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Encyclopedia > Hitler
Adolf Hitler


In office
2 August 1934 – 30 April 1945
Preceded by Paul von Hindenburg
(as President)
Succeeded by Karl Dönitz
(as President)

In office
30 January 1933 – 30 April 1945
Preceded by Kurt von Schleicher
Succeeded by Joseph Goebbels

Born 20 April 1889
Braunau am Inn, Austria–Hungary
Died 30 April 1945 (aged 56)
Berlin, Germany
Citizenship Austrian (1889–1932)
German (1932–1945)
Nationality Austrian citizen until 1925[1] German citizen after 1932
Political party National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP)
Spouse(s) Eva Braun
(married on 29 April 1945)
Occupation politician, soldier, artist, writer
Religion See Adolf Hitler's religious beliefs
Signature
Military service
Allegiance German Empire German Empire
Service/branch War Ensign of Germany 1903-1918.svg Reichsheer
Years of service 1914–1918
Rank Gefreiter
Unit 16th Bavarian Reserve Regiment
Battles/wars World War I
Awards Iron Cross First and Second Class
Wound Badge

Adolf Hitler (German pronunciation: [ˈadɔlf ˈhɪtlɐ]; 20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was an Austrian-born German politician and the leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, abbreviated NSDAP), commonly known as the Nazi Party. He was the totalitarian leader of Germany from 1933 to 1945, serving as chancellor from 1933 to 1945 and as head of state (Führer und Reichskanzler) from 1934 to 1945. There are many famous Holocaust survivors who survived the Nazi genocides in Europe and went on to achievements of great fame and notability. ... This is a list of victims of Nazism who were noted for their achievements. ... Book cover The Destruction of the European Jews is a three-volume work published in 1961 by historian Raul Hilberg. ... Functionalism versus intentionalism is a historiographical debate about the origins of the Holocaust as well as most aspects of the Third Reich, such as foreign policy. ... A stereotypical German The Germans (German: die Deutschen), or the German people, are a nation in the meaning an ethnos (in German: Volk), defined more by a sense of sharing a common German culture and having a German mother tongue, than by citizenship or by being subjects to any particular... The Nazi Party, officially: National Socialist German Workers Party, (German: , abbreviated NSDAP), was a political party in Germany between 1919 and 1945. ... The concept of Totalitarianism is a typology or ideal-type used by some political scientists to encapsulate the characteristics of a number of twentieth century regimes that mobilized entire populations in support of the state or an ideology. ... The head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (German: Kanzler). ... Nazi propaganda poster. ...


A decorated veteran of World War I, Hitler joined the Nazi Party (DAP) in 1919 and became leader of NSDAP in 1921. Following his imprisonment after a failed coup in Bavaria in 1923, he gained support by promoting German nationalism, anti-semitism, anti-capitalism, and anti-communism with charismatic oratory and propaganda. He was appointed chancellor in 1933, and quickly transformed the Weimar Republic into the Third Reich, a single-party dictatorship based on the totalitarian and autocratic ideals of national socialism. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The Beer Hall Putsch was a failed coup détat that occurred between the evening of Thursday, November 8 and the early afternoon of Friday, November 9, 1923, when the Nazi partys leader Adolf Hitler, the popular World War I General Erich Ludendorff, and other leaders of the Kampfbund... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... Pan-Germanism (German: ) was a political movement of the 19th century aiming for unity of the German-speaking peoples of Europe. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... This article lists ideologies opposed to capitalism and describes them briefly. ... Ideologies Communist internationals Prominent communists Related subjects Anti-communism refers to opposition to communism. ... Jesus is considered by historians such as Weber to be an example of a charismatic religious leader; The sociologist Max Weber defined charismatic authority as resting on devotion to the exceptional sanctity, heroism or exemplary character of an individual person, and of the normative patterns or order revealed or ordained... Oratory is the art of eloquent speech. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazi propaganda is the term that describes the psychologically powerful propaganda within Nazi Germany, much of which was centered around Jews, consistently alleged to be the source of Germanys economic problems. ... Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)  - 1933 Kurt von Schleicher (last) Legislature... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... A single-party state or one-party system or single-party system is a type of party system government in which a single political party forms the government and no other parties are permitted to run candidates for election. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A dictatorship is an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by a dictator. ... Totalitarianism is a term employed by some political scientists, especially those in the field of comparative politics, to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. ... Autocracy is a form of government where unlimited power is held by a single individual. ... Not to be confused with Nasi. ...


Hitler ultimately wanted to establish a New Order of absolute Nazi German hegemony in Europe. To achieve this, he pursued a foreign policy with the declared goal of seizing Lebensraum ("living space") for the Aryan people; directing the resources of the state towards this goal. This included the rearmament of Germany, which culminated in 1939 when the Wehrmacht invaded Poland. In response, the United Kingdom and France declared war against Germany, leading to the outbreak of World War II in Europe.[2] New Order (Neue Ordnung) is the name used to denote the political, economic, and social system which the Nazis hoped to establish in Europe in the 1930s and 1940s. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A countrys foreign policy is a set of political goals that seeks to outline how that particular country will interact with other countries of the world and, to a lesser extent, non-state actors. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal           (German for habitat or literally living space) was one of the major political ideas of Adolf Hitler, and an important component of Nazi ideology. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Executing Russian civilians. ... The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ... For the Soviet Unions military action against Poland under the same alliance, see Soviet invasion of Poland (1939). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Animation of the WWII European Theatre. ...


Within three years, Germany and the Axis powers had occupied most of Europe, and most of Northern Africa, East and Southeast Asia and the Pacific Ocean. However, with the reversal of the Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union, the Allies gained the upper hand from 1942 onwards. By 1945, Allied armies had invaded German-held Europe from all sides. Nazi forces engaged in numerous violent acts during the war, including the systematic murder of as many as 17 million civilians,[3] an estimated six million of whom were Jews targeted in the Holocaust. Black: Zenith of the Axis Powers Capital Not applicable Political structure Military alliance Historical era World War II  - Tripartite Pact September 27, 1940  - Anti-Comintern Pact November 25, 1936  - Pact of Steel May 22, 1939  - Dissolved 1945 This article is about the independent countries (states) that comprised the Axis powers. ... Categories: Africa geography stubs | North Africa ... This article is about the geographical region. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... “Shoah” redirects here. ...


In the final days of the war, at the fall of Berlin in 1945, Hitler married his long-time mistress Eva Braun and, to avoid capture by Soviet forces less than two days later, the two committed suicide.[4] Berlin was captured by the Russians on May 2nd, 1945. ... Eva Anna Paula Braun, died Eva Anna Paula Hitler[1] (February 6, 1912 – April 30, 1945) was the longtime companion of Adolf Hitler and briefly his wife. ... The front cover of Time magazine, May 7, 1945. ...

Contents

Early years

Ancestry

Hitler's father, Alois Hitler, was an illegitimate child and, for the first 39 years of his life, bore his mother's surname, Schicklgruber.[5] Alois' paternity was not listed on his birth certificate, and has been the subject of much controversy. After receiving a "blackmail letter" from Hitler's nephew William Patrick Hitler threatening to reveal embarrassing information about Hitler's family tree, Nazi Party lawyer Hans Frank investigated, and, in his memoirs, claimed to have uncovered letters revealing that Alois' mother, Maria Schicklgruber, was employed as a housekeeper for a Jewish family in Graz and that the family's 19-year-old son, Leopold Frankenberger, fathered Alois.[5] No evidence has ever been produced to support Frank's claim, and Frank himself said Hitler's full Aryan blood was obvious.[6] Frank's claims were widely believed in the 1950s, but by the 1990s, were generally doubted by historians.[7][8] Ian Kershaw dismisses the Frankenberger story as a "smear" by Hitler's enemies, noting that all Jews had been expelled from Graz in the 15th century and were not allowed to return until well after Alois was born.[8] This article is about Adolf Hitlers father. ... Illegitimacy is the status that was once commonly ascribed to individuals born to parents who were not married. ... Alois Hitler. ... For other uses, see Blackmail (disambiguation). ... William Patrick Hitler (later Stuart-Houston) (born March 12, 1911 in Liverpool, England, United Kingdom – died July 1987 in Patchogue, New York, USA), nicknamed Willy (or Paddy Hitler by Irish-Americans), was the nephew of Adolf Hitler. ... Hans Frank (May 23, 1900 – October 16, 1946) was a lawyer for the Nazi party during the 1920s and a senior official in Nazi Germany. ... Maria Anna Schicklgruber (April 15, 1795 – January 7, 1847) was Adolf Hitlers paternal grandmother. ... The Grazer Schloßberg Clock Tower Graz [graːts] (Slovenian: Gradec IPA: /gra. ... This article is about Adolf Hitlers father. ... Professor Sir Ian Kershaw (born April 29, 1943 in Oldham, Lancashire, England) is a British historian, noted for his biographies of Adolf Hitler. ...


In 1876, Alois took the surname of his stepfather, Johann Georg Hiedler. The name was spelled Hiedler, Hüttler, Huettler and Hitler, and was probably regularized to Hitler by a clerk. The origin of the name is either "one who lives in a hut" (Standard German Hütte), "shepherd" (Standard German hüten "to guard", English heed), or is from the Slavic word Hidlar and Hidlarcek. (Regarding the first two theories: some German dialects make little or no distinction between the ü-sound and the i-sound.)[5] In German history, Johann Georg Hiedler (28 September 1792, – 1857) was born to Martin Hiedler (17 November 1762 - 10 January 1829) and Anna Maria Goschl (August 23, 1760 - 7 December 1854). ... German (called Deutsch in German; in German the term germanisch is equivalent to English Germanic), is a member of the western group of Germanic languages and is one of the worlds major languages. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... For dialects of programming languages, see Programming language dialect. ...

Childhood

Adolf Hitler was born at the Gasthof zum Pommer, an inn in Braunau am Inn, Austria–Hungary, the fourth of Alois and Klara Hitler's six children. Braunau am Inn is a city in the Innviertel (River Inn area) of Upper Austria (Ober sterreich), the north-western province of Austria. ... This article is about Adolf Hitlers father. ... Klara Hitler Klara Hitler, born Klara Pölzl (August 12, 1860 - December 21, 1907), was the mother of Adolf Hitler. ...

Adolf Hitler as an infant

At the age of three, his family moved to Kapuzinerstrasse 5[9] in Passau, Germany where the young Hitler would acquire Lower Bavarian rather than Austrian as his lifelong native dialect.[10] In 1894, the family moved to Leonding near Linz, then in June 1895, Alois retired to a small landholding at Hafeld near Lambach, where he tried his hand at farming and beekeeping. During this time, the young Hitler attended school in nearby Fischlham. As a child, he tirelessly played "Cowboys and Indians" and, by his own account, became fixated on war after finding a picture book about the Franco-Prussian War in his father's things.[11] He wrote in Mein Kampf: "It was not long before the great historic struggle had become my greatest spiritual experience. From then on, I became more and more enthusiastic about everything that was in any way connected with war or, for that matter, with soldiering." “Baby” redirects here. ... Passau (Latin: Batavis or Batavia, also Passavium; Italian: Passavia; Czech: Pasov) is a town in Niederbayern, Eastern Bavaria, Germany, known also as the Dreiflüssestadt (City of Three Rivers), because the Danube River is joined there by the Inn River from the South, and the Ilz River coming out of... Lower Bavaria (German Niederbayern) is one of the seven administrative regions of Bavaria, Germany, located in the east of Bavaria. ... Leonding is a town situated to the southwest of Linz, Austria in the state of Upper Austria. ... For the town in Germany, see Linz am Rhein. ... Lambach is a market town in the Wels-Land district of Upper Austria, on the Ager and Traun Rivers. ... Combatants Second French Empire North German Confederation allied with South German states (later German Empire) Commanders Napoleon III François Achille Bazaine Patrice de Mac-Mahon, duc de Magenta Otto von Bismarck Helmuth von Moltke the Elder Strength 400,000 at wars beginning 1,200,000 Casualties 150,000... Mein Kampf (English: My Struggle/My Battle) is a book by the Austrian-born leader of Nazi Germany, Adolf Hitler. ...


His father's efforts at Hafeld ended in failure and the family moved to Lambach in 1897. There, Hitler attended a Catholic school located in an 11th-century Benedictine cloister whose walls were engraved in a number of places with crests containing the symbol of the swastika.[12] In 1898, the family returned permanently to Leonding. For the college, see Benedictine College. ... This article is about the symbol. ...


His younger brother Edmund died of measles on 2 February 1900, causing permanent changes in Hitler. He went from a confident, outgoing boy who found school easy, to a morose, detached, sullen boy who constantly battled his father and his teachers.[13]


Hitler was close to his mother, but had a troubled relationship with his authoritarian father, who frequently beat him, especially in the years after Alois' retirement and disappointed farming efforts. Alois wanted his son to follow in his footsteps as an Austrian customs official, and this became a huge source of conflict between them.[11] Despite his son's pleas to go to classical high school and become an artist, his father sent him to the technical high school in Linz in September 1900. Hitler rebelled, and, in Mein Kampf confessed to failing his first year in hopes that once his father saw "what little progress I was making at the technical school he would let me devote myself to the happiness I dreamed of." But Alois never relented and Hitler became even more bitter and rebellious. The term authoritarian is used to describe an organization or a state which enforces strong and sometimes oppressive measures against the population, generally without attempts at gaining the consent of the population. ... Mein Kampf (English: My Struggle/My Battle) is a book by the Austrian-born leader of Nazi Germany, Adolf Hitler. ...


For young Hitler, German Nationalism quickly became an obsession, and a way to rebel against his father, who proudly served the Austrian government. Most people who lived along the German-Austrian border considered themselves German-Austrians, but Hitler expressed loyalty only to Germany. In defiance of the Austrian Monarchy, and his father who continually expressed loyalty to it, Hitler and his young friends liked to use the German greeting, "Heil," and sing the German anthem "Deutschland Über Alles", instead of the Austrian Imperial anthem.[11] Nationalism is an ethno- political ideology that sustains the concept of a nation- identity for an exclusive group of people. ... Official languages Latin, German, Hungarian Established church Roman Catholic Capital & Largest City Vienna pop. ... Adolf Hitler is saluted with the Nazi salute. ... Das Lied der Deutschen (The Song of the Germans, also known as Das Deutschlandlied, The Song of Germany) has been used, wholly or partially, as the national anthem of Germany since 1922. ... Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser (God Save Emperor Francis) is an anthem to the Emperor Francis II of the Holy Roman Empire and later of Austria, written by Lorenz Leopold Haschka (1749-1827) and set to a tune written by Joseph Haydn in 1797. ...


After Alois' sudden death on 3 January 1903, Hitler's behavior at the technical school became even more disruptive, and he was asked to leave. He enrolled at the Realschule in Steyr in 1904, but upon completing his second year, he and his friends went out for a night of celebration and drinking, and an intoxicated Hitler tore his school certificate into four pieces and used it as toilet paper. When someone turned the stained certificate in to the school's director, he "... gave him such a dressing-down that the boy was reduced to shivering jelly. It was probably the most painful and humiliating experience of his life."[14] Hitler was expelled, never to return to school again. In Germany, the Realschule was an outgrowth of the rationalism and empiricism of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. ... Quayside at Enns river. ...


At age 15, Hitler took part in his First Holy Communion on Whitsunday, 22 May 1904, at the Linz Cathedral.[15] His sponsor was Emanuel Lugert, a friend of his late father.[16] The First Communion (First Holy Communion) is a Roman Catholic ceremony. ... The Descent of the Holy Spirit in a 15th century illuminated manuscript. ...

Early adulthood in Vienna and Munich

From 1905 on, Hitler lived a bohemian life in Vienna on an orphan's pension and support from his mother. He was rejected twice by the Academy of Fine Arts Vienna (1907–1908), citing "unfitness for painting", and was told his abilities lay instead in the field of architecture.[17] His memoirs reflect a fascination with the subject: For other uses, see Bohemian (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... The Academy of Fine Arts Vienna (German Akademie der bildenden Künste Wien) is an institution of higher education in Vienna, the capital of Austria. ... This article is about building architecture. ... A memoir, as a literary genre, forms a sub-class of autobiography. ...

The purpose of my trip was to study the picture gallery in the Court Museum, but I had eyes for scarcely anything but the Museum itself. From morning until late at night, I ran from one object of interest to another, but it was always the buildings which held my primary interest.[18]

Following the school rector's recommendation, he too became convinced this was his path to pursue, yet he lacked the proper academic preparation for architecture school:

In a few days I myself knew that I should some day become an architect. To be sure, it was an incredibly hard road; for the studies I had neglected out of spite at the Realschule were sorely needed. One could not attend the Academy's architectural school without having attended the building school at the Technic, and the latter required a high-school degree. I had none of all this. The fulfilment of my artistic dream seemed physically impossible.[18]

On 21 December 1907, Hitler's mother died of breast cancer at age 47. Ordered by a court in Linz, Hitler gave his share of the orphans' benefits to his sister Paula. When he was 21, he inherited money from an aunt. He struggled as a painter in Vienna, copying scenes from postcards and selling his paintings to merchants and tourists. After being rejected a second time by the Academy of Arts, Hitler ran out of money. In 1909, he lived in a shelter for the homeless. By 1910, he had settled into a house for poor working men on Meldemannstraße. Another resident of the house, Reinhold Hanisch, sold Hitler's paintings until the two men had a bitter falling-out.[19] Breast cancer is cancer of breast tissue. ... For other uses, see Orphan (disambiguation). ...


Hitler said he first became an anti-Semite in Vienna,[18] which had a large Jewish community, including Orthodox Jews who had fled the pogroms in Russia. According to childhood friend August Kubizek, however, Hitler was a "confirmed anti-Semite" before he left Linz.[18] Vienna at that time was a hotbed of traditional religious prejudice and 19th century racism. Hitler may have been influenced by the writings of the ideologist and anti-Semite Lanz von Liebenfels and polemics from politicians such as Karl Lueger, founder of the Christian Social Party and Mayor of Vienna, the composer Richard Wagner, and Georg Ritter von Schönerer, leader of the pan-Germanic Away from Rome! movement. Hitler claims in Mein Kampf that his transition from opposing antisemitism on religious grounds to supporting it on racial grounds came from having seen an Orthodox Jew. The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... Rabbi Moshe Feinstein, a leading Rabbinical authority for Orthodox Jewry of the second half of the twentieth century. ... Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot directed against a particular group, whether ethnic, religious or other, and characterized by destruction of their homes, businesses and religious centres. ... August Kubizek was a childhood friend and one time room mate of Adolf Hitler. ... For the town in Germany, see Linz am Rhein. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... Lanz von Liebenfels Adolf Josef Lanz (aka Jörg Lanz), who called himself Lanz von Liebenfels (July 19, 1874 - April 22, 1954) was a former monk and the founder of the right-wing magazine Ostara, in which he published anti-semitic and folkish theories. ... Look up Polemic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Karl Lueger Karl Lueger (IPA ) (October 24, 1844-March 10, 1910) was an Austrian politician and mayor of Vienna, known for his overtly anti-semitic and racist policies, as well as his skills as an administrator. ... The Christian Social Party (CS) was an Austrian political party from 1893 to 1933 and a predecessor of the contemporary Austrian Peoples Party. ... The following people were mayors of Vienna: Habsburg Monarchy Konrad Poll 1282 Heinrich Hansgraf 1285 Konrad von Eslarn 1287 Konrad Poll 1288-1305 Heinrich Chrannest 1305-07 Dietrich von Kahlenberg 1307 Heinrich von d. ... Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883) was a German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as they were later called). ... Georg Ritter von Schönerer Georg Ritter von Schönerer (July 17, 1842-August 14, 1921) was an Austrian politician active in the late 1800s and early 1900s. ... Pan-Germanism (German: ) was a political movement of the 19th century aiming for unity of the German-speaking peoples of Europe. ... Rabbi Moshe Feinstein, a leading Rabbinical authority for Orthodox Jewry of the second half of the twentieth century. ...

There were very few Jews in Linz. In the course of centuries the Jews who lived there had become Europeanised in external appearance and were so much like other human beings that I even looked upon them as Germans. The reason why I did not then perceive the absurdity of such an illusion was that the only external mark which I recognized as distinguishing them from us was the practice of their strange religion. As I thought that they were persecuted on account of their faith my aversion to hearing remarks against them grew almost into a feeling of abhorrence. I did not in the least suspect that there could be such a thing as a systematic antisemitism. Once, when passing through the inner City, I suddenly encountered a phenomenon in a long caftan and wearing black side-locks. My first thought was: Is this a Jew? They certainly did not have this appearance in Linz. I carefully watched the man stealthily and cautiously but the longer I gazed at the strange countenance and examined it feature by feature, the more the question shaped itself in my brain: Is this a German?[18] Initially conceived as the process by which the political and buraucratic élites of the member-states of the European Union become more pro-European by virtue of their frequent interactions with European institutions and the élites of the other member-states. ...

If this account is true, Hitler apparently did not act on his new belief. He often was a guest for dinner in a noble Jewish house, and he interacted well with Jewish merchants who tried to sell his paintings.[20]


Hitler may also have been influenced by Martin Luther's On the Jews and their Lies. In Mein Kampf, Hitler refers to Martin Luther as a great warrior, a true statesman, and a great reformer, alongside Richard Wagner and Frederick the Great.[21] Wilhelm Röpke, writing after the Holocaust, concluded that "without any question, Lutheranism influenced the political, spiritual and social history of Germany in a way that, after careful consideration of everything, can be described only as fateful."[22][23] Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... Title page of Martin Luthers On the Jews and their Lies. ... Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883) was a German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as they were later called). ... Frederick the Great Frederick II of Prussia (Friedrich der Große, Frederick the Great, January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) was the Hohenzollern king of Prussia 1740–86. ... Wilhelm Röpke Wilhelm Röpke (October 10, 1899, Schwarmstedt, a village near Hannover - February 12, 1966, Geneva) was one of the most important spiritual fathers of the German social market economy. ... -1...


Hitler claimed that Jews were enemies of the Aryan race. He held them responsible for Austria's crisis. He also identified certain forms of Socialism and Bolshevism, which had many Jewish leaders, as Jewish movements, merging his antisemitism with anti-Marxism. Later, blaming Germany's military defeat in World War I on the 1918 revolutions, he considered Jews the culprits of Imperial Germany's downfall and subsequent economic problems as well. The Aryan race is a concept in European culture that was influential in the period of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


Generalising from tumultuous scenes in the parliament of the multi-national Austrian monarchy, he decided that the democratic parliamentary system was unworkable. However, according to August Kubizek, his one-time roommate, he was more interested in Wagner's operas than in his politics. For other uses, see Democracy (disambiguation) and Democratic Party. ... States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in red and orange—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ... For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ...


Hitler received the final part of his father's estate in May 1913 and moved to Munich. He wrote in Mein Kampf that he had always longed to live in a "real" German city. In Munich, he became more interested in architecture and, he says, the writings of Houston Stewart Chamberlain. Moving to Munich also helped him escape military service in Austria for a time, but the Munich police (acting in cooperation with the Austrian authorities) eventually arrested him. After a physical exam and a contrite plea, he was deemed unfit for service and allowed to return to Munich. However, when Germany entered World War I in August 1914, he petitioned King Ludwig III of Bavaria for permission to serve in a Bavarian regiment. This request was granted, and Adolf Hitler enlisted in the Bavarian army.[24] For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... Houston Stewart Chamberlain Houston Stewart Chamberlain (September 9, 1855 - January 9, 1927) was a British author noted for his works concerning the Aryan race. ... Conscript redirects here. ... Ludwig III (Ludwig Leopold Joseph Maria Aloys Alfred), King of Bavaria, (January 7, 1845 – October 18, 1921) was the last King of Bavaria, reigning from 1913 to 1918. ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ...

A young Hitler (left) posing with other German soldiers

World War I

Hitler served in France and Belgium in the 16th Bavarian Reserve Regiment (called Regiment List after its first commander), ending the war as a Gefreiter (equivalent at the time to a lance corporal in the British and private first class in the American armies). He was a runner, one of the most dangerous jobs on the Western Front, and was often exposed to enemy fire.[25] He participated in a number of major battles on the Western Front, including the First Battle of Ypres, the Battle of the Somme, the Battle of Arras and the Battle of Passchendaele.[26] The Battle of Ypres (October 1914), which became known in Germany as the Kindermord bei Ypern (Massacre of the Innocents) saw approximately 40,000 men (between a third and a half) of the nine infantry divisions present killed in 20 days, and Hitler's own company of 250 reduced to 42 by December. Biographer John Keegan has said that this experience drove Hitler to become aloof and withdrawn for the remaining years of war.[27] Modern German Gefreiter insignia Gefreiter is the German equivalent for Private (OR-2) (US Army E-2) in the armed services. ... Lance Corporal (LCpl or L/Cpl) is a military rank used by some elements of the British, Commonwealth, and U.S. armed forces. ... US Military In the U.S. Army, Private First Class is the third lowest enlisted rank, just above Private and below Corporal or Specialist. ... Combatants Belgium British Empire Australia[1] Canada[2] India[3] Newfoundland[4] New Zealand[5] South Africa[6] United Kingdom France and French Overseas Empire Portugal[7] United States Germany Commanders No unified command until 1918, then Ferdinand Foch Moltke → Falkenhayn → Hindenburg and Ludendorff → Hindenburg and Groener Casualties ~4,800... Combatants United Kingdom France German Empire Commanders John French Ferdinand Foch Erich von Falkenhayn Strength UK: 7 infantry divisions, 3 cavalry divisions France: ? Fourth and Sixth Armies Casualties UK: 58,000 France: 50,000 130,000 The First Battle of Ypres, also called the Battle of Flanders, was the last... For other battles known as Battle of the Somme, see Battle of the Somme (disambiguation). ... The Battle of Arras took place from 9 April to 16 May 1917. ... Passchendaele village, before and after the Battle of Passchendaele The Battle of Passchendaele, otherwise known as the Third Battle of Ypres, was one of the major battles of World War I, fought by British, ANZAC, and Canadian soldiers against the German army near Ypres ( Ieper in Flemish) in West Flanders... Sir John Keegan OBE (born 1934) is a British military historian, lecturer and journalist. ...

Hitler in the German Army, 1914, sitting at right

Hitler was twice decorated for bravery. He received the Iron Cross, Second Class, in 1914 and Iron Cross, First Class, in 1918, an honour rarely given to a Gefreiter.[28] However, because the regimental staff thought Hitler lacked leadership skills, he was never promoted to Unteroffizier (equivalent to a British corporal). Other historians say that the reason he was not promoted is that he was not a German citizen. His duties at regimental headquarters, while often dangerous, gave Hitler time to pursue his artwork. He drew cartoons and instructional drawings for an army newspaper. In 1916, he was wounded in either the groin area[29] or the left thigh[30] during the Battle of the Somme, but returned to the front in March 1917. He received the Wound Badge later that year. A noted German historian and author, Sebastian Haffner, referring to Hitler's experience at the front, suggests he did have at least some understanding of the military. A stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Bundeswehr, Germanys Armed Forces. ... Unteroffizier insignia Unteroffizier is a military rank (non-commissioned officer) of the German Bundeswehr that has existed since the 19th century. ... A black version of the Badge A silver version A gold version Wound Badge (Das Verwundetenabzeichen) is a German military award for wounded or frost-bitten soldiers of Wehrmacht, SS and the auxiliary service organisations (after March 1943 due to the increasing number of allied bombings — also for civilians). ... Sebastian Haffner (December 27, 1907, Berlin – January 2, 1999, pseudonym for Raimund Pretzel) was a German journalist and author. ...


