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Encyclopedia > Hitler's rise to power
Nazism
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Hitler's rise to power was marked at first by a period of the NSDAP as a fringe party before the events of the Beer hall putsch and the release of Mein Kampf introduced Hitler to a wider audience. These years were charachterized by the electoral battles Hitler participated in, and the street battles between the Rotfrontkämpferbund and the SA that raged across Germany. National Socialism redirects here. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Nazi swastika symbol The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei), better known as the NSDAP or the Nazi Party was a political party that was led to power in Germany by Adolf Hitler in 1933. ... The seal of SA SA propaganda poster. ... This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedias quality standards. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... The Night of the Long Knives (German: Nacht der langen Messer) or Operation Hummingbird, took place in Germany between June 30 and July 2, 1934, when at least eighty-five people, mostly in the Storm Division (SA) (German: Sturmabteilung), were murdered by the Nazi regime. ... The Nazi partys 1936 Nuremberg Rally was its largest. ... Kristallnacht, also known as Reichskristallnacht, Pogromnacht, Crystal Night and the Night of Broken Glass, was a pogrom[1] against Jews throughout Germany and parts of Austria on November 9–November 10, 1938. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... For the 1947 Soviet film about the trials, see Nuremberg Trials (film). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ... Nazis claimed to scientifically measure a strict hierarchy among races; at the top was the Aryan race (minus the Slavs, who were seen as below Aryan), then lesser races. ... The German word Gleichschaltung â’½ â’¾ (literally synchronising, synchronization) is used in a political sense to describe the process by which the Nazi regime successively established a system of totalitarian control over the individual, and tight coordination over all aspects of society and commerce. ... Historians and biographers note some difficulty in attributing the political beliefs of Adolf Hitler. ... The National Socialist Program, also referred to as the 25-point program, was developed to formulate the party policies of, first, the Austrian German Workers Party (or DAP) and was copied later by Adolf Hitlers Nazi party. ... Nazi occultism denotes an occult undercurrent of Nazism. ... Poster depicting America as a monstrous war machine destroying European culture. ... Germany pavilion at the Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne in Paris, 1937. ... Mein Kampf (English translation: My Struggle) is a book by the German-Austrian politician and dictator Adolf Hitler which combines elements of autobiography with an exposition of Hitlers Nazi political ideology. ... The völkisch movement is the German interpretation of the Populist movement, with a romantic focus on folklore and the organic. ... Nazis claimed to scientifically measure a strict hierarchy among races; at the top was the Aryan race (minus the Slavs, who were seen as below Aryan), then lesser races. ... The racial policy of Nazi Germany refers to the policies and laws implemented by Nazi Germany, asserting the superiority of the so-called Aryan race and based on a specific racist doctrine which claimed scientific legitimacy. ... Nazi eugenics pertains to Nazi Germanys nazism and race social policies that placed the improvement of the race through eugenics at the centre of their concerns and targeted those humans they identified as Life Unworthy of Life, including but not limited to: criminal, degenerate, dissident, feeble-minded, homosexual, idle... Karl Brandt at the Doctors Trial The Doctors Trial (officially United States of America v. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... For the 1947 Soviet film about the trials, see Nuremberg Trials (film). ... The Parti national social chrétien was a Canadian political party formed by Adrien Arcand in February 1934. ... The German-American Bund was an American Nazi organization established in the 1930s. ... Symbol of the Hirden, the stormtroopers or paramilitary organization of the Nasjonal Samling. ... The Nationaal-Socialistische Beweging (NSB, National Socialist Movement) was a Nazi political party in the Netherlands during the 1930s and during the German occupation in World War II, when it was the only allowed political party. ... National Socialist Bloc (in Swedish: Nationalsocialistiska Blocket), a Swedish national socialist political party formed in the end of 1933 by the merger of Nationalsocialistiska Samlingspartiet, Nationalsocialistiska Förbundet and local nazi units connected to the advocate Sven Hallström in UmeÃ¥. Later Svensk Nationalsocialistisk Samling merged into NSB. The leader... The National Socialist League was a short lived political movement in the United Kingdom immediately before the Second World War. ... The Ossewabrandwag (Oxwagon Sentinel)(OB) was a nationalist Afrikaner organization in South Africa, founded in Bloemfontein on February 4, 1939. ... Flag of the Arrow Cross Party Senior members of the Arrow Cross Party. ... This is a list of words, terms, concepts, and slogans that were specifically used in Nazi Germany. ... The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ... Nazi Party (NSDAP) leaders and officials Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Gunter dAlquen Ludolf von Alvensleben Max Amann Benno von Arent Heinz Auerswald Hans... Adolf Hitlers Mein Kampf. ... List of Adolf Hitler speeches is an attempt to aggregate all of Adolf Hitlers speeches. ... Between 1925 and 1945, the German SS grew from a mere eight members to over a quarter of a million Waffen-SS and well over a million Allgemeine-SS members. ... This is a list of Second world war era Nazis that are still alive and presumed/considered war criminals. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Nazi swastika The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei), better known as the NSDAP or the Nazi Party was a political party that was led to power in Germany by Adolf Hitler in 1933. ... The Beer Hall Putsch was a failed coup détat that occurred between the evening of Thursday, November 8 and the early afternoon of Friday, November 9, 1923, when the Nazi partys Führer Adolf Hitler, the popular World War I General Erich Ludendorff, and other leaders of the... Mein Kampf (English translation: My Struggle) is a book by the German-Austrian politician and dictator Adolf Hitler which combines elements of autobiography with an exposition of Hitlers Nazi political ideology. ... Rotfrontkämpferbund (RFB, other variants: Rote Frontkämpferbund, Roter Frontkämpferbund) (English: Red Front Fighters League, Red Front Fighters Association) was a paramilitary organization of the Communist Party of Germany, created on July 18, 1924 in Germany of the Weimar Republic period. ... SA may stand for: // Students Association, an association of students, also written as S.A. for e. ...


