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Encyclopedia > Holy Spirit
Holy Spirit - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Holy Spirit

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The Holy Spirit depicted as a dove above the Holy Family, painting by Juan Simon Gutierrez

In Christianity, the Holy Spirit, is the spirit or essence of God. In Trinitarian Christian belief, the Holy Spirit is third person of the Trinity—Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. Pneumatology is the theology of the Holy Spirit. The Flight into Egypt: Jesus, the Virgin Mary and St. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... For other uses, see Spirit (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Christian Trinity. ... Pneumatology is the study of spiritual beings and phenomena, especially the interactions between humans and God. ...


Referred to for centuries as the Holy Ghost (from Old English gast, “spirit”). In the New Testament, imagery like dove,[Mt 3:16] [Mk 1:10] [Lk 3:22] [Jn 1:32] wind,[Jn 3:18] comforter[Jn 14:16] [14:26] [15:26] and power[Lk 1:35] is used in various places to describe the Holy Spirit.


Numerous outpourings of the Spirit are mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles, in which healing, prophecy, the expelling of demons (exorcism), and speaking in tongues (glossolalia) are particularly associated with the activity of the Spirit. For the literature genre, see Acts of the Apostles (genre). ... Released on September 27, 2005 by 845Ent. ...


This article describes the beliefs shared within mainstream Christianity and also those espoused by non-trinitarian Christians. Discussion is included regarding groups whose major theological premises share little in common with mainstream Christianity, as well as non-Christian religious groups.

Contents

Mainstream Christian doctrine

Within mainstream Christianity the Holy Spirit is one of the three persons of the Trinity. As such he is personal and also fully God, co-equal and co-eternal with God the Father and Son of God.[1][2][3] He is different from the Father and the Son in that he proceeds from the Father (or from the Father and the Son) as described in the Nicene Creed.[2] His sacredness is reflected in the New Testament gospels[Mk 3:28-30] [Mt 12:30-32] [Lk 12:8-10] which proclaim blasphemy against the Holy Spirit as the unforgivable sin. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A sermon is an oration by... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Ecumenism (also oecumenism, Å“cumenism) refers to initiatives aimed at greater religious unity or cooperation. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Christian movements are theological, political, or philosophical intepretations of Christianity that are not generally represented by a specific church, sect, or denomination. ... Christian music (sometimes marketed as Inspirational music, Praise music, Worship music, or Contemporary Christian Music/CCM) is music that is written to express either personal or a communal belief regarding Christian life, as well as (in terms of the varying music styles) to give a Christian alternative to mainstream secular... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      A liturgy is a... For Dom Guérangers series of books, see The Liturgical Year. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christian... Throughout the history of Christianity, a wide range of Christians and non-Christians alike have offered criticisms of Christianity, the Church, and Christians themselves. ... Pneumatology is the study of spiritual beings and phenomena, especially the interactions between humans and God. ... Look up Paraclete in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the Christian Trinity. ... In many religions, the supreme God is given the title and attributions of Father. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Son of... In Christian theology the filioque clause (and the Son) is a disputed part of the Nicene Creed. ... Icon depicting the Holy Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea holding the Nicene Creed. ... SACRED SACRED was a Cubesat built by the Student Satellite Program of the University of Arizona. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... For the black metal band, see Blasphemy (band). ... The eternal sin (often called the unforgivable sin) is a concept of sin in Christian theology, wherby salvation becomes impossible. ...

"Holy Spirit" or "Holy Ghost"

The meaning of Holy Spirit and Holy Ghost are identical. Holy Ghost was the common name for the Holy Spirit in English prior to the 20th century. It is the name used in the Book of Common Prayer, the Catholic Douay Rheims Bible and the King James Version (KJV), and is still widely used by English speakers whose religious vocabulary is largely derived from the KJV. The term is still retained in the traditional-language rites of the Anglican Church. The original meaning of the English word ghost closely paralleled the words spirit or soul; only later did the former word come to acquire the specific sense of "disembodied spirit of the dead" and the associated pejorative connotations.[4] For the novel, see A Book of Common Prayer. ... The Douai Bible, also known as the Rheims-Douai Bible or Douay-Rheims Bible, was a Roman Catholic translation of the Holy Bible from the Latin Vulgate into English. ... The King James or Authorized Version of the Bible is an English translation of the Christian Bible first published in 1611. ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... For other uses, see Ghost (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Soul (disambiguation). ...


In 1901 the American Standard Version of the Bible translated the name as Holy Spirit, as had the English Revised Version of 1881-1885 upon which it was based. Almost all modern English translations have followed suit. The Standard American Edition, Revised Version, more commonly known as the American Standard Version (ASV), is a version of the Bible that was released in 1901. ... The Revised Version (or English Revised Version) of the Bible is a late 19th-century British revision of the King James Version of 1611. ...


"Pneuma" is the Greek word for spirit and is found 385 times in the New Testament. It is used in the general sense of spirit as well as the Holy Spirit, and can also mean wind or breath.

Divine function

The Holy Spirit is believed to perform specific divine functions in the life of the Christian or the church. These include:

  • Conviction of sin. The Holy Spirit acts to convince the unredeemed person both of the sinfulness of their actions, and of their moral standing as sinners before God.[5]
  • Bringing to conversion. The action of the Holy Spirit is seen as an essential part of the bringing of the person to the Christian faith.[6] The new believer is "born again of the Spirit".[7]
  • Enabling the Christian life. The Holy Spirit is believed to dwell in the individual believers and enable them to live a righteous and faithful life.[6]
  • As a comforter or Paraclete, one who intercedes, or supports or acts as an advocate, particularly in times of trial.
  • Inspiration and interpretation of scripture. The Holy Spirit both inspires the writing of the scriptures and interprets them to the Christian and/or church.[8]

Holy Spirit and Jesus Christ

The Holy Spirit is also believed to be active especially in the life of Jesus Christ, enabling him to fulfill his work on earth. Particular actions of the Holy Spirit include: For other uses, see Sin (disambiguation). ... Look up Paraclete in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...