On 15 October 1918, Hitler was admitted to a field hospital, temporarily blinded by a mustard gas attack. The English psychologist David Lewis and Bernhard Horstmann suggest the blindness may have been the result of a conversion disorder (then known as "hysteria").[31] Hitler said it was during this experience that he became convinced the purpose of his life was to "save Germany." Some scholars, notably Lucy Dawidowicz,[32] argue that an intention to exterminate Europe's Jews was fully formed in Hitler's mind at this time, though he probably had not thought through how it could be done. Most historians think the decision was made in 1941, and some think it came as late as 1942. 47th Combat Support Hospital, 2000 A field hospital is a large mobile medical unit that temporarily takes care of casualties on-site before they can be safely transported to more permanent hospital facilities. ... Airborne exposure limit 0. ... David Lewis is an English psychologist with a doctorate from the University of Sussex. ... Conversion Disorder is a DSM-IV diagnosis which describes neurological symptoms such as extreme weakness, paralysis, sensory disturbance, seizure and/or attacks that may resemble a known organic disease such as epilepsy or dystonia, but which cannot be currently attributed to neurological disease. ... Hysteria is a diagnostic label applied to a state of mind, one of unmanageable fear or emotional excesses. ... Lucy S. Davidowicz (June 16, 1915 – December 5, 1990), was a American historian, and an author of books in modern Jewish history in particular the Holocaust. ...


Two passages in Mein Kampf mention the use of poison gas: Early detection of chemical agents Sociopolitical climate of chemical warfare While the study of chemicals and their military uses was widespread in China, the use of toxic materials has historically been viewed with mixed emotions and some disdain in the West (especially when the enemy were doing it). ...

At the beginning of the Great War, or even during the War, if twelve or fifteen thousand of these Jews who were corrupting the nation had been forced to submit to poison-gas . . . then the millions of sacrifices made at the front would not have been in vain.[33]
These tactics are based on an accurate estimation of human weakness and must lead to success, with almost mathematical certainty, unless the other side also learns how to fight poison gas with poison gas. The weaker natures must be told that here it is a case of to be or not to be.[18]

Hitler had long admired Germany, and during the war he had become a passionate German patriot, although he did not become a German citizen until 1932. Hitler found the war to be 'the greatest of all experiences' and afterwards he was praised by a number of his commanding officers for his bravery.[34] He was shocked by Germany's capitulation in November 1918 even while the German army still held enemy territory.[35] Like many other German nationalists, Hitler believed in the Dolchstoßlegende ("dagger-stab legend") which claimed that the army, "undefeated in the field," had been "stabbed in the back" by civilian leaders and Marxists back on the home front. These politicians were later dubbed the November Criminals. Capitulation (Lat. ... Magazine title from 1924, example of a propaganda illustration in support of the legend The Dolchstoßlegende, (German dagger-thrust legend, often translated in English as stab-in-the-back legend) refers to a social mythos and persecution-propaganda theory popular in post-World War I Germany. ... Magazine title from 1924, example of a propaganda illustration in support of the legend On November 11, 1918, the civilian representatives of the newly formed Weimar Republic of Germany signed an armistice with the Allies which would end World War I. The war itself had killed 1,770,000 German...


The Treaty of Versailles deprived Germany of various territories, demilitarised the Rhineland and imposed other economically damaging sanctions. The treaty re-created Poland, which even moderate Germans regarded as an outrage. The treaty also blamed Germany for all the horrors of the war, something which major historians such as John Keegan now consider at least in part to be victor's justice: most European nations in the run-up to World War I had become increasingly militarised and were eager to fight. The culpability of Germany was used as a basis to impose reparations on Germany (the amount was repeatedly revised under the Dawes Plan, the Young Plan, and the Hoover Moratorium). Germany in turn perceived the treaty and especially, Article 231 the paragraph on the German responsibility for the war as a humiliation. For example, there was a nearly total demilitarisation of the armed forces, allowing Germany only six battleships, no submarines, no air force, an army of 100,000 without conscription and no armoured vehicles. The treaty was an important factor in both the social and political conditions encountered by Hitler and his Nazis as they sought power. Hitler and his party used the signing of the treaty by the "November Criminals" as a reason to build up Germany so that it could never happen again. He also used the "November Criminals" as scapegoats, although at the Paris peace conference, these politicians had had very little choice in the matter. This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28, 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . Left to right, Prime Minister David Lloyd George of the United Kingdom, Prime Minister Vittorio Emanuele Orlando of Italy, Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau of France... In military terms, a demilitarized zone (DMZ) is an area, usually the frontier or boundary between two or more groups, where military activity is not permitted, usually by treaty or other agreement. ... The Rhineland (Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany. ... Sir John Keegan OBE (born 1934) is a British military historian, lecturer and journalist. ... The label victors justice (in German, Siegerjustiz) is applied by advocates to a situation in which they believe that a victorious nation is applying different rules to judge what is right or wrong for their own forces and for those of the (former) enemy. ... Militarization, or militarisation, is the process by which a society organizes its self for the production of violence. ... At the conclusion of World War I the Allies imposed in the Treaty of Versailles a plan for reparations to be paid by Germany. ... The Young Plan was a program for settlement of German reparations debts after World War I. It was presented by the committee headed (1929-30) by Owen D. Young. ... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Paris 1919 redirects here. ...

Entry into politics

A copy of Adolf Hitler's forged German Workers' Party (DAP) membership card. His actual membership number was 555 (the 55th member of the party – the 500 was added to make the group appear larger) but later the number was reduced to create the impression that Hitler was one of the founding members.[36] Hitler had wanted to create his own party, but was ordered by his superiors in the Reichswehr to infiltrate an existing one instead.

After World War I, Hitler remained in the army and returned to Munich, where he – in contrast to his later declarations – attended the funeral march for the murdered Bavarian prime minister Kurt Eisner.[37] After the suppression of the Bavarian Soviet Republic, he took part in "national thinking" courses organized by the Education and Propaganda Department (Dept Ib/P) of the Bavarian Reichswehr Group, Headquarters 4 under Captain Karl Mayr. Scapegoats were found in "international Jewry", communists, and politicians across the party spectrum, especially the parties of the Weimar Coalition. The German Workers Party (German: Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, short DAP) was a briefly existing progenitor of the NSDAP (National Socialist German Workers Party). ... Monument to Kurt Eisner on the sidewalk where he fell when he was assassinated in Munich. ... The Bavarian Soviet Republic (Bayrische Räterepublik) — also known as the Munich Soviet Republic (Münchner Räterepublik) — was a short-lived revolutionary government in the German state of Bavaria in 1919 that sought to replace the fledgling Weimar Republic in its early days. ... Reichswehr flag (1921-1935). ... Captain Karl Mayr (18?? – 1945) General Staff officer and Hitlers immediate superior in an Army Intelligence Division in the Reichswehr, 1919-1920. ... The Weimar Coalition is the name given to the coalition of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), the German Democratic Party (DDP), and the Catholic Centre Party, who together had a large majority of the delegates to the Constituent Assembly which met at Weimar in 1919, and were the...


In July 1919, Hitler was appointed a Verbindungsmann (police spy) of an Aufklärungskommando (Intelligence Commando) of the Reichswehr, both to influence other soldiers and to infiltrate a small party, the German Workers' Party (DAP). During his inspection of the party, Hitler was impressed with founder Anton Drexler's anti-semitic, nationalist, anti-capitalist and anti-Marxist ideas, which favoured a strong active government, a "non-Jewish" version of socialism and mutual solidarity of all members of society. Drexler was impressed with Hitler's oratory skills and invited him to join the party. Hitler joined DAP on 12 September 1919[38] and became the party's 55th member.[39] He was also made the seventh member of the executive committee.[40] Years later, he claimed to be the party's seventh overall member, but it has been established that this claim is false.[41] For other uses, see Intelligence (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Commando (disambiguation). ... Spy and Secret agent redirect here. ... The German Workers Party (German: Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, short DAP) was a briefly existing progenitor of the NSDAP (National Socialist German Workers Party). ... Anton Drexler (June 13, 1884 - February 24, 1942) was a German Nazi political leader of 1920s. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... This article lists ideologies opposed to capitalism and describes them briefly. ... Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ...


Here Hitler met Dietrich Eckart, one of the early founders of the party and member of the occult Thule Society.[42] Eckart became Hitler's mentor, exchanging ideas with him, teaching him how to dress and speak, and introducing him to a wide range of people. Hitler thanked Eckart by paying tribute to him in the second volume of Mein Kampf. To increase the party's appeal, the party changed its name to the Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or National Socialist German Workers Party (abbreviated NSDAP). Dietrich Eckart Dietrich Eckart (March 23, 1868 - December 26, 1923) was one of the early key members of the National-Socialist German Workers Party and one of the participants in the 1923 Beer Hall Putsch. ... Thule Society emblem The Thule Society (German: Thule-Gesellschaft), originally the Studiengruppe für germanisches Altertum Study Group for Germanic Antiquity, was a German occultist and Völkisch group in Munich, named after a mythical northern country from Greek legend. ... The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: , or NSDAP, commonly, the Nazi Party), was a political party in Germany between 1920 and 1945. ...


Hitler was discharged from the army in March 1920 and with his former superiors' continued encouragement began participating full time in the party's activities. By early 1921, Hitler was becoming highly effective at speaking in front of large crowds. In February, Hitler spoke before a crowd of nearly six thousand in Munich. To publicize the meeting, he sent out two truckloads of party supporters to drive around with swastikas, cause a commotion and throw out leaflets, their first use of this tactic. Hitler gained notoriety outside of the party for his rowdy, polemic speeches against the Treaty of Versailles, rival politicians (including monarchists, nationalists and other non-internationalist socialists) and especially against Marxists and Jews. This article is about the symbol. ... Look up Polemic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Monarchism is the advocacy of the establishment, preservation, or restoration of a monarchy. ... Internationalism is a political movement which advocates a greater economic and political cooperation between nations for the benefit of all. ...


The NSDAP[43] was centered in Munich, a hotbed of German nationalists who included Army officers determined to crush Marxism and undermine the Weimar republic. Gradually they noticed Hitler and his growing movement as a suitable vehicle for their goals. Hitler traveled to Berlin to visit nationalist groups during the summer of 1921, and in his absence there was a revolt among the DAP leadership in Munich.


The party was run by an executive committee whose original members considered Hitler to be overbearing. They formed an alliance with a group of socialists from Augsburg. Hitler rushed back to Munich and countered them by tendering his resignation from the party on 11 July 1921. When they realized the loss of Hitler would effectively mean the end of the party, he seized the moment and announced he would return on the condition that he replace Drexler as party chairman, with unlimited powers. Infuriated committee members (including Drexler) held out at first. Meanwhile an anonymous pamphlet appeared entitled Adolf Hitler: Is he a traitor?, attacking Hitler's lust for power and criticizing the violent men around him. Hitler responded to its publication in a Munich newspaper by suing for libel and later won a small settlement. For other meanings for Augsburg: See Augsburg (disambiguation) , Augsburg is a city in south-central Germany. ... “Libel” redirects here. ...


The executive committee of the NSDAP eventually backed down and Hitler's demands were put to a vote of party members. Hitler received 543 votes for and only one against. At the next gathering on 29 July 1921, Adolf Hitler was introduced as Führer of the National Socialist German Workers' Party, marking the first time this title was publicly used.


Hitler's beer hall oratory, attacking Jews, social democrats, liberals, reactionary monarchists, capitalists and communists, began attracting adherents. Early followers included Rudolf Hess, the former air force pilot Hermann Göring, and the army captain Ernst Röhm, who eventually became head of the Nazis' paramilitary organization, the SA (Sturmabteilung, or "Storm Division"), which protected meetings and attacked political opponents. As well, Hitler assimilated independent groups, such as the Nuremberg-based Deutsche Werkgemeinschaft, led by Julius Streicher, who became Gauleiter of Franconia. Hitler attracted the attention of local business interests, was accepted into influential circles of Munich society, and became associated with wartime General Erich Ludendorff during this time. Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Rudolf Hoess. ...   (January 12, 1893 – October 15, 1946) was a German politician and military leader, a leading member of the Nazi Party, second in command of the Third Reich, designated successor to Adolf Hitler, and commander of the Luftwaffe (German Air Force). ... Ernst Julius Röhm, also known as Ernst Roehm in English (Munich November 28, 1887 – July 2, 1934) was a German military officer, and the commander and co-founder of the Nazi Sturmabteilung — the SA. // Röhm was one of three children of Julius Röhm and his wife Emilie... A militia is a group of citizens organized to provide paramilitary service. ... The seal of SA The  , abbreviated SA, (German for Storm division or Storm section, usually translated as stormtroop(er)s), functioned as a paramilitary organization of the NSDAP — the German Nazi party. ... Nürnberg redirects here. ... Julius Streicher (February 12, 1885 – October 16, 1946) was a prominent Nazi prior to and during World War II. He was the publisher of the Nazi Der Stürmer newspaper, which was to become a part of the Nazi propaganda machine. ... A Gauleiter was the party leader of a regional branch of the NSDAP (more commonly known as the Nazi Party) or the head of a Gau or of a Reichsgau. ... For other uses, see Franconia (disambiguation). ... Ludendorff in 1918 Erich Friedrich Wilhelm Ludendorff (sometimes given incorrectly as von Ludendorff) (April 9, 1865–December 20, 1937, Tutzing, Bavaria, Germany) was a German Army officer, Generalquartiermeister during World War I, victor of Liege, and, with Paul von Hindenburg, one of the victors of the battle of Tannenberg. ...

Drawing of Hitler, 1923

Beer Hall Putsch

Encouraged by this early support, Hitler decided to use Ludendorff as a front in an attempted coup later known as the "Beer Hall Putsch" (sometimes as the "Hitler Putsch" or "Munich Putsch"). The Nazi Party had copied Italy's fascists in appearance and had adopted some of their policies, and in 1923, Hitler wanted to emulate Benito Mussolini's "March on Rome" by staging his own "Campaign in Berlin". Hitler and Ludendorff obtained the clandestine support of Gustav von Kahr, Bavaria's de facto ruler, along with leading figures in the Reichswehr and the police. As political posters show, Ludendorff, Hitler and the heads of the Bavarian police and military planned on forming a new government. The Beer Hall Putsch was a failed coup détat that occurred between the evening of Thursday, November 8 and the early afternoon of Friday, November 9, 1923, when the Nazi partys leader Adolf Hitler, the popular World War I General Erich Ludendorff, and other leaders of the Kampfbund... The Beer Hall Putsch was a failed coup détat that occurred between the evening of Thursday, November 8 and the early afternoon of Friday, November 9, 1923, when the Nazi partys leader Adolf Hitler, the popular World War I General Erich Ludendorff, and other leaders of the Kampfbund... Fascism is a term used to describe authoritarian nationalist political ideologies or mass movements that are concerned with notions of cultural decline or decadence. ... Mussolini redirects here. ... For the movie by Dino Risi, see March on Rome (film) The March on Rome was a pseudo-coup détat by which Mussolinis National Fascist Party came to power in Italy. ... ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without...


On 8 November 1923, Hitler and the SA stormed a public meeting headed by Kahr in the Bürgerbräukeller, a large beer hall in Munich. He declared that he had set up a new government with Ludendorff and demanded, at gunpoint, the support of Kahr and the local military establishment for the destruction of the Berlin government.[44] Kahr withdrew his support and fled to join the opposition to Hitler at the first opportunity.[45] The next day, when Hitler and his followers marched from the beer hall to the Bavarian War Ministry to overthrow the Bavarian government as a start to their "March on Berlin", the police dispersed them. Sixteen NSDAP members were killed.[46] The Bürgerbräukeller was an inn cellar in Munich, Germany, by 1923 one of the preferred gathering saloons of the NSDAP, or Nazi Party. ... The Beer Hall Putsch was a failed coup détat that occurred between the evening of Thursday, November 8 and the early afternoon of Friday, November 9, 1923, when the Nazi partys leader Adolf Hitler, the popular World War I General Erich Ludendorff, and other leaders of the Kampfbund...


Hitler fled to the home of Ernst Hanfstaengl and contemplated suicide. He was soon arrested for high treason. Alfred Rosenberg became temporary leader of the party. During Hitler's trial, he was given almost unlimited time to speak, and his popularity soared as he voiced nationalistic sentiments in his defence speech. A Munich personality became a nationally known figure. On 1 April 1924, Hitler was sentenced to five years' imprisonment at Landsberg Prison. Hitler received favoured treatment from the guards and had much fan mail from admirers. He was pardoned and released from jail on 20 December 1924, by order of the Bavarian Supreme Court on 19 December, which issued its final rejection of the state prosecutor's objections to Hitler's early release.[47] Including time on remand, he had served little more than one year of his sentence.[48] Putzi together with Hitler, during the time when he acted as his Press Agent Ernst Franz Sedgwick Hanfstaengl (Munich, February 2, 1887 - November 6, 1975) was the only person known to have worked directly for both Franklin Delano Roosevelt and Adolf Hitler. ... Alfred Rosenberg around 1935   (January 12, 1893 Reval (today Tallinn) – October 16, 1946) was an early and intellectually influential member of the Nazi party, who later held several important posts in the Nazi government. ... Entrance of the Landsberg Prison Landsberg Prison is a penal facility located in the town of Landsberg am Lech in the southwest of the German state of Bavaria, about 30 miles (45 km) west of Munich. ... Fans of Janet Jackson, at Much Music in Toronto The word fan refers to someone who has an intense, occasionally overwhelming liking of a person, group of persons, work of art, idea, or trend. ...


On 28 June 1925, Hitler wrote a letter from Uffing to the editor of The Nation in New York City stating how long he had been in prison at "Sandberg a. S." [sic] and how much his privileges had been revoked.[49] Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Nation (ISSN 0027-8378) is a weekly [1] U.S. periodical devoted to politics and culture, self-described as the flagship of the left. ...

Mein Kampf

While at Landsberg he dictated most of the first volume of Mein Kampf (My Struggle, originally entitled Four and a Half Years of Struggle against Lies, Stupidity, and Cowardice) to his deputy Rudolf Hess.[48] The book, dedicated to Thule Society member Dietrich Eckart, was an autobiography and an exposition of his ideology. Mein Kampf was influenced by The Passing of the Great Race by Madison Grant which Hitler called "my Bible."[50] It was published in two volumes in 1925 and 1926, selling about 240,000 copies between 1925 and 1934. By the end of the war, about 10 million copies had been sold or distributed (newlyweds and soldiers received free copies). Mein Kampf (English: My Struggle/My Battle) is a book by the Austrian-born leader of Nazi Germany, Adolf Hitler. ... Mein Kampf (English: My Struggle/My Battle) is a book by the Austrian-born leader of Nazi Germany, Adolf Hitler. ... Not to be confused with Rudolf Hoess. ... Dietrich Eckart Dietrich Eckart (March 23, 1868 - December 26, 1923) was one of the early key members of the National-Socialist German Workers Party and one of the participants in the 1923 Beer Hall Putsch. ... For writing autobiographies on Wikipedia, see WP:Autobiography. ... Present Distribution of the European Races — Grants vision of the status quo, with the Nordics in red, the Alpines in green, and the Mediterraneans in yellow. ... Madison Grant in the early 1920s. ...


Hitler spent years dodging taxes on the royalties of his book and had accumulated a tax debt of about 405,500 Reichsmarks (€6 million in today's money) by the time he became chancellor (at which time his debt was waived).[51][52] User(s) Germany Subunit 1/100 Reichspfennig Symbol RM Reichspfennig Rpf. ...


The copyright of Mein Kampf in Europe is claimed by the Free State of Bavaria and scheduled to end on 31 December 2015. Reproductions in Germany are authorized only for scholarly purposes and in heavily commented form. The situation is, however, unclear. Historian Werner Maser, in an interview with Bild am Sonntag has stated that Peter Raubal, son of Hitler's nephew, Leo Raubal, would have a strong legal case for winning the copyright from Bavaria if he pursued it. Raubal has stated he wants no part of the rights to the book, which could be worth millions of euros.[53] The uncertain status has led to contested trials in Poland and Sweden. Mein Kampf, however, is published in the U.S., as well as in other countries such as Turkey and Israel, by publishers with various political positions. Not to be confused with copywriting. ... The Bild-Zeitung (often abbreviated Bild, lit. ...

Rebuilding of the party

Adolf Hitler (left), standing up behind Hermann Göring at a Nazi rally in Nuremberg, 1928

At the time of Hitler's release, the political situation in Germany had calmed and the economy had improved, which hampered Hitler's opportunities for agitation. Though the "Hitler Putsch" had given Hitler some national prominence, his party's mainstay was still Munich.   (January 12, 1893 – October 15, 1946) was a German politician and military leader, a leading member of the Nazi Party, second in command of the Third Reich, designated successor to Adolf Hitler, and commander of the Luftwaffe (German Air Force). ... Nürnberg redirects here. ...


The NSDAP and its organs were banned in Bavaria after the collapse of the putsch. Hitler convinced Heinrich Held, Prime Minister of Bavaria, to lift the ban, based on representations that the party would now only seek political power through legal means. Even though the ban on the NSDAP was removed effective 16 February 1925,[54] Hitler incurred a new ban on public speaking as a result of an inflammatory speech. Since Hitler was banned from public speeches, he appointed Gregor Strasser, who in 1924 had been elected to the Reichstag, as Reichsorganisationsleiter, authorizing him to organize the party in northern Germany. Strasser, joined by his younger brother Otto and Joseph Goebbels, steered an increasingly independent course, emphasizing the socialist element in the party's programme. The Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Gauleiter Nord-West became an internal opposition, threatening Hitler's authority, but this faction was defeated at the Bamberg Conference in 1926, during which Goebbels joined Hitler. Gregor Strasser Gregor Strasser (variant German spelling Straßer) (May 31, 1892, Geisenfeld, Germany - June 30, 1934, Berlin) was a politician of the German Nazi Party (NSDAP). ... The Reichstag (German for Imperial Diet) was the parliament of the Holy Roman Empire, the North German Confederation, and of Germany until 1945. ... Paul Joseph Goebbels (German pronunciation: IPA: ; English generally IPA: ) (October 29, 1897 – May 1, 1945) was a German politician and Minister for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda during the National Socialist regime from 1933 to 1945. ... The Bamberg Conference (1926) was held during the wilderness years of the Nazi party. ...


After this encounter, Hitler centralized the party even more and asserted the Führerprinzip ("Leader principle") as the basic principle of party organization. Leaders were not elected by their group but were rather appointed by their superior and were answerable to them while demanding unquestioning obedience from their inferiors. Consistent with Hitler's disdain for democracy, all power and authority devolved from the top down. Adolf Hitler made believe he was the incarnation of the Führerprinzip The Führerprinzip, the German name for the leader principle, refers to a system with a hierarchy of leaders that resembles a military structure. ...


A key element of Hitler's appeal was his ability to evoke a sense of offended national pride caused by the Treaty of Versailles imposed on the defeated German Empire by the Western Allies. Germany had lost economically important territory in Europe along with its colonies and in admitting to sole responsibility for the war had agreed to pay a huge reparations bill totaling 132 billion marks. Most Germans bitterly resented these terms, but early Nazi attempts to gain support by blaming these humiliations on "international Jewry" were not particularly successful with the electorate. The party learned quickly, and soon a more subtle propaganda emerged, combining antisemitism with an attack on the failures of the "Weimar system" and the parties supporting it. This article or section should include material from German Monarchy The term German Empire (the translation from German of Deutsches Reich) commonly refers to Germany, from its consolidation as a unified nation-state on January 18, 1871, until the abdication of Kaiser (Emperor) Wilhelm II on November 9, 1918. ... World War I reparations refers to the payments and transfers of property and equipment that the German state was forced to make following its defeat during World War I. Article 231 of the Treaty (the war guilt clause) held Germany solely responsible for all loss and damage suffered by the... German 20 Mark banknote from 1914 (www. ...


Having failed in overthrowing the Republic by a coup, Hitler pursued a "strategy of legality": this meant formally adhering to the rules of the Weimar Republic until he had legally gained power. He would then use the institutions of the Weimar Republic to destroy it and establish himself as dictator. Some party members, especially in the paramilitary SA, opposed this strategy; Röhm and others ridiculed Hitler as "Adolphe Legalité".

Rise to power

Nazi Party Election Results
Date Votes Percentage Seats in Reichstag Background
May 1924 1,918,300 6.5 32 Hitler in prison
December 1924 907,300 3.0 14 Hitler is released from prison
May 1928 810,100 2.6 12  
September 1930 6,409,600 18.3 107 After the financial crisis
July 1932 13,745,800 37.4 230 After Hitler was candidate for presidency
November 1932 11,737,000 33.1 196  
March 1933 17,277,000 43.9 288 During Hitler's term as Chancellor of Germany

Brüning Administration

An NSDAP meeting in December 1930, with Hitler in the centre

The political turning point for Hitler came when the Great Depression hit Germany in 1930. The Weimar Republic had never been firmly rooted and was openly opposed by right-wing conservatives (including monarchists), communists and the Nazis. As the parties loyal to the democratic, parliamentary republic found themselves unable to agree on counter-measures, their grand coalition broke up and was replaced by a minority cabinet. The new Chancellor, Heinrich Brüning of the Roman Catholic Centre Party, lacking a majority in parliament, had to implement his measures through the president's emergency decrees. Tolerated by the majority of parties, this rule by decree would become the norm over a series of unworkable parliaments and paved the way for authoritarian forms of government.[55] The 3rd German parliamentary federal elections in the Weimar Republic took place in May 1924. ... The 4th German federal parliament elections of December 1924 (Weimar Republic). ... The 18th German federal election of 1928, under the Weimar Republic. ... The German election of 1930, under the Weimar Republic. ... The German election of July 1932, under the Weimar Republic, saw the Nazis become the biggest party in the Reichstag, although without a majority of the seats. ... The 8th German federal election of November 1932 (Weimar Republic) saw support for the Nazi party drop significantly, due to increased support for the KPD and DNVP. Categories: Elections in Germany | 1932 elections ... The 9th and last German federal election of the Weimar Republic was held on March 5, 1933, and was significant in that it was the last election to be held in Germany before World War II. Due to the success of the Nazi Party in the poll, its leader, and... The Nazi swastika The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei), better known as the NSDAP or the Nazi Party was a political party that was led to power in Germany by Adolf Hitler in 1933. ... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favor tradition and gradual change, where tradition refers to religious, cultural, or nationally defined beliefs and customs. ... Parliamentary republics around the world, shown in Orange (Parliamentary republics with a non-executive President) and Green (Parliamentary republics with an executive President linked to Parliament). ... A grand coalition is a coalition government in a parliamentary system where political parties representing a vast majority of the parliament unite in a coalition. ... Heinrich Brüning on a Centre Party election poster (German Resistance Museum, Berlin) Dr. Heinrich Brüning ( ) (November 26, 1885 – March 30, 1970) was a German politician during the Weimer Republic. ... The German Centre Party (Deutsche Zentrumspartei or merely Zentrum), often called the Catholic Centre Party, was a Catholic political party in Germany during the Kaiserreich and the Weimar Republic. ... A state of emergency is a governmental declaration that may suspend certain normal functions of government, may work to alert citizens to alter their normal behaviors, or may order government agencies to implement emergency preparedness plans. ... The term authoritarian is used to describe an organization or a state which enforces strong and sometimes oppressive measures against the population, generally without attempts at gaining the consent of the population. ...


