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Encyclopedia > Home front during World War II
Publicity photo of American machine tool worker in Texas.
Publicity photo of American machine tool worker in Texas.

The home front is the name given to the activities of the civilians during a state of total war. Life on the home front during World War II was a significant part of the war effort for all participants, and had major impact on the outcome of the war. Download high resolution version (957x742, 131 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: World War II Rosie the Riveter Categories: U.S. history images ... Download high resolution version (957x742, 131 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: World War II Rosie the Riveter Categories: U.S. history images ... Rosie the Riveter represented civilian wartime mobilization in the United States during World War II. Home front is the informal term commonly used to describe the civilian populace of the nation at war as an active support system of its military. ... Total war is a military conflict in which nations mobilize all available resources in order to destroy another nations ability to engage in war. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...

Contents

Overview

The major powers devoted 50–60% of their total GDP to war production at the peak in 1943. The Allies produced about three times as much in munitions as the Axis powers.

Munitions Production in World War II
Country/Alliance Year
1935-9 ave 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 Total 1939–44
U.S.A. 0.3 1.5 4.5 20.0 38.0 42.0 106.3
Britain 0.5 3.5 6.5 9.0 11.0 11.0 41.5
U.S.S.R 1.6 5.0 8.5 11.5 14.0 16.0 56.6
Allies Total 2.4 10.0 20.0 41.5 64.5 70.5 204.4
Germany 2.4 6.0 6.0 8.5 13.5 17.0 53.4
Japan 0.4 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.5 6.0 16.9
Axis Total 2.8 7.0 8.0 11.5 18.0 23.0 70.3

Source: Goldsmith data in Harrison (1988) p. 172

Real Value Consumer Spending
Country Year
1937 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945
Japan 100 107 109 111 108 99 93 78
Germany 100 108 117 108 105 95 94 85
USA 100 96 103 108 116 115 118 122

Source: Jerome B Cohen, Japan's Economy in War and Reconstruction (1949) p 354


Allies

Poland

Jews in Warsaw Ghetto: 1943

On September 1, 1939, Germany invaded Poland, conquering it in six weeks, as the Soviets invaded the eastern areas. During the German occupation there were two distinct uprisings in Warsaw, one in 1943, the other in 1944. The first took place in an entity, less than two square miles in area, which the Germans carved out of the city and called "Ghetto Warschau." Into the thus created Ghetto, around which they built high walls, the Germans crowded 550,000 Polish Jews, many from the Polish provinces. At first, people were able to go in and out of the Ghetto, but soon the Ghetto's border became an "iron curtain." Unless on official business, Jews could not leave it, and non-Jews, including Germans, could not enter. Entry points were guarded by German soldiers. Because of extreme conditions and hunger, mortality in the Ghetto was high. Additionally, in 1942 the Germans moved 400,000 to Treblinka where they were gassed on arrival. When, on April 19, 1943, the Ghetto Uprising commenced, the population of the Ghetto had dwindled to 60,000 individuals. In the following three weeks virtually all died as the Germans fought to put down the uprising and systematically destroyed the buildings in the Ghetto. [1]


Warsaw Uprising of 1944

The uprising by Polish Catholics began on August 1, 1944 when the Polish underground, the "Home Army," aware that the Soviet Army had reached the eastern bank of the Vistula, sought to liberate Warsaw much as the French resistance had liberated Paris a few weeks earlier. Stalin had his own group of Communist leaders for the new Poland and did not want the Home Army or its Catholic leaders (based in London) to control Warsaw. So he halted the Soviet offensive and gave the Germans free reign to suppress it. During the ensuing 63 days, 250,000 Poles; the Home Army surrendered to the Germans. After the Germans forced all the surviving population to leave the city, Hitler ordered that any buildings left standing be dynamited and 98% of buildings in Warsaw were destroyed.[2]


Britain

See Timeline of the United Kingdom home front during World War II.