  • Cause of his birth. According to the gospel accounts of the birth of Jesus, he was not conceived by a human father, but by the Holy Spirit; and he was born of the Virgin Mary. The "beginning of His incarnate existence" was due to the Holy Spirit. The Apostles' Creed says Jesus was "conceived by the Holy Spirit, born of the Virgin Mary."[9][10]
  • Anointing him at his baptism.[6]
  • Empowerment of his ministry. The ministry of Jesus following his baptism (in which the Holy Spirit is described in the gospels as "descending on Him like a dove") is conducted in the power and at the direction of the Holy Spirit.[6]

Fruit of the Spirit

Christians believe the "Fruit of the Spirit" consists of virtuous characteristics engendered in the Christian by the action of the Holy Spirit. They are those listed in Galatians 5:22-23: "But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness, and self-control."[11] The Roman Catholic Church adds to this list generosity, modesty, and chastity.[12] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The... The fruit of the Spirit can be found in the New Testament. ... The fruit of the Spirit can be found in the New Testament. ... AgapÄ“ (IPA: or IPA: ) (Gk. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Gari Melchers, Mural of Peace, 1896. ... Patience, engraving by Hans Sebald Beham, 1540 Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: patience Patience is the ability to endure waiting, delay, or provocation without becoming annoyed or upset, or to persevere calmly when faced with difficulties. ... Look up kindness in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Summum bonum (greatest or supreme good) was first introduced to humanity as Ahura-Mazda, `The Ultimate Good` who is God, by the Persian prophet Zoroaster, whose ideas would later heavily influence Judeo-Christian beliefs. ... (UTC):This page is about loyalty as faithfulness to a cause. ... Gentleness is a value and quality in ones character. ... For other uses, see Self control (disambiguation). ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Look up generosity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Allegory of chastity by Hans Memling. ...

Gifts of the Spirit

Christians believe that the Holy Spirit gives 'gifts' to Christians. These gifts consist of specific abilities granted to the individual Christian.[6] They are frequently known by the Greek word for gift, Charisma, from which the term charismatic derives. The New Testament provides three different lists of such gifts which range from the supernatural (healing, prophecy, tongues) through those associated with specific callings (teaching) to those expected of all Christians in some degree (faith). Most consider these lists not to be exhaustive, and other have compiled their own lists. Saint Ambrose wrote of the Seven Gifts of the Holy Spirit poured out on a believer at baptism: 1. Spirit of Wisdom; 2. Spirit of Understanding; 3. Spirit of Counsel; 4. Spirit of Strength; 5. Spirit of Knowledge; 6. Spirit of Godliness; 7. Spirit of Holy Fear.[13] Gifts of the Holy Spirit redirects here. ... Charismatic is an umbrella term used to describe those Christians who believe that the manifestations of the Holy Spirit seen in the first century Christian Church, such as healing, miracles and glossolalia, are available to contemporary Christians and ought to be experienced and practiced today. ... Tongues redirects here. ... For other uses, see Ambrose (disambiguation). ... Fear of the Lord is one of the Seven gifts of the Holy Spirit, as described in Isaiah 11:2-3. ...


It is over the nature and occurrence of these gifts, particularly the supernatural gifts (sometimes called charismatic gifts), that the greatest disagreement between Christians with regard to the Holy Spirit exists.


One view is that the supernatural gifts were a special dispensation for the apostolic ages, bestowed because of the unique conditions of the church at that time, and are extremely rarely bestowed in the present time.[14] This is the view of the Catholic Church[3] and many other mainstream Christian groups. The alternate view, espoused mainly by Pentecostal denominations and the charismatic movement, is that the absence of the supernatural gifts was due to the neglect of the Holy Spirit and his work by the church. Although some small groups, such as the Montanists, practiced the supernatural gifts they were rare until the growth of the Pentecostal movement in the late nineteenth century.[14] Montanism was an early Christian sectarian movement of the mid-2nd century A.D., named after its founder Montanus. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Pentecostal...


Believers in the relevance of the supernatural gifts sometimes speak of a Baptism of the Holy Spirit or Filling of the Holy Spirit which the Christian needs to experience in order to receive those gifts. Many churches hold that the Baptism of the Holy Spirit is identical with conversion, and that all Christians are by definition baptized in the Holy Spirit.[14]

Symbols of the Holy Spirit

Depiction of the Holy Spirit dove (ceiling fresco in St. Charles's Church, Vienna, 1700's)

The Holy Spirit is frequently referred to by metaphor and symbol, both doctrinally and biblically. Theologically speaking these symbols are a key to understanding of the Holy Spirit and his actions, and are not mere artistic representations.[3][15]

