifteen years old, and overcame that and went on to study at Harvard University. Her story was made into an Emmy-winning film in 2003, Homeless to Harvard. Liz Murray (born September 23, 1980 in The Bronx, New York) is known for being the homeless girl who became a student at Harvard University. ...

Some trends involving the plight of the homeless have provoked some thought, reflection and debate. One such phenomenon is paid physical advertising, colloquially known as "sandwich board men"[20][21] and another specific type as "Bumvertising". A sandwich board is a type of advertisement composed of two boards carried by an individual, one in front and one behind, creating a sandwich effect. ... Bumvertising is a trademarked name for a form of informal employment in which a homeless person is paid to display advertising. ...

Another trend is the side effect of unpaid free advertising of companies and organizations on shirts, clothing and bags, to be worn by the homeless and poor, given out and donated by companies to homeless shelters and charitable organizations for otherwise altruistic purposes. These trends are reminiscent of the "sandwich board signs" carried by poor people in the time of Charles Dickens in the Victorian 1800s in England[22] and later during the Great Depression in the United States in the 1930s. Dickens redirects here. ... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ...

In the USA, the government asked many major cities to come up with a ten year plan to end homelessness. One of the results of this was a "Housing first" solution, rather than to have a homeless person remain in an emergency homeless shelter it was thought to be better to quickly get the person permanent housing of some sort and the necessary support services to sustain a new home. But there are many complications of this kind of program and these must be dealt with to make such an initiative work successfully in the middle to long term. [23][24]

It has been reported that some formerly homeless people, when they finally were able to get their housing and life straightened out and return to a normal lifestyle, felt moved and grateful enough to have donated money and volunteer service to the organizations which helped them when they were homeless. [25]

Russia and the USSR

After the abolishment of serfdom in Russia in 1861, major cities experiences a large influx of former peasants who sought for job as industrial workers in rapidly-developing Russian industry. These people often lived in harsh condidtions, sometimes renting a room, shared between several families. There also was a large number of shelterless homeless. Serf redirects here. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

Immediately after the October Revolution a special program of "compression" ("уплотнение") was enabled: people who had no own shelter were settled in flats of those who had large (4,5,6-room) flats with only one room left to previous owners, with the flat was declared a state property. This led to a large number of shared flats where several families lived simultaneously. Nevertheless the problem of complete homelessness was mostly solved as anybody could apply for a room or a place in dormitory (the number of shared flats steadily decreased after large-scale residential building program was implemented starting in 1960s). By 1922 there were at least 7 million homeless children in Russia as a result of nearly a decade of devastation from World War I and the Russian Civil War.[26] This led to creation of a large number of orphanages. By 1930s the USSR declared that it has no homeless and any citizen was obliged to have a propiska - a place of permanent residency. Nobody could be stripped of propiska without substitution or refuse it without a confirmed permission (called "order") to register in another place. The right for shelter was secured in the Soviet constitution. Not having permanent residency was legally considered a crime. For other uses, see October Revolution (disambiguation). ... Kommunalka (коммуналка) - is a shared apartament in Russia. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Local Soviet powers led by Russian SFSR and Red Army Chinese mercenaries White Movement Central Powers (1917-1918): Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire German Empire Allied Intervention: (1918-1922) Japan Czechoslovakia Greece  United States  Canada Serbia Romania UK  France Foreign volunteers: Polish Italian Local nationalist movements, national states, and decentralist... Propiska (Russian: пропи́ска; the full term is Прописка по месту жительства, The record of place of residence) was a regulation in the Soviet Union designed to control internal population movement by binding a person to his or her permanent place of residence. ...

There were also virtually no empty and unused apartments in the cities: any flat where nobody was registered was immediately lent by the state at symbolic price to others who needed better living conditions. If a person who had permanent registration could not pay for shelter, nobody had right to evict them, only to demand money through a court.

After the breakup of the USSR the problem of homeless sharpened dramatically, partially because of the legal vacuum of early 1990s with some laws contradicting each other and partially because of a high rate of frauds in the realty market. In 1991 articles 198 and 209 of Russian criminal code which instituted criminal penalty for not having permanent residence were abolished. Since most flats had been privatized and many people sold their last shelter without success to buy another, there was a sharp increase of homeless. Renting apartments from a private owner became widespread (which usually only gives temporary registration and apartment owner could evict the leaser after the contract is over or if money not paid). In Moscow first overnight shelter for homeless was opened in 1992.[27]

Nevertheless, the state still obliged to give permanent shelter for free to anybody who needs better living conditions or has no permanent registration, since right for shelter still included in constitution. This may take many years, though. Nobody still has right to strip a person of permanent residency without their will, even the owner of the apartment. This makes problems for banks since mortgage loans became increasingly popular. Banks obliged to buy a new, cheaper flat to a person instead of the old one if the person fails to repay the loan, or wait until all people who live in the flat are dead. Several projects of special cheap 'social' flats for those who failed to repay mortgages were proposed to facilitate mortgage market.

Contributing causes of homelessness

Tents for homeless people on the Canal Saint-Martin in Paris, December 2006-January 2007, put there by the Enfants de Don Quichotte NGO (videos available on site).
Homeless street dwellers in Mumbai, India.

The major reasons and lack of causes for homelessness as documented by many reports and studies include:[28][29][30][31] The northern portion of the canal A bridge over the canal The canal as it goes underground to return to the Seine Canal Saint-Martin is a 4. ... , Bombay redirects here. ...

  • Lack of affordable housing. An article in the November 2007 issue of Atlantic Monthly reported on a study of the cost of obtaining the "right to build" (i.e. a building permit, red tape, bureaucracy, etc.) in different U.S. cities. The "right to build" cost does not include the cost of the land or the cost of constructing the house. The study was conducted by Harvard economists Edward Glaeser and Kristina Tobio. According to the chart accompanying the article, the cost of obtaining the "right to build" adds approximately $600,000 to the cost of each new house that is built in San Francisco. [32]
  • Unavailability of employment opportunities.
  • Poverty, caused by many factors including unemployment and underemployment.
  • Lack of affordable healthcare.
  • Substance abuse and unavailability or lack of needed services.
  • Mental illness, such as unavailability or lack of needed mental health services.
  • Domestic violence.
  • Prison release and re-entry into society.
  • The mass deinstitutionalisation of the mentally ill in the Western world from the 1960s and 1970s onwards.
  • Natural disaster, including but not limited to earthquakes and hurricanes. An example is the 1999 Athens earthquake in Greece in which many middle class people became homeless and are still without a home as of 2009, with some of them living in containers, especially in the Nea Ionia earthquake survivors container city provided by the government, and in most cases their only property that survived the quake was their car. Such people are known in Greece as seismopathis meaning earthquake-struck.
  • Forced eviction - In many countries, people lose their homes by government order to make way for newer upscale high rise buildings, roadways, and other governmental needs.[33] The compensation may be minimal, in which case the former occupants cannot find appropriate new housing and become homeless.
  • Mortgage foreclosures where mortgage holders see the best solution to a loan default is to take and sell the house to pay off the debt. The popular press made an issue of this in 2008; the real magnitude of the problem is undocumented.
  • Property taxes. Even after the house is paid for, it still belongs to the city/county/state government and the owner must continue to pay the property taxes for as long as he/she resides on the property.