Once in power the Nazis mythologized the events as the Kampfzeit (the time of fighting) and similarly the Kampfjahre (years of struggle).

Contents

Early years (1919 - 1926)

In September 1919 the army assigned Adolf Hitler, in his new position as investigative officer, to a meeting of the D.A.P. During the meeting Hitler took umbrage with a speaker arguing that Bavaria should be wholly independent from Germany, and two days later on September 14 Hitler joined the party as member 555 (he was actually only the 55th member, the D.A.P. added a digit to make itself look more popular than it was). By early 1920 the D.A.P. had 190 members (this was listed as 1,900 by the party).


Hitler began to transform the party, renaming it's militia from the Rollkomando to the Zeitfreiwilligen (at the end of the year it was renamed the Ordentruppen) and on February 20 the party added Nationalsozialistische to form the initials NSDAP. Four days later Dr Gottfried Feder and Hitler announced the 25-point program of the party. Throughout the year Hitler began to lecuture at Munich's beer halls, particularly the Hofbrauhaus, Sterneckerbrau and Burgerbraukeller. By this time the police were already monitoring the speeches, and their own surviving records reveal Hitler delivered lectures with titles such as Political Phemenenon, Jews and the Treaty of Versailles. At the end of the year party membership was recorded at 2,000. The Nazi swastika The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei), better known as the NSDAP or the Nazi Party was a political party that was led to power in Germany by Adolf Hitler in 1933. ... The Hofbräuhaus (actual German spelling) is located 5 minutes from the center of Munich, Germany. ... This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ...


On July 11, 1921, Hitler resigned from the party after Anton Drexler, the party's leader, proposed dissolving the party into a larger Kampfbund coalition. Hitler rejoined once the policy was abandoned as a result of his withdrawal and on July 28 assumed control of the party. One of Hitler's first act was to rename the Sports Section into the Storm Section (Sturmabteilung). Just months after this change the first clash with the Rotfrontkämpferbund, the KPD paramilitary, clashed at the Hofbrauhaus with beer steins, ashtrays and chairs. Hitler himself was violent during this time, and after being arrested for been part of a group who assaulted Otto Ballestedt was sentenced to 3 months imprisonment. In the few months between the end of 1922 and the beginning of 1923 Hitler formed two organisations that would grow to have huge significance, the first was the Jungsturm and Jugendbund, which would later become the Hitler Youth and the Stabswache, the first incarnation of what would later become the Schutzstaffeln. The Kampfbund was a league of patriotic fighting societies and the German National Socialist party in Bavaria, Germany in the 1920s. ... The seal of SA SA propaganda poster. ... The Communist Party of Germany (in German, Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands – KPD) was formed in December of 1918 from the Spartacist League, which originated as a small factional grouping within the Social Democratic Party (SPD) opposed to the First World War on the grounds that it was an imperialist war... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses of the abbreviation SS, see SS (disambiguation) The Schutzstaffel (Protective Squadron), or SS, was a large paramilitary organization that belonged to the Nazi party. ...