The Reichstag's initial opposition to Brüning's measures led to premature elections in September 1930. The republican parties lost their majority and their ability to resume the grand coalition, while the Nazis suddenly rose from relative obscurity to win 18.3% of the vote along with 107 seats. In the process, they jumped from the ninth-smallest party in the chamber to the second largest.[56]


In September–October 1930, Hitler appeared as a major defence witness at the trial in Leipzig of two junior Reichswehr officers charged with membership of the Nazi Party, which at that time was forbidden to Reichswehr personnel.[57] The two officers, Leutnants Richard Scheringer and Hans Ludin admitted quite openly to Nazi Party membership, and used as their defence that the Nazi Party membership should not be forbidden to those serving in the Reichswehr.[58] When the Prosecution argued that the Nazi Party was a dangerous revolutionary force, one of the defence lawyers, Hans Frank had Hitler brought to the stand to prove that the Nazi Party was a law-abiding party.[58] During his testimony, Hitler insisted that his party was determined to come to power legally, that the phrase "National Revolution" was only to be interpreted "politically", and that his Party was a friend, not an enemy of the Reichswehr.[59] Hitler's testimony of 25 September 1930 won him many admirers within the ranks of the officer corps.[60] Leipzig ( ; Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk from the Sorbian word for Tilia) is, with a population of over 506,000, the largest city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany. ... Hans Frank (May 23, 1900 – October 16, 1946) was a lawyer for the Nazi party during the 1920s and a senior official in Nazi Germany. ...


Brüning's measures of budget consolidation and financial austerity brought little economic improvement and were extremely unpopular.[61] Under these circumstances, Hitler appealed to the bulk of German farmers, war veterans and the middle class, who had been hard-hit by both the inflation of the 1920s and the unemployment of the Depression.[62] In September 1931, Hitler's niece Geli Raubal was found dead in her bedroom in his Munich apartment (his half-sister Angela and her daughter Geli had been with him in Munich since 1929), an apparent suicide. Geli, who was believed to be in some sort of romantic relationship with Hitler, was 19 years younger than he was and had used his gun. His niece's death is viewed as a source of deep, lasting pain for him.[63] Austerity is a term from economics that describes a policy where nations reduce living standards, curtail development projects, and generally shift the revenue stream out of the physical economy, in order to satisfy the demands of creditors. ... Geli Raubal Angela Geli Raubal (June 4, 1908 – September 18, 1931). ... Adolf Hitler with his halfsister Angela Angela Raubal Hamitsch, born Angela Hitler (July 28, 1883 - October 30, 1949), was the elder half-sister of Adolf Hitler. ...


In 1932, Hitler intended to run against the aging President Paul von Hindenburg in the scheduled presidential elections. His 27 January 1932 speech to the Industry Club in Düsseldorf won him, for the first time, support from a broad swath of Germany's most powerful industrialists.[64] Though Hitler had left Austria in 1913, he still had not acquired German citizenship and hence could not run for public office. In February, however, the state government of Brunswick, in which the Nazi Party participated, appointed Hitler to a minor administrative post and therby made him a citizen of Brunswick on 25 February 1932.[65] In those days, the states conferred citizenship, so this automatically made Hitler a citizen of Germany and thus eligible to run for president.[66] The President of Germany is Germanys head of state. ... Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known universally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a German field marshal and statesman. ... The presidential election (Reichspräsidentenwahl) of 1932 was the second and final direct election to the office of President of the Reich (Reichspräsident), Germanys head of state during the 1919-1934 Weimar Republic. ... Düsseldorf (IPA: ) is the capital city of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia. ... Brunswick was a historical state in Germany, established as a duchy by the Congress of Vienna in 1815. ...


The new German citizen ran against Hindenburg, who was supported by a broad range of nationalist, monarchist, Catholic, republican and even social democratic parties. Another candidate was a Communist and member of a fringe right-wing party. Hitler's campaign was called "Hitler über Deutschland" (Hitler over Germany).[67] The name had a double meaning; besides a reference to his dictatorial ambitions, it referred to the fact that he campaigned by aircraft.[67] Hitler came in second on both rounds, attaining more than 35% of the vote during the second one in April. Although he lost to Hindenburg, the election established Hitler as a realistic alternative in German politics.[68] Republicanism is the ideology of governing a nation as a republic, with an emphasis on liberty, rule of law, popular sovereignty and the civic virtue practiced by citizens. ... 1932 KPD poster, End This System The Communist Party of Germany (German Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands – KPD) was a major political party in Germany between 1918 and 1933, and a minor party in West Germany in the postwar period. ...

Appointment as Chancellor

Meanwhile, Papen tried to get his revenge on Schleicher by working toward the General's downfall, through forming an intrigue with the camarilla and Alfred Hugenberg, media mogul and chairman of the DNVP. Also involved were Hjalmar Schacht, Fritz Thyssen and other leading German businessmen. They financially supported the Nazi Party, which had been brought to the brink of bankruptcy by the cost of heavy campaigning. The businessmen wrote letters to Hindenburg, urging him to appoint Hitler as leader of a government "independent from parliamentary parties" which could turn into a movement that would "enrapture millions of people."[69] Alfred Hugenberg (June 19, 1865 - March 12, 1951) was an influential German businessman and politician. ... Friedrich (Fritz) Thyssen (November 9, 1873, Mülheim an der Ruhr – February 8, 1951, Martínez, San Isidro Partido, Greater Buenos Aires) was a German businessman born into one of Germanys leading industrial families. ...

Adolf Hitler, at a window of the Reich's Chancellory, receives an ovation from supporters in his first day in office as Chancellor. (30 January 1933)

Finally, the president reluctantly agreed to appoint Hitler Chancellor of a coalition government formed by the NSDAP and DNVP. However, the Nazis were to be contained by a framework of conservative cabinet ministers, most notably by Papen as Vice-Chancellor and by Hugenberg as Minister of the Economy. The only other Nazi besides Hitler to get a portfolio was Wilhelm Frick, who was given the relatively powerless interior ministry (in Germany at the time, most powers wielded by the interior minister in other countries were held by the interior ministers of the states). As a concession to the Nazis, Göring was named minister without portfolio. While Papen intended to use Hitler as a figurehead, the Nazis gained key positions. The Vice-Chancellor of Germany (Vizekanzler) in Germany is the second highest position in the cabinet. ... Dr. Wilhelm Frick (March 12, 1877 â€“ October 16, 1946) was a prominent Nazi official. ... A Minister without Portfolio is a government minister with no specific responsibilities. ...


On the morning of 30 January 1933, in Hindenburg's office, Adolf Hitler was sworn in as Chancellor during what some observers later described as a brief and simple ceremony. His first speech as Chancellor took place on 10 February. The Nazis' seizure of power subsequently became known as the Machtergreifung. Machtergreifung is a German word meaning seizure of power. ...

Reichstag fire and the March elections

Having become Chancellor, Hitler foiled all attempts by his opponents to gain a majority in parliament. Because no single party could gain a majority, Hitler persuaded President Hindenburg to dissolve the Reichstag again. Elections were scheduled for early March, but on 27 February 1933, the Reichstag building was set on fire.[70] Since a Dutch independent communist was found in the building, the fire was blamed on a communist plot. The government reacted with the Reichstag Fire Decree of 28 February which suspended basic rights, including habeas corpus. Under the provisions of this decree, the German Communist Party (KPD) and other groups were suppressed, and Communist functionaries and deputies were arrested, forced to flee, or murdered. The Reichstag fire was a pivotal event in the establishment of Nazi Germany. ... Mugshot of van der Lubbe Marinus (Rinus) van der Lubbe (13 January 1909 – 10 January 1934) was a Dutch council communist accused of, and eventually executed for, setting fire to the German Reichstag building on February 27, 1933, an event known as the Reichstag fire. ... A German newspapers final issue, announcing its own prohibition (Verbot) by the police authorities on the basis of the Reichstag fire decree The Reichstag Fire Decree (Reichstagsbrandverordnung in German) is the common name of the decree issued by German president Paul von Hindenburg in direct response to the Reichstag... For other uses, see Habeas corpus (disambiguation). ... 1932 KPD poster, End This System The Communist Party of Germany (German Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands – KPD) was a major political party in Germany between 1918 and 1933, and a minor party in West Germany in the postwar period. ...


Campaigning continued, with the Nazis making use of paramilitary violence, anti-communist hysteria, and the government's resources for propaganda. On election day, 6 March, the NSDAP increased its result to 43.9% of the vote, remaining the largest party, but its victory was marred by its failure to secure an absolute majority, necessitating maintaining a coalition with the DNVP.[71]

Parade of SA troops past Hitler – Nuremberg, November 1935

"Day of Potsdam" and the Enabling Act

On 21 March, the new Reichstag was constituted with an opening ceremony held at Potsdam's garrison church. This "Day of Potsdam" was staged to demonstrate reconciliation and unity between the revolutionary Nazi movement and "Old Prussia" with its elites and virtues. Hitler appeared in a tail coat and humbly greeted the aged President Hindenburg.


Because of the Nazis' failure to obtain a majority on their own, Hitler's government confronted the newly elected Reichstag with the Enabling Act that would have vested the cabinet with legislative powers for a period of four years. Though such a bill was not unprecedented, this act was different since it allowed for deviations from the constitution. Since the bill required a ⅔ majority in order to pass, the government needed the support of other parties. The position of the Centre Party, the third largest party in the Reichstag, turned out to be decisive: under the leadership of Ludwig Kaas, the party decided to vote for the Enabling Act. It did so in return for the government's oral guarantees regarding the Church's liberty, the concordats signed by German states and the continued existence of the Centre Party. The Enabling Act (Ermächtigungsgesetz in German) was passed by Germanys parliament (the Reichstag) on March 23, 1933. ... A legislature is a governmental deliberative body with the power to adopt laws. ... Monsignor Ludwig Kaas (23 May 1881-15 April 1952) was a Roman Catholic priest, and a prominent German politician during the Weimar Republic. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ...


On 23 March, the Reichstag assembled in a replacement building under extremely turbulent circumstances. Some SA men served as guards within while large groups outside the building shouted slogans and threats toward the arriving deputies. Kaas announced that the Centre Party would support the bill with "concerns put aside," while Social Democrat Otto Wels denounced the act in his speech. At the end of the day, all parties except the Social Democrats voted in favour of the bill. The Communists, as well as some Social Democrats, were barred from attending. The Enabling Act, combined with the Reichstag Fire Decree, transformed Hitler's government into a legal dictatorship. Otto Wels (September 15, 1873 - September 16, 1939) was the chairman of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) from 1919 and a member of parliament from 1920 to 1930. ...

Removal of remaining limits

At the risk of appearing to talk nonsense I tell you that the Nazi movement will go on for 1,000 years! ... Don't forget how people laughed at me 15 years ago when I declared that one day I would govern Germany. They laugh now, just as foolishly, when I declare that I shall remain in power!

—Adolf Hitler to a British correspondent in Berlin, June 1934[72]

With this combination of legislative and executive power, Hitler's government further suppressed the remaining political opposition. The Communist Party of Germany and the Social Democratic Party (SPD) were banned, while all other political parties were forced to dissolve themselves. Finally, on 14 July, the Nazi Party was declared the only legal party in Germany. A Legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to create, amend and ratify laws. ... This politics-related article is a stub. ... SPD redirects here. ... A single-party state or one-party system or single-party system is a type of party system and form of government where only a single political party dominates the government and no opposition parties are allowed. ...


Hitler used the SA paramilitary to push Hugenberg into resigning, and proceeded to politically isolate Vice-Chancellor Papen. Because the SA's demands for political and military power caused much anxiety among military and political leaders, Hitler used allegations of a plot by the SA leader Ernst Röhm to purge the SA's leadership during the Night of the Long Knives. As well, opponents unconnected with the SA were murdered, notably Gregor Strasser and former Chancellor Kurt von Schleicher.[73] Ernst Julius Röhm, also known as Ernst Roehm in English (Munich November 28, 1887 – July 2, 1934) was a German military officer, and the commander and co-founder of the Nazi Sturmabteilung — the SA. // Röhm was one of three children of Julius Röhm and his wife Emilie... For other uses, see Night of the Long Knives (disambiguation). ... Gregor Strasser Gregor Strasser (variant German spelling Straßer) (May 31, 1892, Geisenfeld, Germany - June 30, 1934, Berlin) was a politician of the German Nazi Party (NSDAP). ...   (7 April 1882 – 30 June 1934) was a German general and the last Chancellor of Germany during the era of the Weimar Republic. ...

In 1934, Hitler became Germany's president under the title Führer und Reichskanzler (Leader and Chancellor of the Reich).

President Paul von Hindenburg died on 2 August 1934. Rather than call new elections as required by the constitution, Hitler's cabinet passed a law proclaiming the presidency vacant and transferred the role and powers of the head of state to Hitler as Führer und Reichskanzler (leader and chancellor). This action effectively removed the last legal remedy by which Hitler could be dismissed – and with it, nearly all institutional checks and balances on his power. Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known universally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a German field marshal and statesman. ... Nazi propaganda poster. ...


On 19 August a plebiscite approved the merger of the presidency with the chancellorship winning 84.6% of the electorate.[74][75] This action technically violated both the constitution and the Enabling Act. The constitution had been amended in 1932 to make the president of the High Court of Justice, not the chancellor, acting president until new elections could be held. The Enabling Act specifically barred Hitler from taking any action that tampered with the presidency. However, no one dared object.


As head of state, Hitler now became Supreme Commander of the armed forces. When it came time for the soldiers and sailors to swear the traditional loyalty oath, it had been altered into an oath of personal loyalty to Hitler. Normally, soldiers and sailors swear loyalty to the holder of the office of supreme commander/commander-in-chief, not a specific person.[76] Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ...


In 1938, Hitler forced the resignation of his War Minister (formerly Defense Minister), Werner von Blomberg, after evidence surfaced that Blomberg's new wife had a criminal past. Prior to removing Blomberg, Hitler and his clique removed army commander Werner von Fritsch on suspicion of homosexuality.[77] Hitler replaced the Ministry of War with the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (High Command of the Armed Forces, or OKW), headed by the pliant General Wilhelm Keitel. More importantly, Hitler announced he was assuming personal command of the armed forces. He took over Blomberg's other old post, that of Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, for himself. He was already Supreme Commander by virtue of holding the powers of the president. The next day, the newspapers announced, "Strongest concentration of powers in Führer's hands!" Werner von Blomberg. ... Werner Freiherr von Fritsch (4 August 1880 in Benrath - 22 September 1939 Praga near Warsaw) was a prominent Wehrmacht officer, member of the German High Command, and the first German general to die in the Second World War. ... The command flag for the Chief of the High Command of the German Armed Forces (1938 - 1941) The command flag for a Generalfeldmarschall as the Chief of the High Command of the German Armed Forces (1941 - 1945) The Oberkommando der Wehrmacht or OKW (Wehrmacht High Command, Armed Forces High Command... Wilhelm Bodewin Johann Gustav Keitel (September 22, 1882–October 16, 1946) was a German field marshal (Generalfeldmarschall) and a senior military leader during World War II. // Keitel was born in Helmscherode, Brunswick, German Empire, the son of Carl Keitel, a middle-class landowner, and his wife Apollonia Vissering. ...

Third Reich

Having secured supreme political power, Hitler went on to gain public support by convincing most Germans he was their savior from the economic Depression, the Versailles treaty, communism, the "Judeo-Bolsheviks", and other "undesirable" minorities. The Nazis eliminated opposition through a process known as Gleichschaltung ("bringing into line"). Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... The following is a list of pejorative political epithets; meaning, words or phrases used to mock or insult certain political views and their supporters. ... “Minority” redirects here. ... The German word Gleichschaltung â’½ â’¾ (literally synchronising, synchronization) is used in a political sense to describe the process by which the Nazi regime successively established a system of totalitarian control over the individual, and tight coordination over all aspects of society and commerce. ...

Economy and culture

Hitler oversaw one of the greatest expansions of industrial production and civil improvement Germany had ever seen, mostly based on debt flotation and expansion of the military. Nazi policies toward women strongly encouraged them to stay at home to bear children and keep house. In a September 1934 speech to the National Socialist Women's Organization, Adolf Hitler argued that for the German woman her "world is her husband, her family, her children, and her home." This policy was reinforced by bestowing the Cross of Honor of the German Mother on women bearing four or more babies. The unemployment rate was cut substantially, mostly through arms production and sending women home so that men could take their jobs. Given this, claims that the German economy achieved near full employment are at least partly artifacts of propaganda from the era. Much of the financing for Hitler's reconstruction and rearmament came from currency manipulation by Hjalmar Schacht, including the clouded credits through the Mefo bills. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In economics, full employment has more than one meaning. ... This article needs to be wikified. ...

1934 Nuremberg rally

Hitler oversaw one of the largest infrastructure-improvement campaigns in German history, with the construction of dozens of dams, autobahns, railroads, and other civil works. Hitler's policies emphasised the importance of family life: men were the "breadwinners", while women's priorities were to lie in bringing up children and in household work. This revitalising of industry and infrastructure came at the expense of the overall standard of living, at least for those not affected by the chronic unemployment of the later Weimar Republic, since wages were slightly reduced in pre-World War II years, despite a 25% increase in the cost of living.[78] Laborers and farmers, the traditional voters of the NSDAP, however, saw an increase in their standard of living. This article is about the German, Austrian and Swiss road system. ...


Hitler's government sponsored architecture on an immense scale, with Albert Speer becoming famous as the first architect of the Reich. While important as an architect in implementing Hitler's classicist reinterpretation of German culture, Speer proved much more effective as armaments minister during the last years of World War II. In 1936, Berlin hosted the summer Olympic games, which were opened by Hitler and choreographed to demonstrate Aryan superiority over all other races, achieving mixed results. For the son of Albert Speer, also an architect, see Albert Speer (the younger). ... The 1936 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XI Olympiad, were held in 1936 in Berlin, Germany. ... Look up Choreography in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Although Hitler made plans for a Breitspurbahn ("broad gauge railroad network"), they were preempted by World War II. Had the railroad been built, its gauge would have been three metres, even wider than the old Great Western Railway of Britain. The Breitspurbahn was a wide-track railroad planned by Adolf Hitler during his rulership of Germany. ... For other uses, see Gauge. ... The original Bristol Temple Meads station, first terminus of the GWR, is the building to the left of this picture The Great Western Railway (GWR) was a British railway company, linking South West England, the West Country and South Wales with London. ...


Hitler contributed slightly to the design of the car that later became the Volkswagen Beetle and charged Ferdinand Porsche with its design and construction.[79] Production was deferred because of the war. This article is about the original Volkswagen Beetle. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Hitler considered Sparta to be the first National Socialist state, and praised its early eugenics treatment of deformed children.[80] For modern day Sparta, see Sparti (municipality). ... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Eugenics Conference [10], 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ...


On April 20, 1939, a lavish celebration was held in honor of Hitler's 50th birthday, featuring military parades, visits from foreign dignitaries, thousands of flaming torches and Nazi banners.[81]


An important historical debate about Hitler's economic policies concerns the "modernization" debate. Historians such as David Schoenbaum and Henry Ashby Turner have argued that social and economic polices under Hitler were modernization carried out in pursuit of anti-modern goals.[82] Other groups of historians centered around Rainer Zitelmann have contended that Hitler had a deliberate strategy of pursuing a revolutionary modernization of German society.[83] Henry Ashby Turner, Jr. ... Rainer Zitelmann (born 1957 in Frankfurt) is a German historian, journalist and management consultant. ...

Rearmament and new alliances

Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini during Hitler's visit to Venice from 14 to 16 June 1934

In a meeting with his leading generals and admirals on 3 February 1933, Hitler spoke of "conquest of Lebensraum in the East and its ruthless Germanisation" as his ultimate foreign policy objectives.[84] In March 1933, the first major statement of German foreign policy aims appeared with the memo submitted to the German Cabinet by the State Secretary at the Auswärtiges Amt (Foreign Office), Prince Bernhard von Bülow (not to be confused with his more famous uncle, the former Chancellor Bernhard von Bülow), which advocated Anschluss with Austria, the restoration of the frontiers of 1914, the rejection of the Part V of Versailles, the return of the former German colonies in Africa, and a German zone of influence in Eastern Europe as goals for the future. Hitler found the goals in Bülow's memo to be too modest.[85] In March 1933, to resolve the deadlock between the French demand for sécurité ("security") and the German demand for gleichberechtigung ("equality of armaments") at the World Disarmament Conference in Geneva, Switzerland, the British Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald presented the compromise "MacDonald Plan". Hitler endorsed the "MacDonald Plan", correctly guessing that nothing would come of it, and that in the interval he could win some goodwill in London by making his government appear moderate, and the French obstinate.[86] Black: Zenith of the Axis Powers Capital Not applicable Political structure Military alliance Historical era World War II  - Tripartite Pact September 27, 1940  - Anti-Comintern Pact November 25, 1936  - Pact of Steel May 22, 1939  - Dissolved 1945 This article is about the independent countries (states) that comprised the Axis powers. ... The Tripartite Treaty (1906) also refers to a 1906 treaty concerning the Nile river (see Hydropolitics in the Nile Basin. ... Mussolini redirects here. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... Prince  , born Bernhard Heinrich Karl Martin von Bülow (May 3, 1849 – October 28, 1929) was a German statesman who served as Chancellor of the German Empire from 1900 to 1909. ... German troops march into Austria on 12 March 1938. ... Eastern Europe is a concept that lacks one precise definition. ... The Disarmament Conference of 1932-34 (sometimes World Disarmament Conference or Geneva Disarmament Conference) was an effort by member states of the League of Nations, together with the U.S. and the Soviet Union, to actualise the ideology of disarmament. ... For other uses, see Geneva (disambiguation). ... James Ramsay MacDonald (12 October 1866 – 9 November 1937) was a British politician and three times Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ...


In May 1933, Hitler met with Herbert von Dirksen, the German Ambassador in Moscow. Dirksen advised the Führer that he was allowing relations with the Soviet Union to deteriorate to a unacceptable extent, and advised to take immediate steps to repair relations with the Soviets.[87] Much to Dirksen's intense disappointment, Hitler informed that he wished for an anti-Soviet understanding with Poland, which Dirksen protested implied recognition of the German-Polish border, leading Hitler to state he was after much greater things than merely overturning the Treaty of Versailles.[88] Herbert von Dirksen (April 2, 1882 - 1955, Berlin) was the last German Ambassador to Britain before World War Two. ... This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28, 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . Left to right, Prime Minister David Lloyd George of the United Kingdom, Prime Minister Vittorio Emanuele Orlando of Italy, Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau of France...


In June 1933, Hitler was forced to disavow Alfred Hugenberg of the German National People's Party, who while attending the London World Economic Conference put forth a programme of colonial expansion in both Africa and Eastern Europe, which created a major storm abroad.[89] Speaking to the Burgermeister of Hamburg in 1933, Hitler commented that Germany required several years of peace before it could be sufficiently rearmed enough to risk a war, and until then a policy of caution was called for.[90] In his "peace speeches" of 17 May 1933, 21 May 1935, and 7 March 1936, Hitler stressed his supposed pacific goals and a willingness to work within the international system.[91] In private, Hitler's plans were something less than pacific. At the first meeting of his Cabinet in 1933, Hitler placed military spending ahead of unemployment relief, and indeed was only prepared to spend money on the latter if the former was satisfied first.[92] When the president of the Reichsbank, the former Chancellor Dr. Hans Luther, offered the new government the legal limit of 100 million Reichmarks to finance rearmament, Hitler found the sum too low, and sacked Luther in March 1933 to replace him with Hjalmar Schacht, who during the next five years was to advance 12 billion Reichmarks worth of "Mefo-bills" to pay for rearmament.[93] Alfred Hugenberg (June 19, 1865 - March 12, 1951) was an influential German businessman and politician. ... The London Economic Conference was a meeting that took place between 66 nations in the summer of 1933. ... For other uses, see Hamburg (disambiguation). ... Hans Luther (10 March 1885–11 May 1962) was a German politician and former Chancellor of Germany. ...


A major initiative in Hitler's foreign policy in his early years was to create an alliance with Britain. In the 1920s, Hitler wrote that a future National Socialist foreign policy goal was "the destruction of Russia with the help of England."[94] In May 1933, Alfred Rosenberg in his capacity as head of the Nazi Party's Aussenpolitisches Amt (Foreign Political Office) visited London as part of a disastrous effort to win an alliance with Britain.[95] In October 1933, Hitler pulled Germany out of both the League of Nations and World Disarmament Conference after his Foreign Minister Baron Konstantin von Neurath made it appear to world public opinion that the French demand for sécurité was the principal stumbling block.[96] Alfred Rosenberg around 1935   (January 12, 1893 Reval (today Tallinn) – October 16, 1946) was an early and intellectually influential member of the Nazi party, who later held several important posts in the Nazi government. ... 1939–1941 semi-official emblem Anachronous world map in 1920–1945, showing the League of Nations and the world Capital Not applicable¹ Language(s) English, French and Spanish Political structure International organization Secretary-general  - 1920–1933 Sir James Eric Drummond  - 1933–1940 Joseph Avenol  - 1940–1946 Seán Lester Historical... The Disarmament Conference of 1932-34 (sometimes World Disarmament Conference or Geneva Disarmament Conference) was an effort by member states of the League of Nations, together with the U.S. and the Soviet Union, to actualise the ideology of disarmament. ... Konstantin von Neurath Konstantin Freiherr von Neurath (February 2, 1873 – August 14, 1956) was a German diplomat, Foreign Minister of Germany (1932-1938) and Reichsprotektor (nazi representative in the Czech puppet state) of Bohemia and Moravia (1939-1943). ...


In line with the views he advocated in Mein Kampf and Zweites Buch about the necessity of building an Anglo-German alliance, Hitler, in a meeting in November 1933 with the British Ambassador, Sir Eric Phipps, offered a scheme in which Britain would support a 300,000-strong German Army in exchange for a German "guarantee" of the British Empire.[97] In response, the British stated a 10-year waiting period would be necessary before Britain would support an increase in the size of the German Army.[97] A more successful initiative in foreign policy occurred with relations with Poland. In spite of intense opposition from the military and the Auswärtiges Amt who preferred closer ties with the Soviet Union, Hitler, in the fall of 1933 opened secret talks with Poland that were to lead to the German–Polish Non-Aggression Pact of January 1934.[96] Mein Kampf (English: My Struggle/My Battle) is a book by the Austrian-born leader of Nazi Germany, Adolf Hitler. ... The Zweites Buch (Second Book and sometimes Secret Book) is an unedited transcript of Adolf Hitlers thoughts on a number of topics; it was written after Mein Kampf and was never published in his lifetime. ... For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ...


In February 1934, Hitler met with the British Lord Privy Seal, Sir Anthony Eden, and hinted strongly that Germany already possessed an Air Force, which had been forbidden by the Treaty of Versailles.[98] In the fall of 1934, Hitler was seriously concerned over the dangers of inflation damaging his popularity.[99] In a secret speech given before his Cabinet on 5 November 1934, Hitler stated he had "given the working class his word that he would allow no price increases. Wage-earners would accuse him of breaking his word if he did not act against the rising prices. Revolutionary conditions among the people would be the further consequence."[99] The Lord Privy Seal or Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal is one of the traditional sinecure offices in the British Cabinet. ... For the eponymous hat, see Anthony Eden hat. ...


Although a secret German armaments programme had been on-going since 1919, in March 1935, Hitler rejected Part V of the Versailles treaty by publicly announcing that the German army would be expanded to 600,000 men (six times the number stipulated in the Treaty of Versailles), introducing an Air Force (Luftwaffe) and increasing the size of the Navy (Kriegsmarine). Britain, France, Italy and the League of Nations quickly condemned these actions. However, after re-assurances from Hitler that Germany was only interested in peace, no country took any action to stop this development and German re-armament continued. Later in March 1935, Hitler held a series of meetings in Berlin with the British Foreign Secretary Sir John Simon and Eden, during which he successfully evaded British offers for German participation in a regional security pact meant to serve as an Eastern European equivalent of the Locarno pact while the two British ministers avoided taking up Hitler's offers of alliance.[100] During his talks with Simon and Eden, Hitler first used what he regarded as the brilliant colonial negotiating tactic, when Hitler parlayed an offer from Simon to return to the League of Nations by demanding the return of the former German colonies in Africa.[101] The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ...   (German IPA: ) is a generic German term for an air force. ... The Kriegsmarine (or War Navy) was the name of the German Navy between 1935 and 1945, during the Nazi regime, superseding the Reichsmarine. ... John Allsebrook Simon, 1st Viscount Simon GCSI GCVO OBE PC (1873-1954) was a British politician and statesman. ... The Locarno Treaties were seven agreements negotiated at Locarno, Switzerland on 5 October—16 October 1925 and formally signed in London on December 1, in which the World War I Western European Allied powers and the new states of central and Eastern Europe sought to secure the post-war territorial...