A substantial percentage of the U.S. homeless population are individuals who are chronically unemployed or have difficulty managing their lives effectively due to prolonged and severe drug and/or alcohol abuse.[34] Substance abuse can cause homelessness from behavioral patterns associated with addiction that alienate an addicted individual's family and friends who could otherwise provide support during difficult economic times. The Atlantic Monthly (also known as The Atlantic) is an American literary/cultural magazine that was founded in November 1857. ... Harvard University is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, and a member of the Ivy League. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... A boy from Jakarta, Indonesia shows his find. ... CIA figures for world unemployment rates, 2006 Unemployment is the state in which a person is without work, available to work, and is currently seeking work. ... In economics, the term underemployment has at least three different distinct meanings and applications. ... For other uses, see Health care (disambiguation). ... Also see Alcoholism and Drug addiction. ... A mental illness or mental disorder refers to one of many mental health conditions characterized by distress, impaired cognitive functioning, atypical behavior, emotional dysregulation, and/or maladaptive behavior. ... Mental health is a term used to describe either a level of cognitive or emotional wellbeing or an absence of a mental disorder. ... Domestic disturbance redirects here. ... Deinstitutionalisation is the practice of moving people (especially those with mental disorders and developmental disability) from mental institutions into community-based or family-based environments. ... Occident redirects here. ... This article is about the natural disasters caused by natural hazards. ... This article is about the natural seismic phenomenon. ... This article is about weather phenomena. ... The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ... Look up container in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Foreclosure is the equitable proceeding in which a bank or other secured creditor sells or repossesses a parcel of real property (immovable property) due to the owners failure to comply with an agreement between the lender and borrower called a mortgage or deed of trust. ... Property tax, millage tax is an ad valorem tax that an owner of real estate or other property pays on the value of the property being taxed. ...

Increased wealth disparity and income inequality causes distortions in the housing market that push rent burdens higher, making housing unaffordable.[35]

Dr. Paul Koegel of RAND Corporation, a seminal researcher in first generation homelessness studies and beyond, divided the causes of homelessness into structural aspects and then individual vulnerabilities.[31] For other uses, see RAND (disambiguation). ...

Proposed solutions to homelessness

  • Housing First
In the USA, the government asked many major cities to come up with a ten year plan to end homelessness and one of the results of this was a "Housing first" solution which quickly gets a homeless person permanent housing of some sort and the necessary support services to sustain a new home. There are many complications of this kind of program and these must be dealt with to make such an initiative work successfully in the middle to long term. [23][24]
  • Pedestrian Villages
In 2007 urban designer and social theorist Michael E. Arth proposed a controversial national solution for homelessness that would involve building nearly carfree Pedestrian Villages in place of what he terms "the current band-aid approach to the problem."[36] A prototype, Tiger Bay Village, was proposed for near Daytona Beach, FL. He claims that this would be superior for treating the psychological as well as psychiatric needs of both temporarily and permanently homeless adults, and would cost less than the current approach.
It would also provide a lower cost alternative to jail, and provide a half-way station for those getting out of prison. Work opportunities, including construction and maintenance of the villages, as well as the creation of work force agencies would help make the villages financially and socially viable. [37][38][39]

Michael E. Arth, born on April 27, 1953, is an American artist, home/landscape/urban designer, futurist, and author. ... Daytona Beach is a city located in Volusia County, Florida. ...

Problems faced by homeless people

Homeless people face many problems beyond the lack of a safe and suitable home. They are often faced with many social disadvantages and reduced access to private and public services such as:

  • Reduced access to health care.
  • Limited access to education.
  • Increased risk of suffering from violence and abuse.
  • General discrimination from other people.
  • Not being seen as suitable for employment.
  • Reduced access to banking services to save money.
  • Reduced access to communications technology, such as telephones and the internet.

Violent crimes against the homeless

There have been many violent crimes committed against the homeless. [40] A 2007 study found that the rate of such crimes is increasing.[41][42]

Assistance and resources available to the homeless

Most countries provide a variety of services to assist homeless people. They often provide food, shelter and clothing and may be organised and run by community organisations (often with the help or volunteers) or by government departments. These programs may be supported by government, charities, churches and individual donors.

In 1998, a study by Koegel and Schoeni of a homeless population in Los Angeles, California, reported that a significant number of homeless do not participate in government assistance programs, and the authors reported being puzzled as to why that was, with the only possible suggestion from the evidence being that transaction costs were perhaps too high.[43]

Income sources

Many non-profit organizations such as Goodwill Industries maintain a mission to "provide skill development and work opportunities to people with barriers to employment", though most of these organizations are not primarily geared toward homeless individuals. Many cities also have street newspapers or magazines: publications designed to provide employment opportunity to homeless people or others in need by street sale. Goodwill Industries International, Inc. ... Street newspapers, sometimes called homeless newspapers (in either case newspapers is sometimes shortened to papers) are small, local newspapers written for (and often by) homeless people. ...

While some homeless have paying jobs, some must seek other methods to make money. Begging or panhandling is one option, but is becoming increasingly illegal in many cities. Despite the stereotype, not all homeless people panhandle, and not all panhandlers are homeless. Another option is busking: performing tricks, playing music, drawing on the sidewalk, or offering some other form of entertainment in exchange for donations. In cities where plasmapheresis centers still exist, homeless people may generate income through frequent visits to these centers. Beggars in Samarkand, 1905 Begging is the practice whereby a person obtains money, food, shelter or other things from people they encounter by request. ... Busking is the practice of doing live performances in public places to entertain people, usually to solicit donations and tips. ... Plasmapheresis (from the Greek plasma, something molded, and apheresis, taking away) is the removal, treatment, and return of (components of) blood plasma from blood circulation. ...