Inspired by Mussolini's March on Rome Hitler decided that a coup d'etat had to be instigated to seize control of the country. In May, elements loyal to Hitler within the army helped the SA to procure a barracks and its weaponry but the order to march never came. When the beer hall putsch was attempted it was something of a disaster and saw Hitler sentenced to five years imprisonment, time which he used to dictate the first volume of Mein Kampf. After the putsch the party was banned the party contested 1924's two elections by proxy as the National Socialist Freedom Movement. In the German election, May 1924 the party gained 32. In Bavaria the NSDAP took 15.9% and in Thuringen 10.5% of the vote. The lowest vote tally was in Schaumburg-Lippe with just 2.48% of the total vote. Overall 6.55% (1,918,329) voted for Movement. In the German election, December 1924 gained only held on to 14 seats. The highest total of votes in areas where the Movement stood independently is again Bavaria (5.11%). Overall 3% (907,242) of the electorate vote for Hitler's party. For the movie by Dino Risi, see March on Rome (film) The March on Rome was a pseudo-coup détat by which Mussolinis National Fascist Party came to power in Italy. ... The Beer Hall Putsch was a failed coup détat that occurred between the evening of Thursday, November 8 and the early afternoon of Friday, November 9, 1923, when the Nazi partys Führer Adolf Hitler, the popular World War I General Erich Ludendorff, and other leaders of the... Mein Kampf (English translation: My Struggle) is a book by the German-Austrian politician and dictator Adolf Hitler which combines elements of autobiography with an exposition of Hitlers Nazi political ideology. ... The NSFM was a German political party created in April of 1924 in the aftermath of the Munich Putsch. ... The 3rd German parliamentary federal elections in the Weimar Republic took place in May 1924. ... The 4th German federal parliament elections of December 1924 (Weimar Republic). ...


Hitler was released from Landsberg Prison on December 20, 1924 and less than three months later on February 16, 1925 – prompted by Hitler’s promise to aim at attaining power only through legal means – the ban on the Nazi party was lifted. For six years there would be no further prohibitions of the party (see Rise to power: 1925-1933). Entrance of the Landsberg Prison Landsberg Prison is a penal facility located in the town of Landsberg am Lech in the southwest of the German state of Bavaria, about 30 miles (45 km) west of Munich. ...


Move towards power (1927 - 1930)

In the German election, May 1928 The party achieved just 12 seats (2.8%) of the vote in the Reichstag elections. The highest provincial gain is again in Bavaria (5.11%) though in three areas the NSDAP fail to gain even 1% of the vote. Overall the NSDAP gain 2.63% (810,127) of the vote. Largely due to the poor results Hitler decides that Germany needs to know of his aims more. To this end he writes a second book (his publisher apparently advised him not to release it) that is discovered and released posthumously as Zweites Buch. At this time the SA began a period of deliberate antagonism to the Rotfront by marching into Communist strongholds in the hope of sparking a violent altercation, which it often did. The Zweites Buch (Second Book) is a transcript of Adolf Hitlers unfiltered thoughts on a number of topics that was never edited. ...


At the end of 1928 party membership was recorded at 130,000. In March 1929 Erich Ludendorff represented the Nazi party in the Presidential elections. He gained 280,000 votes (1.1%), and was the only candidate to poll less than a million votes. Outside of electoral methods the battle on the streets grew increasingly violent, after the Rotfront interrupted a speech by Hitler the SA marched into the streets of Nuremberg and killed two bystanders. In a tit-for-tat action the SA stormed a Rotfront meeting on August 25 and days later the Berlin HQ of the KPD itself. In September Goebbels led his men into Neukolln, a KPD stronghold, and the two warring parties exchanged pistol and revovler fire. Goebbels is a surname common in Rhineland derived from Göbbl, a nickname for the names Godebald and Godebert. ... The location of Neukölln in Berlin. ...


On January 14, 1930 Horst Wessel got into an argument with his landlady – the Nazis said it was about rent, but the Communists alleged it was over Wessel’s soliciting of prostitution on her premises – which would have fatal consequences. The landlady happened to be a member of the KPD, and contacted one of her Rotfront friends, Albert Hochter, who shot Wessel in the head at point-blank range. Wessel had penned a song months before his death (it would go on to become Germany’s national anthem for 12 years as the Horst-Wessel-Lied) and Goebbels seized upon the slaying, helped by the fact Wessel actually took two weeks to die from his horrific injuries. Goebbels premiered the song and orchestrated a thousand-man airing. The funeral, a propaganda coup, was marred from a Nazi perspective only by the Rotfront stealing Wessel’s wreath and daubing ‘pimp’ onto it. 1930 resulted in more deaths than the previous two years combined. On April 1 Hannover enacted a law banning the HitlerJugend (the Hitler Youth), and Goebbels was convicted of high treason at the end of May. Bavaria banned all political uniforms on June 2 and on June 11 Prussia prohibited the wearing of SA brown shirts and associated insignia. The next month Prussia passed a law against its officials holding membership of either the NSDAP or KPD. Later in July Goebbels was again tried, this time for ‘public insult’, and fined. The government also placed army officers on trial for 'forming national socialist cells'.