  • Water - signifies the Holy Spirit's action in Baptism, such that in the manner that "by one Spirit [believers] were all baptized", so they are "made to drink of one Spirit".[1Cor 12:13] Thus the Spirit is also personally the living water welling up from Christ crucified[Jn 19:34] [1 Jn 5:8] as its source and welling up in Christians to eternal life.[15][16]
  • Anointing - The symbolism of anointing with oil also signifies the Holy Spirit, to the point of becoming a synonym for the Holy Spirit. The coming of the Spirit is referred to as his "anointing".[2Cor 1:21] In some denominations anointing is practiced in Confirmation; ("chrismation" in the Eastern Churches). Its full force can be grasped only in relation to the primary anointing accomplished by the Holy Spirit, that of Jesus. Christ (in Hebrew, messiah) means the one "anointed" by God's Spirit.[15][16]
  • Fire - symbolizes the transforming energy of the Holy Spirit's actions. In the form of tongues "as of fire", the Holy Spirit rested on the disciples on the morning of Pentecost.[15][16]
  • Cloud and light - The Spirit comes upon the Virgin Mary and "overshadows" her, so that she might conceive and give birth to Jesus. On the mountain of transfiguration, the Spirit in the "cloud came and overshadowed" Jesus, Moses and Elijah, Peter, James and John, and "a voice came out of the cloud, saying, 'This is my Son, my Chosen; listen to him!'"[16][Lk 9:34-35]
  • The dove. When Christ comes up from the water of his baptism, the Holy Spirit, in the form of a dove, comes down upon him and remains with him.[15][16][Mt 3:16]
  • Wind The Spirit is likened to the "wind that blows where it will,"[Jn 3:8] and described as "a sound from heaven like the rush of a mighty wind."[Acts 2:24] [15]

Variations in mainstream Christian doctrine

Catholicism

According to Roman Catholic theology the primary work of the Holy Spirit is through the church. According to the Catechism: "The mission of Christ and the Holy Spirit is brought to completion in the Church, which is the Body of Christ and the Temple of the Holy Spirit. [...] Through the Church's sacraments, Christ communicates his Holy and sanctifying Spirit to the members of his Body." Eastern Christianity refers collectively to the Christian traditions and churches which developed in Greece, Russia, Armenia, the Balkans, Eastern Europe, Asia Minor, the Middle East, northeastern Africa and southern India over several centuries of religious antiquity. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... The Catechism of the Catholic Church, or CCC, is an official exposition of the teachings of the Catholic Church, first published in French in 1992 by the authority of Pope John Paul II.[1] Subsequently, in 1997, a Latin text was issued which is now the official text of reference...


Around the sixth century, the word Filioque was added to the Nicene Creed, defining as a doctrinal teaching that the Holy Spirit "proceeds from the Father and the Son." While the Eastern Catholic churches are required to believe the doctrinal teaching contained in the Filioque, they are not all required to insert it in the Creed when it is recited during services. In Christian theology the filioque clause (and the Son) is a disputed part of the Nicene Creed. ... Icon depicting the Holy Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea holding the Nicene Creed. ... The term Eastern Rites may refer to the liturgical rites used by many ancient Christian Churches of Eastern Europe and the Middle East that, while being part of the Roman Catholic Church, are distinct from the Latin Rite or Western Church. ...

Eastern Orthodoxy

Eastern Orthodoxy proclaims that the Father is the eternal source of the Godhead, from whom the Son is begotten eternally, and also from whom the Holy Spirit proceeds eternally. Unlike the Roman Catholic Church and Western Christianity in general, the Orthodox Church does not espouse the use of the Filioque ("and the Son") in describing the procession of the Holy Spirit. Filioque was mentioned for the first time at the Third Council of Toledo in 589 and it was added by the Roman Catholic Church to the Credo in the 11th century. The Holy Spirit is believed to eternally proceed from the Father, as Christ says in John 15:26, and not from the Father and the Son, as the Roman Catholic and Protestant churches claim. Orthodox doctrine regarding the Holy Trinity is summarized in the Symbol of Faith (Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed). Oriental Orthodox usage coincides with Eastern Orthodox usage and teachings on the matter. The Assyrian Church of the East also retains the original formula of the Creed without the Filioque. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Western Christianity... In Christian theology the filioque clause or filioque controversy (filioque meaning and [from] the son in Latin) is a heavily disputed addition to the Nicene Creed, that forms a divisive difference in particular between the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox traditions. ... In Christian theology the filioque clause (and the Son) is a disputed part of the Nicene Creed. ... marks the entry of Catholic Christianity into the rule of Visigothic Spain. ... Events October 17 - The Adige River overflows its banks, flooding the church of St. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... The credo (Latin for I believe; pronounced ) is a statement of religious belief, such as the Nicene Creed (or, less often, another creed, such as the Apostles Creed). ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... Icon of Christ in a Greek Orthodox church This page is about the title, office or what is known in Christian theology as the Divine Person. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The Nicene Creed, or the Icon/Symbol of the Faith, is a Christian statement of faith accepted by the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Anglican, and major Protestant churches. ... The term Oriental Orthodoxy refers to the churches of Eastern Christian traditions that keeps the faith of only the first three ecumenical councils of the undivided Church - the councils of Nicea, Constantinople and Ephesus. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Assyrian Church of the East...

Protestantism

The majority of mainstream Protestantism hold similar views on the theology of the Holy Spirit as the Roman Catholic Church, as described above. There are significant differences in belief between Pentecostalism and the rest of Protestantism.[1][17] Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Pentecostal...

Other Christian views

Restoration Movement and Churches of Christ

During the late 19th century, the prevailing view in the Restoration Movement was that the Holy Spirit currently acts only through the influence of inspired scripture.[18] This rationalist view was associated with Alexander Campbell, who was "greatly affected by what he viewed as the excesses of the emotional camp meetings and revivals of his day."[18] He believed that the Spirit draws people towards salvation, but understood the Spirit to do this "in the same way any person moves another—by persuasion with words and ideas." This view came to prevail over that of Barton W. Stone, who believed the Spirit had a more direct role in the life of the Christian.[18] Since the early 20th century, many among the Churches of Christ have moved away from this "word-only" theory of the operation of the Holy Spirit.[19] As one student of the movement puts it, "[f]or better or worse, those who champion the so-called word-only theory no longer have a hold on the minds of the constituency of Churches of Christ. Though relatively few have adopted outright charismatic and third wave views and remained in the body, apparently the spiritual waves have begun to erode that rational rock."[18] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      This article is about the Stone... Barton W. Stone (December 24, 1772 - November 9, 1844) was a religious reformer of the early 19th century associated with the Restoration Movement. ... The Churches of Christ discussed in this article are not part of the United Church of Christ; the International Churches of Christ; the Disciples of Christ; the Church of Christ, Scientist (Christian Science); The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints or any other denomination within the Latter Day...