Britain's total mobilization during this period proved to be successful in toppling the Axis Powers, but carried a steep cost postwar. Public opinion strongly supported the war, and the level of sacrifice was high. The war was a "people's war" that enlarged democratic aspirations and produced promises of a postwar welfare state. 1939 September September 1, 1939 In response to the German invasion of Poland and the prospect of war with Germany, plans for the evacuation of children from London and other areas deemed vulnerable to German air attack are put into action. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Munitions

In mid-1940 the R.A.F. was called on to fight the Battle of Britain but it had suffered serious losses. It lost 458 aircraft—more than current production—in France and was hard pressed. In order to speed output the government decided to concentrate on only five models in order to optimize output. They were Wellingtons, Whitley Vs, Blenheims, Hurricanes and Spitfires. They received extraordinary priority. Covering the supply of materials and equipment and even made it possible to divert from other types the necessary parts, equipments, materials and manufacturing resources. Labour was moved from other aircraft work to factories engaged on the specified types. Cost was not an object. The delivery of new fighters rose from 256 in April to 467 in September—more than enough to cover the losses—and Fighter Command emerged triumphantly from the Battle of Britain in October with more aircraft than it had possessed at the beginning. [3] Combatants United Kingdom Including combatants from:[1] Poland New Zealand Canada Czechoslovakia Belgium Australia South Africa France Ireland United States Jamaica Palestine Rhodesia Germany Including combatants from Italy Commanders Hugh Dowding Hermann Göring Strength 754 single-seat fighters 149 two-seat fighters 560 bombers 500 coastal 1,963 total...


Women

Most women who volunteered before the war went into civil defense or the Women's Land Army. The main civil defence services were Air Raid Precautions (ARP), the fire service and Women's Voluntary Services (WVS). Initially, the women mainly carried out clerical work, but their roles expanded to meet demand, and female pump crews became commonplace. Women joined branches of the forces, which were revived in 1938-39: the Army’s Auxiliary Territorial Service , the Women's Royal Naval Service (Wrens), and the Women's Auxiliary Air Force (Waafs). Womens Land Army was an organisation created in World War II in the UK to work in agriculture, it was directed by Lady Gertrude Denman. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Womens Royal Naval Service (WRNS, popularly known as Wrens) was a non-combat branch of the United Kingdom Royal Navy that recruited women. ... The U.S. Womens Auxiliary Air Force was created in June of 1939. ...


Conscription for all women was introduced in 1941 for women of 21 in that year. They had to join the armed forces or the land army or be assigned other war work.[4]


The WVS was the largest single women's organisation at this time. It was formed to support civil defence and to provide services not provided locally by other organizations, and had over one million members. "Typical WVS contributions included organising evacuations, shelters, clothing exchanges and mobile canteens" [5]. The Women's Land Army/Scottish Land Army was reformed in 1938 so that women could be trained in agricultural work, leaving male workers free to go to war. Most WLA members were young women from the towns and cities. Annice Gibbs, who worked for the WLA Timber Corps, remembers an encounter with Italian prisoners of war (POWs). "After our training, we soon got used to heavy work, such as lifting pit-props and cutting them into various lengths for the coal mines" [5]. There were no mechanical devices used then and every pit-prop was cut by hand. "...the Italian POWs worked to measure the trees. They were very well looked after and we were amazed to see them erecting field ovens. They cooked bacon and cabbage for their lunch and brewed delicious hot coffee ... and we sat under a tree eating beetroot sandwiches ... We were fortunate - they gave us some of their coffee and food" [5].


With the onset of war, everything changed. If fathers joined the armed forces, or were sent away to do vital civilian work, mothers often ran the home alone - and had to get used to going out to work, as well. Young single women, often away from home for the first time, might be billeted miles from their families.


Flexible working hours, nurseries and other arrangements soon became commonplace to accommodate the needs of working women with children. Before long, women made up one third of the total workforce in the metal and chemical industries, as well as in ship-building and vehicle manufacture.


They worked on the railways, canals and on buses. Women built Waterloo Bridge in London. Nellie Brook left the munitions factory where she worked due to poor health, and was assigned to aircraft manufacture. "I was told my services were needed at A V Roe at Yeardon, where they made Lancaster bombers. That was like something out of science fiction. To get there, we were taken out into the country. When you arrived you would never have thought there was a factory there, it was so well camouflaged; great big grass hillocks and once you went inside it was amazing. No windows, all these hundreds of people of both sexes all working away like ants. All doing different jobs that finished up producing one of Britain's finest planes" [6].