Homeless people have been known to commit crimes just to be sent to jail or prison for food and shelter. In police slang, this is called "three hots and a cot" referring to the three hot daily meals and a cot to sleep on given to prisoners. A county jail is a place of detention for people awaiting trial, or for those who have been convicted of a misdemeanor and are serving a sentence of less than one year. ...

Invented in 2005, in Seattle, Bumvertising, an informal system of hiring the homeless to advertise by a young entrepreneur, is providing food, money, and bottles of water to sign-holding homeless in the Northwest. Homeless advocates accuse the founder, Ben Rogovy, and the process, of exploiting the poor and take particular offense to the use of the word "bum" which is generally considered pejorative.[44][45] Bumvertising is a trademarked name for a form of informal employment in which a homeless person is paid to display advertising. ... Exploitation means many different things. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with pejoration. ...


In Australia the Supported Accommodation Assistance Program (SAAP) is a joint Commonwealth and state government program which provides funding for more than 1,200 organisations which are aimed to assist homeless people or those in danger of becoming homeless, as well as women and children escaping domestic violence [23]. They provide accommodation such as refuges, shelters and half-way houses, and offer a range of supported services. The Commonwealth has assigned over $800 million between 2000-2005 for the continuation of SAAP.

The current program, governed by the Supported Assistance Act 1994, specifies that "the overall aim of SAAP is to provide transitional supported accommodation and related support services, in order to help people who are homeless to achieve the maximum possible degree of self-reliance and independence. This legislation has been established to help the homeless people of the nation and help rebuild the lives of those in need, the joining of the states also helps enhance the meaning of the legislation and demonstrates the collaboration of the states and their desire to improve the nation as best they can.

United States

Housing First is an initiative to help the homeless get re-integrated into society, and out of homeless shelters. It was initiated by the federal government's Interagency Council on Homelessness. It asks cities to come up with a plan to end chronic homelessness. In this direction, there is the belief that if homeless people are given independent housing to start off with, with some proper social supports, then there would be no need for emergency homeless shelters, which it considers a good outcome. However this is a controversial position.[46][47]

In Boston, Massachusetts, in September 2007, an outreach to the homeless was initiated in the Boston Common, after some arrests and shootings, and in anticipation of the cold winter ahead. This outreach targets homeless people who would normally spend their sleeping time on the Boston Common, and tries to get them into housing, trying to skip the step of an emergency shelter.

Applications for Boston Housing Authority were being handed out and filled out and submitted. This is an attempt to enact by outreach the Housing First initiative, federally mandated. Boston's Mayor, Thomas Menino, was quoted as saying "The solution to homelessness is permanent housing". Still, this is a very controversial strategy, especially if the people are not able to sustain a house with proper community, health, substance counseling, and mental health supportive programs.[48] Thomas Michael Menino (born December 27, 1942) is the current mayor of Boston, Massachusetts, United States and the citys first Italian-American mayor. ...

Refuges for the homeless

There are many places where a homeless person might seek refuge.

  • Outdoors: On the ground or in a sleeping bag, tent, or improvised shelter, such as a large cardboard box, in a park or vacant lot.
  • Shantytowns: Ad hoc campsites of improvised shelters and shacks, usually near rail yards, interstates and high transportation veins.
  • Derelict structures: abandoned or condemned buildings
  • Squatting in an unoccupied house where a homeless person may live without payment and without the owner`s knowledge or permission.
  • Vehicles: cars or trucks are used as a temporary or sometimes long-term living refuge, for example by those recently evicted from a home. Some people live in vans, sport utility vehicles, covered pick-up trucks, station wagons, sedans, or hatchbacks.
  • Public places: Parks, bus or train stations, airports, public transportation vehicles (by continual riding where unlimited passes are available), hospital lobbies or waiting areas, college campuses, and 24-hour businesses such as coffee shops. Many public places use security guards or police to prevent people from loitering or sleeping at these locations for a variety of reasons, including image, safety, and comfort.[49][50]
  • Homeless shelters: such as emergency cold-weather and blala shelters opened by churches or community agencies, which may consist of cots in a heated warehouse, or temporary Christmas Shelters.
  • Inexpensive Boarding houses: Also called flophouses, they offer cheap, low-quality temporary lodging.
  • Residential hotels, where a bed as opposed to an entire room can be rented cheaply in a dorm-like environment.
  • Inexpensive motels also offer cheap, low-quality temporary lodging. However, some who can afford housing live in a motel by choice. For example, David and Jean Davidson spent 22 years at a UK Travelodge.[51]
  • 24-hour Internet cafes are now used by over 5,000 Japanese "Net cafe refugees". An estimated 75% of Japan's 3,200 all-night internet cafes cater to regular overnight guests, who in some cases have become their main source of income.[52]
  • Friends or family: Temporarily sleeping in dwellings of friends or family members ("couch surfing"). Couch surfers may be harder to recognize than street homeless people[53]
  • Underground tunnels such as abandoned subway, maintenance, or train tunnels are popular among the permanent homeless.[54][55] The inhabitants of such refuges are called in some places, like New York City, "Mole People". Natural caves beneath urban centers allow for places where the homeless can congregate. Leaking water pipes, electric wires, and steam pipes allow for some of the essentials of living.