Against this violent backdrop Hitler sent shockwaves through the Reichstag obtaining 107 seats (18.3%, 6,406,397 votes) and becoming the second largest party. In Bavaria the party gained 17.9% of the vote though for the first time this total is outnumbered by most other provinces: Oldenburg (27.3%), Braunschweig (26.6%), Waldeck (26.5%), Mecklenburg-Strelitz (22.6%), Lippe (22.3%) Mecklenburg-Schwerin (20.1%), Anhalt (19.8%), Thuringen (19.5%), Baden (19.2%), Hamburg (19.2%), Prussia (18.4%), Hessen (18.4%), Sachsen (18.3%), Lubeck (18.3%) and Schaumburg-Lippe (18.1%).


An unprecedented amount of money was thrown behind the campaign. Well over one million pamphlets were produced and distributed; sixty trucks were commandeered for usage in Berlin alone. Furthermore in areas where NSDAP campaigning was less rigorous the total was as low as 9%. The Great Depression was also a factor in Hitler's electoral success. Yet against this legal backdrop the SA began it's first major anti-Jewish action when on October 13, 1930 groups of brownshirts smashed the windows of Jewish-owned stores on the Potsdamer Platz. The Great Depression was a global economic slump that began in 1929 and bottomed in 1933. ...


Seizure of control (1931 - 1933)

In March 1931, with street violence between the Rotfront and SA spiralling out of control, breaking all previous barriers and expectations, Prussia re-enacted its ban on brown shirts. Days after the ban SA-men shot dead two communists in a street fight, which led to a ban been placed on the public speaking of Goebbels, who side-stepped the prohibition by recording speeches and playing them to an audience in his absence.


Ernst Rohm, in charge of the SA, put Count Heinrich von Helldorff, a convicted murderer and vehement antisemite, in charge of the Berlin SA. The deaths mounted up, with many more on the Rotfront side, and by the end of 1931 the SA had had 47 men killed, and the Rotfront recorded losses of approximately 80. Street fights and beer hall battles resulting in deaths occurred throughout February and April 1932, all against the backdrop of Adolf Hitler’s competition in the presidential election which pitted him against the monumentally popular Hindenburg. In the first round on March 13 Hitler had polled over 11 million votes but was still behind Hindenburg. The second and final round took place on April 10: Hitler (36.8% 13,418,547) lost out narrowly to Paul von Hindenburg (40% 19,359,983) whilst KPD candidate Thälmann gained a meagre percentage of the vote (10.2% 3,706,759).


At this time the Nazi party had just over 800,000 card-carrying members but in a turbulent climate and economic malaise was seen once more as a viable option. Three days after the presidential elections, the German government passed the Law for the Maintenance of State Authority which banned the NSDAP and its paramilitaries. This action was largely prompted by details which emerged at a trial of SA men for assaulting unarmed Jews in Berlin. The law was repealed by Franz von Papen on May 30 after barely a months' enaction.


Dwarfed by Hitler’s electoral gains the KPD turned away from the legal approach and increasingly towards violence. One resulting battle in Silesa resulted in the army been dispatched, each shot sending Germany further into a potential all-out civil war.


By this time both sides marched into each others strongholds hoping to spark rivalry. At nearly 5pm the Rotfront ambushed a column of 7,000 SA men who had marched into red Altona. The armed SA took up positions and a gunbattle ensued. The police arrived, and because shots had been fired were authorised to use brutal force. 18 people died, the Nazis claimed 19, later investigations revealed 2 of those killed were national socialists shot by communists, the rest civilians caught in the crossfire once the police arrived. Hermann Goering, as speaker of the Reichstag, asked the Papen government to prosecute the shooters, who six days later passed laws which made political violence a capital crime. Altona may refer to various places: Altona, Victoria, a seaside suburb in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia Altona, Illinois, a village located in Knox County, Illinois Altona, Indiana, a town located in DeKalb County, Indiana Altona, Hamburg, the westmost district in the city of Hamburg, Germany Altona, Manitoba, a town located in...