Rationing

Food, clothing, petrol, leather and other such items were rationed. Access to luxuries was severely restricted, though there was also a significant black market. Families also grew victory gardens, and small home vegetable gardens, to supply themselves with food. Many things were conserved to turn into weapons later, such as fat for nitroglycerin production. // Preface At the beginning of World War II Britain imported 55 million tons of foodstuffs per year, including more than 50% of its meat, 70% of its cheese and sugar, nearly 80% of fruits and about 90% of cereals and fats. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into underground economy. ... WWII-era poster promoting victory gardens. ... Nitroglycerin (NG), also known as nitroglycerine, trinitroglycerin, and glyceryl trinitrate, is a chemical compound. ...


Evacuation

From very early in the war it was thought that the major cities of Britain, especially London, would come under air attack, which did happen. Some children were sent to Canada. Millions of children and some mothers were evacuated from London and other major cities when the war began, but they often filtered back. When the bombing began in September 1940 they evacuated again. The discovery of the poor health and hygiene of evacuees was a shock to Britons, and helped prepare the way for the Beveridge Plan. [7] Children were only evacuated if their parents agreed but in some cases they didn't have a choice. The children were only allowed to take a few things with them including a gas mask, books, money, clothes, ration book and some small toys. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


Soviet Union

Image:Boy in factory.jpg
Boy making ammunition

After rapid German advances in the early months of the war reaching the city of Moscow, the bulk of Soviet industry and agriculture was either destroyed or in German hands. But in one of the greatest logistics feats of the war, thousands of factories were moved beyond the Ural Mountains along with well over a million workers. In general the tools, dies and machines were moved, along with the blueprints and skilled engineers. Soviet redirects here. ... Map of the Ural Mountains The Ural Mountains (Russian: , Uralskiye gory) (also known as the Urals, the Riphean Mountains in Greco-Roman antiquity, and known as the Stone Belt) are a mountain range that runs roughly north and south through western Russia. ...


The whole of the Soviet Union become dedicated to the war effort. Conditions were severe. In Leningrad, under German siege, over a million died of starvation and disease. Many factory workers were teenagers, women and old people. Despite harsh conditions, the war led to a spike in Soviet nationalism and unity. Soviet propaganda toned down socialist rhetoric of the past as the people now rallied by a belief of protecting their motherland against "evil" German invaders. Ethnic minorities thought to be collaborators were moved into exile. Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution. ... An Australian anti-conscription propaganda poster from World War One U.S. propaganda poster, which warns against civilians sharing information on troop movements (National Archives) The much-imitated 1914 Lord Kitchener Wants You! poster Swedish Anti-Euro propaganda for the referendum of 2003. ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... Rhetoric (from Greek , rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of oral language and written language; however, this definition of rhetoric has been contested since rhetoric emerged as a field of study in Universities. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...


Religion, which was previously shunned, became an acceptable part of society.[citation needed]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Home front during World War II in Soviet Union

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ...

United States

See United States home front during World War II.

The United States home front during World War II covers all the developments inside the United States, 1940-1945. ...

China

China suffered the second highest amount of casualties of the entire war. Civilians in the occupied territories had to endure many large-scale slaughters. In a few areas Japanese forces also unleashed newly developed biological weapons on Chinese civilians leading to an estimated 200,000 dead [8]. Tens of thousands are thought be have died when Nationalist troops broke the levees of the Yangtze to stop the Japanese advance after the loss of the capital, Nanking. Millions more Chinese died because of famine during the war. Length 6,380 km Elevation of the source  ? m Average discharge 31,900 m³/s Area watershed 1,800,000 km² Origin Qinghai Province and Tibet Mouth East China Sea Basin countries China The Chang Jiang (Simplified Chinese: 长江; Traditional Chinese: 長江; pinyin: Cháng Jiāng... Nanjing (南京, Pinyin: Nánjīng, Wade-Giles: Nan-ching; Postal System Pinyin: Nanking, formerly Jinling 金陵, Jiangning 江宁, and Tianjing 天京) is the central city of downstream Yangtze Basin and is a renowned historical and cultural city. ...


Millions of Chinese moved to the Western regions of China to avoid Japanese invasion. Cities like Kunming ballooned with new arrivals. Entire factories and universities were often taken along for the journey. Japan captured major coastal cities like Shanghai early in the war; cutting the rest of China off from its chief source of finance and industry. Lake Dianchi An old wooden house and a modern skyscraper in the background. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


The city of Chongqing became the most frequently bombed city in history. [9] Chongqing (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Postal map spelling: Chungching, also Chungking) is the largest and most populous of the Peoples Republic of Chinas four provincial-level municipalities, and the only one in the less densely populated western half of China. ...