A sleeping bag is a protective bag for a person to sleep in, essentially a blanket that can be closed with a zipper or similar means, and functions as a bed in situations where it is impractical to carry around a full bed. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Staple corrugated box Cardboard boxes are industrially prefabricated boxes, which are primarily used for packaging goods and materials. ... Shanty towns are units of irregular low-cost and self-constructed housing built on terrain seized and occupied illegally -- usually on lands belonging to third parties, most often located in the urban periphery of the cities. ... Shacks are most often used for storage or have been abandoned. ... A rail yard, or railroad yard, is a complex series of railroad tracks for storing, sorting, or loading/unloading, railroad cars and/or locomotives. ... A typical rural stretch of Interstate highway, with two lanes in each direction separated by a large grassy median, and with cross-traffic limited to overpasses and underpasses. ... For other uses, see squat. ... This article is about the road vehicle. ... A fourth-generation (2006-) Ford Explorer, the best-selling mid-size SUV in the United States. ... Pickup truck with extended cabin and homebuilt lumber rack. ... Estate car body style (Saab 95) A station wagon (United States usage), wagon (Australian usage, though station wagon is widely used) or estate car (United Kingdom usage) is a car body style similar to a sedan car but with an extended rear cargo area. ... This Mercedes-Benz 450SEL 6. ... Renault Megane hatchback, a proper hatchback which has shown huge success in Europe Peugeot 306 hatchback, with the hatch lifted and the parcel shelf tilted for access Hatchback is a term designating an automobile design, containing a passenger cabin with an integrated cargo space, accessed from behind the vehicle by... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Autobus redirects here. ... Passengers bustle around the typical grand edifice of Londons Broad Street station in 1865. ... A taxi serving as a bus Public transport comprises all transport systems in which the passengers do not travel in their own vehicles. ... For other uses, see College (disambiguation). ... Coffee Shop is a song by the Red Hot Chili Peppers from their 1995 album, One Hot Minute. ... Church Body A church body is a Christian religious organization made up of congregations, members and clergy. ... Boarding House is a privately owned house,in which individuals or families on vaccation, holidays, deputition,transfered on temporary duties, on some particular training,short&mediun tenure visitors,working professionals & lodgers,rent one or more rooms sets for one or more nights,sometimes for extended periods of weeks, months and... A flophouse or dosshouse is a place that offers very cheap lodging, generally by providing only minimal services. ... This article is about lodging. ... Motels may refer to any of the following: Motel, a type of temporary commercial accommodation; The Motels, an American new-wave band. ... Travelodge refers to several hotel chains around the world. ... An Internet cafe or cybercafe is a place where one can use a computer with Internet access for a fee, usually per hour or minute; sometimes one can have unmetered access with a pass for a day or month, etc. ... For the super villain, see Mole Man. ...

Health care for the homeless

Health care for the homeless is a major public health challenge.[56][57][58][59][60][61][62][63][64][65][66]

Homeless people are more likely to suffer injuries and medical problems from their lifestyle on the street, which includes poor nutrition, substance abuse, exposure to the severe elements of weather, and a higher exposure to violence (robberies, beatings, and so on). Yet at the same time, they have little access to public medical services or clinics.

This is a particular problem in the US where many people lack health insurance: "Each year, millions of people in the United States experience homelessness and are in desperate need of health care services. Most do not have health insurance of any sort, and none have cash to pay for medical care." [67][68]

Homeless persons often find it difficult to document their date of birth or their address. Because homeless people usually have no place to store possessions, they often lose their belongings, including their identification and other documents, or find them destroyed by police or others. Without a photo ID, homeless persons cannot get a job or access many social services. They can be denied access to even the most basic assistance: clothing closets, food pantries, certain public benefits, and in some cases, emergency shelters.

Obtaining replacement identification is difficult. Without an address, birth certificates cannot be mailed. Fees may be cost-prohibitive for impoverished persons. And some states will not issue birth certificates unless the person has photo identification, creating a Catch-22.[69] Catch 22 can refer to: A book by Joseph Heller, or the movie based on the book; see Catch-22. ...

This problem is far less acute in countries which provide free-at-use health care, such as the UK, where hospitals are open-access day and night, and make no charges for treatment. In the US, free-care clinics, especially for the homeless do exist in major cities, but they are usually over-burdened with patients. [70]

The conditions affecting the homeless are somewhat specialized and have opened a new area of medicine tailored to this population. Skin conditions and diseases abound, because homeless people are exposed to extreme cold in the winter and they have little access to bathing facilities. They have problems caring for their feet[71] and have more severe dental problems than the general population.[72] Specialized medical textbooks have been written to address this for providers.[73]

There are many organizations providing free care to the homeless in countries which do not offer free medical treatment organised by the state, but the services are in great demand given the limited number of medical practitioners. For example, it might take months to get a minimal dental appointment in a free-care clinic. Communicable diseases are of great concern, especially tuberculosis, which spreads more easily in crowded homeless shelters in high density urban settings.[74] Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ...

In 1999, Dr. Susan Barrow of the Columbia University Center for Homelessness Prevention Studies reported in a study that the "age-adjusted death rates of homeless men and women were 4 times those of the general US population and 2 to 3 times those of the general population of New York City". [75]

In 2004, Boston Health Care for the Homeless in conjunction with the National Health Care for the Homeless Council published a medical manual called "The Health Care of Homeless Persons", edited by James J. O'Connell, M.D., specifically for the treatment of the homeless population.[76]

In June 2008, in Boston, Massachusetts, the Jean Yawkey Place, a four-story, 77,653 square-foot building, was opened by the Boston Health Care for the Homeless Program. It is an entire full service building on the Boston Medical Center campus dedicated to providing health care for the homeless. It also contains a long term care facility, the Barbara McInnis House, which expanded to 104 beds, which is the first and largest medical respite program for homeless people in the United States.[77][78]

International law and homelessness

Since the publication of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Charter of the United Nations—UN) in 1948, the public perception has been increasingly changing to a focus on the human right of housing, travel and migration as a part of individual self-determination rather than the human condition. The Declaration, an international law reinforcement of the Nuremberg Trial Judgements, upholds the rights of one nation to intervene in the affairs of another if said nation is abusing its citizens, and rose out of a 1939-1945 World War II Atlantic environment of extreme split between "haves" and "have nots." The modern study of homeless phenomena is most frequently seen in this historical context. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (abbreviated UDHR) is an advisory declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly (A/RES/217, 10 December 1948 at Palais de Chaillot, Paris). ... This article is about the moral/legal concept. ... Condition is a term which has many meanings: A state of being. ... For the 1947 Soviet film about the trials, see Nuremberg Trials (film). ...

Tracking and counting the homeless

In the USA, the federal government's HUD agency has required federally funded organizations to use a computer tracking system for the homeless and their statistics, called HMIS (Homeless Management Information System).[79][80][81] There has been some opposition to this kind of tracking by privacy advocacy groups, such as EPIC.[82] However, HUD considers its reporting techniques to be reasonably accurate for homeless in shelters and programs in its Annual Homeless Assessment Report to Congress.[83] Electronic Privacy Information Center or EPIC is a public interest research group in Washington D.C.. It was established in 1994 to focus public attention on emerging civil liberties issues and to protect privacy, the First Amendment, and constitutional values. ...