Starting in April 1935, disenchantment with how the Third Reich had developed in practice as opposed to what been promised led many in the Nazi Party, especially the Alte Kämpfer (Old Fighters; i.e., those who joined the Party before 1930, and who tended to be the most ardent anti-Semitics in the Party), and the SA into lashing out against Germany's Jewish minority as a way of expressing their frustrations against a group that the authorities would not generally protect.[102] The rank and file of the Party were most unhappy that two years into the Third Reich, and despite countless promises by Hitler prior to 1933, no law had been passed banning marriage or sex between those Germans belonging to the "Aryan" and Jewish "races". A Gestapo report from the spring of 1935 stated that the rank and file of the Nazi Party would "set in motion by us from below," a solution to the "Jewish problem," "that the government would then have to follow."[103] As a result, Nazi Party activists and the SA started a major wave of assaults, vandalism and boycotts against German Jews.[104] The seal of SA The  , abbreviated SA, (German for Storm division or Storm section, usually translated as stormtroop(er)s), functioned as a paramilitary organization of the NSDAP — the German Nazi party. ... The   (contraction of Geheime Staatspolizei: “secret state police”) was the official secret police of Nazi Germany. ...


On 18 June 1935, the Anglo-German Naval Agreement (A.G.N.A.) was signed in London which allowed for increasing the allowed German tonnage up to 35% of that of the British navy. Hitler called the signing of the A.G.N.A. "the happiest day of his life" as he believed the agreement marked the beginning of the Anglo-German alliance he had predicted in Mein Kampf.[105] This agreement was made without consulting either France or Italy, directly undermined the League of Nations and put the Treaty of Versailles on the path towards irrelevance.[106] After the signing of the A.G.N.A., in June 1935 Hitler ordered the next step in the creation of an Anglo-German alliance: taking all the societies demanding the restoration of the former German African colonies and coordinating (Gleichschaltung) them into a new Reich Colonial League (Reichskolonialbund) which over the next few years waged an extremely aggressive propaganda campaign for colonial restoration.[107] Hitler had no real interest in the former German African colonies. In Mein Kampf, Hitler had excoriated the Imperial German government for pursuing colonial expansion in Africa prior to 1914 on the grounds that the natural area for Lebensraum was Eastern Europe, not Africa.[108] It was Hitler's intention to use colonial demands as a negotiating tactic that would see a German "renunciation" of colonial claims in exchange for Britain making an alliance with the Reich on German terms.[109] The Anglo-German Naval Agreement (AGNA), was signed between United Kingdom and Germany in of June 18, 1935. ... The German word Gleichschaltung â’½ â’¾ (literally synchronising, synchronization) is used in a political sense to describe the process by which the Nazi regime successively established a system of totalitarian control over the individual, and tight coordination over all aspects of society and commerce. ... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ...


In the summer of 1935, Hitler was informed that, between inflation and the need to use foreign exchange to buy raw materials Germany lacked for rearmament, there were only 5 million Reichmarks available for military expenditure, and a pressing need for some 300,000 Reichmarks/day to prevent food shortages.[110] In August 1935, Dr. Hjalmar Schacht advised Hitler that the wave of anti-Semitic violence was interfering with the workings of the economy, and hence rearmament.[111] Following Dr. Schacht's complaints, plus reports that the German public did not approve of the wave of anti-Semitic violence, and that continuing police toleration of the violence was hurting the regime's popularity with the wider public, Hitler ordered a stop to "individual actions" against German Jews on 8 August 1935.[111] From Hitler's perspective, it was imperative to bring in harsh new anti-Semitic laws as a consolation prize for those Party members who were disappointed with Hitler's halt order of 8 August, especially because Hitler had only reluctantly given the halt order for pragmatic reasons, and his sympathies were with the Party radicals.[111] The annual Nazi Party Rally held at Nuremberg in September 1935 was to feature the first session of the Reichstag held at that city since 1543. Hitler had planned to have the Reichstag pass a law making the Nazi Swastika flag the flag of the German Reich, and a major speech in support of the impending Italian aggression against Ethiopia.[112] Hitler felt that the Italian aggression opened great opportunities for Germany. In August 1935, Hitler told Goebbels his foreign policy vision as: "With England eternal alliance. Good relationship with Poland . . . Expansion to the East. The Baltic belongs to us . . . Conflicts Italy-Abyssinia-England, then Japan-Russia imminent."[113]


At the last minute before the Nuremberg Party Rally was due to begin, the German Foreign Minister Baron Konstantin von Neurath persuaded Hitler to cancel his speech praising Italy for her willingness to commit aggression. Neurath convinced Hitler that his speech was too provocative to public opinion abroad as it contradicted the message of Hitler's "peace speeches", thus leaving Hitler with the sudden need to have something else to address the first meeting of the Reichstag in Nuremberg since 1543, other than the Reich Flag Law.[114] On 13 September 1935, Hitler hurriedly ordered two civil servants, Dr. Bernhard Lösener and Franz Albrecht Medicus of the Interior Ministry to fly to Nuremberg to start drafting anti-Semitic laws for Hitler to present to the Reichstag for 15 September.[112] On the evening of 15 September, Hitler presented two laws before the Reichstag banning sex and marriage between Aryan and Jewish Germans, the employment of Aryan woman under the age of 45 in Jewish households, and deprived "non-Aryans" of the benefits of German citizenship.[115] The laws of September 1935 are generally known as the Nuremberg Laws. Konstantin von Neurath Konstantin Freiherr von Neurath (February 2, 1873 – August 14, 1956) was a German diplomat, Foreign Minister of Germany (1932-1938) and Reichsprotektor (nazi representative in the Czech puppet state) of Bohemia and Moravia (1939-1943). ... The Nuremberg Laws (German: Nürnberger Gesetze) of 1935 were denaturalization laws passed in Nazi Germany. ...


In October 1935, in order to prevent further food shortages and the introduction of rationing, Hitler reluctantly ordered cuts in military spending[116] In the spring of 1936 in response to requests from Richard Walther Darré, Hitler ordered 60 million Reichmarks of foreign exchange to be used to buy seed oil for German farmers, a decision that led to bitter complaints from Dr. Schacht and the War Minister Field Marshal Werner von Blomberg that it would be impossible to achieve rearmament as long as foreign exchange was diverted to preventing food shortages[113] Given the economic problems which was affecting his popularity by early 1936, Hitler felt the pressing need for a foreign policy triumph as a way of distracting public attention from the economy.[113] Werner von Blomberg. ...


In an interview with the French journalist Bertrand de Jouvenel in February 1936, Hitler appeared to disavow Mein Kampf by saying that parts of his book were now out of date and he was not guided by them, though precisely which parts were out of date was left unclear.[117] In March 1936, Hitler again violated the Versailles treaty by reoccupying the demilitarized zone in the Rhineland. When Britain and France did nothing, he grew bolder. In July 1936, the Spanish Civil War began when the military, led by General Francisco Franco, rebelled against the elected Popular Front government. After receiving an appeal for help from General Franco in July 1936, Hitler sent troops to support Franco, and Spain served as a testing ground for Germany's new forces and their methods. At the same time, Hitler continued with his efforts to create an Anglo-German alliance. In July 1936, he offered to Phipps a promise that if Britain were to sign an alliance with the Reich, then Germany would commit to sending twelve divisions to the Far East to protect British colonial possessions there from a Japanese attack.[118] Hitler's offer was refused. Bertrand de Jouvenel (October 31, 1903, Paris -- March 1, 1987, Paris) was a French philosopher, political economist, and futurist. ... The Remilitarization of the Rhineland by the German Army took place on 7 March 1936 when German forces entered the Rhineland. ... In military terms, a demilitarized zone (DMZ) is an area, usually the frontier or boundary between two or more military powers (or alliances), where military activity is not permitted, usually by peace treaty, armistice or other bilateral or multilateral agreement. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ... Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde (December 4, 1892 - November 20, 1975), commonly known as Francisco Franco (pronounced ) or Francisco Franco y Bahamonde was leader of Spain from October 1936, as regent of Kingdom of Spain from 1947 until his death in 1975. ... The Popular Front (Spanish Popular Front) was an electoral coalition and pact signed in January 1936 by various left-wing political organisations, instigated by Manuel Azaña for the purpose of contesting that years election. ...


In August 1936, in response to a growing crisis in the German economy caused by the strains of rearmament, Hitler issued the "Four-Year Plan Memorandum" ordering Hermann Göring to carry out the Four Year Plan to have the German economy ready for war within the next four years.[119] During the 1936 economic crisis, the German government was divided into two factions, with one (the so-called "free market" faction) centering around the Reichsbank President Hjalmar Schacht and the former Price Commissioner Dr. Carl Friedrich Goerdeler calling for decreased military spending and a turn away from autarkic policies, and another faction around Göring calling for the opposite. Supporting the "free-market" faction were some of Germany's leading business executives, most notably Hermann Duecher of AEG, Robert Bosch of Robert Bosch GmbH, and Albert Voegeler of Vereinigte Stahlwerke AG.[120] Hitler hesitated for the first half of 1936 before siding with the more radical faction in his "Four Year Plan" memo of August.[121] Historians such as Richard Overy have argued that the importance of the memo, which was written personally by Hitler, can be gauged by the fact that Hitler, who had something of a phobia about writing, hardly ever wrote anything down, which indicates that Hitler had something especially important to say.[122] The "Four-Year Plan Memorandum" predicated an imminent all-out, apocalyptic struggle between "Judo-Bolshevism" and German National Socialism, which necessitated a total effort at rearmament regardless of the economic costs.[123] In the memo, Hitler wrote:   (January 12, 1893 – October 15, 1946) was a German politician and military leader, a leading member of the Nazi Party, second in command of the Third Reich, designated successor to Adolf Hitler, and commander of the Luftwaffe (German Air Force). ... The Four Year Plan was a series of alabama hot pokets ( the art of shitting in a womans vigina an then possibly having sex!!!! hard coreeconomic reforms created by the Nazi Party. ... Carl Friedrich Goerdeler Carl Friedrich Goerdeler (July 31, 1884 – February 2, 1945) was a conservative German politician and opponent of the Nazi regime. ... An autarky is an economy that limits trade with the outside world, or an ecosystem not affected by influences from the outside, and relies entirely on its own resources. ... AEG volt-meter designed by Peter Behrens AEG (Allgemeine Elektrizitäts-Gesellschaft, General Electricity Company) was a German producer of electronics and electrical equipment. ... Logo of Robert Bosch GmbH Robert Bosch GmbH [1] is a German corporation which was started in 1886 by Robert Bosch in Stuttgart, Germany. ... Richard Overy has published extensively on the history of World War II and the Third Reich. ...

Since the outbreak of the French Revolution, the world has been moving with ever increasing speed toward a new conflict, the most extreme solution of which is called Bolshevism, whose essence and aim, however, are solely the elimination of those strata of mankind which have hitherto provided the leadership and their replacement by worldwide Jewry. No state will be able to withdraw or even remain at a distance from this historical conflict . . . It is not the aim of this memorandum to prophesy the time when the untenable situation in Europe will become an open crisis. I only want, in these lines, to set down my conviction that this crisis cannot and will not fail to arrive and that it is Germany's duty to secure her own existence by every means in face of this catastrophe, and to protect herself against it, and that from this compulsion there arises a series of conclusions relating to the most important tasks that our people have ever been set. For a victory of Bolshevism over Germany would not lead to a Versailles treaty, but to the final destruction, indeed the annihilation of the German people . . . I consider it necessary for the Reichstag to pass the following two laws: 1) A law providing the death penalty for economic sabotage and 2) A law making the whole of Jewry liable for all damage inflicted by individual specimens of this community of criminals upon the German economy, and thus upon the German people.[124]

Hitler called for Germany to have the world's "first army" in terms of fighting power within the next four years and that "the extent of the military development of our resources cannot be too large, nor its pace too swift" (italics in the original) and the role of the economy was simply to support "Germany's self-assertion and the extension of her Lebensraum."[125][126] Hitler went on to write that given the magnitude of the coming struggle that the concerns expressed by members of the "free market" faction like Schacht and Goerdeler that the current level of military spending was bankrupting Germany were irrelevant. Hitler wrote that: "However well balanced the general pattern of a nation's life ought to be, there must at particular times be certain disturbances of the balance at the expense of other less vital tasks. If we do not succeed in bringing the German army as rapidly as possible to the rank of premier army in the world . . . then Germany will be lost!"[127] and "The nation does not live for the economy, for economic leaders, or for economic or financial theories; on the contrary, it is finance and the economy, economic leaders and theories, which all owe unqualified service in this struggle for the self-assertion of our nation."[120][clarification needed] Documents such as the Four Year Plan Memo have often used by right historians such as Henry Ashby Turner and Karl Dietrich Bracher who argue for a "primacy of politics" approach (that Hitler was not subordinate to German business, but rather the contrary was the case) against the "primacy of economics" approach championed by Marxist historians (that Hitler was a "agent" of and subordinate to German business).[128] Henry Ashby Turner, Jr. ... Karl Dietrich Bracher (born 13 March 1922) is a German political scientist and historian of the Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany. ...


In August 1936, the freelance Nazi diplomat Joachim von Ribbentrop was appointed German Ambassador to the Court of St. James. Before Ribbentrop left to take up his post in October 1936, Hitler told him: "Ribbentrop . . . get Britain to join the Anti-Comintern Pact, that is what I want most of all. I have sent you as the best man I've got. Do what you can . . . But if in future all our efforts are still in vain, fair enough, then I'm ready for war as well. I would regret it very much, but if it has to be, there it is. But I think it would be a short war and the moment it is over, I will then be ready at any time to offer the British an honourable peace acceptable to both sides. However, I would then demand that Britain join the Anti-Comintern Pact or perhaps some other pact. But get on with it, Ribbentrop, you have the trumps in your hand, play them well. I'm ready at any time for an air pact as well. Do your best. I will follow your efforts with interest".[129] Ulrich Friedrich Wilhelm Joachim von Ribbentrop (born Ulrich Friedrich Wilhelm Joachim Ribbentrop) (April 30, 1893 – October 16, 1946) was Foreign Minister of Germany from 1938 until 1945. ...

On 25 October 1936, an Axis was declared between Italy and Germany

An Axis was declared between Germany and Italy by Count Galeazzo Ciano, foreign minister of Fascist dictator Benito Mussolini on 25 October 1936. On 25 November of the same year, Germany concluded the Anti-Comintern Pact with Japan. At the time of the signing of the Anti-Comintern Pact, invitations were sent out for Britain, China, Italy and Poland to adhere; of the invited powers only the Italians were to sign the pact, in November 1937. To strengthen relationship with Japan, Hitler met in 1937 in Nuremberg Prince Chichibu, a brother of emperor Hirohito. However, the meeting with Prince Chichibu had little consequence, as Hitler refused the Japanese request to halt German arms shipments to China or withdraw the German officers serving with the Chinese in the Second Sino-Japanese War. Both the military and the Auswärtiges Amt (Foreign Office) were strongly opposed to ending the informal German alliance with China that existed since the 1910s, and pressured Hitler to avoid offending the Chinese. The Auswärtiges Amt and the military both argued to Hitler that given the foreign exchange problems which afflicted German rearmament, and the fact that various Sino-German economic agreements provided Germany with raw materials that would otherwise use up precious foreign exchange, it was folly to seek an alliance with Japan that would have the inevitable result of ending the Sino-German alignment. Gian Galeazzo Ciano, Count of Cortellazzo and Buccari (March 18, 1903 – January 11, 1944), was Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs and Benito Mussolinis son-in-law. ... Mussolini redirects here. ... The Anti-Comintern Pact was concluded between Nazi Germany and Japan on November 25, 1936. ... His Imperial Highness Prince Chichibu (Yasuhito) of Japan (25 June 1902 - 4 January 1953) (jp: 秩父宮 雍仁, Chichibu no miya Yasuhito Shinnō), also known as Prince Yasuhito, was the second son of the Taisho Emperor and a younger brother of the Emperor Shōwa. ... Belligerents China United States1 Empire of Japan Collaborationist Chinese Army2 Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Bai Chongxi, Peng Dehuai, Joseph Stilwell, Claire Chennault, Albert Wedemeyer Hirohito, Fumimaro Konoe, Hideki Tojo, Kotohito Kanin, Matsui Iwane, Hajime Sugiyama, Shunroku Hata, Toshizo Nishio... Sino-German cooperation played a great role in Chinese history of the early and mid 20th century. ...


By the latter half of 1937, Hitler had abandoned his dream of an Anglo-German alliance, blaming "inadequate" British leadership for turning down his offers of an alliance.[130] In a talk with the League of Nations High Commissioner for the Free City of Danzig, the Swiss diplomat Carl Jacob Burckhardt in September 1937, Hitler protested what he regarded as British interference in the "German sphere" in Europe, though in the same talk, Hitler made clear his view of Britain as an ideal ally, which for pure selfishness was blocking German plans.[130] Flag of Danzig The Free City of Danzig refers to either of two short-lived city-states which were centered on the present-day Baltic port known as Gdańsk (German: Danzig). ...


Hitler had suffered severely from stomach pains and eczema in 1936–37, leading to his remark to the Nazi Party's propaganda leadership in October 1937 that because both parents died early in their lives, he would probably follow suit, leaving him with only a few years to obtain the necessary Lebensraum.[131][132] About the same time, Dr. Goebbels noted in his diary Hitler now wished to see the "Great Germanic Reich" he envisioned in his own lifetime rather than leaving the work of building the "Great Germanic Reich" to his successors.[133]


On 5 November 1937, at the Reich Chancellory, Adolf Hitler held a secret meeting with the War and Foreign Ministers and the three service chiefs, recorded in the Hossbach Memorandum, and stated his intentions for acquiring "living space" Lebensraum for the German people. He ordered the attendees to make plans for war in the east no later than 1943 in order to acquire Lebensraum. Hitler stated the conference minutes were to be regarded as his "political testament" in the event of his death.[134] In the memo, Hitler was recorded as saying that such a state of crisis had been reached in the German economy that the only way of stopping a severe decline in living standards in Germany was to embark sometime in the near-future on a policy of aggression by seizing Austria and Czechoslovakia.[135][136] Moreover, Hitler stated that the arms race meant that time for action had to occur before Britain and France obtained a permanent lead in the arms race.[135] A striking change in the Hossbach Memo was Hitler's changed view of Britain from the prospective ally of 1928 in the Zweites Buch to the "hate-inspired antagonist" of 1937 in the Hossbach memo.[137] The historian Klaus Hildebrand described the memo as the start of an "ambivalent course" towards Britain while the late historian Andreas Hillgruber argued that Hitler was embarking on expansion "without Britain," preferably "with Britain," but if necessary "against Britain."[109][138] Exterior view of the entrance of the New Reich Chancellery. ... The Hossbach Memorandum was the summary of a meeting on November 5, 1937 between Adolf Hitler and his military leadership, laying out his plans to precipitate an aggressive war that would eventually be known as World War II in Europe. ... The term arms race in its original usage, describes a competition between two or more parties for military supremacy. ... Klaus Hildebrand (1941-) is a German conservative historian whose area of expertise is 19th-20th German political and military history. ... Andreas Fritz Hillgruber (January 18, 1925-May 8, 1989) was a conservative West German historian. ...


Hitler's intentions outlined in the Hossbach memorandum led to strong protests from the Foreign Minister, Baron Konstantin von Neurath, the War Minister Field Marshal Werner von Blomberg, and the Army Commander General Werner von Fritsch, that any German aggression in Eastern Europe was bound to trigger a war with France because of the French alliance system in Eastern Europe (the so-called cordon sanitaire), and if a Franco-German war broke out, then Britain was almost certain to intervene rather than risk the chance of a French defeat.[139] The aggression against Austria and Czechoslovakia were intended to be the first of a series of localized wars in Eastern Europe that would secure Germany's position in Europe before the final showdown with Britain and France. Fritsch, Blomberg and Neurath all argue that Hitler was pursuing an extremely high-risk strategy of localized wars in Eastern Europe that was most likely to cause a general war before Germany was ready for such a conflict, and advised Hitler to wait until Germany had more time to rearm. Neurath, Blomberg and Fritsch had no moral objections to German aggression, but rather based their opposition on the question of timing – determining the best time for aggression.[139] Konstantin von Neurath Konstantin Freiherr von Neurath (February 2, 1873 – August 14, 1956) was a German diplomat, Foreign Minister of Germany (1932-1938) and Reichsprotektor (nazi representative in the Czech puppet state) of Bohemia and Moravia (1939-1943). ... Werner Freiherr von Fritsch (4 August 1880 in Benrath - 22 September 1939 Praga near Warsaw) was a prominent Wehrmacht officer, member of the German High Command, and the first German general to die in the Second World War. ... Cordon sanitaire is a French phrase that, literally translated, means quarantine line. ...


Late in November 1937, Hitler received as his guest the British Lord Privy Seal, Lord Halifax who was visiting Germany ostensibly as part of a hunting trip. Speaking of changes to Germany's frontiers, Halifax told Hitler that: "All other questions fall into the category of possible alterations in the European order which might be destined to come about with the passage of time. Amongst these questions were Danzig, Austria and Czechoslovakia. England was interested to see that any alterations should come through the course of peaceful evolution and that the methods should be avoided which might cause far-reaching disturbances."[140] Significantly, Halifax made clear in his statements to Hitler—though whether Hitler appreciated the significance of this or not is unclear—that any possible territorial changes had to be accomplished peacefully, and that though Britain had no security commitments in Eastern Europe beyond the Covenant of the League of Nations, would not tolerate territorial changes via war.[141] Hitler seems to have misunderstood Halifax's remarks as confirming his conviction that Britain would just stand aside while he pursued his strategy of limited wars in Eastern Europe. Edward Frederick Lindley Wood, 1st Earl of Halifax, KG, OM, GCSI, GCMG, GCIE, PC (16 April 1881–23 December 1959), known as The Lord Irwin from 1925 until 1934 and as The Viscount Halifax from 1934 until 1944, was a British Conservative politician. ...


Hitler was most unhappy with the criticism of his intentions expressed by Neurath, Blomberg, and Fritsch in the Hossbach Memo, and in early 1938 asserted his control of the military-foreign policy apparatus through the Blomberg-Fritsch Affair, the abolition of the War Ministry and its replacement by the OKW, and by sacking Neurath as Foreign Minister on 4 February 1938, assuming the rank, role and tile of the Oberster Befehlshaber der Wehrmacht (supreme commander of the armed forces).[142] The British economic historian Richard Overy commented that the establishment of the OKW in February 1938 was a clear sign of what Hitler's intentions were since supreme headquarters organizations such as the OKW are normally set up during wartime, not peacetime.[143] The Official German history of World War II has argued that from early 1938 onwards, Hitler was not carrying out a foreign policy that had carried a high risk of war, but was carrying out a foreign policy aiming at war.[144] The Blomberg-Fritsch Affair (also known as Blomberg-Fritsch-Krise or Blomberg-Fritsch crisis) were two related scandals in early 1938 that resulted in the subjugation of the German Wehrmacht to Adolf Hitler who had been dissatisfied with these two highest ranking military officials, regarding them as too hesitant towards... The command flag for the Chief of the High Command of the German Armed Forces (1938 - 1941) The command flag for a Generalfeldmarschall as the Chief of the High Command of the German Armed Forces (1941 - 1945) The Oberkommando der Wehrmacht or OKW (Wehrmacht High Command, Armed Forces High Command... Richard Overy has published extensively on the history of World War II and the Third Reich. ...

The Holocaust

An American soldier stands near a wagon piled high with corpses outside the crematorium in the newly liberated Buchenwald concentration camp

One of the foundations of Hitler's social policies was the concept of racial hygiene. It was based on the ideas of Arthur de Gobineau, a French count; eugenics, a pseudo-science that advocated racial purity; and social Darwinism. Applied to human beings, "survival of the fittest" was interpreted as requiring racial purity and killing off "life unworthy of life." The first victims were children with physical and developmental disabilities; those killings occurred in a programme dubbed Action T4.[145] After a public outcry, Hitler made a show of ending this program, but the killings in fact continued (see Nazi eugenics). “Shoah” redirects here. ... Racial hygiene (often labeled a form of scientific racism) is the selection, by a government, of the most physical, intellectual and moral persons to raise the next generation (selective breeding) and a close alignment of public health with eugenics. ... Arthur de Gobineau. ... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Eugenics Conference [10], 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ... A pseudoscience is any body of knowledge purported to be scientific or supported by science but which fails to comply with the scientific method. ... Social Darwinism is the idea that Charles Darwins theory can be extended and applied to the social realm, i. ... For other uses, see Survival of the fittest (disambiguation). ... Life unworthy of life (in German: Lebensunwertes Leben) was a Nazi designation for the segments of populace that, according to racial policies of the Third Reich, had no right to live and thus were to be exterminated. ... This poster reads: 60,000 Reichsmarks is what this person suffering from hereditary defects costs the community during his lifetime. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazi eugenics pertains to Nazi Germanys race based social policies that placed the improvement of the race through eugenics at the center of their concerns and targeted those humans they identified as life unworthy...


Between 1939 and 1945, the SS, assisted by collaborationist governments and recruits from occupied countries, systematically killed somewhere between 11 and 14 million people, including about six million Jews,[146][147] in concentration camps, ghettos and mass executions, or through less systematic methods elsewhere. In addition to those gassed to death, many died as a result of starvation and disease while working as slave labourers (sometimes benefiting private German companies). Along with Jews, non-Jewish Poles, Communists and political opponents, members of resistance groups, homosexuals, Roma, the physically handicapped and mentally retarded, Soviet prisoners of war (possibly as many as three million), Jehovah's Witnesses, Adventists, trade unionists, and psychiatric patients were killed. One of the biggest centres of mass-killing was the industrial extermination camp complex of Auschwitz-Birkenau. As far as is known, Hitler never visited the concentration camps and did not speak publicly about the killing in precise terms.[148] SS or ss or Ss may be: The Schutzstaffel, a Nazi paramilitary force Steamship (SS) (ship prefix) The United States Secret Service A submarine not powered by nuclear energy (SS) (United States Navy designator), see SSN A Soviet/Russian surface-to-surface missile, as listed by NATO reporting name Shortstop... Collaborationism, as a pejorative term, can describe the treason of cooperating with enemy forces occupying ones country. ... It has been suggested that Internment be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Ghetto (disambiguation). ... Slavery is any of a number of related conditions involving control of a person against his or her will, enforced by violence or other clear forms of coercion. ... CCCP redirects here. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... Jehovahs Witnesses in Germany were persecuted between 1933 and 1945. ... The term Adventist can refer to One who believes in the Second Advent (usually known as the Second coming) of Jesus. ... Psychiatry is a branch of medicine that studies and treats mental and emotional disorders (see mental illness). ... Extermination camps were two types of facilities that Nazi Germany built during World War II for the systematic killing of millions of people in what has become known as the Holocaust. ... Auschwitz (Konzentrationslager Auschwitz) was the largest of the Nazi German concentration camps. ...