Though China received aid from the United States, China did not have sufficient infrastructure to properly arm or even feed its military forces. Much of the aid was also funneled away through corruption.


Communist forces led by Mao were generally more successful at getting support than Nationalists. Based mainly in Northern China, they worked with local villages to counter the over stretched Imperial Army with guerrilla tactics. Mao could refer to: Mao Zedong, (Mao Tse-Tung in Wade-Giles) leader of the Communist Party of China from 1935 to 1976. ... The Imperial Japanese Army (: 大日本帝國陸軍 Shinjitai: 大日本帝国陸軍 Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun) was the official ground based armed force of Japan from 1867 to 1945 when it was Imperial Japan. ... Guerilla may refer to Guerrilla warfare. ...


In occupied territories under Japanese control, civilians were treated harshly.


Axis

Germany

Germany had not fully mobilized in 1939, nor even in 1941. Not until 1943 under Albert Speer did Germany finally redirect its entire economy and manpower to war production. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Economy

Although Germany had about twice the population of Britain (80 million versus 40 million), it had to use far more labour to provide food and energy. Britain imported food and employed only a million people (5% of labour force) on farms, while Germany used 11 million (27%). For Germany to build its twelve synthetic oil plants with a capacity of 3.3 million tons a year required 2.4 million tons of structural steel and 7.5 million man-days of labour; Britain brought in all its oil from Iraq, Persia and North America. To overcome this problem Germany employed millions of forced laborers and POWs; by 1944 they had brought in more than five million civilian workers and nearly two million prisoners of war—a total of 7.13 million foreign workers. The workers were unwilling and inefficient, and many died in air raids. [10]


Rationing

For the first part of the war, there were surprisingly few restrictions on civilian activities. Most goods were freely available in the early years of the war. Rationing in Germany was introduced in 1939, slightly later than it was in Britain, because Hitler was at first convinced that it would affect public support of the war if a strict rationing program was introduced. The Nazi popularity was in fact partially due to the fact that Germany under the Nazis was relatively prosperous, and Hitler did not want to lose popularity or faith. Hitler felt that food and other shortages had been a major factor in destroying civilian morale during World War I which led to the overthrow of the Kaiser and other German monarchies at the end of the war. However, when the war began to go against the Germans in Russia and the Allied bombing effort began to affect domestic production, this changed and a very severe rationing program had to be introduced. The system gave extra rations for men involved in heavy industry, and lower rations for Jews and Poles in the areas occupied by Germany, but not to the Rhineland Poles. Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945, standard German pronunciation in the IPA) was the Führer (leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... This article is becoming very long. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The German Monarchy existed formally from 1871 to 1918. ... The Rhineland (Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany. ...


The points system

According to a 1997 post by Walter Felscher to the Memories of the 1940's [sic] electronic mailing list: Electronic mailing lists are a special usage of e-mail that allows for widespread distribution of information to many Internet users. ...


For every person, there were rationing cards for general foodstuffs, meats, fats (such as butter, margarine and oil) and tobacco products distributed every other month. The cards were printed on strong paper, containing numerous small "Marken" subdivisions printed with their value – for example, from "5 g Butter" to "100 g Butter". Every acquisition of rationed goods required an appropriate "Marken", and if a person wished to eat a certain soup at a restaurant, the waiter would take out a pair of scissors and cut off the required items to make the soup and amounts listed on the menu. In the evenings, shop-owners would spend an hour at least gluing the collected "Marken" onto large sheets of paper which they then had to hand in to the appropriate authorities. also created a cut in the amount of rationed bread, meat and fat.[11]


Rare foods

The amounts attributed under rationing were sufficient to live from, but clearly did not permit luxuries. Whipped cream became unknown from 1939 until 1948, as well as chocolates, cakes with rich crèmes etc., and meat, of course, could not be eaten every day. Other items were not rationed, but simply became unavailable as they had to be imported from overseas: coffee in particular which throughout was replaced by substitutes made from roasted grains. Vegetables and local fruit were not rationed; imported citrus fruits and bananas were unavailable. In more rural areas, farmers continued to bring their products to the markets, as large cities depended on long distance delivery. Because coffee was scarce, people created a substitute for it made from roasted ground down barley seeds and acorns. Many people kept rabbits for their meat when meat became scarce in shops, and it was often a child’s job to care for them each day.