Actually determining and counting the number of homeless is very difficult in general due to their lifestyle habits.[84][85] There are so-called "hidden homeless" out of sight of the normal population and perhaps staying on private property.[86]

Various countries, states, and cities have come up with differing means and techniques to calculate an approximate count. For example, a one night "homeless census count", usually held in the early Winter, for the year is a technique used by a number of American cities, especially Boston, Massachusetts.[87][88] Los Angeles, California uses a mixed set of techniques for counting, including the point-in-time street count.[86][89]

Statistics for developed countries

Homeless man, Tokyo.

In 2005, an estimated 100 million people worldwide were homeless.[90] For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ...

The following statistics indicate the approximate average number of homeless people at any one time. Each country has a different approach to counting homeless people, and estimates of homelessness made by different organizations vary wildly, so comparisons should be made with caution.

European Union: 3,000,000 (UN-HABITAT 2004)
United Kingdom: 10,459 rough sleepers, 98,750 households in temporary accommodation (Department for Communities and Local Government 2005)
Canada: 150,000 (National Homelessness Initiative - Government of Canada)[91]
Australia: In total, 99,900 people were homeless in 2001
14,200 sleeping rough (In improvised dwellings or tents, or in streets, parks, cars or derelict buildings). 14,300 in emergency or transitional housing. 48,600 were defined as homeless because they were staying with another household and had no usual residence. Finally, 22,900 people living in boarding houses were included in the homeless count. (ABS: 2001 Census)[92]
United States[93]: According to HUD's July 2008 3rd Homeless Assessment Report to Congress, in a single night in January 2007, single point analysis reported to HUD showed there were 671,888 sheltered and unsheltered homeless persons nationwide in the United States.[83] Also, HUD reported the number of chronically homeless people (those with repeated episodes or who have been homeless for long periods, 2007 data) as 123,833.[83] 82% of the homeless are not chronically homeless, and 18% are (6% Chronically Homeless Sheltered, 12% Chronically Homeless Unsheltered). Their Estimate of Sheltered Homeless Persons during a One-Year Period, October 2006 to September 2007, that about 1,589,000 persons used an emergency shelter and/or transitional housing during the 12-month period, which is about 1 in every 200 persons in the United States was in a homeless facility in that time period. Individuals accounted for 1,115,054 or 70.2% and families numbered 473,541 or 29.8%. The number of persons in sheltered households with Children was about 130,968.[83]
Japan: 20,000-100,000 (some figures put it at 200,000-400,000)[94] Reports show that homelessness is on the rise in Japan since the mid-1990s.[95]
There are more homeless men then homeless woman in Japan because it is easier for women to get a job (they make less money
than men do). Also Japanese families usually provide more support for women than they do for men.[96]

The United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN–HABITAT) is the United Nations agency for human settlements. ... The Department for Communities and Local Government is a United Kingdom government department. ... Australian Bureau of Statistics logo The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) is the Australian government agency that collects and publishes statistical information about Australia. ...

Developing and undeveloped countries

The number of homeless people worldwide has grown steadily in recent years.[97][98] In some Third World nations such as India, Nigeria, and South Africa, homelessness is rampant, with millions of children living and working on the streets.[99][100] Homelessness has become a problem in the countries of China, Thailand, Indonesia, and the Philippines despite their growing prosperity, mainly due to migrant workers who have trouble finding permanent homes.[101] Third World is a term originally used to distinguish those nations that neither aligned with the West nor with the East during the Cold War and most were members of the Non-Aligned Movement. ...

For people in Russia, especially the youth, alcoholism and substance abuse is a major cause and reason for becoming and continuing to be homeless.[102]

The United Nations, United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (UN-Habitat) wrote in its Global Report on Human Settlements in 1995: "Homelessness is a problem in developed as well as in developing countries. In London, for example, life expectancy among the homeless is more than 25 years lower than the national average. is the United Nations agency for human settlements. ...

Poor urban housing conditions are a global problem, but conditions are worst in developing countries. Habitat says that today 600 million people live in life- and health-threatening homes in Asia, Africa and Latin America. The threat of mass homelessness is greatest in those regions because that is where population is growing fastest.

By 2015, the 10 largest cities in the world will be in Asia, Latin America and Africa. Nine of them will be in developing countries: Bombay, India - 27.4 million; Lagos, Nigeria - 24.4; Shanghai, China - 23.4; Jakarta, Indonesia - 21.2; S o Paulo, Brazil - 20.8; Karachi, Pakistan - 20.6; Beijing, China - 19.4; Dhaka, Bangladesh - 19; Mexico City, Mexico - 18.8. The only city in a developed country that will be in the top ten is Tokyo, Japan - 28.7 million."[103]

In 2008, Dr. Anna Tibaijuka, Executive Director of UN-HABITAT, referring to the recent report "State of the World’s Cities Report 2008/2009"[104], said that the world economic crisis we are in should be viewed as a “housing finance crisis” in which the poorest of poor were left to fend for themselves.[105] Dr Anna Kajumulo Tibaijuka is an Under-Secretary-General of the United Nations and Executive Director of the United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT). ...

Homelessness by country

A homeless individual in Shanghai
  • Homelessness in Australia
  • Homelessness in Canada
  • Homelessness in England
  • Homelessness in Iraq
  • Homelessness in Israel
  • Homelessness in Japan
  • Homelessness in Scotland
  • Homelessness in the United States
  • FEANTSA (EU non-profit)

For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ... Homelessness should not be quantified as being without a house; rather, it defines a state in which a person lacks a secure base to establish secure routines of living. ...

See also

Other itinerant or homeless people or terms for this condition

Beggars in Samarkand, 1905 Begging includes the various methods used by persons to obtain money, food, shelter, or other necessities from people they encounter during the course of their travels. ... Derelict may refer to: Negligence (dereliction) Neglect of legal or moral duty. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Tailor in Labuje IDP camp in Uganda An internally displaced person (IDP) is someone who has been forced to leave their home for reasons such as religious or political persecution or war, but has not crossed an international border. ... Look up itinerant in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The term mendicant refers to begging or otherwise relying on charitable donations, and is most widely used for religious followers or ascetics who rely exclusively on charity to survive. ... Rough sleeper is a term used for homeless people with absolutely nowhere to sleep (so they must sleep outside). ... Schnorrer (also spelled shnorrer) is a Yiddish term meaning beggar or sponger. ... A street child or street kid is a child who lives on the street – in particular, one that is not taken care of by parents or other adults – and who sleeps on the street because he or she does not have a home. ... For other uses, see Tramp (disambiguation). ... A vagabond is a (generally impoverished) itinerant person. ... John Everett Millais The Blind Girl: vagrant musicians See also vagrancy (biology) for an alternative use of the term. ...