The Holocaust (the Endlösung der jüdischen Frage or "Final Solution of the Jewish Question") was planned and ordered by leading Nazis, with Heinrich Himmler and Reinhard Heydrich playing key roles. While no specific order from Hitler authorizing the mass killing has surfaced, there is documentation showing that he approved the Einsatzgruppen killing squads that followed the German army through Poland and Russia, and that he was kept well informed about their activities. The evidence also suggests that in the fall of 1941 Himmler and Hitler decided upon mass extermination by gassing. During interrogations by Soviet intelligence officers declassified over fifty years later, Hitler's valet Heinz Linge and his military aide Otto Gunsche said Hitler had "pored over the first blueprints of gas chambers." His private secretary, Traudl Junge, testified that Hitler knew all about the death camps. “Shoah” redirects here. ... This article is about the term with respect to the Jewish Question in World War II. For other uses, see Final Solution (disambiguation). ... Reinhard Tristan Eugen Heydrich (7 March 1904 – 4 June 1942) was an SS-Obergruppenführer, chief of the Reich Security Main Office (including the Gestapo, SD and Kripo Nazi police agencies) and Reichsprotektor (Reich Protector) of Bohemia and Moravia. ... A member of Einsatzgruppe D is just about to shoot a Jewish man kneeling before a filled mass grave in Vinnitsa, Ukraine, in 1942. ... An intelligence officer is a person employed by an organisation to collect, compile and analyse information (known as intelligence) which is of use to that organisation. ... Heinz Linge (born 23 March 1913; died 1980) was a valet at German dictator Adolf Hitlers headquarters. ... For other uses, see Gas chamber (disambiguation). ... Traudl Junge just after World War II. Traudl Junge (born Gertraud Humps; 16 March 1920 – 10 February 2002) was Adolf Hitlers youngest personal private secretary, from December 1942 to April 1945. ...


To make for smoother cooperation in the implementation of this "Final Solution", the Wannsee conference was held near Berlin on 20 January 1942, with fifteen senior officials participating, led by Reinhard Heydrich and Adolf Eichmann. The records of this meeting provide the clearest evidence of planning for the Holocaust. On 22 February, Hitler was recorded saying to his associates, "we shall regain our health only by eliminating the Jews". The Wannsee Conference was a meeting of senior officials of the Nazi German regime, held in the Berlin suburb of Wannsee on 20 January 1942. ... Otto Adolf Eichmann (known as Adolf Eichmann; March 19, 1906 – June 1, 1962) was a high-ranking Nazi and SS Obersturmbannführer (equivalent to Lieutenant Colonel). ...

World War II

Early diplomatic triumphs

Alliance with Japan

Japanese Foreign Minister Yosuke Matsuoka with Hitler in Berlin

In February 1938, Hitler finally ended the dilemma that had plagued German Far Eastern policy, namely whether to continue the informal Sino-German alliance that existed with Republic of China since the 1910s or to create a new alliance with Japan. The military at the time strongly favored continuing Germany's alliance with China. China had the support of Foreign Minister Konstantin von Neurath and War Minister Werner von Blomberg, the so-called "China Lobby" who tried to steer German foreign policy away from war in Europe.[149] Both men, however, were sacked by Hitler in early 1938. Upon the advice of Hitler's newly appointed Foreign Minister, the strongly pro-Japanese Joachim von Ribbentrop, Hitler chose to end the alliance with China as the price of gaining an alignment with the more modern and powerful Japan. In an address to the Reichstag, Hitler announced German recognition of Manchukuo, the Japanese-occupied puppet state in Manchuria, and renounced the German claims to the former colonies in the Pacific held by Japan.[150] Hitler ordered an end to arms shipments to China, and ordered the recall of all the German officers attached to the Chinese Army.[150] In retaliation for ending German support to China in the war against Japan, Chinese Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek canceled all of the Sino-German economic agreements, which deprived the Germans of raw materials such as tungsten that the Chinese had previously provided. The ending of the Sino-German alignment increased the problems of German rearmament, as the Germans were now forced to use their limited supply of foreign exchange to buy raw materials on the open market. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Yosuke Matsuoka Japans Foreign Minister Yosuke Matsuoka (front middle), Japanese ambassador Hiroshi Oshima and Adolf Hitler in Berlin waving to the parade . Yosuke Matsuoka (松岡 洋右 Matsuoka Yōsuke, March 3, 1880 – June 26, 1946) was a prominent Japanese Foreign Minister shortly before World War II. Born in Japan in 1880... Sino-German cooperation played a great role in Chinese history of the early and mid 20th century. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... Konstantin von Neurath Konstantin Freiherr von Neurath (February 2, 1873 – August 14, 1956) was a German diplomat, Foreign Minister of Germany (1932-1938) and Reichsprotektor (nazi representative in the Czech puppet state) of Bohemia and Moravia (1939-1943). ... Werner von Blomberg. ... Ulrich Friedrich Wilhelm Joachim von Ribbentrop (born Ulrich Friedrich Wilhelm Joachim Ribbentrop) (April 30, 1893 – October 16, 1946) was Foreign Minister of Germany from 1938 until 1945. ... Flag Anthem National Anthem of Manchukuo Map of Manchukuo Capital Hsinking Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1932 - 1934 Datong (Chief Executive) (Aisingioro Puyi)  - 1934 - 1945 Kangde-Emperor (Aisingioro Puyi) Prime Minister  - 1932 - 1935 Zheng Xiaoxu  - 1935 - 1945 Zhang Jinghui Historical era World War II  - Established 1932  - Disestablished 1945 Manchukuo (, State of... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was the Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ... For other uses, see Tungsten (disambiguation). ...

Austria and Czechoslovakia

In March 1938, Hitler pressured Austria into unification with Germany (the Anschluss) and made a triumphant entry into Vienna on 14 March.[151][152] Next, he intensified a crisis over the German-speaking Sudetenland districts of Czechoslovakia.[153] German troops march into Austria on 12 March 1938. ... Sudetenland (Czech and Polish: Sudety) was the German name used in English in the first half of the 20th century for the Western regions of Czechoslovakia inhabited mostly by Germans, specifically the border areas of Bohemia, Moravia, and those parts of Silesia associated with Bohemia. ...


On 3 March 1938, the British Ambassador Sir Neville Henderson met with Hitler and presented on behalf of his government a proposal for an international consortium to rule much of Africa (in which Germany would be assigned a leading role) in exchange for a German promise never to resort to war to change the frontiers.[154] Hitler, who was more interested in Lebensraum in Eastern Europe than in participating in international consortiums, rejected the British offer, using as his excuse that he wanted the former German African colonies returned to the Reich, not an international consortium running Central Africa. Moreover, Hitler argued that it was totally outrageous on Britain's part to impose conditions on German conduct in Europe as the price for territory in Africa.[155] Hitler ended the conversation by telling Henderson he would rather wait 20 years for the return of the former colonies than accept British conditions for avoiding war.[155][156] Sir Neville Henderson Sir Neville Henderson (1882-1942) British Ambassador to Germany (1937-39) PERHAPS ONE OF the least understood personalities central to the political history of the Second World War is Sir Nevile Meyrick Henderson (1882 – 1941). ...


On 28–29 March 1938, Hitler held a series of secret meetings in Berlin with Konrad Henlein of the Sudeten Heimfront (Home Front), the largest of the ethnic German parties of the Sudetenland. During the Hitler-Henlein meetings, it was agreed that Henlein would provide the pretext for German aggression against Czechoslovakia by making demands on Prague for increased autonomy for Sudeten Germans that Prague could never be reasonably expected to fulfill. In April 1938, Henlein told the foreign minister of Hungary that "whatever the Czech government might offer, he would always raise still higher demands ... he wanted to sabotage an understanding by all means because this was the only method to blow up Czechoslovakia quickly".[157] In private, Hitler considered the Sudeten issue unimportant; his real intentions being to use the Sudeten question as the justification both at home and abroad for a war of aggression to destroy Czechoslovakia, under the grounds of self-determination, and Prague's refusal to meet Henlein's demands.[158] Hitler's plans called for a massive military build-up along the Czechoslovak border, relentless propaganda attacks about the supposed ill treatment of the Sudetenlanders, and finally, "incidents" between Heimfront activists and the Czechoslovak authorities to justify an invasion that would swiftly destroy Czechoslovakia in a few days campaign before other powers could act.[159] Since Hitler wished to have the fall harvest brought in as much as possible, and to complete the so-called "West Wall" to guard the Rhineland, the date for the invasion was chosen for late September or early October 1938.[160] Konrad Henlein as SS-Gruppenführer Konrad Henlein (May 6, 1898 - May 10, 1945) was the most important pro-Nazi politician in Czechoslovakia and leader of Sudeten German separatists. ... Sudetenland (Czech and Polish: Sudety) was the German name used in English in the first half of the 20th century for the Western regions of Czechoslovakia inhabited mostly by Germans, specifically the border areas of Bohemia, Moravia, and those parts of Silesia associated with Bohemia. ... Motto Czech: Pravda vítÄ›zí (Truth prevails; 1918-1989) Latin: Veritas Vincit (Truth prevails; 1989-1992) Anthem Kde domov můj and Nad Tatrou sa blýska Capital Prague Language(s) Czech, Slovak, Rusyn, Polish Government Republic President  - 1918-1935 Tomáš G. Masaryk (first)  - 1989-1992 Václav Havel...


In April 1938, Hitler ordered the OKW to start preparing plans for Fall Grün (Case Green), the codename for an invasion of Czechoslovakia.[161] Further increasing the tension in Europe was the May Crisis of 19–22 May 1938. The May Crisis of 1938 was a false alarm caused by rumors that Czechoslovakia would be invaded the weekend of the municipal elections in that country, erroneous reports of major German troop movements along the Czechoslovak border just prior to the elections, the killing of two ethnic Germans by the Czechoslovak police, and Ribbentrop's highly bellicose remarks to Henderson when the latter asked the former if an invasion was indeed scheduled for the weekend, which led to a partial Czechoslovak mobilization and firm warnings from London against a German move against Czechoslovakia before it was realized that no invasion was intended for that weekend.[162] Though no invasion had been planned for May 1938, it was believed in London that such a course of action was indeed being considered in Berlin, leading to two warnings on 21 May and 22 May that the United Kingdom would go to war with Germany if France became involved in a war with Germany.[163] Hitler, for his part, was, to use the words of an aide, highly "furious" with the perception that he had been forced to back down by the Czechoslovak mobilization and the warnings from London and Paris, when he had, in fact, been planning nothing for that weekend.[164] Though plans had already been drafted in April 1938 for an invasion of Czechoslovakia in the near future, the May Crisis and the perception of a diplomatic defeat further reinforced Hitler in his chosen course. The May Crisis seemed to have had the effect of convincing Hitler that expansion "without Britain" was not possible, and expansion "against Britain" was the only viable course.[165] In the immediate aftermath of the May crisis, Hitler ordered an acceleration of German naval building beyond the limits of the A.G.N.A., and in the "Heye memorandum", drawn at Hitler's orders, envisaged the Royal Navy for the first time as the principal opponent of the Kriegsmarine.[166] Before World War II, Fall Grün (Case Green) was a German plan for an aggressive war against Czechoslovakia in 1938. ... The Anglo-German Naval Agreement (AGNA), was signed between United Kingdom and Germany in of June 18, 1935. ...


At the conference of 28 May 1938, Hitler declared that it was his "unalterable" decision to "smash Czechoslovakia" by 1 October of the same year, which was explained as securing the eastern flank "for advancing against the West, England and France".[167] At the same conference, Hitler expressed his belief that Britain would not risk a war until British rearmament was complete, which Hitler felt would be around 1941–42, and Germany should in a series of wars eliminate France and her allies in Europe in the interval in the years 1938–41 while German rearmament was still ahead.[167] Hitler's determination to go through with Fall Grün in 1938 provoked a major crisis in the German command structure.[168] The Chief of the General Staff, General Ludwig Beck protested in a lengthy series of memos that Fall Grün would start a world war that Germany would lose, and urged Hitler to put off the projected war.[168] Hitler called Beck's arguments against war "kindische Kräfteberechnugen" ("childish calculations").[169] Ludwig Beck General Ludwig Beck (June 29, 1880 – July 21, 1944) was Chief of Staff of the German Armed forces during the early years of the Nazi regime in Germany before World War II. Born in Biebrich in Hesse-Nassau, he was educated in the conservative Prussian military tradition. ...


On 4 August 1938, a secret Army meeting was held at which Beck read his report. They agreed something had to be done to prevent certain disaster. Beck hoped they would all resign together but no one resigned except Beck. However his replacement, General Franz Halder, sympathised with Beck and together they conspired with several top generals, Admiral Wilhelm Canaris (Chief of German Intelligence), and Graf von Helldorf (Berlin's Police Chief) to arrest Hitler the moment he gave the invasion order. However, the plan would only work if both Britain and France made it known to the world that they would fight to preserve Czechoslovakia. This would help to convince the German people that certain defeat awaited Germany. Agents were therefore sent to England to tell Chamberlain that an attack on Czechoslovakia was planned and their intentions to overthrow Hitler if this occurred. However the messengers were not taken seriously by the British. In September, Chamberlain and Daladier decided not to threaten a war over Czechoslovakia and so the planned removal of Hitler could not be justified.[170] The Munich Agreement therefore preserved Hitler in power. Franz Halder Franz Ritter Halder (June 30, 1884 – April 2, 1972) was a German General and the head of the Army General Staff from 1938 until September 1942, when he was dismissed after frequent disagreements with Adolf Hitler. ... Wilhelm Franz Canaris (January 1, 1887 – April 9, 1945) was a German admiral and head of the Abwehr, the German military intelligence service, from 1935 to 1944. ... Wolf-Heinrich Graf von Helldorf (born 14 October 1896 in Merseburg, died 15 August 1944 in Berlin) was a German resistance fighter against the Nazi régime. ...


Starting in August 1938, information reached London that Germany was beginning to mobilize reservists, together with information leaked by anti-war elements in the German military that the war was scheduled for sometime in September.[171] Finally, as a result of intense French, and especially British diplomatic pressure, President Edvard Beneš unveiled on 5 September 1938, the "Fourth Plan" for constitutional reorganization of his country, which granted most of the demands for Sudeten autonomy made by Henlein in his Karlsbad speech of April 1938, and threatened to deprive the Germans of their pretext for aggression.[172] Henlein's Heimfront promptly responded to the offer of "Fourth Plan" by having a series of violent crashes with the Czechoslovak police, culminating in major clashes in mid-September that led to the declaration of martial law in certain Sudeten districts.[173][174] In a response to the threatening situation, in late August 1938, the British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain had conceived of Plan Z, namely to fly to Germany, meet Hitler, and then work out an agreement that could end the crisis.[175][176] On 13 September 1938, Chamberlain offered to fly to Germany to discuss a solution to the crisis. Chamberlain had decided to execute Plan Z in response to erroneous information supplied by the German opposition that the invasion was due to start any time after 18 September.[177] Though Hitler was not happy with Chamberlain's offer, he agreed to see the British Prime Minister because to refuse Chamberlain's offer would confirm the lie to his repeated claims that he was a man of peace driven reluctantly to war because of Beneš's intractability.[178] In a summit at Berchtesgaden, Chamberlain promised to pressure Beneš into agreeing to Hitler's publicly stated demands about allowing the Sudetenland to join Germany, in return for a reluctant promise by Hitler to postpone any military action until Chamberlain had given a chance to fulfill his promise.[179] Hitler had agreed to the postponement out of the expectation that Chamberlain would fail to secure Prague's consent to transferring the Sudetenland, and was, by all accounts, most disappointed when Franco-British pressure secured just that.[180] The talks between Chamberlain and Hitler in September 1938 were made difficult by their innately differing concepts of what Europe should look like, with Hitler aiming to use the Sudeten issue as a pretext for war and Chamberlain genuinely striving for a peaceful solution.[181] Edvard BeneÅ¡ with wife 1921, autochrome portrait by Josef JindÅ™ich Å echtl Edvard BeneÅ¡ with his wife 1934 Edvard Benes meeting with Munkacs Wonder-Rabbi Chaim Elazar Spira Statue of Edvard BeneÅ¡ in front of headquarters of Czech Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Prague Edvard BeneÅ¡ (IPA: ) (May 28, 1884... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the British Prime Minister. ... Berchtesgaden is a town in the German Bavarian Alps. ... Sudetenland (Czech and Polish: Sudety) was the German name used in English in the first half of the 20th century for the Western regions of Czechoslovakia inhabited mostly by Germans, specifically the border areas of Bohemia, Moravia, and those parts of Silesia associated with Bohemia. ...


When Chamberlain returned to Germany on 22 September to present his peace plan for the transfer of the Sudetenland at a summit with Hitler at Bad Godesberg, the British delegation was most unpleasantly surprised to have Hitler reject his own terms he had presented at Berchtesgaden as now unacceptable.[182] To put an end to Chamberlain's peace-making efforts once and for all, Hitler demanded the Sudetenland be ceded to Germany no later then 28 September 1938 with no negotiations between Prague and Berlin and no international commission to oversee the transfer; no plebiscites to be held in the transferred districts until after the transfer; and for good measure, that Germany would not forsake war as an option until all the claims against Czechoslovakia by Poland and Hungary had been satisfied.[183] The differing views between the two leaders were best symbolized when Chamberlain was presented with Hitler's new demands and protested at being presented with an ultimatum, leading Hitler in turn to retort that because his document stating his new demands was entitled "Memorandum", it could not possibly be an ultimatum.[184] On 25 September 1938 Britain rejected the Bad Godesberg ultimatum, and began preparations for war.[185][186] To further underline the point, Sir Horace Wilson, the British government's Chief Industrial Advisor, and a close associate of Chamberlain, was dispatched to Berlin to inform Hitler that if the Germans attacked Czechoslovakia, then France would honor her commitments as demanded by the Franco-Czechoslovak alliance of 1924, and "then England would feel honor bound, to offer France assistance".[187] Initially, determined to continue with attack planned for 1 October 1938, sometime between 27 and 28 September, Hitler changed his mind, and asked to take up a suggestion, of and through the intercession of Mussolini, for a conference to be held in Munich with Chamberlain, Mussolini, and the French Premier Édouard Daladier to discuss the Czechoslovak situation.[188] Just what had caused Hitler to change his attitude is not entirely clear, but it is likely that the combination of Franco-British warnings, and especially the mobilization of the British fleet, had finally convinced him of what the most likely result of Fall Grün would be; the minor nature of the alleged casus belli being the timetables for the transfer made Hitler appear too much like the aggressor; the view from his advisors that Germany was not prepared either militarily or economically for a world war; warnings from the states that Hitler saw as his would-be allies in the form of Italy, Japan, Poland and Hungary that they would not fight on behalf of Germany; and very visible signs that the majority of Germans were not enthusiastic about the prospect of war.[189][190][191] Moreover, Germany lacked sufficient supplies of oil and other crucial raw materials (the plants that would produce the synthetic oil for the German war effort were not in operation yet), and was highly dependent upon imports from abroad.[192] The Kriegsmarine reported that should war come with Britain, it could not break a British blockade, and since Germany had hardly any oil stocks, Germany would be defeated for no other reason than a shortage of oil.[193] The Economics Ministry told Hitler that Germany had only 2.6 million tons of oil at hand, and should war with Britain and France, would require 7.6 million tons of oil.[194] Starting on 18 September 1938, the British refused to supply metals to Germany, and on 24 September the Admiralty forbade British ships to sail to Germany. The British detained the tanker Invershannon carrying 8,600 tons of oil to Hamburg, which caused immediate economic pain in Germany.[195] Given Germany's dependence on imported oil (80% of German oil in the 1930s came from the New World), and the likelihood that a war with Britain would see a blockade cutting Germany off from oil supplies, historians have argued that Hitler's decision to see a peaceful end to call off Fall Grün was due to concerns about the oil problem.[192] Location of Bad Godesberg in Bonn Bad Godesberg became a municipal district of Bonn in 1969. ... French politician Édouard Daladier Édouard Daladier (June 18, 1884 - October 10, 1970) was a French politician, and Prime Minister of France at the start of the Second World War. ...

Chamberlain, Daladier, Hitler and Mussolini at the Munich Conference

On 30 September 1938, a one-day conference was held in Munich attended by Hitler, Chamberlain, Daladier and Mussolini that led to the Munich Agreement, which gave in to Hitler's ostensible demands by handing over the Sudetenland districts to Germany.[196] Since London and Paris had already agreed to the idea of a transfer of the disputed territory in mid-September, the Munich Conference mostly comprised discussions in one day of talks on technical questions about how the transfer of the Sudetenland would take place, and featured the relatively minor concessions from Hitler that the transfer would take place over a ten day period in October, overseen by an international commission, and Germany would wait until Hungarian and Polish claims were settled.[197] At the end of the conference, Chamberlain had Hitler sign a declaration of Anglo-German friendship, to which Chamberlain attached great importance and Hitler none at all.[198] Though Chamberlain was well-satisfied with the Munich conference, leading to his infamous claim to have secured "peace in our time", Hitler was privately furious about being "cheated" out of the war he was desperate to have in 1938.[199][200] As a result of the summit, Hitler was TIME magazine's Man of the Year for 1938.[201] For the annual global security meeting held in Munich, see Munich Conference on Security Policy. ... Sudetenland (Czech and Polish: Sudety) was the German name used in English in the first half of the 20th century for the Western regions of Czechoslovakia inhabited mostly by Germans, specifically the border areas of Bohemia, Moravia, and those parts of Silesia associated with Bohemia. ... (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ... Person of the Year is an annual issue of United States (U.S.) newsmagazine Time that features a profile on the man, woman, couple, group, idea, place, or machine that [1] // The tradition of selecting a Man of the Year began in 1927, when Time editors contemplated what they could...

Hitler enters the German populated Sudetenland region of Czechoslavakia in October 1938 which was annexed to Germany proper due to the Munich agreement

By appeasing Hitler, Britain and France left Czechoslovakia to Hitler's mercy.[196] Though Hitler professed happiness in public over the achievement of his ostensible demands, in private he was determined to have a war the next time around by ensuring that Germany's future demands would not be met.[202] In Hitler's view, a British-brokered peace, though extremely favorable to the ostensible German demands, was a diplomatic defeat which proved that Britain needed to be ended as a power to allow him to pursue his dreams of eastern expansion.[203][204] In the aftermath of Munich, Hitler felt since Britain would not ally herself nor stand aside to facilitate Germany's continental ambitions, it had become a major threat, and accordingly, Britain replaced the Soviet Union in Hitler's mind as the main enemy of the Reich, with German policies being accordingly reoriented.[205][206][207][208] Hitler expressed his disappointment over the Munich Agreement in a speech on 9 October 1938 in Saarbrücken when he lashed out against the Conservative anti-appeasers Winston Churchill, Alfred Duff Cooper and Anthony Eden, whom Hitler described as a warmongering anti-German fraction, who would attack Germany at the first opportunity, and were likely to come to power at any moment.[209] In the same speech, Hitler claimed "We Germans will no longer endure such governessy interference. Britain should mind her own business and worry about her own troubles".[210] In November 1938, Hitler ordered a major anti-British propaganda campaign to be launched with the British being loudly abused for their "hypocrisy" in maintaining world-wide empire while seeking to block the Germans from acquiring an empire of their own.[211] A particular highlight in the anti-British propaganda was alleged British humans rights abuses in dealing with the Arab uprising in the Palestine Mandate and in India, and the "hyprocrisy" of British criticism of the November 1938 Kristallnacht event.[212] This marked a huge change from the earlier years of the Third Reich, when the German media had portrayed the British Empire in very favorable terms.[213] In November 1938, the Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop was ordered to convert the Anti-Comintern Pact into an open anti-British military alliance, as a prelude for a war against Britain and France.[214] On 27 January 1939, Hitler approved the Z Plan, a five-year naval expansion program which called for a Kriegsmarine of 10 battleships, four aircraft carriers, three battlecruisers, eight heavy cruisers, 44 light cruisers, 68 destroyers and 249 U-boats by 1944 that was intended to crush the Royal Navy.[215] The importance of the Z Plan can be seen in Hitler's orders that henceforward the Kriegsmarine was to go from third to one in allotment of raw materials, money and skilled workers.[216] In the spring of 1939, the Luftwaffe was ordered to start building a strategic bombing force that was meant to level British cities.[217] Hitler's war plans against Britain called for a joint Kriegsmarine-Luftwaffe offensive that was to stage "rapid annihilating blows" against British cities and shipping with the expectation that "The moment England is cut off from her supplies she is forced to capitulate" as Hitler expected that the experience of living in a blockaded, famine-stricken, bombed out island to be too much for the British public.[218] Sudetenland (Czech and Polish: Sudety) was the German name used in English in the first half of the 20th century for the Western regions of Czechoslovakia inhabited mostly by Germans, specifically the border areas of Bohemia, Moravia, and those parts of Silesia associated with Bohemia. ... Capital Saarbrücken Language(s) Rhine Franconian; see language of the Saarland Government Principality Historical era Middle Ages  - Joined Holy Roman Empire 925  - Established ca 1120  - Passed to Nassau-Weilburg 1353  - Occupied by France 1793  - Annexed by France 1797  - Passed to Prussian Grd     Dchy Lwr Rhine   June 9, 1815 Saarbr... Churchill redirects here. ... Alfred Duff Cooper, 1st Viscount Norwich (22 February 1890 - 1 January 1954), known universally as Duff Cooper, was a British diplomat, Cabinet member and acclaimed author. ... For the eponymous hat, see Anthony Eden hat. ... On June 24, 1922 the League of Nations agreed upon a document called the Palestine Mandate. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Kristallnacht, also known as Reichskristallnacht, Reichspogromnacht, Crystal Night and the Night of the Broken Glass, was a pogrom that occurred throughout Nazi Germany on November 9–November 10, 1938. ... Ulrich Friedrich Wilhelm Joachim von Ribbentrop (born Ulrich Friedrich Wilhelm Joachim Ribbentrop) (April 30, 1893 – October 16, 1946) was Foreign Minister of Germany from 1938 until 1945. ... Plan Z was the name given to the planned re-equipment and expansion of the Kriegsmarine from 1935 onwards. ... For other uses, see Battleship (disambiguation). ... This article is about a type of naval vessel. ... A light cruiser is a warship that is not so large and powerful as a regular (or heavy) cruiser, but still larger than ships like destroyers. ... USS McFaul underway in the Atlantic Ocean. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ...

Destroyed Jewish businesses in Magdeburg following Kristallnacht

In November 1938, in a secret speech to a group of German journalists, Hitler noted that he had been forced to speak of peace as the goal in order to attain the degree of rearmament "which were an essential prerequisite ... for the next step".[90] In the same speech, Hitler complained that his peace propaganda of the last five years had been too successful, and it was time for the German people to be subjected to war propaganda.[219] Hitler stated: "It is self-evident that such peace propaganda conducted for a decade has its risky aspect; because it can too easily induce people to come to the conclusion that the present government is identical with the decision and with the intention to keep peace under all circumstances", and instead called for new journalism that "had to present certain foreign policy events in such a fashion that the inner voice of the people itself slowly begins to shout out for the use of force."[219] In later November 1938, Hitler expressed his frustration with his more cautious advice he was receiving from some quarters[220] Hitler called the economic expert Carl Friedrich Goerdeler, General Ludwig Beck, Dr. Hjalmar Schacht, the diplomat Ulrich von Hassell, and the economist Rudolf Brinkmann as "the overbred intellectual circles" whom were trying to block him from fulifilling his mission by their appeals to caution, and but for the fact that he needed their skills "otherwise, perhaps we could someday exterminate them or do something of this kind to them"[221] Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Kristallnacht, also known as Reichskristallnacht, Reichspogromnacht, Crystal Night and the Night of the Broken Glass, was a pogrom that occurred throughout Nazi Germany on November 9–November 10, 1938. ... Carl Friedrich Goerdeler Carl Friedrich Goerdeler (July 31, 1884 – February 2, 1945) was a conservative German politician and opponent of the Nazi regime. ... Ludwig Beck General Ludwig Beck (June 29, 1880 – July 21, 1944) was Chief of Staff of the German Armed forces during the early years of the Nazi regime in Germany before World War II. Born in Biebrich in Hesse-Nassau, he was educated in the conservative Prussian military tradition. ... Ulrich von Hassell (born 12 November 1881 in Anklam; died 8 September 1944 in Berlin (executed) was a German diplomat and an opponent of the Third Reich involved in the July 20 plot. ...