Labor

Women were idealized by Nazi ideology and work was not felt to be appropriate for them. Children were expected to go to houses collecting materials for the production of war equipment. The German industry used forced labour, called Arbeitseinsatz from the countries they occupied. Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for those work relations, especially in modern or early modern history, in which people are employed against their will by the threat of destitution, detention, violence (including death), or other extreme hardship to themselves, or to members of their families. ... Arbeitseinsatz was German forced labor during World War II in occupied countries Categories: | | ...


Japan

Japanese Rice Supply
Year 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945
Domestic production 9,928 9,862 10,324 9,107 8,245 9,999 9,422 8,784 6,445
Imports 2,173 2,546 1,634 1,860 2,517 2,581 1,183 874 268
All rice 12,101 12,408 11,958 10,967 10,762 12,580 10,605 9,658 6,713

Source: Cohen, Japan's Economy in War and Reconstruction (1949) p 368-9


See also

1939 September September 1, 1939 In response to the German invasion of Poland and the prospect of war with Germany, plans for the evacuation of children from London and other areas deemed vulnerable to German air attack are put into action. ... Rosie the Riveter: We Can Do It! - Many women first found economic strength in World War II-era manufacturing jobs. ... Womens Land Army was an organisation created in World War II in the UK to work in agriculture, it was directed by Lady Gertrude Denman. ... Rosie the Riveter: We Can Do It! - Many women first found economic strength in World War II-era manufacturing jobs. ... Utility furniture refers to furniture produced in the United Kingdom during and just after during World War II, under a Government scheme which was designed to cope with shortages of raw materials and rationing of consumption. ...

References

  • Davies, Norman Rising '44: The Battle for Warsaw, 2004, Vikiing, ISBN-10 0670032840
  • Gutman, Israel Resistance: The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, 1994, Houghton Mifflin, ISBN-13 978-0395601990
  • Hancock, W. K. and Gowing, M.M. British War Economy (1949) official history
  • Postan, Michael. British War Production, 1952. official history
  • Titmuss, Richard M. Problems of Social Policy(1950) official history