Pentecostalism

The Holy Spirit descending at Pentecost by Anthony van Dyck, circa 1618.

While the Holy Spirit is acknowledged as God in all mainstream denominations, he is given particular emphasis in Pentecostal churches. In those churches he is seen as the giver of natural and supernatural gifts, such as tongues and prophecy, to modern-day Christians. The Descent of the Holy Spirit in a 15th century illuminated manuscript. ... Self Portrait With a Sunflower Sir Anthony (Anton) van Dyck (22 March 1599 – 9 December 1641) was a Flemish artist who became the leading court painter in England. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Pentecostal... The Pentecostal movement within Protestant Christianity places special emphasis on the gifts of the Holy Spirit. ... The gifts of the Holy Spirit are found in the New Testament. ... Tongues redirects here. ... For other uses, see Prophecy (disambiguation). ...


The Christian movement called Pentecostalism derives its name from the event of Pentecost, the coming of the Holy Spirit when Jesus' disciples were gathered in Jerusalem.[Acts 2] Pentecostals believe that when a believer is "baptized in the Holy Spirit", the gifts of the Spirit (also called the charismata) are activated in the recipient to edify the body of Christ, the church. Some of these gifts are listed in 1 Corinthians 12. The Descent of the Holy Spirit in a 15th century illuminated manuscript. ... For Christians, Jerusalems place in the life of Jesus gives it great importance, in addition to its place in the Old Testament, the Hebrew Bible, as described above. ...


The Pentecostal movement places special emphasis on the work of the Holy Spirit, and especially on the gifts mentioned above, believing that they are still given today. Much of Pentecostalism differentiates the "baptism with the Holy Spirit" from the salvific born again experience, considering it a usually distinct experience in which the Spirit's power is received by the Christian in a new way, with the belief that the Christian can be more readily used to perform signs, miracles, and wonders for the sake of evangelism or for ministry within the church (the body of Christ) and the community. There are also some Pentecostals who believe that Spirit baptism is a necessary element in salvation, not a "second blessing". These Pentecostals believe that in the baptism in the Holy Spirit, the power of the Spirit is released in their lives. According to the New Testament, the Baptism in the Holy Spirit is an experience sent by Jesus Christ. ... In Christianity, the term born again or regenerated is synonymous with spiritual rebirth—salvation. ... The gift of miracles is, in Christian theology, among the charismata or gifts mentioned by St. ...


Many Pentecostals believe that the normative initial evidence of this infilling (baptism) of the Holy Spirit is the ability to speak in other tongues (glossolalia), and that tongues are one of several spiritual manifestations of the presence of the Holy Spirit in an individual believer's life. Tongues redirects here. ...

Non-Trinitarian views

Non-trinitarian views about the Holy Spirit differ significantly from orthodox Christian doctrine and generally fall into one of two categories. Some groups believe that the Holy Spirit is a separate being from God the Father and God the Son, and is 'one' with them in some other sense than of being one substance; Latter Day Saint beliefs fall within this category. Others believe that the Holy Spirit refers to some aspect or action of God (i.e., Modalism); Jehovah's Witness, Christadelphian, Unity Church, and Oneness Pentecostalism beliefs fall within this category. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Nontrinitarianism refers to Christian... The Latter Day Saint movement (a subset of Restorationism) is a group of religious denominations and adherents who follow at least some of the teachings and revelations of Joseph Smith, Jr. ... In Christianity, Sabellianism (also known as modalism, modalistic monarchianism, or modal monarchism) is the nontrinitarian belief that the Heavenly Father, Resurrected Son and Holy Spirit are different modes or aspects of one God (for us only), rather than three distinct persons (in Himself). ... Jehovahs Witnesses (JW) are members of a worldwide Christian denomination. ... The Christadelphians are a nontrinitarian Christian Britain and North America in the 19th century. ... Unity also known officially as Unity School of Christianity and informally as Unity Church, is a school of thought founded upon holistic Christian principles. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Oneness...

Latter Day Saints

In the Latter-day Saint movement, the Holy Ghost (usually synonymous with Holy Spirit.)[20] is considered the third distinct member of the Godhead (Father, Son and Holy Ghost). The Holy Ghost is considered to be a son of God the Father,[21] and to have a body of "spirit,"[22] which makes him unlike the Father and the Son who are said to have bodies "as tangible as man's."[23] The Latter Day Saint movement (also called the Mormonism movement or the Mormon movement) is a religious movement beginning in the early 19th century that led to the set of doctrines, practices, and cultures called Mormonism and to the existence of numerous churches whose members call themselves Latter Day Saints. ... Mormonism, depending on era and denomination within the Latter Day Saint movement, has accomodated a diverse range of views of the the concept of the Christian Godhead including forms of modalism, binitarianism, tritheism, henotheism, and trinitarianism. ... In many religions, the supreme God is given the title and attributions of Father. ...