The attacks continued, and reached fever pitch when SA storm leader Axel Schaffeld was assassinated. At the end of July the Nazi party gained almost 14,000,000 votes securing 230 seats in the Reichstag. Energised by the incredible results Hitler asked to be made Chancellor. Papen offered the position of Vice Chancellor but Hitler refused.


Hermann Goring, in his position of Reichstagpresident, asked that decisive measures to be taken by the government over the spate in murders of national socialists. On August 9 amendments were made to the Reichstrafgesetzbuch statute on ‘acts of political violence’ increasing the penalty to ‘lifetime imprisonment, 20 years hard labour or death’. Special Courts were announced to try such offences, when in power less than half a year later, Hitler would use this legislation against his opponents with devastating effect.


The law was applied almost immediately but brought to trial not, as most had expected, the perpetrators behind the recent massacres, but five SA men who were alleged to have murdered a KPD member in Potempa. Adolf Hitler appeared at the trial as a defence witness but on August 22 the five were convicted and sentenced to death. On appeal this sentence was commuted to life imprisonment in early September. They would serve just over four months before Hitler freed all imprisoned Nazis in a 1933 amnesty. The Nazi party lost 34 seats in the November 1932 election but remained the Reichstag's largest party.The most shocking move of the early election campaign was to send the SA to support a Rotfront action against the transport agency and in support of a strike.


In November Papen left office and two months later secretly told Hitler that he still held considerable sway with Hindenburg and that he would make Hitler chancellor as long as he could be the vice chancellor. On January 30 Adolf Hitler is appointed chancellor of a coalition government comprised of the NSDAP-DNVP-Centre Party. The SA and to a lesser extent the SS lead torchlight parades throughout Berlin. In the coalition government three members of the cabinet including Hitler and also Minister of the Interior Wilhelm Frick and Hermann Goering as Minister Without Portfolio are Nazis.


Hitler soon moved to consolidate absolute power, see: Gleichschaltung and the Night of the Long Knives. The German word Gleichschaltung â’½ â’¾ (literally synchronising, synchronization) is used in a political sense to describe the process by which the Nazi regime successively established a system of totalitarian control over the individual, and tight coordination over all aspects of society and commerce. ... The Night of the Long Knives (German: Nacht der langen Messer) or Operation Hummingbird, took place in Germany between June 30 and July 2, 1934, when at least eighty-five people, mostly in the Storm Division (SA) (German: Sturmabteilung), were murdered by the Nazi regime. ...


Fatalities (1923-1933)

209 Nazis, 251 Communists, 3 police officials, 2 civilians


References and further reading

Abel, Theodore Fred • Why Hitler Came To Power


Abraham, David • The Collapse of the Weimar Republic: Political Economy and Crisis


Allen, William Sheridan • The Nazi Seizure of Power, The Experience of a Single Town


Childers, Thomas (editor) • The Formation of the Nazi Constituency, 1919 - 1933 Croom Helm, London, 1986.


Dietrich, Otto, 1897-1952. •With Hitler on the Road to Power


Dixon, Joseph Murdock • “Gregor Strasser and the Organization of the Nazi Party 1925 - 1932” Doctoral Dissertation - Stanford University University Microfilms International, Ann Arbor, Michigan.


Ehrt, Adolf • Enfesselung der unterwelt: ein querschnitt durch die bolschewisierung Deutschlands Eckart-verlag, Berlin-Leipzig, 1932. Bewaffneter Aufstand! : Enthüllungen über den kommunistischen Umsturzversuch am Vorabend der nationalen Revolution Eckart-Verlag, Berlin, 1933. Totale Krise--Totale Revolution? Die "Schwarze Front" des völkischen Nationalismus. Eckart-Verlag, Berlin, 1933. Communism in Germany: Communist Conspiracy on the Eve of the 1933 National Revolution


Evans, Richard • The Coming of the Third Reich


Kershaw, Ian • Hitler: 1889 – 1936


Krebs, Albert, 1899- • The infancy of Nazism: the memoirs of ex-Gauleiter Albert Krebs, 1923-1933


von Papen, Franz • Appell an das deutsche Gewissen : Reden zur nationalen Revolution.


Ruhle, Gerd • Kampfjahre 1918 – 1933 [The Years of Fighting] Official Institute for Statistics of the NSDAP/ Hans Eugen Hummel Verlag


See also


 
 

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