In December 1938, the Chancellery of the Führer headed by Philipp Bouhler received a letter concerning a severely physically and mentally disabled baby girl named Sofia Knauer living in Leipzig.[222] At that time, there was a furious rivalry existing between Bouhler's office, the office of the Reich Chancellery led by Hans-Heinrich Lammers, the Presidential Chancellery of Otto Meissner, the office of Hitler's adjutant Wilhelm Brückner and the Deputy Führer's office which was effectively headed by Martin Borman over control over access to Hitler.[223] As part of a power play against his rivals, Bouhler presented the letter concerning the disabled girl to Hitler, who thanked Bouhler for bringing the matter to his attention and responded by ordering his personal physician Dr. Karl Brandt to kill Knauer.[224] In January 1939, Hitler ordered Bouhler and Dr. Brandt to henceforward have all disabled infants born in Germany killed.[224] This was the origin of the Action T4 program. Subsequently Dr. Brandt and Bouhler acting on their own initiative, in the expectation of winning Hitler's favor, expanded the T4 program to killing, first, all physically or mentally disabled children in Germany, and, second, all disabled adults.[225] Philipp Bouhler (born 11 September 1899 in Munich; died 19 May 1945 in Dachau (suicide)) was a Nazi German government official, head of the Führers Chancellery and leader of the euthanasia programme, the so-called Aktion T4. ... Leipzig ( ; Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk from the Sorbian word for Tilia) is, with a population of over 506,000, the largest city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany. ... Otto Meißner (born March 13, 1880 in Bischweile (today: Bischwiller) in Alsace - died May 27, 1953 in Munich) was head of the Office of the Reich President during the entire period of the Weimar Republic under Friedrich Ebert and Paul von Hindenburg and, finally, at the beginning of the... Martin Bormann Martin Bormann (June 17, 1900 – May 2, 1945), a prominent German National Socialist official, became head of the Party Chancellery (Parteikanzlei) and Private Secretary to Adolf Hitler. ... The term disability, as it is applied to humans, refers to any condition that impedes the completion of daily tasks using traditional methods. ... A human infant The word Infant derives from the Latin in-fans, meaning unable to speak. ... This poster reads: 60,000 Reichsmarks is what this person suffering from hereditary defects costs the community during his lifetime. ...


In late 1938 and early 1939, the continuing economic crisis caused by problems of rearmament, especially the shortage of foreign hard currencies needed to pay for raw materials Germany lacked together with reports from Göring that the Four Year Plan was hopelessly behind schedule forced Hitler in January 1939 to reluctantly order major defense cuts with the Wehrmacht having its steel allocations cut by 30%, aluminum 47%, cement 25%, rubber 14% and copper 20%.[226] On 30 January 1939, Hitler made his "Export or die" speech calling for a German economic offensive ("export battle", to use Hitler's term), to increase German foreign exchange holdings to pay for raw materials such high-grade iron needed for military materials.[226] The "Export or die" speech of 30 January 1939 is also known as Hitler's "Prophecy Speech". The name which that speech is known comes from Hitler's "prophecy" issued towards the end of the speech:

"One thing I should like to say on this day which may be memorable for others as well for us Germans: In the course of my life I have very often been a prophet, and I usually been ridiculed for it. During the time of my struggle for power it was in the first instance the Jewish race which only received my prophecies with laughter when I said I would one day take over the leadership of the State, and it that of the whole nation, and I that I would then among many other things settle the Jewish problem. Their laughter was uproarious, but I think that for some time now they have been laughing on the other side of the face. Today I will be once more the prophet. If the international Jewish financiers outside Europe should succeed in plunging the nations once more into a world war, then the result will not be the bolsheviszation of the earth, and thus the victory of Jewry, but the annihilation of the Jewish race in Europe!"[227]

A significant historical debate has swung around the "Prophecy Speech". Historians who take an intentionist line such as Eberhard Jäckel have argued that at minimum from the time of the "Prophecy Speech" onwards, Hitler was committed to genocide of the Jews as his central goal.[228] Lucy Dawidowicz and Gerald Fleming have argued that the "Prophecy Speech" was simply Hitler's way of saying that once he started a world war, he would use that war as a cover for his already pre-existing plans for genocide.[227] Functionalist historianssuch as Christopher Browning have dismissed this interpretation under the grounds that if Hitler were serious with the intentions expressed in the "Prophecy Speech", then why the 30-month "stay of execution" between the outbreak of World War II in September 1939, and the opening of the first Vernichtungslager in late 1941.[229] In addition, Browning has pointed to the existence of the Madagascar Plan of 1940–41 and various other schemes as proof that there was no genocidal master plan.[229] In Browning's opinion, the "Prophecy Speech" was merely an manifestation of bravado on Hitler's part, and had little connection with actual unfolding of anti-Semitic policies.[229] Functionalism versus intentionalism is a historiographical debate about the origins of the Holocaust as well as most aspects of the Third Reich, such as foreign policy. ... Eberhard Jäckel (June 29, 1929-) is a Social Democratic German historian, noted for his studies of Adolf Hitlers role in German history. ... Lucy S. Davidowicz (June 16, 1915 – December 5, 1990), was a American historian, and an author of books in modern Jewish history in particular the Holocaust. ... Functionalism versus intentionalism is a historiographical debate about the origins of the Holocaust as well as most aspects of the Third Reich, such as foreign policy. ... Christopher Robert Browning (born May 22, 1944) is an American historian of the Holocaust. ... Extermination camps were two types of facilities that Nazi Germany built during World War II for the systematic killing of millions of people in what has become known as the Holocaust. ... The Madagascar Plan was a policy of the Third Reich government of Nazi Germany to forcibly relocate the entire Jewish population of Europe to the French island colony of Madagascar, off the coast of Africa. ...


At least part of the reason why Hitler violated the Munich Agreement by seizing the Czech half of Czechoslovakia in March 1939 was to obtain Czechoslovak assets to help with the economic crisis.[230] Hitler ordered Germany's army to enter Prague on 15 March 1939, and from Prague Castle proclaimed Bohemia and Moravia a German protectorate. For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... Entrance to the Prague Castle at night The Prague Castle (Czech: Pražský hrad) is the castle in Prague where the Czech kings, Holy Roman Emperors and presidents of Czechoslovakia and the Czech Republic have had their offices. ... Capital Prague Language(s) Czech, German Political structure Protectorate Reichsprotektor  - 1939-1941 Konstantin von Neurath  - 1941-1942 Reinhard Heydrich (acting)  - 1942-1943 Kurt Daluege (acting)  - 1943-1945 Wilhelm Frick Staatspräsident  - 1939-1945 Emil Hácha Historical era World War II  - Occupation March 15, 1939  - Fall of Prague May 13...

Start of World War II

Adolf Hitler's face on a German stamp 1944. The country's name has changed to the Greater German Reich since 1943 and this name can be seen on the stamp.

As part of the anti-British course, it was deemed necessary by Hitler to have Poland either a satellite state or otherwise neutralized. Hitler believed this necessary both on strategic grounds as a way of securing the Reich's eastern flank and on economic grounds as a way of evading the effects of a British blockade.[231] Initially, the German hope was to transform Poland into a satellite state, but by March 1939 the German demands had been rejected by the Poles three times, which led Hitler to decide upon the destruction of Poland as the main German foreign policy goal of 1939.[232] On 3 April 1939, Hitler ordered the military to start preparing for Fall Weiss (Case White), the plan for a German invasion to be executed on 25 August 1939.[232] In August 1939, Hitler spoke to his generals that his original plan for 1939 had to "... establish an acceptable relationship with Poland in order to fight against the West" but since the Poles would not co-operate in setting up an "acceptable relationship" (i.e. becoming a German satellite), he believed he had no choice other than wiping Poland off the map.[233] The historian Gerhard Weinberg has argued since Hitler's audience comprised men who were all for the destruction of Poland (anti-Polish feelings were traditionally very strong in the German Army), but rather less happy about the prospect of war with Britain and France, if that was the price Germany had to pay for the destruction of Poland, it is quite likely that Hitler was speaking the truth on this occasion.[233] In his private discussions with his officials in 1939, Hitler always described Britain as the main enemy that had to be defeated, and in his view, Poland's obliteration was the necessary prelude to that goal by securing the eastern flank and helpfully adding to Germany's Lebensraum.[234] Hitler was much offended by the British "guarantee" of Polish independence issued on 31 March 1939, and told his associates that "I shall brew them a devil's drink".[235] In a speech in Wilhelmshaven for the launch of the Admiral Tirpitz battleship on 1 April 1939, Hitler threatened to denounce the A.G.N.A. if the British persisted with their "encirclement" policy as represented by the "guarantee" of Polish independence.[235] As part of the new course, in a speech before the Reichstag on 28 April 1939, Adolf Hitler, complaining of British "encirclement" of Germany, renounced both the Anglo-German Naval Agreement and the German–Polish Non-Aggression Pact. Fall Weiss (Case White, German spelling Fall Weiß) was a German strategic plan for a war with Poland prepared before 1939 and put into action on 1 September 1939. ... Gerhard L. Weinberg, January 2003 Gerhard Ludwig Weinberg (born January 1, 1928) is a German-born American diplomatic and military historian noted for his studies in the history of World War Two. ... Look up anti-Polonism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Wilhelmshaven in northwest Germany Wilhelmshaven (IPA: ) is a town in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... The Anglo-German Naval Agreement (AGNA), was signed between United Kingdom and Germany in of June 18, 1935. ...


As a pretext for aggression against Poland, Hitler claimed the Free City of Danzig and the right for "extra-territorial" roads across the Polish Corridor which Germany had unwillingly ceded under the Versailles treaty. For Hitler, Danzig was just a pretext for aggression as the Sudetenland had been intended to be in 1938, and throughout 1939, while highlighting the Danzig issue as a grievance, the Germans always refused to engage in talks about the matter.[236] A notable contradiction existed in Hitler's plans between the long-term anti-British course, whose major instruments such as a vastly expanded Kriegsmarine and Luftwaffe would take several years to complete, and Hitler's immediate foreign policy in 1939, which was likely to provoke a general war by engaging in such actions as attacking Poland.[237][238] Hitler's dilemma between his short-term and long-term goals was resolved by Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop, who told Hitler that neither Britain nor France would honor their commitments to Poland, and any German–Polish war would accordingly be a limited regional war.[239][240] Ribbentrop based his appraisal partly on an alleged statement made to him by the French Foreign Minister Georges Bonnet in December 1938 that France now recognized Eastern Europe as Germany's exclusive sphere of influence.[241] In addition, Ribbentrop's status as the former Ambassador to London made him in Hitler's eyes the leading Nazi British expert, and as a result, Ribbentrop's advice that Britain would not honor her commitments to Poland carried much weight with Hitler.[241] Ribbentrop only showed Hitler diplomatic cables that supported his analysis.[242] In addition, the German Ambassador in London, Herbert von Dirksen, tended to send reports that supported Ribbentrop's analysis such as a dispatch in August 1939 that reported British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain knew "the social structure of Britain, even the conception of the British Empire, would not survive the chaos of even a victorious war", and so would back down.[240] The extent that Hitler was influenced by Ribbentrop's advice can be seen in Hitler's orders to the German military on 21 August 1939 for a limited mobilization against Poland alone.[243] Hitler chose late August as his date for Fall Weiss in order to limit disruption to German agricultural production caused by mobilization.[244] The problems caused by the need to begin a campaign in Poland in late August or early September in order to have the campaign finished before the October rains arrived, and the need to have sufficient time to concentrate German troops on the Polish border left Hitler in a self-imposed situation in August 1939 where Soviet co-operation was absolutely crucial if he were to have a war that year.[244] Flag of Danzig The Free City of Danzig refers to either of two short-lived city-states which were centered on the present-day Baltic port known as GdaÅ„sk (German: Danzig). ... Polish Corridor (German: ; Polish: ) was the term used between the World Wars to refer to the Polish territory which separated the German exclave of East Prussia from the German province of Pomerania. ... Woodrow Wilson with the American Peace Commissioners The Treaty of Versailles of 1919 is the peace treaty created as a result of six months of negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 which put an official end to World War I between the Allies and Central Powers. ... Ulrich Friedrich Wilhelm Joachim von Ribbentrop (born Ulrich Friedrich Wilhelm Joachim Ribbentrop) (April 30, 1893 – October 16, 1946) was Foreign Minister of Germany from 1938 until 1945. ... Georges-Étienne Bonnet (July 22/23, 1889 - June 18, 1973) was a French politician who served as Foreign Minister under Édouard Daladier at the time of the Munich Conference in 1938. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Herbert von Dirksen (April 2, 1882 - 1955, Berlin) was the last German Ambassador to Britain before World War Two. ... This article is about the British Prime Minister. ...


The Munich agreement appeared to be sufficient to dispel most of the remaining hold which the "collective security" idea may have had in Soviet circles,[245] and, on 23 August 1939, Joseph Stalin accepted Hitler's proposal to conclude a non-aggression pact (the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact), whose secret protocols contained an agreement to partition Poland. A major historical debate about the reasons for Hitler's foreign policy choices in 1939 concerns whether a structural economic crisis drove Hitler into a "flight into war" as claimed by the Marxist historian Timothy Mason or whether Hitler's actions were more influenced by non-economic factors as claimed by the economic historian Richard Overy.[246] Historians such as William Carr, Gerhard Weinberg and Ian Kershaw have argued that a non-economic reason for Hitler's rush to war was Hitler's morbid and obsessive fear of an early death, and hence his feeling that he did not have long to accomplish his work.[132][247][248] In the last days of peace, Hitler oscillated between the determination to fight the Western powers if he had to, and various schemes intended to keep Britain out of the war, but in any case, Hitler was not to be deterred from his aim of invading Poland.[249] Only very briefly, when news of the Anglo-Polish alliance being signed on 25 August 1939 in response to the German-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact (instead of the severing of ties between London and Warsaw predicted by Ribbentrop) together with news from Italy that Mussolini would not honor the Pact of Steel, caused Hitler to postpone the attack on Poland from 25 August to 1 September.[250] Hitler chose to spend the last days of peace either trying to maneuver the British into neutrality through his offer of 25 August 1939 to "guarantee" the British Empire, or having Ribbentrop present a last-minute peace plan to Henderson with an impossibly short time limit for its acceptance as part of an effort to blame the war on the British and Poles.[251][252] On 1 September 1939, Germany invaded western Poland. Britain and France declared war on Germany on 3 September but did not immediately act. Hitler was most unpleasantly surprised at receiving the British declaration of war on 3 September 1939, and turning to Ribbentrop angrily asked "Now what?"[253] Ribbentrop had nothing to say other than that Robert Coulondre, the French Ambassador, would probably be by later that day to present the French declaration of war.[253] Not long after this, on 17 September, Soviet forces invaded eastern Poland.[254] Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... A non-aggression pact is an international treaty between two or more states, agreeing to avoid war or armed conflict between them even if they find themselves fighting third countries, or even if one is fighting allies of the other. ... Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ... Timothy Wright Mason (March 2, 1940–March 5, 1990) was a British Marxist historian of Nazi Germany. ... Richard Overy has published extensively on the history of World War II and the Third Reich. ... Gerhard L. Weinberg, January 2003 Gerhard Ludwig Weinberg (born January 1, 1928) is a German-born American diplomatic and military historian noted for his studies in the history of World War Two. ... Professor Sir Ian Kershaw (born April 29, 1943 in Oldham, Lancashire, England) is a British historian, noted for his biographies of Adolf Hitler. ... The Pact of Steel, known formally as the Pact of Friendship and Alliance between Germany and Italy, was an agreement between Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany signed on May 22, 1939, by the foreign ministers of each country and witnessed by Count Galeazzo Ciano for Italy and Joachim von Ribbentrop... Fall Weiss (Case White, German spelling Fall Weiß) was a German strategic plan for a war with Poland prepared before 1939 and put into action on 1 September 1939. ...

Members of the Reichstag greet Hitler in October 1939 after the conclusion of the Polish campaign
Hitler and Benito Mussolini in Munich, 1940
Adolf Hitler in Paris, 1940, with Albert Speer (left) and Arno Breker (right)
Poland never will rise again in the form of the Versailles treaty. That is guaranteed not only by Germany, but also ... Russia.[255]
– Adolf Hitler in a public speech in Danzig at the end of September 1939.

After the fall of Poland came a period journalists called the "Phoney War," or Sitzkrieg ("sitting war"). In part of north-western Poland annexed to Germany, Hitler instructed the two Gauleiters in charge of the area, namely Albert Forster and Arthur Greiser, to "Germanize" the area, and promised them "There would be no questions asked" about how this "Germanization" was to be accomplished.[256] Hitler's orders were interpreted in very different ways by Forster and Greiser. Forster followed a policy of simply having the local Poles sign forms stating they had German blood with no documentation required, whereas Greiser carried out a brutal ethnic cleansing campaign of expelling the entire Polish population into the Government-General of Poland.[257] When Greiser, seconded by Himmler, complained to Hitler that Forster was allowing thousands of Poles to be accepted as "racial" Germans and thus "contaminating" German "racial purity", and asked Hitler to order Forster to stop, Hitler merely told Himmler and Greiser to take up their difficulties with Forster, and not to involve him.[258] Hitler's handling of the Forster–Greiser dispute has often been advanced as an example of Ian Kershaw's theory of "Working Towards the Führer", namely that Hitler issued vague instructions, and allowed his subordinates to work out policy on their own. The Reichstag (German for Imperial Diet) was the parliament of the Holy Roman Empire, the North German Confederation, and of Germany until 1945. ... Mussolini redirects here. ... For the son of Albert Speer, also an architect, see Albert Speer (the younger). ... Breker (right) with Speer and Hitler in Paris, 23 June 1940. ... Anthem: Mazurek DÄ…browskiego Capital Warsaw Language(s) Polish Government Republic President List Prime minister List Legislature Sejm Historical era Interwar period  - World War I November 11, 1918  - Invasion November 2, 1939 Area  - 1939 388,600 km2 150,039 sq mi Population  - 1939 est. ... For alternative meanings of Gdańsk and Danzig, see Gdansk (disambiguation) and Danzig (disambiguation) The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... British Ministry of Home Security Poster of a type that was common during the Phony War The Phony War or the Bore War, also called Sitzkrieg, was a phase in early World War II from September 1939 until May 1940 marked by few military operations in Continental Europe, in the... Albert Forster, Gauleiter of Danzig. ... Arthur Greiser (born January 22, 1897, in Schroda, Province of Posen, West Prussia (Środa, Poland); executed July 14, 1946, at Poznan, Poland) was a Nazi German politician . ... Germanization (also spelled Germanisation) is either the spread of the German language and culture either by force or assimilation, or the adaptation of a foreign word to the German language in linguistics, much like the Romanization of many languages which do not use the Latin alphabet. ... Professor Sir Ian Kershaw (born April 29, 1943 in Oldham, Lancashire, England) is a British historian, noted for his biographies of Adolf Hitler. ...


After the conquest of Poland, another major dispute broke out between different factions with one centering around Reichsfüherer SS Heinrich Himmler and Arthur Greiser championing and carrying out ethnic cleansing schemes for Poland, and another centering around Hermann Göring and Hans Frank calling for turning Poland into the "granary" of the Reich.[259] At a conference held at Göring's Karinhall estate on 12 February 1940, the dispute was settled in favor of the Göring-Frank view of economic exploitation, and ending mass expulsions as economically disruptive.[259] On 15 May 1940, Himmler showed Hitler a memo entitled "Some Thoughts on the Treatment of Alien Population in the East", which called for expelling the entire Jewish population of Europe into Africa and reducing the remainder of the Polish population to a "leaderless laboring class".[259] Hitler called Himmler's memo "good and correct".[259] Hitler's remark had the effect of scuttling the so-called Karinhall argreement, and led to the Himmler–Greiser viewpoint triumphing as German policy for Poland. Arthur Greiser (born January 22, 1897, in Schroda, Province of Posen, West Prussia (Środa, Poland); executed July 14, 1946, at Poznan, Poland) was a Nazi German politician . ...   (January 12, 1893 – October 15, 1946) was a German politician and military leader, a leading member of the Nazi Party, second in command of the Third Reich, designated successor to Adolf Hitler, and commander of the Luftwaffe (German Air Force). ... Hans Frank (May 23, 1900 – October 16, 1946) was a lawyer for the Nazi party during the 1920s and a senior official in Nazi Germany. ...


During this period, Hitler built up his forces on Germany's western frontier. In April 1940, German forces invaded Denmark and Norway. In May 1940, Hitler's forces attacked France, conquering Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Belgium in the process. These victories persuaded Benito Mussolini of Italy to join the war on Hitler's side on 10 June 1940. France surrendered on 22 June 1940. Balian of Ibelin surrendering the city of Jerusalem to Saladin, from Les Passages faits Outremer par les Français contre les Turcs et autres Sarrasins et Maures outremarins, ca. ...


Britain, whose forces evacuated France by sea from Dunkirk, continued to fight alongside other British dominions in the Battle of the Atlantic. After having his overtures for peace rejected by the British, now led by Winston Churchill, Hitler ordered bombing raids on the United Kingdom. The Battle of Britain was Hitler's prelude to a planned invasion. The attacks began by pounding Royal Air Force airbases and radar stations protecting South-East England. However, the Luftwaffe failed to defeat the Royal Air Force. On 27 September 1940, the Tripartite Treaty was signed in Berlin by Saburo Kurusu of Imperial Japan, Hitler, and Ciano. The purpose of the Tripartite Treaty, which was directed against an unnamed power that was clearly meant to be the United States, was to deter the Americans from supporting the British. It was later expanded to include Hungary, Romania and Bulgaria. They were collectively known as the Axis Powers. By the end of October 1940, air superiority for the invasion Operation Sealion could not be assured, and Hitler ordered the bombing of British cities, including London, Plymouth, and Coventry, mostly at night. Location within France For the battleship, see Dunkerque Dunkirk (French: Dunkerque; Dutch: Duinkerke; German: Dünkirchen) is a harbour city and a commune in the northernmost part of France, in the département of Nord, 10 km from the Belgian border. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ... Strategic bombing is a military strategem used in a total war style campaign that attempts to destroy the economic ability of a nation-state to wage war. ... This article is about the Second World War battle. ... RAF redirects here. ... For other uses, see Radar (disambiguation). ... The Tripartite Pact, also called the Three-Power Pact, was signed in Berlin on September 27, 1940 by representatives of Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy and Japan. ... Saburo Kurusu, (1886-1954), Japanese career diplomat. ... The ensign of Imperial Japanese Navy was a prominent symbol of Imperial Japan. ... Black: Zenith of the Axis Powers Capital Not applicable Political structure Military alliance Historical era World War II  - Tripartite Pact September 27, 1940  - Anti-Comintern Pact November 25, 1936  - Pact of Steel May 22, 1939  - Dissolved 1945 This article is about the independent countries (states) that comprised the Axis powers. ... Belligerents Germany Vichy France Italy. ... This article is about the city in England. ... For other uses, see Coventry (disambiguation). ...


In the Spring of 1941, Hitler was distracted from his plans for the East by various activites in North Africa, the Balkans, and the Middle East. In February, German forces arrived in Libya to bolster the Italian forces there. In April, he launched the invasion of Yugoslavia which was followed quickly by the invasion of Greece. In May, German forces were sent to support Iraqi rebel forces fighting against the British and to invade Crete. On 23 May, Hitler released Fuhrer Directive No. 30.[260] Belligerents Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia Croatia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Franz Halder Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Ernst Busch Erich Hoepner Alfred Keller Georg von Küchler Günther von Kluge Heinz Guderian Hermann Hoth Albrecht Kesselring Adolf Strauss Carl-Heinrich von...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Balkan redirects here. ... During World War II. Operation Sonnenblume (German for sunflower) was the deployment of German troops (the “Afrika Korps”) to the North African Campaign in February, 1941. ... “April War” redirects here. ... Belligerents Germany Italy Bulgaria Greece United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Commanders Wilhelm List Alexander Papagos, Henry Maitland Wilson, Bernard Freyberg Thomas Blamey Strength Germany:[1] 680,000 men, 1200 tanks 700 aircraft 1Italy:[2] 565,000 men 1Greece:[3] 430,000 men British Commonwealth:[4] 262,612 men 100 tanks... Combatants Kingdom of Iraq United Kingdom India Commanders Rashid Ali General Sir Edward Quinan Strength five divisions about two divisions Casualties 2,500 KIA, about 6,000 POWs 1,200 (KIA, MIA, WIA) The Anglo-Iraqi War is the name of hostilities between the United Kingdom and the Iraqi nationalist... Belligerents Greece United Kingdom New Zealand Australia Germany Italy Commanders Bernard Freyberg Kurt Student Strength United Kingdom: 15,000 Greece: 11,000 Australia: 7,100 New Zealand: 6,700 Total: 40,000 (10,000 without fighting capacity[1]) Germany: 14,000 paratroopers 15,000 mountain troopers 280 bombers 150 dive...

Path to defeat

On 22 June 1941, three million German troops attacked the Soviet Union, breaking the non-aggression pact Hitler had concluded with Stalin two years earlier. This invasion seized huge amounts of territory, including the Baltic states, Belarus, and Ukraine. It also encircled and destroyed many Soviet forces, which Stalin had ordered not to retreat. However, the Germans were stopped barely short of Moscow in December 1941 by the Russian winter and fierce Soviet resistance. The invasion failed to achieve the quick triumph Hitler wanted. Population density in the wider Baltic region. ... This article or section is missing needed references or citation of sources. ... Combatants Nazi Germany Soviet Union Commanders Fedor von Bock, Heinz Guderian Georgy Zhukov, Aleksandr Vasilevsky Strength As of October 1: 1,000,000 men, 1,700 tanks, 14,000 guns, 950 planes[1] As of October 1: 1,250,000 men, 1,000 tanks, 7,600 guns, 677 planes[2...