Oneness Pentecostalism

Oneness Pentecostalism, as with other modalist groups, teach that the Holy Spirit is a mode of God, rather than a distinct or separate person, and that there is no personal distinction between God the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Oneness... In Christianity, Sabellianism (also known as modalism, modalistic monarchianism, or modal monarchism) is the nontrinitarian belief that the Heavenly Father, Resurrected Son and Holy Spirit are different modes or aspects of one God (for us only), rather than three distinct persons (in Himself). ...

Jehovah's Witnesses

Jehovah's Witnesses believe that the Holy Spirit is God's active force, and is not an actual person, but is more like God's divine "breath" or "energy", that he uses to accomplish his will and purpose, in creation, redemption, sanctification, and divine guidance, and they do not typically capitalize the term.[24] A Jehovah's Witness brochure quotes Alvan Lamson: "...the Father, Son, and... Holy Spirit [are] not as co-equal, not as one numerical essence, not as Three in One... The very reverse is the fact."[25]

Christadelphians

Christadelphians believe that the phrase Holy Spirit refers to God's power or mind/character, depending on the context. Christadelphians (From the Greek Brothers in Christ) are a religious group that developed in the United Kingdom and North America in the 19th century. ...

Unity Church

The Unity Church interprets the religious terms Father, Son, and Holy Spirit metaphysically, as three aspects of mind action: mind, idea, and expression. They believe this is the process through which all manifestation takes place.[26] Unity also known officially as Unity School of Christianity and informally as Unity Church, is a school of thought founded upon holistic Christian principles. ...

Non-Christian views

Bahá'í Faith

The Bahá'í Faith has the concept of the Most Great Spirit, seen as the bounty of God.[27] It is usually used to describe the descent of the Spirit of God upon the messengers/prophets of God, which are known as Manifestations of God, and include among others Jesus, Muhammad and Bahá'u'lláh.[28] In Bahá'í belief the Holy Spirit is the conduit through which the wisdom of God becomes directly associated with his messenger, and it has been described variously in different religions such as the burning bush to Moses, the sacred fire to Zoroaster, the dove to Jesus, the angel Gabriel to Muhammad, and the maid of heaven to Bahá'u'lláh.[29] The Bahá'í view rejects the idea that the Holy Spirit is a partner to God in the Godhead, but rather is a pure reflection of God's attributes.[30] This article is about the generally recognized global religious community. ... The Baháí Faith refers to what are commonly called Prophets as Manifestations of God, or simply Manifestations (mazhar) who are directly linked with the concept of Progressive revelation. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Shrine of Baháulláh Baháulláh (ba-haa-ol-laa Arabic: Glory of God) (November 12, 1817 – May 29, 1892), born Mírzá usayn-`Alí Nuri (Persian: ), was the founder of the Baháí Faith. ... Burning bush at St. ... See also Atar, Mauritania. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... The Holy Spirit (in Hebrew:רוח הקודש , in Arabic: الروح القدس), sometimes also referred to as the Holy Ghost, is a sacred being that has been mentioned in all Abrahamic religions. ...

Islam

In Islam, the Created Spirit that acts as an agent of divine action or communication commonly identified with the angel Gabriel (ar: Jibreel) or Ruhul Qudus (Ruach HaKodesh in Hebrew) is called holy spirit, but also alternatively with the created spirit from God by which he enlivened Adam, and inspired the angels and the prophets. The belief in Trinity is explicitly forbidden by the Qur'an and called a grave sin. The same applies to any idea of the duality of God (Allah).[31][32] The Holy Spirit (in Hebrew:רוח הקודש , in Arabic: الروح القدس), sometimes also referred to as the Holy Ghost, is a sacred being that has been mentioned in all Abrahamic religions. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This article is about the Christian Trinity. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... According to the beliefs of Catholicism, a mortal sin is a sin that, unless confessed and absolved (or at least sacramental confession is willed if not available), condemns a persons soul to Hell after death. ...

Judaism

In Judaism, the idea of God as a duality or trinity is heretical.[citation needed] Nonetheless, the term Ruach HaKodesh (Holy Spirit) is found frequently in Talmudic and Midrashic literature. In some cases it signifies prophetic inspiration, while in others it is used as a hypostatization or a metonym for God.[33] The Rabbinic “Holy Spirit,” has a certain degree of personification, but it remains, “a quality belonging to God, one of his attributes” and not, as in Christianity, representative of “any metaphysical divisions in the Godhead.”[34] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Look up duality in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the Christian Trinity. ... The Talmud (Hebrew: ) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs, and history. ... Midrash (Hebrew: מדרש; plural midrashim) is a Hebrew word referring to a method of exegesis of a Biblical text. ...


See also shekhinah. Shekhinah (- alternative transliterations Shekinah, Shechinah, Shekina, Shechina, Schechinah, שכינה) is the English spelling of a feminine Hebrew language word that means the dwelling or settling, and is used to denote the dwelling or settling presence of God, especially in the Temple in Jerusalem. ...

Rastafarianism

As a movement that developed out of Christianity, Rastafari has its own unique interpretation of both the Holy Trinity and the Holy Spirit. Although there are several slight variations, they generally state that it is Haile Selassie who embodies both God the Father and God the Son, while the Holy (or rather, "Hola") Spirit is to be found within Rasta believers (see 'I and I'), and within every human being. Rastas also say that the true church is the human body, and that it is this church (or "structure") that contains the Holy Spirit. Haile Selassie I The Rastafari movement (also known as Rastafari, or simply Rasta) is a new religious movement[1] that accepts Haile Selassie I, the former Emperor of Ethiopia, as God incarnate, called Jah[2] or Jah Rastafari. ... This article is about the Christian Trinity. ... Haile Selassie Haile Selassie (Power of Trinity) (July 23, 1892 – August 27, 1975) was the last Emperor (1930–1936; 1941–1974) of Ethiopia, and is a religious symbol in the Rastafarian movement. ... The Rastafari movement vocabulary is part of an intentionally created dialect of English. ...