Socioeconomic issues or aspects of homeless life

Deinstitutionalisation is the practice of moving people (especially those with mental disorders and developmental disability) from mental institutions into community-based or family-based environments. ... A flophouse or dosshouse is a place that offers very cheap lodging, generally by providing only minimal services. ... Homeless dumping is the practice of hospital employees or emergency workers releasing homeless patients on the streets instead of placing them into the custody of a relative or shelter or retaining them in a hospital where they may require expensive medical care. ... Hong Kong Housing Authority (香港房屋委員會) (HA) is the main provider of public housing in Hong Kong. ... The Scream, the famous painting commonly thought of as depicting the experience of mental illness. ... Beggars in Samarkand, 1905 Begging includes the various methods used by persons to obtain money, food, shelter, or other necessities from people they encounter during the course of their travels. ... Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), is a term for the psychological consequences of exposure to or confrontation with stressful experiences, which involve actual or threatened death, serious physical injury or a threat to physical integrity and which the person found highly traumatic. ... War Veteran is a science fiction short story by Philip K. Dick. ... Bad Touch redirects here. ... Victim was the title of a British film made in 1961, directed by Basil Deardon and starring Dirk Bogarde and Sylvia Simms. ... A boy from Jakarta, Indonesia shows his find. ... For other uses, see squat. ... Also see Alcoholism and Drug addiction. ...

Miscellaneous homelessness-related articles

  • Bumvertising
  • Homeless World Cup
  • Homelessness in popular culture
  • Housing first
  • Jack Tafari
  • List of organizations opposing homelessness
  • No fixed abode
  • Ozone House
  • Projects for Assistance in Transition from Homelessness
  • StandUp For Kids

Bumvertising is a trademarked name for a form of informal employment in which a homeless person is paid to display advertising. ... Housing rights activist Jack Tafari; London, May 2006; photo by Frances Cook Jack Tafari (born October 31, 1946 in Gravesend, Kent, United Kingdom), is a Rastafari and an activist who has worked to improve the conditions of the homeless in the developed world. ...


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  78. ^ Cromer, Janet M., R.N., "Moving with Boston Health Care for the Homeless Program: The new home for BHCHP's Barbara McInnis House is a place of healing, trust, and hope", On Call magazine, August 7, 2008
  79. ^ Roman, Nan, "Tracking the Homeless: An Overview of HMIS", ShelterForce Magazine, Issue #132, November/December 2003, National Housing Institute.
  80. ^ HUD information on HMIS
  81. ^ Perl, Libby, "The Home Management Information System", Congressional Research Service, CRS Report RS22328, November 2005.
  82. ^ EPIC page on HMIS privacy
  83. ^ a b c d U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, "HUD Reports Drop in the Number of Chronically Homeless Persons: More resources and better reporting contribute to annual declines", 2007 data
  84. ^ Hewitt, Christopher, "Estimating the Number of Homeless: Media Misrepresentation of an Urban Problem", Journal of Urban Affairs, Wiley InterScience publishing, Volume 18 Issue 4, Pages 431 - 447, 28 June 2008
  85. ^ Freeman, Richard B. and Brian Hall. "Permanent Homelessness in America?", Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 6, (1987), pp. 3-27.
  86. ^ a b "Los Angeles County Homelessness Fact Sheet #1 Number of Homeless People Nightly"
  87. ^ Emergency Shelter Commission, City of Boston - see annual census reports
  88. ^ Annual Homeless Census. City of Boston
  89. ^ "The Greater Los Angeles Homeless Count"
  90. ^ Capdevila, Gustavo, "Human Rights: More Than 100 Million Homeless Worldwide", IPS, Geneva.
  91. ^ Government of Canada, "National Homelessness Initiative: Working Together"
  92. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics, "Housing Arrangements: Homelessness", 2004. [22]
  93. ^ The National Coalition for the Homeless, Fact Sheet on "Who is Homeless", August 2007.
  94. ^ "In pictures: Japan's homeless", BBC News.
  95. ^ Ezawa, Aya, "Japan's New Homeless", Journal of Social Distress and the Homeless, Springer Netherlands, Volume 11, Number 4, October, 2002, pp. 279-291
  96. ^ Asia: The Big Issue Japan
  97. ^ Zarocostas, John, "Homelessness increasing all over the world", The Washington Times, April 11, 2005
  98. ^ Capdevila, Gustavo, "Human Rights: More Than 100 Million Homeless Worldwide", IPS (Inter Press Service), March 30, 2005.
  99. ^ The Urban Poverty Group, "Urban Poverty Group submission to the Commission for Africa", Homeless International, December 2004
  100. ^ UN-HABITAT, "The Challenge of Slums – UN-HABITAT’s new Global Report on Human Settlements", January 10, 2003.
  101. ^ YXC Project, UNEP/UNESCO, "Homeless: Developing Countries". "Homelessness has also become a problem in the cities of China, Thailand, Indonesia, and the Philippines despite their growing prosperity, mainly due to migrant workers who have trouble finding permanent homes and to rising income inequality between social classes."
  102. ^ Osborn, Andrew, "Russia's youth faces worst crisis of homelessness and substance misuse since second world war", British Medical Journal, 2005;330:1348 (11 June)
  103. ^ United Nations, "United Nations: Global Report on Human Settlements"
  104. ^ United Nations, UN-HABITAT, "State of the World’s Cities Report 2008/2009", 2008. ISBN 978-92-1-132010-7
  105. ^ United Nations, "UN-HABITAT unveils State of the World’s Cities report", October 23, 2008, London