A major historical dispute concerns Hitler's reasons for Operation Barbarossa. Some historians such as Andreas Hillgruber have argued that Barbarossa was merely one "stage" of Hitler's Stufenplan (stage by stage plan) for world conquest, which Hillgruber believed that Hitler had formulated in the 1920s.[261] Other historians such as John Lukacs have contended that Hitler never had a stufenplan, and that the invasion of the Soviet Union was an ad hoc move on the part of Hitler due to Britain's refusal to surrender.[262] Lukacs has argued that the reason Hitler gave in private for Barbarossa, namely that Winston Churchill held out the hope that the Soviet Union might enter the war on the Allied side, and that the only way of forcing a British surrender was to eliminate that hope, was indeed Hitler's real reason for Barbarossa.[263] In Lukacs's perspective, Barbarossa was thus primarily an anti-British move on the part of Hitler intended to force Britain to sue for peace by destroying her only hope of victory rather than an anti-Soviet move. Klaus Hildebrand has maintained that Stalin and Hitler were independently planning to attack each other in 1941.[264] Hildebrand has claimed that the news in the spring of 1941 of Soviet troop concentrations on the border led to Hitler engaging in a flucht nach vorn ("flight forward" – i.e. responding to a danger by charging on rather than retreating.)[264] A third fraction comprising a diverse group such as Viktor Suvorov, Ernst Topitsch, Joachim Hoffmann, Ernst Nolte, and David Irving have argued that the official reason given by the Germans for Barbarossa in 1941 was the real reason, namely that Barbarossa was a "preventive war" forced on Hitler to avert an impeding Soviet attack scheduled for July 1941. This theory has been widely attacked as erroneous; the American historian Gerhard Weinberg once compared the advocates of the preventive war theory to believers in "fairy tales"[265] Belligerents Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia Croatia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Franz Halder Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Ernst Busch Erich Hoepner Alfred Keller Georg von Küchler Günther von Kluge Heinz Guderian Hermann Hoth Albrecht Kesselring Adolf Strauss Carl-Heinrich von... Andreas Fritz Hillgruber (January 18, 1925-May 8, 1989) was a conservative West German historian. ... John Lukacs (born 31 January 1924 in Budapest his name spelled Lukács) is a Hungarian-born historian who has written more than twenty-five books, including Five Days in London, May 1940 and The New Republic. ... Churchill redirects here. ... Klaus Hildebrand (1941-) is a German conservative historian whose area of expertise is 19th-20th German political and military history. ... Viktor Suvorov (; real name Vladimir Rezun : ) (born April 20, 1947) is a Russian writer and historian. ... Dr. Joachim Hoffmann (December 1, 1930, Königsberg, East Prussia – February 8, 2002, Freiburg) was a German historian and scientific director of the German Armed Forces Military History Research Office. ... Ernst Nolte (born 11 January 1923, Witten, Germany) is a nationalistic German historian and philosopher, often described as one of the most brooding, German thinkers about history[1]. Nolte’s major interest is the comparative studies of fascism and Communism. ... For other uses, see David Irving (disambiguation). ... Gerhard L. Weinberg, January 2003 Gerhard Ludwig Weinberg (born January 1, 1928) is a German-born American diplomatic and military historian noted for his studies in the history of World War Two. ...


The Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union reached it's apex on 2 December 1941 as part of the 258th Infantry Division advanced to within 15 miles (24 km) of Moscow, close enough to see the spires of the Kremlin.[266] But they were not prepared for the harsh conditions brought on by the first blizzards of winter and in the days that followed, Soviet forces drove them back over 320 kilometers (200 miles).


On 7 December 1941, the Empire of Japan attacked Pearl Harbor, Hawaii and four days later, Hitler's formal declaration of war against the United States officially engaged him in war against a coalition that included the world's largest empire (the British Empire), the world's greatest industrial and financial power (the United States), and the world's largest army (the Soviet Union). Anthem Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Capital Tokyo Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1868–1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912–1926 Emperor Taishō  - 1926–1989 Emperor Shōwa Prime Minister  - 1885-1888, 1892-1896, 1898, 1900-1901 Itō Hirobumi  - 1888-1889 Kuroda Kiyotaka  - 1889-1891 Yamagata Aritomo  - 1906-1908, 1911-1912 Saionji Kinmochi... This article is about the actual attack. ...


On 18 December 1941, the appointment book of the Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler shows he met with Hitler, and in response to Himmler's question "What to do with the Jews of Russia?", Hitler's response was recorded as "als Partisanen auszurotten" ("exterminate them as partisans").[267] The Israeli historian Yehuda Bauer has commented that the remark is probably as close as historians will ever get to a definitive order from Hitler for the genocide carried out during the Holocaust.[267] Yehuda Bauer Yehuda Bauer (born 1926) is an historian and scholar of the Holocaust. ...

Adolf Hitler in Reichstag during his speech against Franklin D. Roosevelt. 11 December 1941.
The destroyed 'Wolf's Lair' barracks after the 20 July 1944 plot

In late 1942, German forces were defeated in the second battle of El Alamein, thwarting Hitler's plans to seize the Suez Canal and the Middle East. In February 1943, the Battle of Stalingrad ended with the destruction of the German 6th Army. Thereafter came the Battle of Kursk. Hitler's military judgment became increasingly erratic, and Germany's military and economic position deteriorated along with Hitler's health, as indicated by his left hand's severe trembling. Hitler's biographer Ian Kershaw and others believe that he may have suffered from Parkinson's disease.[268] Syphilis has also been suspected as a cause of at least some of his symptoms, although the evidence is slight.[269] FDR redirects here. ... Remains of largest bunker (Adolf Hitlers) at Wolfsschanze. ... Claus von Stauffenberg The July 20 Plot was a failed attempt to assassinate Adolf Hitler, the dictator of Germany, on July 20, 1944. ... Belligerents Australia Free French Greece New Zealand South Africa United Kingdom Indian Empire Germany Italy Commanders Harold Alexander Bernard Montgomery Erwin Rommel Georg Stumme Ettore Bastico Strength 220,000 men 1,029 tanks[1] 750 aircraft (530 serviceable) 900 medium and field artillery guns[2] 1,401 Anti Tank Guns... For other uses, see Suez (disambiguation). ... Belligerents Germany Romania Italy Hungary Croatia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Friedrich Paulus # Erich von Manstein Wolfram von Richthofen Petre Dumitrescu Constantin Constantinescu Italo Gariboldi Gusztáv Vitéz Jány Viktor Pavičić Joseph Stalin Vasily Chuikov Aleksandr Vasilevsky Georgiy Zhukov Semyon Timoshenko Konstantin Rokossovsky Rodion Malinovsky Andrei Yeremenko... The 6. ... Belligerents Nazi Germany Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein Günther von Kluge Hermann Hoth Walther Model Hans Seidemann Robert Ritter von Greim Georgiy Zhukov Konstantin Rokossovskiy Nikolay Vatutin Ivan Konyev Strength 2,700 tanks 800,000 infantry 2,109 aircraft[1] 3,600 tanks 20,000 guns[2] 1... Professor Sir Ian Kershaw (born April 29, 1943 in Oldham, Lancashire, England) is a British historian, noted for his biographies of Adolf Hitler. ... Syphilis is a curable sexually transmitted disease caused by the Treponema pallidum spirochete. ...


Following the allied invasion of Sicily (Operation Husky) in 1943, Mussolini was deposed by Pietro Badoglio, who surrendered to the Allies. Throughout 1943 and 1944, the Soviet Union steadily forced Hitler's armies into retreat along the Eastern Front. On 6 June 1944, the Western Allied armies landed in northern France in what was one of the largest amphibious operations in history, Operation Overlord. Realists in the German army knew defeat was inevitable, and some plotted to remove Hitler from power. Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Husky was also the codename of Australian military support to Sierra Leone ending in February 2003. ... Pietro Badoglio (September 28, 1871 - November 1, 1956) was an Italian soldier and politician. ... Belligerents Soviet Union[1] Polish Secret State Polish Committee of National Liberation Finland (from 1944) Romania (from 1944) Bulgaria (from 1944) Czechoslovak Republic Yugoslav partisans Germany[2] Finland (to 1944) Romania (to 1944) Italy (to 1943) Hungary Slovakia Croatia Bulgaria (September 5-8, 1944) Volunteers Commanders Joseph Stalin Aleksei Antonov... It has been suggested that Landing operation be merged into this article or section. ... Belligerents Western Allies Nazi Germany Commanders Dwight Eisenhower (Supreme Allied Commander) Arthur Tedder (Deputy Supreme Allied Commander) Bernard Montgomery (Ground Forces Commander in Chief) Trafford Leigh-Mallory (Air Commander in Chief) Bertram Ramsay (Naval Commander in Chief) Gerd von Rundstedt (OB WEST) Erwin Rommel (Heeresgruppe B) Strength 1,452,000...

Attempted assasination

In July 1944, as part of Operation Valkyrie in what became known as the 20 July plot, Claus von Stauffenberg planted a bomb in Hitler's headquarters, the Wolfsschanze (Wolf's Lair) at Rastenburg, but Hitler narrowly escaped death. He ordered savage reprisals, resulting in the executions of more than 4,900 people,[270] sometimes by starvation in solitary confinement followed by slow strangulation. The main resistance movement was destroyed, although smaller isolated groups continued to operate. The July 20 Plot was a failed coup détat which involved an attempt to assassinate Adolf Hitler. ... Claus Philipp Maria Schenk Graf[1] von Stauffenberg (15 November 1907 – 21 July 1944) was a German army officer and one of the leading figures of the failed July 20 Plot of 1944 to kill Adolf Hitler and seize power in Germany. ... Remains of largest bunker (Adolf Hitlers) at Wolfsschanze. ... Kętrzyn is a town in north-eastern Poland with 30,300 inhabitants (1995). ... This article is about extreme malnutrition. ... Solitary confinement, colloquially referred to as the hole (or in British English the block), is a punishment in which a prisoner is denied contact with any other persons, excluding guards, chaplains and doctors. ... Asphyxia is a condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body. ...

Defeat and death

By late 1944, the Red Army had driven the Germans back into Central Europe and the Western Allies were advancing into Germany. Hitler realized that Germany had lost the war, but allowed no retreats. He hoped to negotiate a separate peace with America and Britain, a hope buoyed by the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt on 12 April 1945.[271][272][273][274] Hitler's stubbornness and defiance of military realities allowed the Holocaust to continue. He ordered the complete destruction of all German industrial infrastructure before it could fall into Allied hands, saying that Germany's failure to win the war forfeited its right to survive.[275] Rather, Hitler decided that the entire nation should go down with him. Execution of this scorched earth plan was entrusted to arms minister Albert Speer, who disobeyed the order.[275] The front cover of Time magazine, May 7, 1945. ... The Western Allies were the democracies and their colonial peoples, within the broader coalition of Allies during World War II. The term is generally understood to refer to the countries of the British Commonwealth of Nations and Poland (from 1939), exiled forces from Occupied Europe (from 1940), the United States... FDR redirects here. ... For the computer game, see Scorched Earth (computer game). ... For the son of Albert Speer, also an architect, see Albert Speer (the younger). ...


In April 1945, Soviet forces attacked the outskirts of Berlin. Hitler's followers urged him to flee to the mountains of Bavaria to make a last stand in the National Redoubt. But Hitler was determined to either live or die in the capital. A 1945 U.S. Army map showing the possible extent of the National Redoubt The National Redoubt was the English term used to describe the possibility that Adolf Hitler and armed forces of Nazi Germany would make a last stand in the alpine areas of Austria, Bavaria and northern Italy...


On 20 April, Hitler celebrated his 56th birthday in the Führerbunker ("Führer's shelter") below the Reichskanzlei (Reich Chancellery). The garrison commander of the besieged Festung Breslau ("fortress Breslau"), General Hermann Niehoff, had chocolates distributed to his troops in honor of Hitler's birthday.[276] This is a reconstruction of the layout of the Führerbunker. ... Exterior view of the entrance of the New Reich Chancellery. ... The Battle of Breslau, also known as the Siege of Breslau, was a three month long siege of the city of Breslau in Lower Silesia, Germany (now WrocÅ‚aw, Poland). ... Hermann Niehoff was a German General during World War II. Niehoff was the garrison commander of Festung Breslau during the Battle of Breslau. ...


By 21 April, Georgi Zhukov's 1st Belorussian Front had broken through the defenses of German General Gotthard Heinrici's Army Group Vistula during the Battle of the Seelow Heights. The Soviets were now advancing towards Hitler's bunker with little to stop them. Ignoring the facts, Hitler saw salvation in the ragtag units commanded by Waffen SS General Felix Steiner. Steiner's command became known as Armeeabteilung Steiner ("Army Detachment Steiner"). But "Army Detachment Steiner" existed primarily on paper. It was something more than a corps but less than an army. Hitler ordered Steiner to attack the northern flank of the huge salient created by the breakthrough of Zhukov's 1st Belorussian Front. Meanwhile, the German Ninth Army, which had been pushed south of the salient, was ordered to attack north in a pincer attack. Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgi Zhukov Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov (Russian: Гео́ргий Константи́нович Жу́ков) (December 1, 1896 - June 18, 1974), Soviet military commander and politician, considered by many as one of the most successful field commanders of World War II. Prewar career Born into a peasant family in Strelkovka, Kaluga... The 1st Belorussian Front (alternative spellings are 1st Byelorussian Front and 1st Belarusian Front) was a military subdivision (Front) of the Soviet Army during the Second World War. ... Gotthard Heinrici. ... The Army Group Vistula (also known as Army Group Weischel) was formed in 1945 to protect Berlin from the advancing Soviet armies marching from the Vistula river. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Gotthard Heinrici Georgy Zhukov Strength 100,000 men 512 Tanks 344 artillery pieces 400 Anti-aircraft guns 1,000,000 men 3,155 Tanks 16,934 artillery pieces Casualties 12,000 Killed 33,000 Killed The Battle of the Seelow Heights was one of the... This article or section is missing needed references or citation of sources. ... Army Detachment Steiner (Armeeabteilung Steiner), was a temporary military unit, something more than a corps but less than an army, created on paper by German dictator Adolf Hitler on 21 April 1945 during the Battle of Berlin, and placed under the command of SS Obergruppenführer Felix Steiner. ... In military terms, a salient is a battlefield feature that projects into enemy territory. ... The German Ninth Army (German: ) was a World War II field army. ... A pincer movement whereby the blue force doubly envelops the red force. ...


Late on 21 April, Heinrici called Hans Krebs, chief of the Oberkommando des Heeres (Supreme Army Command or OKH), and told him that Hitler's plan could not be implemented. Heinrici asked to speak to Hitler but was told by Krebs that Hitler was too busy to take his call. General of Infantry Hans Krebs (1898–1945). ... The Oberkommando der Heeres (OKH) was Germanys Army High Command from 1936 to 1945. ...


On 22 April, during one of his last military conferences, Hitler interrupted the report to ask what had happened to Steiner's offensive. There was a long silence. Then Hitler was told that the attack had never been launched, and that the withdrawal from Berlin of several units for Steiner's army, on Hitler's orders, had so weakened the front that the Russians had broken through into Berlin. Hitler asked everyone except Wilhelm Keitel, Hans Krebs, Alfred Jodl, Wilhelm Burgdorf, and Martin Bormann to leave the room,[277] and launched a tirade against the perceived treachery and incompetence of his commanders. This culminated in an oath to stay in Berlin, head up the defense of the city, and shoot himself at the end.[278] Alfred Jodl (May 10, 1890 – October 16, 1946) was a German military commander, attaining the position of Chief of the Operations Staff of the Armed Forces High Command (Oberkommando der Wehrmacht, or OKW) during World War II, acting as deputy to Wilhelm Keitel. ... Wilhelm Burgdorf (14 February 1895-1 May 1945) was born in Fürstenwalde and served as a commander and staff officer in the German army during World War II. He was one of the officers most loyal to Adolf Hitler in the final months of the war and commited suicide... Martin Bormann Martin Bormann (June 17, 1900 - c. ...


Before the day ended, Hitler again found salvation in a new plan that included General Walther Wenck's Twelfth Army.[279] This new plan had Wenck turn his army – currently facing the Americans to the west – and attack towards the east to relieve Berlin.[279] Twelfth Army was to link up with Ninth Army and break through to the city. Wenck did attack and, in the confusion, made temporary contact with the Potsdam garrison. But the link with the Ninth Army, like the plan in general, was ultimately unsuccessful.[280] Walther Wenck (September 18, 1900 - May 1, 1982) was a General in the German Army during the World War II. He commanded the 12th Army which he ordered to surrender to the United States in order to avoid capture by the Soviets. ... The German Twelfth Army (German: ) was a World War II field army. ...


On 23 April, Joseph Goebbels made the following proclamation to the people of Berlin:

I call on you to fight for your city. Fight with everything you have got, for the sake of your wives and your children, your mothers and your parents. Your arms are defending everything we have ever held dear, and all the generations that will come after us. Be proud and courageous! Be inventive and cunning! Your Gauleiter is amongst you. He and his colleagues will remain in your midst. His wife and children are here as well. He, who once captured the city with 200 men, will now use every means to galvanize the defense of the capital. The Battle for Berlin must become the signal for the whole nation to rise up in battle ...[277] This article is about the capture of Berlin in 1945. ...

The same day, Göring sent a telegram from Berchtesgaden in Bavaria. Göring argued that, since Hitler was cut off in Berlin, he should assume leadership of Germany as Hitler's designated successor. Göring mentioned a time limit after which he would consider Hitler incapacitated.[281] Hitler responded, in anger, by having Göring arrested. Later when Hitler wrote his will on 29 April, Göring was removed from all his positions in the government.[281][282][283] Further on the 23 April, Hitler appointed General der Artillerie Helmuth Weidling as the commander of the Berlin Defense Area. Weidling replaced Lieutenant General (Generalleutnant) Helmuth Reymann and Colonel (Oberst) Ernst Kaether. Hitler also appointed Waffen SS General (SS Brigadeführer) Wilhelm Mohnke the (Kommandant) Battle Commander for the defense of the government sector (Zitadelle sector) that included the Reich Chancellery and Führerbunker. Berchtesgaden is a town in the German Bavarian Alps. ... In the common law, a will or testament is a document by which a person (the testator) regulates the rights of others over his property or family after death. ... Lieutenant General (Generalleutnant) Helmuth Reymann was a German Army officer and the third to the last German commander of the Berlin Defense Area during the final assault by Soviet forces on the city of Berlin. ... ... Wilhelm Mohnke, 1944 SS-Brigadeführer Wilhelm Mohnke (March 15, 1911 - August 6, 2001) was one of Hitlers last remaining generals. ...


By the end of the day on 27 April, Berlin was completely cut off from the rest of Germany.


On 28 April, Hitler discovered that SS leader Heinrich Himmler was trying to discuss surrender terms with the Western Allies (through the Swedish diplomat Count Folke Bernadotte).[284] Hitler ordered Himmler's arrest and had Himmler's representative in Berlin Hermann Fegelein shot.[282][285] SS redirects here. ... This article is about the Swedes as an ethnic group. ... Count Folke Bernadotte of Wisborg (January 2, 1895 - September 17, 1948), or simply Count Bernadotte, was a Swedish diplomat noted for his negotiation of the release of 15,000 mostly Scandinavian prisoners [1] from the German concentration camps in World War II and for his assassination by members of a... Obergruppenführer Hermann Otto Fegelein (30 October 1906–c. ...

Cover of US military newspaper The Stars and Stripes, May 1945

During the night of 28 April, Wenck reported that his Twelfth Army had been forced back along the entire front. He noted that no further attacks towards Berlin were possible. General Alfred Jodl (Supreme Army Command) did not provide this information to Hans Krebs in Berlin until early in the morning of 30 April. Stars and Stripes is the newspaper published for the United States Armed Forces overseas. ... Alfred Jodl (May 10, 1890 – October 16, 1946) was a German military commander, attaining the position of Chief of the Operations Staff of the Armed Forces High Command (Oberkommando der Wehrmacht, or OKW) during World War II, acting as deputy to Wilhelm Keitel. ... General of Infantry Hans Krebs (4 March 1898, Helmstedt - d. ...


On 29 April, Hitler dictated his will and political statement to his private secretary, Traudl Junge.[286] Hans Krebs, Wilhelm Burgdorf, Joseph Goebbels, and Martin Bormann witnessed and signed this last will and testament of Adolf Hitler.[282] On the same day, Hitler was informed of the assassination of Italian dictator Benito Mussolini on 28 April, which is presumed to have increased his determination to avoid capture.[287] Traudl Junge just after World War II. Traudl Junge (born Gertraud Humps; 16 March 1920 – 10 February 2002) was Adolf Hitlers youngest personal private secretary, from December 1942 to April 1945. ... The last will and testament of Adolf Hitler was dictated by Hitler to his secretary Traudl Junge in his Berlin Führerbunker on April 29, 1945, the day he and Eva Braun married. ... Mussolini redirects here. ...


On 30 April 1945, after intense street-to-street combat, when Soviet troops were within a block or two of the Reich Chancellery, Hitler committed suicide, shooting himself in the temple with a Walther PPK while simultaneously biting into a cyanide capsule.[288][289][290] Hitler's body and that of Eva Braun were put in a bomb crater,[291][292] doused in gasoline by SS Sturmbannführer Otto Günsche and other Führerbunker aides, and cremated as the Red Army advanced and shelling continued.[288] Urban warfare is a modern warfare conducted in urban areas such as towns and cities. ... The Walther PP series pistols include the Walther PP, PPK, and PPK/S. They are blowback-operated semiautomatic pistols manufactured by Carl Walther GmbH Sportwaffen in Germany and under license from Walther in France and the United States [1]. These pistols feature an exposed hammer, a double-action trigger mechanism... This article is about the chemical compound. ... Eva Anna Paula Braun, died Eva Anna Paula Hitler[1] (February 6, 1912 – April 30, 1945) was the longtime companion of Adolf Hitler and briefly his wife. ... Petrol redirects here. ... Otto Günsche (September 24, 1917 - October 2, 2003) was a Sturmbannführer in the SS and a close aide of Adolf Hitler, and was asked by the Führer to ensure that his body would be burnt after death. ... The crematorium at Haycombe Cemetery, Bath, England. ...


On 2 May, Berlin surrendered. In the postwar years there were conflicting reports about what happened to Hitler's remains. After the fall of the Soviet Union it was revealed from records in the Soviet archives that the bodies of Hitler, Eva Braun, Joseph and Magda Goebbels, the six Goebbels children, General Hans Krebs and Hitler's dogs, were secretly buried in graves near Rathenow in Brandenburg.[293] In 1970, the remains were disinterred, cremated and scattered in the Elbe River by the Soviets.[294][295] According to the Russian Federal Security Service, a fragment of human skull stored in its archives and displayed to the public in a 2000 exhibition came from the remains of Hitler's body and is all that remains of Hitler. The authenticity of the skull has been challenged by historians and researchers.[296] DNA analysis conducted in 2009 showed the skull fragment to be that of a woman under the age of 40.[297] Magda Goebbels Johanna Maria Magdalena Goebbels, known as Magda Goebbels (November 11, 1901 – May 1, 1945) was the wife of Nazi Germanys Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels. ... The Goebbels family on October 29, 1942: (back row) Hilde, Harald Quandt and Helga; (front row) Helmut, Holde, Magda, Heide, Joseph and Hedda. ... General of Infantry Hans Krebs (1898–1945). ... Rathenow is a town in the province of Brandenburg, Germany, with a population of 27,085. ... For the similarly spelled Brandenberg, see Brandenberg (Austria) or Brandenburg (disambiguation) Location Coordinates , , Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE4 Capital Potsdam Minister-President Matthias Platzeck (SPD) Governing parties SPD / CDU Votes in Bundesrat 4 (of 69) Basic statistics Area  29,479 km² (11,382... The Elbe River (Czech Labe, Sorbian/Lusatian Łobjo, Polish Łaba, German Elbe) is one of the major waterways of central Europe. ...

Legacy

Outside the building in Braunau am Inn, Austria where Adolf Hitler was born is a memorial stone warning of the horrors of World War II
"What manner of man is this grim figure who has performed these superb toils and loosed these frightful evils?" – Winston Churchill in Great Contemporaries (1935)

Hitler, the Nazi Party and the results of Nazism are typically regarded as gravely immoral. Historians, philosophers, and politicians have often applied the word evil in both a secular sense of the word and in a religious sense. Historical and cultural portrayals of Hitler in the west are overwhelmingly condemnatory. The display of swastikas or other Nazi symbols is prohibited in Germany and Austria. Holocaust denial is prohibited in both countries. German Nazism and the acts of the Nazi German state profoundly affected many countries, communities and peoples before, during and after World War II. While the attempt of Germany to exterminate several nations viewed as subhuman by Nazi ideology, was stopped by the Allies, Nazi aggression neverthless led to deaths... The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ... Braunau am Inn is a city in the Innviertel (River Inn area) of Upper Austria (Ober sterreich), the north-western province of Austria. ... The memorial stone, with Mayor Gerhard Skiba, Andreas Maislinger (founder of the Austrian Holocaust Memorial Service) and young members of the Austrian Association for Service Abroad standing in front of the house where Hitler was born. ... Churchill redirects here. ... Not to be confused with Nasi. ... For other uses, see Evil (disambiguation). ... The twentieth century German Nazi Party was notable for their extensive use of graphic symbolism, most notably the Hakenkreuz (swastika) which it used as its principal symbol, and, in the form of the swastika flag, became the state flag of Nazi Germany. ...


Outside of Hitler's birthplace in Braunau am Inn, Austria is a stone marker engraved with the following message:

FÜR FRIEDEN FREIHEIT
UND DEMOKRATIE
NIE WIEDER FASCHISMUS
MILLIONEN TOTE MAHNEN

Loosely translated it reads: "For peace, freedom // and democracy // never again fascism // millions of dead remind [us]"


However, some people have referred to Hitler's legacy in neutral or favourable terms. Former Egyptian President Anwar El Sadat spoke of his 'admiration' of Hitler in 1953, when he was a young man, though it is possible he was speaking in the context of a rebellion against the British Empire.[298] Louis Farrakhan has referred to him as a "very great man".[299] Bal Thackeray, leader of the right-wing Hindu Shiv Sena party in the Indian state of the Maharashtra, declared in 1995 that he was an admirer of Hitler.[300] Friedrich Meinecke, the German historian, said of Hitler's life that "it is one of the great examples of the singular and incalculable power of personality in historical life".[301] Louis Farrakhan (born Louis Eugene Walcott, May 11, 1933), is the acting head of the Nation of Islam (NOI) as the National Representative of Elijah Muhammad. ... Bal Keshav Thackeray (Marathi: बाळ केशव ठाकरे) (born January 23, 1924), popularly called Balasaheb, and also Sher, Tiger, or Hindu Hridaysamrat, is the founder and president of the Shiv Sena, a Hindu nationalist, Marathi ethnocentric and populist party active mainly in the western Indian state of Maharashtra. ... Shiv Sena (DevanāgarÄ«: शिव सेना Śīv Senā), meaning Army of Shiva, referring to Shivaji is a nationalist political party in India founded on June 19, 1966 by Bal Thackeray, who is currently the president of the party. ... , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA  , translation: Great Nation) is Indias third largest state in area and second largest in population after Uttar Pradesh. ...

Religious views

Hitler was raised by Roman Catholic parents, but after he left home, he never attended Mass or received the sacraments.[302] However, after he had moved to Germany, where the Catholic and the Protestant church are largely financed through a church tax collected by the state, Hitler (like Goebbels) never "actually left his church or refused to pay church taxes. In a nominal sense therefore," the historian Steigmann-Gall states, Hitler "can be classified as Catholic."[303] But, as Steigmann-Gall has also pointed out in the debate about religion in Nazi Germany: "Nominal church membership is a very unreliable gauge of actual piety in this context."[304] Catholic Church redirects here. ... For other uses of Mass, see Mass (disambiguation). ... Catholic sacraments redirects here. ... Church tax is a tax imposed on members of some religious congregations in Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Austria and some parts of Switzerland. ...


In public, Hitler often praised Christian heritage, German Christian culture, and professed a belief in an Aryan Jesus Christ, a Jesus who fought against the Jews.[305] In his speeches and publications Hitler spoke of his interpretation of Christianity as a central motivation for his antisemitism, stating that "As a Christian I have no duty to allow myself to be cheated, but I have the duty to be a fighter for truth and justice."[306][307] His private statements, as reported by his intimates, are more mixed, showing Hitler as a religious man but critical of traditional Christianity.[308] Here Hitler made at least one attack against Catholicism that "resonated Streicher's contention that the Catholic establishment was allying itself with the Jews."[309] In light of these private statements, for John S. Conway and many other historians it is beyond doubt that Hitler held a "fundamental antagonism" towards the Christian churches.[310] The various accounts of Hitler's private statements vary strongly in their reliability; Most importantly, Hermann Rauschning's Hitler speaks is considered by most historians to be an invention.[311][312] An overview about Hitler's religious beliefs, based on his apparent private statements, can be found in the acclaimed book by Michael Rißmann or in Richard Steigmann-Gall's controversial book on Nazism and Christianity, pp. 252–259. Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Julius Streicher (February 12, 1885 – October 16, 1946) was a prominent Nazi prior to and during World War II. He was the publisher of the Nazi Der Stürmer newspaper, which was to become a part of the Nazi propaganda machine. ... Professor John Conway John S. Conway is Professor Emeritus of History at the University of British Columbia. ...