Depiction in art

See also: God the Father in Western art

The Holy Spirit is often depicted as a dove, based on the account of the Holy Spirit descending on Jesus like a dove when he was baptized in the Jordan. In many paintings of the Annunciation, the Holy Spirit is shown in the form of a dove, coming down towards Mary on beams of light, as the Archangel Gabriel announces Christ's coming to Mary. This article is about the religious artifacts. ... Subfamilies see article text Feral Rock Pigeon beside Weiming Lake, Peking University Dove redirects here. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... For other uses, see Annunciation (disambiguation). ... 12th century icon of the Archangels Michael and Gabriel (Saint Catherines Monastery, Mount Sinai). ... Icon of Christ in a Greek Orthodox church This page is about the title, office or what is known in Christian theology as the Divine Person. ... Saint Mary and Saint Mary the Virgin both redirect here. ...

The Descent of the Holy Spirit in a 15th century illuminated manuscript. Musée Condé, Chantilly.
Stained glass in the Cathedral of St. Mary and St. John (Episcopal), Quezon City, Philippines
Scene by Filippo Lippi, 1459
Both Hands of God (relatively unusual) and the Holy Spirit as a dove in Baptism of Christ, by Verrocchio, 1472.

A dove may also be seen at the ear of Saint Gregory the Great─as recorded by his secretary or other church father authors, dictating their works to them. For other uses, see Annunciation (disambiguation). ... Rubens may be: Look up Rubenesqe in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The baptism of Jesus is an event recounted in the New Testament in which Jesus is baptised by John the Baptist. ... Self-portrait, 1497–1500. ... The front entrance and courtyard at the Château de Chantilly The Château de Chantilly is a historic château located in the town of Chantilly, France. ... Chantilly is a commune in the metropolitan area of Paris, France. ... Madonna and Child 1440-45, tempera on panel National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC. Fra Filippo Lippi (1406 October 8? – 1469), also called Lippo Lippi, is a well-known Florentine painter of the Italian 15th century school. ... Vandals and Slavic solar symbol The Hands of God (RÄ™ce Boga), allegedly an old pre-Christian God symbol. ... The Baptism of Christ is a painting finished around 1475 by the Italian Renaissance painter Andrea del Verrocchio and his workshop. ... Pope Saint Gregory I or Gregory the Great (c. ...


The dove also parallels the one that brought the olive branch to Noah after the deluge (also a symbol of peace), and rabbinic traditions that doves above the water signify the presence of God. This article is about the biblical Noah. ... Presence of God is a term used in Catholic theology and devotion In theology, it refers to the belief that God is present by His Essence everywhere and in all things by reason of His Immensity. ...


The book of Acts describes the Holy Spirit descending on the apostles at Pentecost in the form of a wind and tongues of fire resting over the apostles' heads. Based on the imagery in that account, the Holy Spirit is sometimes symbolized by a flame of fire. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      For...

Gender of the Holy Spirit

In Judaism

In Hebrew language texts, in the Old Testament of the Hebrew Bible the divine presence of God, the Holy Spirit, the Shekhinah is feminine. Hebrew redirects here. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... Shekhinah (- alternative transliterations Shekinah, Shechinah, Shekina, Shechina, Schechinah, שכינה) is the English spelling of a feminine Hebrew language word that means the dwelling or settling, and is used to denote the dwelling or settling presence of God, especially in the Temple in Jerusalem. ... Look up feminine in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

In Islam

The term holy spirit translates in Arabic language الروح القدس and is used in the masculine form in all the Quran. Arabic redirects here. ...


in Arabic language the word "Holy Spirit" doesn't translate as سكينة Sakinah used in a feminine term. The term sakinah means state of relaxation. Arabic redirects here. ...

In Christianity

Jesus declared, “God is spirit, and those who worship Him must worship in spirit and in truth.”[Jn 4:24] There is no article in the Greek text before the word spirit, and that emphasizes the quality or essence of the word. Furthermore, the word spirit occurs first in the sentence for emphasis. The literal idea would be something like, “Absolutely spirit in His essence is God.”


A chapter in Discovering Biblical Equality entitled "God, Gender and Biblical Metaphor" maintains that viewing God in masculine terms are merely ways in which we speak of God in figurative language, but a language which does not reflect who he really is. The author reiterates that God is spirit and that the Bible presents God through personification and anthropomorphism which reflects only a likeness to God.[35]

God is not a sexual being, either male or female─something that was considered to be true in ancient Near Eastern religion. He even speaks specifically against such a view in Num 23:19, where the text has God saying he is not a man [ish], and in Deut 4:15-16, in which he warns against creating a graven image of himself in "the likeness of male and female." But though he is not a male, the "formless" deity (Deut 4:15) has chosen to reveal himself largely in masculine ways.[35]

When in art a human material form is used to represent the Holy Spirit, that form is usually that of the male human body, without meaning to attribute such physical features to the reality represented. For example, in the rare cases of depiction of the Trinity as three identical persons, the Holy Spirit is represented as male, in line with the depictions of the Father and the Son. This article is about the Christian Trinity. ... In many religions, the supreme God is given the title and attributions of Father. ... This 11th-century portrait is one of many images of Jesus in which a halo with a cross is used. ...