Further reading

General
  • WWII Homefront - Collection of color photographs of the homefront during World War II
  • Beck, Earl R. The European Home Fronts, 1939-1945 Harlan Davidson, 1993, brief
  • Costello, John. Love, Sex, and War: Changing Values, 1939-1945 1985. US title: Virtue under Fire: How World War II Changed Our Social and Sexual Attitudes
  • I.C.B. Dear and M.R.D. Foot, eds. The Oxford Companion to World War II (1995), detailed articles on every country
  • Harrison, Mark. "Resource Mobilization for World War II: The U.S.A., UK, USSR and Germany, 1938-1945". Economic History Review (1988): 171-92.
  • Higonnet, Margaret R., et al., eds. Behind the Lines: Gender and the Two World Wars Yale UP, 1987.
  • Loyd, E. Lee, ed.; World War II in Europe, Africa, and the Americas, with General Sources: A Handbook of Literature and Research Greenwood Press. 1997. 525pp bibliographic guide
  • Loyd, E. Lee, ed.; World War II in Asia and the Pacific and the War's aftermath, with General Themes: A Handbook of Literature and Research Greenwood Press, 1998
  • Marwick, Arthur. War and Social Change in the Twentieth Century: A Comparative Study of Britain, France, Germany, Russia, and the United States 1974.
  • Milward, Alan. War, Economy and Society 1977 covers homefront of major participants
  • Noakes, Jeremy ed., The Civilian in War: The Home Front in Europe, Japan and the U.S.A. in World War II Exeter, UK: University of Exeter, 1992.
  • Wright, Gordon. The Ordeal of Total War 1968., covers all of Europe
  • 10 Eventful Years: 1937-1946 4 vol. Encyclopedia Britannica, 1947. Highly detailed encyclopedia of events in every country.
Australia and New Zealand
  • S.J. Butlin and C.B. Schedvin, War Economy 1942–1945, Australian War Memorial, Canberra, 1997
  • Darian-Smith, Kate. On the Home Front: Melbourne in Wartime, 1939-1945. Australia: Oxford UP, 1990.
  • Saunders, Kay. War on the Homefront: State Intervention in Queensland, 1938-1948 (1993)
  • The Home Front Volume I by Nancy M. Taylor NZ official history (1986)
  • The Home Front Volume II by Nancy M. Taylor NZ official history (1986)
  • Political and External Affairs by Frederick Lloyd Whitfeld (1958) NZ official history
Britain
  • Brivati, Brian, and Harriet Jones, ed. What Difference Did the War Make? The Impact of the Second World War on British Institutions and Culture. Leicester UP; 1993.
  • Calder, Angus . The People's War: Britain 1939-45 (1969)
  • Corelli, Barnett. The Audit of War: The Illusion and Reality of Britain as a Great Nation. 1986.
  • Hancock, W. K. and Gowing, M.M. British War Economy (1949) official history
  • Hancock, W. K. Statistical Digest of the War, (1951) official history
  • Marwick, Arthur. The Home Front: The British and the Second World War. 1976.
  • Postan, Michael. British War Production, 1952. official history
  • Rose, Sonya O. Which People's War?: National Identity and Citizenship in Wartime Britain 1939-1945 (2003)
  • Titmuss, Richard M. Problems of Social Policy(1950) official history
Canada
  • Granatstein, J. L. Canada's War: The Politics of the Mackenzie King Government. Oxford UP, 1975.
  • Granatstein, J. L., and Desmond Morton. A Nation Forged in Fire: Canadians and the Second World War, 1939-1945 1989.
  • Keshen, Jeffrey A. Saints, Sinners, and Soldiers: Canada's Second World War (2004)
  • Pierson, Ruth Roach. They're Still Women After All: The Second World War and Canadian Womanhood. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1986.
China
  • Eastman Lloyd. Seeds of Destruction: Nationalist China in War and Revolution, 1937- 1945. Stanford University Press, 1984
  • John Fairbank and Albert Feuerwerker, eds., Republican China 1912-1949 in The Cambridge History of China, vol. 13, part 2. Cambridge University Press, 1986.
  • James C. Hsiung and Steven I. Levine, eds. China's Bitter Victory: The War with Japan, 1937–1945 M. E. Sharpe, 1992
  • Ch'i Hsi-sheng, Nationalist China at War: Military Defeats and Political Collapse, 1937–1945 University of Michigan Press, 1982
France
  • Gildea, Robert. Marianne in Chains: Daily Life in the Heart of France During the German Occupation (2004)
  • Jackson, Julian. France: The Dark Years, 1940-1944 (2003)
  • Paxton, Robert O. Vichy France 2nd ed. (2001)
Germany
  • Michael Burleigh, The Third Reich: A New History (2000)
  • Hagemann, Karen and Stefanie Schüler-Springorum; Home/Front: The Military, War, and Gender in Twentieth-Century Germany Berg, 2002
  • Kalder N. "The German War Economy". Review of Economic Studies 13 (1946): 33-52.