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  • Baumohl, Jim (editor) (1996). Homelessness in America. Phoenix: Oryx Press. http://www.brynmawr.edu/socialwork/faculty/baumohl.shtml. 
  • BBC News, "Warning over homelessness figures: Government claims that homelessness numbers have fallen by a fifth since last year should be taken with a health warning, says housing charity Shelter", Monday, 13 June 2005.
  • BBC Radio 4, "No Home, a season of television and radio programmes that introduce the new homeless.", 2006.
  • Beard, Rick, "On Being Homeless: Historical Perspectives", New York, Museum of the City of New York, 1987.
  • Booth, Brenda M., Sullivan, J. Greer, Koegel, Paul, Burnam, M. Audrey, "Vulnerability Factors for Homelessness Associated with Substance Dependence in a Community Sample of Homeless Adults", RAND Research Report. Originally published in: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, v. 28, no. 3, 2002, pp. 429–452.
  • Brickner, Philip, Under the Safety Net: The Health and Social Welfare of the Homeless in the United States, W. W. Norton & Company, 1990. ISBN 0393028852
  • Burt, Martha R. (1992). Over the Edge: The Growth of Homelessness in the 1980s. Russell Sage. 
  • Burt, Martha R., et al., "Homelessness: Programs and the People They Serve: Findings of the National Survey of Homeless Assistance Providers and Clients", Urban Institute, December 7, 1999
  • Burt, Martha R., "Evaluation of LA's HOPE: Ending Chronic Homelessness through Employment and Housing Final Report", Urban Institute, Washington DC, March 18, 2008
  • Burt, Martha R., "Hilton Foundation Project to End Homelessness for People with Mental Illness in Los Angeles: Changes in Homelessness, Supportive Housing, and Tenant Characteristics Since 2005", Urban Institute, prepared for the Corporation for Supportive Housing Report, April 2008.
  • Charlton, Emma (January 3, 2006). "France to create 'legal right' to housing". Agence France-Presse. http://p103.news.scd.yahoo.com/s/afp/20070103/bs_afp/francepoliticshomeless. 
  • "A History of Modern Homelessness in New York City". Coalition for the Homeless (New York). http://www.coalitionforthehomeless.org/downloads/NYCHomelessnessHistory.pdf. 
  • Cooper, Yvette, MP, "Effective Homelessness Prevention", April 12, 2006.
  • Crimaldi, Laura (December 11, 2006). "Homeless getting new lease on life". Boston Herald. 
  • Coyne, Barry V. (editor), "Homelessness: A Bibliography", New York : Nova Science Publishers, August 2, 2006. ISBN 1600213065
  • Culhane, Dennis, "Responding to Homelessness: Policies and Politics", 2001.
  • Culhane, Dennis, "The Homeless Shelter and the Nineteenth Century Poorhouse: Comparing Notes from Two Eras of 'Indoor Relief'"
  • deMause, Neil (June 20, 2006). "Out of the Shelter, Into the Fire: New city program for homeless: Keep your job or keep your apartment". The Village Voice. http://www.villagevoice.com/news/0625,demause,73594,5.html. 
  • DePastino, Todd (2003). Citizen Hobo: How a Century of Homelessness Shaped America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-14378-3. 
  • Duffy, Gary (April 17, 2007). "Brazil's homeless and landless unite". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/6563359.stm. 
  • Firdion, Jean-Marie; Marpsat, Maryse (13 August 2007). "A Research Program on Homelessness in France". Journal of Social Issues 63 (3). http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/118510304/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0. 
  • Friedman, Donna Haig, et al. (June 2007). "Preventing Homelessness and Promoting Housing Stability : A Comparative Analysis", The Boston Foundation and UMASS/Boston Center for Social Policy.
  • Friedman, Donna Haig (2003). "Surviving Against the Odds: Families’ Journeys off Welfare and out of Homelessness" (PDF). Cityscape (Washington, D.C.: United States Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Policy Development and Research) 6 (2). http://www.huduser.org/periodicals/cityscpe/vol6num2/3surviv.pdf. 
  • "Urban Homelessness & Public Policy Solutions: A One-Day Conference". Institute for Governmental Studies, Berkeley. January 22, 2001. http://www.igs.berkeley.edu/events/homeless/. 
  • "Homelessness: Programs and the People They Serve - Highlights Report". Interagency Council on the Homeless (USA). 1997. http://www.huduser.org/publications/homeless/homelessness/highrpt.html. 
  • Jencks, Christopher (1994). The Homeless. Harvard University Press. 
  • Jordan, Katy, "Sharp rise in state’s homeless", Boston Herald, Wednesday, July 30, 2008
  • Kahn, Ric (December 17, 2006). "Buried in Obscurity". Boston Globe. http://www.boston.com/news/local/massachusetts/articles/2006/12/17/buried_in_obscurity/. 
  • Koebel, C. Theodore, Shelter and Society: Theory, Research, and Policy for Nonprofit Housing, SUNY Press, 1998. ISBN 0791437892
  • Kusmer, Kenneth L. (2003). Down and Out, On the Road: The Homeless in American History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-504778-8. http://www.temple.edu/history/People/kusmer/. 
  • Levinson, David, [editor] (2004). Encyclopedia of Homelessness. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications. ISBN 0761927514. 
  • Morton, Margaret (1995). The Tunnel: The Underground Homeless Of New York City. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-06559-0. 
  • O'Brien, Matthew(author) and Mollohan, Danny (photographer) (2007). Beneath the Neon: Life and Death in the Tunnels of Las Vegas. Huntington Press. ISBN 0-929-71239-0. 
  • O'Flaherty, Brendan (1996). Making Room: The Economics of Homelessness. Harvard University Press. 
  • Paige, Connie, Homelessness hits record high: Advocates expect numbers to grow amid economic downturn and ask for state aid, The Boston Globe, October 6, 2008
  • Redburn, F. Stevens; Buss, Terry F., Responding to America's Homeless: Public Policy Alternatives, Praeger, 1986.
  • Riis, Jacob (1890). How the Other Half Lives. http://www.yale.edu/amstud/inforev/riis/title.html. 
  • Rossi, Peter H. (1990). Down and Out in America: The Origins of Homelessness. University Of Chicago Press. 
  • Schutt, Russell K., Ph.D., Professor, University of Massachusetts Boston.
    • Schutt, Russell K., et al., "Boston's Homeless, 1986-87: Change and Continuity", 1987.
    • Schutt, Russell K., Working with the Homeless: the Backgrounds, Activities and Beliefs of Shelter Staff, 1988.
    • Schutt, Russell, K., "Homeless Adults in Boston in 1990: A Two-Shelter Profile", 1990.
    • Schutt, Russell K., Garrett, Gerald R., "Responding to the Homeless: Policy and Practice", Topics in Social Psychiatry, 1992. ISBN 0-306-44076-8
    • Schutt, Russell K., Byrne, Francine, et al., "City of Boston Homeless Services: Employment & Training for Homeless Persons", 1995.
    • Schutt, Russell K., Feldman, James, et al., "Homeless Persons’ Residential Preferences and Needs: A Pilot Survey of Persons with Severe Mental Illness in Boston Mental Health and Generic Shelters", 2004.
  • Sommer, Heidi (2001). "Homelessness in Urban America: a Review of the Literature". http://www.igs.berkeley.edu/events/homeless/NewHomelessnessBook1.pdf. 
  • "A Brief History of Homelessness". St. Mungo's organisation (UK). http://www.mungos.org/homelessness/history/. 
  • Swarms, Rachel L., "Number of homeless reported down 30%: Officials say 'housing first' strategy a success", Boston Globe, New York Times News Service, July 30, 2008
  • Sweeney, Richard (1992). Out of Place: Homelessness in America. HarperCollins College Publishers. 
  • Vissing, Yvonne (1996). "Out of Sight, Out of Mind: Homeless Children and Families in Small-Town America". http://w3.salemstate.edu/~yvissing/. 
  • Vissing, Yvonne (March/April 2003). "The $ubtle War Against Children". Fellowship. http://www.forusa.org/fellowship/mar-apr_03/vissing.html. 
  • Vladeck, Bruce, R.; The Committee on Health Care for Homeless People, Institute of Medicine (1988). Homelessness, Health, and Human needs. National Academies Press. http://darwin.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=1092&page=R1. 
  • Toth, Jennifer (1993). The Mole People: Life in the Tunnels Beneath New York City. Chicago, Ill.: Chicago Review Press. ISBN 1-55652-190-1. 
  • "Hunger and Homelessness Survery". United States Conference of Mayors. December 2005. http://usmayors.org/uscm/hungersurvey/2005/HH2005FINAL.pdf. 
  • United States Department of Health and Human Services, "Ending Chronic Homelessness: Strategies for Action", Report from the Secretary's Work Group on Ending Chronic Homelessness, March 2003.
  • Yoon, Il-Seong, "A Study on the Homeless in South Korea", Pusan National University; International Critical Geography Group Conference, Taegu, Korea, 2000. [24]