There are some Christian groups who teach that the Holy Spirit is feminine, or has feminine aspects. Most are based on the genders of the verbs in the original Bible languages where the Holy Spirit is the subject. In Hebrew the word for spirit (ruach) is feminine.[36] In Greek the word (pneuma) is neuter,[36] and in Aramaic, the language which is generally considered to have been spoken by Jesus, the word is feminine. This is not thought by most linguists to have significance for the sex of the person given that name. There are biblical cases where the pronoun used for the Holy Spirit is masculine, in contradiction of the gender of the word for spirit.[Jn 16:13] [36] Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ...


The Syriac language, which was in common use around 300AD, is derived from Aramaic. In documents produced in Syriac by the early Miaphysite church (which later became the Syrian Orthodox Church) the feminine gender of the word for spirit gave rise to a theology in which the Holy Spirit was considered feminine.[37] Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... Monophysitism (from the Greek monos meaning one and physis meaning nature) is the christological position that Christ has only one nature, as opposed to the Chalcedonian position which holds that Christ has two natures, one divine and one human. ... The Syriac Orthodox Church is an autocephalous Oriental Orthodox church based in the Middle East with members spread throughout the world. ...


In 1977 a leader of the Branch Davidian church, Lois Roden, began to formally teach that the feminine Holy Spirit is the heavenly pattern of women, citing scholars and researchers from Jewish, Christian, and other sources.[citation needed] The Branch Davidians are a religious sect which originated from a schism in 1955 from the Davidian Seventh Day Adventists, themselves former members of the Seventh-day Adventist Church who were disfellowshipped during the 1930s. ... Lois Roden Lois Irene Scott Roden, was a president of the Branch Davidian Seventh-day Adventist Church, an apocalyptic Christian sect, her husband, Benjamin Roden, began in 1955 as a succession to the Davidian Seventh Day Adventist reform movement that began in 1930 under the leadership of Victor T. Houteff...


There are some other independent Messianic Judaism groups with similar teachings,[38] and some scholars associated with more "mainstream" denominations, while not necessarily indicative of the denominations themselves, have written works explaining a feminine understanding of the third member of the Godhead.[39][40][41] The Baruch Hashem Messianic Synagogue in Dallas, Texas Theology and Practice Messiah · Yeshua · Dance · Seal Religious Texts Messianic Bible translations Movement leaders & Orgs. ...


The Unity Church's co-founder Charles Fillmore considered the Holy Spirit a distinctly feminine aspect of God considering it to be "the love of Jehovah" and "love is always feminine".[42] Unity also known officially as Unity School of Christianity and informally as Unity Church, is a school of thought founded upon holistic Christian principles. ... Charles Fillmore (August 22, 1854 – July 5, 1948), born in St. ...