  • Victor Klemperer. I Will Bear Witness 1942-1945: A Diary of the Nazi Years (2001), memoir by partly-Jewish professor
  • Milward, Alan. The German Economy at War 1965.
  • Overy, Richard. War and Economy in the Third Reich Oxford UP, 1994.
  • Speer, Albert. Inside the Third Reich: Memoirs 1970.
Italy
  • Absalom, R, "Italy", in J. Noakes (ed.), The Civilian in War: The Home Front in Europe, Japan and the U.S.A. in World War II. Exeter: Exęter University Press. 1992.
  • Tracy Koon, Believe, Obey, Fight: Political Socialization in Fascist Italy 1922-1943 (U North Carolina Press, 1985),
  • Morgan, D. Italian Fascism, 1919-1945 (1995)
  • Wilhelm, Maria de Blasio. The Other Italy: Italian Resistance in World War II. W. W. Norton, 1988. 272 pp.
Japan
  • Cohen, Jerome. Japan's Economy in War and Reconstruction. University of Minnesota Press, 1949. online version
  • Cook, Haruko Taya, and Theodore Cook. Japan at War: An Oral History 1992.
  • Dower, John. Japan in War and Peace 1993.
  • Duus Peter, Ramon H. Myers, and Mark R. Peattie. The Japanese Wartime Empire, 1931-1945. Princeton UP 1996. 375p.
  • Havens, Thomas R. Valley of Darkness: The Japanese People and World War II. 1978.
  • Havens, Thomas R. "Women and War in Japan, 1937-1945." American Historical Review 80 (1975): 913-934. online in JSTOR
Philippines
  • Agoncillo Teodoro A. The Fateful Years: Japan's Adventure in the Philippines, 1941-1945. Quezon City, PI: R.P. Garcia Publishing Co., 1965. 2 vols
  • Hartendorp A. V.H. The Japanese Occupation of the Philippines. Manila: Bookmark, 1967. 2 vols.
  • Lear, Elmer. The Japanese Occupation of the Philippines: Leyte, 1941-1945. Southeast Asia Program, Department of Far Eastern Studies, Cornell University, 1961. 246p. emphasis on social history
  • Steinberg, David J. Philippine Collaboration in World War II. University of Michigan Press, 1967. 235p.
Poland and Ukraine
  • Berkhoff, Karel C. Harvest of Despair: Life and Death in Ukraine Under Nazi Rule. Harvard U. Press, 2004. 448 pp.
  • Dallin, Alexander. Odessa, 1941-1944: A Case Study of Soviet Territory under Foreign Rule. Portland: Int. Specialized Book Service, 1998. 296 pp.
  • Davies, Norman. Rising '44: The Battle for Warsaw (2004)
  • Gross, Jan T. Polish Society under German Occupation: The Generalgouvernement, 1939-1944. Princeton UP, 1979.
  • Gross, Jan T. Revolution from Abroad: The Soviet Conquest of Poland's Western Ukraine and Western Belorussia (1988).
  • Gutman, Israel. Resistance: The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (1998)
  • Redlich, Shimon. Together and Apart in Brzezany: Poles, Jews, and Ukrainians, 1919-1945. Indiana U. Press, 2002. 202 pp.
  • Vallin, Jacques; Meslé, France; Adamets, Serguei; and Pyrozhkov, Serhii. "A New Estimate of Ukrainian Population Losses During the Crises of the 1930s and 1940s." Population Studies (2002) 56(3): 249-264. Issn: 0032-4728 Fulltext in Jstor. Reports life expectancy at birth fell to a level as low as ten years for females and seven for males in 1933 and plateaued around 25 for females and 15 for males in the period 1941-44.
Russia
  • Barber, Bo, and Mark Harrison. The Soviet Home Front: A Social and Economic History of the USSR in World War II, Longman, 1991.
  • Braithwaite, Rodric. Moscow 1941: A City and Its People at War (2006)
  • Thurston, Robert W., and Bernd Bonwetsch (Eds). The People's War: Responses to World War II in the Soviet Union (2000)
Scandinavia
  • Andenaes, Johs, et al. Norway and the Second World War (ISBN 82-518-1777-3) Oslo: Johan Grundt Tanum Forlag, 1966.
  • Nissen, Henrik S. Scandinavia During the Second World War (1983) (ISBN 0-8166-1110-6)
  • Salmon; Patrick (Ed.) Britain and Norway in the Second World War London: HMSO, 1995.

Footnotes

  1. ^ Gutman (1998)
  2. ^ Davies (2004)
  3. ^ Postan ch 4
  4. ^ Postan, 148
  5. ^ a b c Harris, Carol. Women Under Fire in World War Two: Changing roles BBC
  6. ^ Women Under Fire in World War Two: A woman's place BBC
  7. ^ Titmuss (1950)
  8. ^ Staff. Biological Weapons Program website of GlobalSecurity.org cites Peter Williams and David Wallace, Unit 731: Japan’s Secret Biological Warfare in World War II (New York: Free Press, 1989). and a number of UTLa most of which are no longer active
  9. ^ Chóngqìng. Blog site. This needs to be clarified - in terms of air raids this is true (5,000) - but not in terms of tonnage - probably < 10,000 tons.
  10. ^ Hancock and Gowing p. 102
  11. ^ Walter Felscher (1997-01-27). Recycling and rationing in wartime Germany.. Memories of the 1940's mailing list archive. Retrieved on 2006-09-28.

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