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Further reading

  • Arumi, Ana Maria, Yarrow, Andrew L., "Compassion, Concern, and Conflicted Feelings: New Yorkers on Homelessness and Housing", Public Agenda Foundation, February 2007
  • Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Department of Housing and Community Development, Homelessness Commission, Commission to End Homelessness, "Report of the Special Commission Relative to Ending Homelessness in The Commonwealth", Final Report, December 2007
  • Crosette, Barbara, "Homeless and Hungry Youths of India", The New York Times, December 23, 1990.
  • Friedman, Donna H., et al., "Preventing Homelessness and Promoting Housing Stability: A Comparative Analysis", The Boston Foundation, June 2007.
  • Institute of Medicine (U.S.), Committee on Healthcare for Homeless People, "Homelessness, Health, and Human Needs", Washington, D.C. : National Academy Press, 1988. ISBN 0309038359
  • Journal of Social Distress and the Homeless, Springer Verlag [25] and Psycke-Logos Press.[26]
  • Massachusetts Coalition for the Homeless, "Down & Out: A Manual on Basic Rights and Benefits for Homeless People", 2005-2006 edition, first published in 1984, 15 Bubier Street, Lynn, Massachusetts.
  • Kenyon, Thomas, What You Can Do to Help the Homeless (Simon and Schuster, 1991)
  • Min, Eungjun, (editor), "Reading the Homeless: The Media's Image of Homeless Culture", Praeger Publishers, 1999. ISBN 0275959503
  • Nieto G., Gittelman M., Abad A. (2008). "Homeless Mentally Ill Persons: A bibliography review", International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation. 12(2)
  • Office for Public Management (UK), "Tackling Homelessness: learning from New York", Seminar Report, London, England, February 2004
  • Scanlon, John, "Homelessness: Describing the Symptoms, Prescribing a Cure", Heritage Foundation, Backgrounder #729, October 2, 1989
  • University of Michigan Libraries, Selected Bibliography of Homelessness Resources
  • "Looking for Sanctuary: Staying on Publicly Owned Lands as a Response to Homelessness by Peggy Ann Dee Southard, a dissertation presented to the Department of Sociology and the Graduate School of the University of Oregon in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy
  • Dorie Apollonio and Ruth E. Malone, "Marketing to the marginalised: tobacco industry targeting of the homeless and mentally ill" (2005). Tobacco Control. 14 (6), pp. 409–415

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External links

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Learning resources from Wikiversity
  • InvisiblePeople.tv real stories by real people keeping homelessness visible
  • Homeless Statistics for Australia, Canada, United Kingdom and United States.
  • Law Librarian's questions and answers about legal information for the homeless.
  • Salvation Army International
  • Scottish Borders Council Homelessness Services
  • Homeless Man Speaks, an on-the-street perspective
  • Les Enfants de Don Quichotte, French NGO which organized illegal camping-sites on the Canal Saint-Martin in Paris end of December 2006-January 2007 in order to enforce the right to lodging (droit au logement).
  • Toxic Playground: Growing Up In Skid Row
  • Down and Out in Kyushu, interview with a young Japanese homeless man
  • National Homeless Persons’ Memorial Day (USA) - Information on National Homeless Person's Memorial Day, December 21
  • PBS, "Home at Last?", NOW series program, first aired on February 2, 2007. The topic was what will most help homeless people reenter the fabric of society.
  • PBS, "Homes for the Homeless?", NOW TV series program, first aired on June 26, 2009.
  • National Policy and Advocacy Council on Homelessness (USA)

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  Results from FactBites:
Homelessness - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4422 words)
Homelessness or transience is a situation in which a person does not have a long term residence, a stable residence, or any residence at all.
Homeless people may be found in all parts of the world in varying situations sometimes due to natural disaster, political unrest, war, famine, personal misfortune, despair, or illness.
Homeless people have been known to purposely commit crimes in order to be sent to jail or prison for food and shelter.
A Strategy for Helping America's Homeless (2962 words)
The homeless are not neglected and ignored In fact, efforts to feed and house them have been growing in recent years cally, the greater visibility of the homeless stems in part from these attempts to help.
Analysts counted a person as homeless if his or her nighttime residence was in a public or private emergency shelter, such as a church basement or government building, or in any public or private space not designed for shelter, for instance, a sidewalk subway, or car.
Homelessness I invariably involves local characteristics that need to be diagnosed and treated on the local and state levels 3 It is not at all certain that a federal program would not replace, rather than supplement, present local and private efforts.
  More results at FactBites »



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