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Millard J. Erickson (1992). Introducing Christian Doctrine.. Baker Book House. p. 103. 
  2. ^ a b T C Hammond; Revised and edited by David F Wright (1968). In Understanding be Men:A Handbook of Christian Doctrine. (sixth ed.). Inter-Varsity Press. pp. 54–56 and 128–131. 
  3. ^ a b c "Catholic Encyclopedia:Holy Spirit". http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07409a.htm. 
  4. ^ "Norfolk schools told Holy Ghost 'too spooky'". The Guardian (London). 2005-04-11. http://education.guardian.co.uk/faithschools/story/0,13882,1457028,00.html. Retrieved 2010-05-04. 
  5. ^ The Holy Spirit and His Gifts. J. Oswald Sanders. Inter-Varsity Press. chapter 5.
  6. ^ a b c d e Millard J. Erickson (1992). Introducing Christian Doctrine.. Baker Book House. pp. 265–270. 
  7. ^ Though the term "born again" is most frequently used by evangelical Christians, most denominations do consider that the new Christian is a "new creation" and "born again". See for example the Catholic Encyclopedia [1]
  8. ^ T C Hammond; Revised and edited by David F Wright (1968). In Understanding be Men:A Handbook of Christian Doctrine. (sixth ed.). Inter-Varsity Press. p. 134. 
  9. ^ Millard J. Erickson (1992). Introducing Christian Doctrine.. Baker Book House. pp. 267–268. 
  10. ^ Karl Barth (1949). Dogmatics in Outline. New York Philosophical Library. p. 95. 
  11. ^ {{cite book. Added 15th May 2010 - Galatians 5:22-23 actually is talking about the Human Spirit and not the Holy Spirit as misunderstood. Reading in context from the 1st verse shows you its talking about the Human spirit. In greek, Spirit is translated the same way, be it human or The Spirit of God, which is the misunderstood in this chapter. Also, the Holy Spirit does not bear fruits, so the fruits mentioned above are actually the fruits of the recreated human spirit (recreated - born again christian, filled with the Holy Spirit) | Edited = Pascal Patricks (Christ Embassy Church, Dublin) | author = Stephen F. Winward | year = 1981 | title = Fruit of the Spirit | publisher = Inter-Varsity Press }}
  12. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, Section 1832.
  13. ^ De Sacramentis 3.8.
  14. ^ a b c Millard J. Erickson (1992). Introducing Christian Doctrine.. Baker Book House. pp. 265–275. 
  15. ^ a b c d e f David Watson (1973). One in the Spirit. Hodder and Stoughton. pp. 20–25. 
  16. ^ a b c d e Catechism of the Catholic Church.
  17. ^ David Watson (1973). One in the Spirit. Hodder and Stoughton. pp. 39–64. 
  18. ^ a b c d Douglas A. Foster, "Waves of the Spirit Against a Rational Rock: The Impact of the Pentecosat, Charismatic and Third Wave Movements on American Churches of Christ," Restoration Quarterly, 45:1, 2003)
  19. ^ See for example, Harvey Floyd, Is the Holy Spirit for me?: A search for the meaning of the Spirit in today's church, 20th Century Christian, 1981, ISBN 978-0-89098-446-8, 128 pages
  20. ^ Wilson, Jerry A. (1992). "Holy Spirit". in Ludlow, Daniel H.. Encyclopedia of Mormonism. New York: Mcmillan. p. 651. ISBN 0-02-904040-X. http://contentdm.lib.byu.edu/u?/EoM,3768.  "The Holy Spirit is a term often used to refer to the Holy Ghost. In such cases the Holy Spirit is a personage."
  21. ^ McConkie, Joseph Fielding (1992). "Holy Ghost". in Ludlow, Daniel H.. Encyclopedia of Mormonism. New York: Mcmillan. p. 649. ISBN 0-02-904040-X. http://contentdm.lib.byu.edu/u?/EoM,3766.  "[T]he Holy Ghost is a spirit man, a spirit son of God the Father."
  22. ^ D&C 131:7-8 ("There is no such thing as immaterial matter. All spirit is matter, but it is more fine or pure, and can only be discerned by purer eyes; We cannot see it; but when our bodies are purified we shall see that it is all matter.")
  23. ^ D&C 130:22.
  24. ^ "Is the Holy Spirit a Person?". Awake!: 14–15. July 2006. http://www.watchtower.org/e/200607a/article_01.htm. "In the Bible, God’s Holy Spirit is identified as God’s power in action. Hence, an accurate translation of the Bible’s Hebrew text refers to God’s spirit as “God’s active force.”". 
  25. ^ "Is It Clearly a Bible Teaching?", Should You Believe in the Trinity?, ©1989 Watch Tower, p. 7, Reproduced here.
  26. ^ http://www.unitypaloalto.org/beliefs/twenty_questions.html
  27. ^ `Abdu'l-Bahá (1981) [1904-06]. "The Holy Spirit". Some Answered Questions. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. pp. 108–109. ISBN 0877431906. http://reference.bahai.org/en/t/ab/SAQ/saq-25.html. 
  28. ^ Taherzadeh, Adib (1976). The Revelation of Bahá'u'lláh, Volume 1: Baghdad 1853-63. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. p. 10. ISBN 0853982708. http://www.peyman.info/cl/Baha%27i/Others/ROB/V1/p007-011Ch01.html?back=%3C. 
  29. ^ Abdo, Lil (1994). "Female Representations of the Holy Spirit in Bahá'í and Christian writings and their implications for gender roles". Bahá'í Studies Review 4 (1). http://bahai-library.com/abdo_female_holy-spirit. 
  30. ^ `Abdu'l-Bahá (1981) [1904-06]. "The Trinity". Some Answered Questions. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. pp. 113–115. ISBN 0877431906. http://reference.bahai.org/en/t/ab/SAQ/saq-27.html. 
  31. ^ Griffith, Sidney H. Holy Spirit, Encyclopaedia of the Quran.
  32. ^ Patrick Hughes, Thomas Patrick Hughes, A Dictionary of Islam, p. 605.
  33. ^ Alan Unterman and Rivka Horowitz,Ruah ha-Kodesh, Encyclopedia Judaica (CD-ROM Edition, Jerusalem: Judaica Multimedia/Keter, 1997).
  34. ^ Joseph Abelson,The Immanence of God in Rabbinical Literature (London:Macmillan and Co., 1912).
  35. ^ a b House, H. Wayne (reviewer). "God, Gender and Biblical Metaphor." J of Biblical Manhood and Womanhood, 10:1 (Spring 2005) p. 64
  36. ^ a b c "Catholic Exchange". http://catholicexchange.com/2006/06/24/83561/. Retrieved 2009-05-13. 
  37. ^ http://www.theology.edu/journal/volume3/spirit.htm
  38. ^ Joy In the World[2]; The Torah and Testimony Revealed [3].
  39. ^ “Martin Luther, the originator of the Protestant movement, was not ashamed to think of the Holy Spirit in feminine terms.
  40. ^ Church Fathers Believed the Holy Spirit was Feminine.
  41. ^ For example, R.P. Nettlehorst, professor at the Quartz Hill School of Theology (associated with the Southern Baptist Convention) has written on the subject. [4][5][6].
  42. ^ Charles Fillmore. Jesus Christ Heals. pp. 182–183. 

External links

This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... According to the Canonical Gospels, the Ministry of Jesus began when Jesus was around 30 years old, and lasted a period of 1-3 years. ... According to the canonical Gospels, Jesus worked many miracles in the course of his ministry, which may be categorized into cures, exorcisms, dominion over nature, three instances of raising the dead, and various others. ... The parables of Jesus, found in the synoptic gospels, embody much of Jesus teaching. ... The chronology of Jesus depicts the traditional chronology established for the events of the life of Jesus by the four canonical gospels (which allude to various dates for several events). ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... For other uses, see Gospel (disambiguation). ... In the New Testament of the Christian Bible, gospels Matthew, Mark, and Luke are so similar that they are called the synoptic gospels (from Greek, συν, syn, together, and οψις, opsis, seeing). ... The word epistle is from the Greek word epistolos which means a written letter addressed to a recipient or recipients, perhaps part of exchanged correspondence. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... General epistles are books in the New Testament in the form of letters. ... The Apostolic Age is, to some church historians, the period in early church history during which some of Christs original apostles were still alive and helping to influence church doctrine, polity, and the like. ...

Namespaces
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PENTECOST (125 words)
"Through the Holy Spirit we are restored to paradise, led back to the Kingdom of heaven, and adopted as children, given confidence to call God "Father" and to share in Christ's grace, called children of light and given a share in eternal glory."
Benedicta of the Cross - Holy Spirit Novena
Pope Leo XIII's Divinum Illud (On the Holy Spirit)
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