In the political relations with the churches in Germany however, Hitler readily adopted a strategy "that suited his immediate political purposes".[310] Hitler had a general plan, even before the rise of the Nazis to power, to destroy Christianity within the Reich.[313][314][315] The leader of the Hitler Youth stated "the destruction of Christianity was explicitly recognized as a purpose of the National Socialist movement" from the start, but "considerations of expedience made it impossible" publicly to express this extreme position.[313]


Some writers believe that, in contrast to some Nazi ideologues, Hitler did not adhere to esoteric ideas, occultism, or Ariosophy,[308] and he ridiculed such beliefs in Mein Kampf.[316][317] Others believe the young Hitler was strongly influenced, particularly in his racial views, by an abundance of occult works on the mystical superiority of the Germans, like the occult and anti-semitic magazine Ostara, and give credence to the claim of its publisher Lanz von Liebenfels that Hitler visited Liebenfels in 1909 and praised his work.[318] The historians are still divided on the question of the reliability of Lanz' claim of a contact with Hitler.[319] Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke considers his account reliable, Brigitte Hamann leaves the question open and Ian Kershaw is extremely sceptical.[320] Etymology Esoteric is an adjective originating during Hellenic Greece under the domain of the Roman Empire; it comes from the Greek esôterikos, from esôtero, the comparative form of esô: within. It is a word meaning anything that is inner and occult, a latinate word meaning hidden (from which... The word occult comes from Latin occultus (hidden), referring to the knowledge of the secret or knowledge of the hidden and often meaning knowledge of the supernatural, as opposed to knowledge of the visible or knowledge of the measurable, usually referred to as science. ... Werner von Bülows World-Rune-Clock, illustrating the correspondences between Lists Armanen runes, the signs of the zodiac and the gods of the months Armanism and Ariosophy are the names of ideological systems of an esoteric nature, pioneered by Guido von List and Jörg Lanz von... The racist magazine Ostara (full title: Ostara, Briefbücherei der Blonden und Mannesrechtler, english Ostara, letter collection of fair-haired and males laws) was founded in 1905 by the racist mystic Lanz von Liebenfels in Vienna. ... Lanz von Liebenfels Adolf Josef Lanz (aka Jörg Lanz), who called himself Lanz von Liebenfels (July 19, 1874 - April 22, 1954) was a former monk and the founder of the right-wing magazine Ostara, in which he published anti-semitic and folkish theories. ... Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke is the author of several books on modern occultism and esotericism with the history of its intersection with fascist politics. ... Brigitte Hamann Ph. ... Professor Sir Ian Kershaw (born April 29, 1943 in Oldham, Lancashire, England) is a British historian, noted for his biographies of Adolf Hitler. ...


Hitler for a time advocated for Germans a form of the Christian faith he called "Positive Christianity",[316][321] a belief system purged of what he objected to in orthodox Christianity, and featuring added racist elements. By 1940 however, it was public knowledge that Hitler had abandoned advocating for Germans even the syncretist idea of a positive Christianty.[322] Hitler maintained that the "terrorism in religion is, to put it briefly, of a Jewish dogma, which Christianity has universalized and whose effect is to sow trouble and confusion in men's minds."[323] A Sun cross, adopted as the sign of the German Faith Movement because it resembles both a cross and a swastika Positive Christianity is a term used in Nazi ideology to refer to a form of Christianity consistent with Nazism. ... For the linguistic term, see syncretism (linguistics). ...


In addition to not attending Mass or receiving the sacraments, Hitler favored aspects of Protestantism if they were more amenable to his own objectives. At the same time, he adopted some elements of the Catholic Church's hierarchical organization, liturgy and phraseology in his politics.[324][325] For other uses of Mass, see Mass (disambiguation). ... Catholic sacraments redirects here. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ...


Hitler expressed admiration for the Muslim military tradition and directed Himmler to initiate Muslim SS Divisions as a matter of policy.[326] According to one confidant, Hitler stated in private, "The Mohammedan religion too would have been much more compatible to us than Christianity. Why did it have to be Christianity with its meekness and flabbiness ..."[327] There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ...


Hitler once stated, "We do not want any other god than Germany itself. It is essential to have fanatical faith and hope and love in and for Germany."[328]

Health

Hitler's health has long been the subject of debate. He has variously been said to have had irritable bowel syndrome, skin lesions, irregular heartbeat, Parkinson's disease,[269] syphilis,[269] Asperger syndrome[329][330] and a strongly suggested addiction to methamphetamine. He had problems with his teeth and his personal dentist Hugo Blaschke stated that he fitted a large dental bridge to his upper jaw in 1933 and that on 10 November 1944 he carried out surgery to cut off part of the bridge due to a gum infection that was causing him severe toothache. He reported that he was also suffering from a sinus infection[331] Skin Lesions can include moles, cysts, warts or skin tags. ... A cardiac arrhythmia, also called cardiac dysrhythmia, is a disturbance in the regular rhythm of the heartbeat. ... Syphilis is a curable sexually transmitted disease caused by the Treponema pallidum spirochete. ... Asperger syndrome (also Aspergers syndrome, Aspergers disorder, Aspergers, or AS) is one of several autism spectrum disorders (ASD) characterized by difficulties in social interaction and by restricted and stereotyped interests and activities. ... This article is about the psychostimulant, d-methamphetamine. ... A dental bridge is a prosthesis used in place of missing teeth and may be removable or permanently attached. ... Sinusitis is an inflammation of the paranasal sinuses, which may or may not be as a result of infection, from bacterial, fungal, viral, allergic or autoimmune issues. ...


After the early 1930s, Hitler generally followed a vegetarian diet, although he ate meat on occasion. There are reports of him disgusting his guests by giving them graphic accounts of the slaughter of animals in an effort to make them shun meat.[332] A fear of cancer (from which his mother died) is the most widely cited reason, though many authors[who?] also assert Hitler had a profound and deep love of animals.[citation needed] Martin Bormann had a greenhouse constructed for him near the Berghof (near Berchtesgaden) to ensure a steady supply of fresh fruit and vegetables for Hitler throughout the war. Photographs of Bormann's children tending the greenhouse survive and, by 2005, its foundations were among the only ruins visible in the area that was associated with Nazi leaders. A selection of produce typical of a vegetarian diet. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Haus Wachenfeld during its conversion into the Berghof in about June 1936. ... Berchtesgaden is a town in the German Bavarian Alps. ...


Hitler was a non-smoker and promoted aggressive anti-smoking campaigns throughout Germany. He reportedly promised a gold watch to any of his close associates who quit (and gave a few away). Several witness accounts relate that, immediately after his suicide was confirmed, many officers, aides, and secretaries in the Führerbunker lit cigarettes.[333] This is a reconstruction of the layout of the Führerbunker. ...

Sexuality

Hitler presented himself publicly as a man without a domestic life, dedicated entirely to his political mission. The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ...


He had a fiancée in the 1920s, Mimi Reiter, and later had a mistress, Eva Braun. He had a close bond with his half-niece Geli Raubal, which some commentators have claimed was sexual, though there is no evidence that proves this.[334] According to John Toland (in his book A.H.: a Definitive Biography), Hitler would often visit Geli in the manner of a suitor, and restricted his niece's movement unless she was chaperoned by him. All three women attempted suicide (two succeeded), a fact that has led to speculation that Hitler may have had sexual fetishes, such as urolagnia, as was claimed by Otto Strasser, a political opponent of Hitler. Reiter, the only one to survive the Nazi regime, denied this.[335] During the war and afterwards psychoanalysts offered numerous inconsistent psychosexual explanations of his pathology.[336] Some theorists have claimed that Hitler had a relationship with British fascist Unity Mitford.[337] More recently, Lothar Machtan has argued in his book, The Hidden Hitler, that Hitler was homosexual. Mimi Reiter was Adolf Hitlers fiancée in the late 1920s. ... Eva Anna Paula Braun, died Eva Anna Paula Hitler[1] (February 6, 1912 – April 30, 1945) was the longtime companion of Adolf Hitler and briefly his wife. ... Geli Raubal Angela Geli Raubal (June 4, 1908 – September 18, 1931). ... Sexual fetishism, first described as such by Sigmund Freud though the concept and certainly the activity is quite ancient, is a form of paraphilia where the object of affection is a specific inanimate object or part of a persons body. ... Golden shower redirects here. ... Today psychoanalysis comprises several interlocking theories concerning the functioning of the mind. ... A renal cell carcinoma (chromophobe type) viewed on a hematoxylin & eosin stained slide Pathologist redirects here. ... The Hon. ... Lothar Machtan Ph. ... The Hidden Hitler is the English language title for the 2001 book by German professor and historian Lothar Machtan. ...

Family

Paula Hitler, the last living member of Adolf Hitler's immediate family, died in 1960. Paula Hitler. ...


The most prominent and longest-living direct descendants of Adolf Hitler's father, Alois, was Adolf's nephew William Patrick Hitler. With his wife Phyllis, he eventually moved to Long Island, New York, changed his last name, and had four sons. None of William Hitler's children have had any children of their own. William Patrick Hitler (later Stuart-Houston) (born March 12, 1911 in Liverpool, England, United Kingdom – died July 1987 in Patchogue, New York, USA), nicknamed Willy (or Paddy Hitler by Irish-Americans), was the nephew of Adolf Hitler. ... Image of Long Island taken by NASA. Long Island, part of New York State, is an island off the North American coast, some 118 miles (190 km) long, and from 12 to 20 miles wide, extending from New York Harbor into the North Atlantic Ocean. ...


Over the years, various investigative reporters have attempted to track down other distant relatives of the Führer. Many are now alleged to be living inconspicuous lives and have long since changed their last name.

Adolf Hitler's genealogy

Hitler in media

Adolf Hitler at Berchtesgaden.ogg
Video of Adolf Hitler at Berchtesgaden

Oratory and rallies

Hitler was a gifted orator who captivated many with his beating of the lectern and growling, emotional speech. He honed his skills by giving speeches to soldiers during 1919 and 1920. He became adept at telling people what they wanted to hear (the stab-in-the-back, the Jewish-Marxist plot to conquer the world, and the betrayal of Germany in the Versailles treaty) and identifying a scapegoat for their plight. Over time, Hitler perfected his delivery by rehearsing in front of mirrors and carefully choreographing his display of emotions. He was allegedly coached by Erik-Jan Hanussen, a self-styled clairvoyant who focused on hand and arm gestures and who, ironically, had Jewish heritage. Munitions minister and architect Albert Speer, who may have known Hitler as well as anyone, said that Hitler was above all else an actor.[338][339] Genealogy (from Greek: γενεα, genea, family; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study and tracing of family pedigrees. ... Klara Hitler Klara Hitler, born Klara Pölzl (August 12, 1860 - December 21, 1907), was the mother of Adolf Hitler. ... This article is about Adolf Hitlers father. ... Alois Hitler, Jr. ... Adolf Hitler with his halfsister Angela Angela Raubal Hamitsch, born Angela Hitler (July 28, 1883 - October 30, 1949), was the elder half-sister of Adolf Hitler. ... Bridget Elizabeth Dowling Hitler (alternative Brigid) (1891-1969) was Adolf Hitlers sister-in-law via her marriage to Alois Hitler, Jr. ... Eva Anna Paula Braun, died Eva Anna Paula Hitler[1] (February 6, 1912 – April 30, 1945) was the longtime companion of Adolf Hitler and briefly his wife. ... Geli Raubal Angela Geli Raubal (June 4, 1908 – September 18, 1931). ... Heinz Hitler Heinrich Hitler (nickname Heinz) (born 1923, died 1942) was the son of Alois Hitler, Jr. ... Obergruppenführer Hermann Otto Fegelein (30 October 1906–c. ... In German history, Johann Georg Hiedler (28 September 1792, – 1857) was born to Martin Hiedler (17 November 1762 - 10 January 1829) and Anna Maria Goschl (August 23, 1760 - 7 December 1854). ... Johann von Nepomuk Hiedler, also known as Johann von Nepomuk Hüttler (March 19, 1807 - September 17, 1888), was a maternal great-grandfather and possibly also the paternal grandfather of Adolf Hitler. ... Maria Anna Schicklgruber (April 15, 1795 – January 7, 1847) was Adolf Hitlers paternal grandmother. ... Paula Hitler. ... William Patrick Hitler (later Stuart-Houston) (born March 12, 1911 in Liverpool, England, United Kingdom – died July 1987 in Patchogue, New York, USA), nicknamed Willy (or Paddy Hitler by Irish-Americans), was the nephew of Adolf Hitler. ... Berchtesgaden is a town in the German Bavarian Alps. ... Look up orator in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Hanussen, also known as Erik Jan Hanussen (2 June 1889, Vienna - after 25 March 1933, Berlin), was a mentalist, occultist, and astrologer, active in Weimar Republic Germany and also at the beginning of Nazi Germany. ... For the son of Albert Speer, also an architect, see Albert Speer (the younger). ...


Massive Nazi rallies staged by Speer were designed to spark a process of self-persuasion for the participants. By participating in the rallies, by marching, by shouting heil, and by making the stiff armed salute, the participants strengthened their commitment to the Nazi movement. This process can be appreciated by watching Leni Riefenstahl's Triumph of the Will, which presents the 1934 Nuremberg Rally. The camera shoots Hitler from on high and from below, but only twice head-on. These camera angles give Hitler a Christ-like aura. Some of the people in the film are paid actors, but most of the participants are not. Whether the film itself recruited new Nazis out of theater audiences is unknown. The process of self-persuasion may have affected Hitler. He gave the same speech (though it got smoother and smoother with repetition) hundreds of times first to soldiers and then to audiences in beer halls. These performances may have made his hatreds more intense, especially his all-consuming hatred of the Jews. Helene Bertha Amalie Leni Riefenstahl (August 22, 1902 – September 8, 2003) was a German film director, dancer and actress, and widely noted for her aesthetics and advances in film technique. ... Triumph of the Will (German: Triumph des Willens) is a propaganda film by the German filmmaker Leni Riefenstahl. ...

Hitler and Baron Mannerheim (June 1942)

Recorded in private conversation

Hitler visited Finnish Field Marshal Mannerheim on 4 June 1942. During the visit an engineer of the Finnish broadcasting company YLE, Thor Damen, recorded Hitler and Mannerheim in conversation, something which had to be done secretly since Hitler never allowed recordings of him off-guard.[340] Today the recording is the only known recording of Hitler not speaking in an official tone. The recording captures 11½ minutes of the two leaders in private conversation.[341] Hitler speaks in a slightly excited, but still intellectually detached manner during this talk (the speech has been compared to that of the working class). The majority of the recording is a monologue by Hitler. In the recording, Hitler admits to underestimating the Soviet Union's ability to conduct war. This article is about the Finnish statesman and Commander-in-Chief. ... . A Marshal or Field Marshal (sometimes incorrectly spelled Marshall) (French: mar chal, Chinese: shuai (Chinese Traditional: 元帥), Dutch: Veldmaarschalk, German: Feldmarschall, Portuguese: marechal, Spanish: mariscal, Persian بزرگ‌ارتشتاران (Bozorg-arteshtaran), Polish marszałek, Swedish: F ltmarskalk, Russian: Фельдмаршал) is, in some nations, the highest military rank, one step above a full... This article is about the Finnish statesman and Commander-in-Chief. ... YLE (Yleisradio Oy) is Finlands national broadcasting company, founded in 1926. ...

Patria picture disc

Adolf Hitler even released a 7-inch picture disc with one of his speeches. Known as the Patria (Fatherland) picture disc, the obverse bears an image of Hitler giving a speech and has a recording of both a speech by Hitler and also Party Member Hans Hinkel. The reverse bears a hand holding a swastika flag and the Carl Woitschach recording (1933 – Telefunken A 1431) "In Dem Kampf um die Heimat – Faschistenmarsch". Usual types of gramophone record (phonograph record in U.S. English) are discussed in the main article. ... Fatherland is the nation of ones fathers or forefathers. ...

Documentaries during the Third Reich

Hitler appeared in and was involved to varying degrees with a series of films by the pioneering filmmaker Leni Riefenstahl via Universum Film AG (UFA): Helene Bertha Amalie Leni Riefenstahl (August 22, 1902 – September 8, 2003) was a German film director, dancer and actress, and widely noted for her aesthetics and advances in film technique. ... UFA logo Universum Film AG, better known as Ufa or UFA, was the principal film studio in Germany, home of the German film industry during the Weimar Republic and through World War II, and a major force in world cinema during its brief existence from 1917 to 1945. ...

Hitler was the central figure of the first three films; they focused on the party rallies of the respective years and are considered propaganda films. Hitler also featured prominently in the Olympia film. Whether the latter is a propaganda film or a true documentary is still a subject of controversy, but it nonetheless perpetuated and spread the propagandistic message of the 1936 Olympic Games depicting Nazi Germany as a prosperous and peaceful country.[342] As a prominent politician, Hitler was featured in many newsreels. Sieg des Glaubens (German for Victory of Faith) is the first documentary directed by Leni Riefenstahl, who was hired despite opposition from Nazi officials that resented employing a woman — and a non-Party member too. ... Triumph of the Will (German: Triumph des Willens) is a propaganda film by the German filmmaker Leni Riefenstahl. ... The Nuremberg Rally (officially, Reichsparteitag, meaning national party convention) was the annual rally of the NSDAP (Nazi Party) in the years 1923 to 1938 in Germany. ... The 1936 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XI Olympiad, were held in 1936 in Berlin, Germany. ... A newsreel is a documentary film that is regularly released in a public presentation place containing filmed news stories. ...

Television

Hitler's attendance at various public functions, including the 1936 Olympic Games and Nuremberg Rallies, appeared on television broadcasts made between 1935 and 1939. These events, along with other programming highlighting activity by public officials, were often repeated in public viewing rooms. Samples from a number of surviving television films from Nazi Germany were included in the 1999 documentary Das Fernsehen unter dem Hakenkreuz (Television Under the Swastika).

Documentaries post Third Reich

  • The World at War (1974): a Thames Television series which contains much information about Hitler and Nazi Germany, including an interview with his secretary, Traudl Junge.
  • Adolf Hitler's Last Days: from the BBC series "Secrets of World War II" tells the story about Hitler's last days during World War II.
  • The Nazis: A Warning From History (1997): six-part BBC TV series on how the cultured and educated Germans accepted Hitler and the Nazis up to its downfall. Historical consultant is Ian Kershaw.
  • Cold War (1998): a CNN series about the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union. The series begins with World War II footage, including Hitler, and how the Cold War began in earnest after Germany surrendered.
  • Im toten Winkel – Hitlers Sekretärin (Blind Spot: Hitler's Secretary) (2002): an exclusive 90 minute interview with Traudl Junge, Hitler's secretary. Made by Austrian Jewish director André Heller shortly before Junge's death from lung cancer, Junge recalls the last days in the Berlin bunker. Clips of the interview were used in Downfall.
  • Undergångens arkitektur (The Architecture of Doom) (1989): documentary about the National Socialist aesthetic as envisioned by Hitler.
  • Das Fernsehen unter dem Hakenkreuz (Television Under the Swastika) (1999): documentary by Michael Kloft about the domestic use of television in Nazi Germany for propaganda purposes from 1935 to 1944.
  • Ruins of the Reich (2007): four-part series of the Rise and Fall of Hitler's Reich and its effects, created by Third Reich historian R.J. Adams

Films

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ "Hitler ersucht um Entlassung aus der österreichischen Staatsangehörigkeit", 7 April 1925 (German). Translation: "Hitler's official application to end his Austrian citizenship". NS-Archiv. Retrieved on 2008-08-19
  2. ^ Keegan 1989
  3. ^ Niewyk, Donald L.; Francis R. Nicosia (2000), The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust, Columbia University Press, p. 45, ISBN 0231112009, http://books.google.ca/books?id=lpDTIUklB2MC&pg=PA45 
  4. ^ Wistrich, Robert S. (1995), Who's Who In Nazi Germany?, London: Routledge, ISBN 978-0415118880, http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/braun.html, retrieved 2008-09-07 
  5. ^ a b c Rosenbaum, R. (1999). Explaining Hitler: The Search for the Origins of His Evil. Harper Perennial. ISBN 0-06-095339-X
  6. ^ Dieter Schenk, Frank: Hitlers Kronjurist und General-Gouverneur, 2006, p.65. ISBN 978-3100735621: "Dass Adolf Hitler bestimmt kein Judenblut in den Adern hatte, scheint mir aus seiner ganzen Art dermaßen eklatant bewiesen, dass es keines weiteren Wortes bedarf," (p.330 of Frank's memoirs published in 1953 as Im Angesicht des Galgens. Deutung Hitlers und seiner Zeit aufgrund eigener Erlebnisse und Erkenntnisse).
  7. ^ Toland 1991, pp. 246–47
  8. ^ a b Kershaw, Ian (1998), Hitler: 1889–1936: Hubris, City of Westminster, London, England: Penguin Books, pp. 8–9 
  9. ^ Anna Elisabeth Rosmus, Out of Passau: Leaving a City Hitler Called Home, p. 41
  10. ^ John Toland, Adolf Hitler, 1976 ISBN 0-385-42053-6
  11. ^ a b c Payne 1990
  12. ^ Rosmus, op cit, p. 35
  13. ^ Payne 1990, p. 22
  14. ^ Payne 1990, p. 41
  15. ^ Toland 1991, p. 18
  16. ^ Jetzinger, Franz (1976), Hitler's youth, Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, p. 74, ISBN 083718617X, .
  17. ^ Bullock 1962, pp. 30–31
  18. ^ a b c d e f Hitler 1998, §2
  19. ^ Lehrer, Steven (2002). Hitler Sites: A City-by-city Guidebook (Austria, Germany, France, United States). McFarland. pp. 224. ISBN 0786410450. http://books.google.com/books?id=pAZoAAAAMAAJ&q=hitler+sites&dq=hitler+sites&ei=6vitSe2QJpXSlQTv24iYBQ&pgis=1. 
  20. ^ Hamann & Thornton 1999
  21. ^ Hitler 1998, §7
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  43. ^ The party's name was officially changed in 1920 to include the prefix "National Socialist."
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  45. ^ Shirer 1961, p. 109
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  48. ^ a b Bullock 1962, p. 121
  49. ^ Katrina Vanden Heuvel The Nation 1865–1990, p. 66, Thunder's Mouth Press, 1990 ISBN 1-56025-001-1
  50. ^ Jonathan Peter Spiro. Defending the Master Race: Conservation, Eugenics, and the Legacy of Madison Grant. Univ. of Vermont Press. http://books.google.com/books?id=4NoE2VyfN70C&pg=PA357. Retrieved 2010-01-25. 
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  • Hitler, Adolf; Raoul Jean Jacques Francois De Roussy De Sales, ed (1973), My New Order, Octagon Books, ISBN 0-374-93918-7 
  • Hitler, Adolf (15 September), Mein Kampf, Mariner Books, ISBN 0395925037 
  • Joachimsthaler, Anton (1999), The Last Days of Hitler – The Legends – The Evidence – The Truth, Brockhampton Press, ISBN 1-86019-902-X
  • Kee, Robert (1988), Munich, London: Hamish Hamilton 
  • Keegan, John (1987), The Mask of Command: A Study of Generalship, Pimlico (Random House) 
  • Keegan, John (1989), The Second World War, Glenfield, New Zealand: Hutchinson 
  • Kershaw, Ian (1999), Hitler: 1889–1936: Hubris, New York: W. W. Norton & Company 
  • Kershaw, Ian (2000a), The Nazi Dictatorship: Problems and Perspectives of Interpretation (4th ed.), London: Arnold 
  • Kershaw, Ian (2000b), Hitler, 1936–1945: Nemesis, New York; London: W. W. Norton & Company 
  • Kurowski, Franz (2005), The Brandenburger Commandos: Germany's Elite Warrior Spies in World War II, Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania: Stackpole Book, ISBN 13: 978-08117-3250-5, 10: 0-8117-3250-9 
  • Langer, Walter C. (1972), The Mind of Adolf Hitler, New York: Basic Books 
  • Lewis, David (2003), The Man who invented Hitler, Hodder Headline, ISBN 0-7553-1148-5 
  • Marrus, Michael (2000), The Holocaust in History, Toronto: Key Porter 
  • Murray, Williamson (1984), The Change in the European Balance of Power, Princeton: Princeton University Press 
  • Overy, Richard; Wheatcroft, Andrew (1989), The Road To War, London: Macmillan, ISBN 0-14-028530-X 
  • Overy, Richard (2005), The Dictators: Hitler's Germany, Stalin's Russia, Penguin Books, ISBN 0393020304 
  • Payne, Robert (1990), The Life and Death of Adolf Hitler, New York, New York: Hippocrene Books, ISBN 0880294027 
  • Rees, Laurence (1997), The Nazis: A Warning From History, New York: New Press 
  • Rißmann, Michael (2001) (in (German)), Hitlers Gott. Vorsehungsglaube und Sendungsbewußtsein des deutschen Diktators, Zürich München: Pendo, ISBN 3-85842-421-8 
  • Roberts, Andrew (1991), The Holy Fox, London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson 
  • Robertson, E.M. (1963), Hitler's Pre-War Policy and Military Plans, London: Longmans 
  • Röpke, Wilhelm (1946), The Solution to the German Problem, G. P. Putnam's Sons 
  • Rosenbaum, R. (1998), Explaining Hitler: The Search for the Origins of his Evil, Macmillan Publishers, ISBN 006095339X 
  • Shirer, William L. (1990 reprint), The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, Simon & Schuster, ISBN 0-671-72868-7 
  • Speer, Albert (2003), Inside the Third Reich, Weidenfeld & Nicolson History, ISBN 1-842-127357 
  • Steigmann-Gall, Richard (2003), The Holy Reich: Nazi Conceptions of Christianity, 1919–1945, Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, doi:10.2277/0521823714, ISBN 0521823714 
  • Strobl, Gerwin (2000), The Germanic Isle, Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press 
  • Toland, John (1991 reprint), Adolf Hitler: The Definitive Biography, Doubleday, ISBN 0385420536 
  • Tooze, Adam (2006), The Wages of Destruction, New York: Viking Press 
  • Waite, Robert G. L. (1993), The Psychopathic God: Adolf Hitler, Da Capo Press, ISBN 0-306-80514-6 
  • Weinberg, Gerhard (1970), The Foreign Policy of Hitler's Germany Diplomatic Revolution in Europe 1933–1936, Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press, ISBN 0226885097 
  • Weinberg, Gerhard (1980), The Foreign Policy of Hitler's Germany Starting World War II, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 0226885119 
  • Wheeler-Bennett, John (1967), The Nemesis of Power, London: Macmillan 

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Images and videos
Speeches and publications
Political offices
Preceded by
Anton Drexler
Leader of the NSDAP
1921–1945
Succeeded by
None
Preceded by
Franz Pfeffer von Salomon
Leader of the SA
1930–1945
Preceded by
Kurt von Schleicher
Chancellor of Germany(1)
1933–1945
Succeeded by
Joseph Goebbels
Preceded by
Paul von Hindenburg (as President)
Führer of Germany(1)
1934–1945
Succeeded by
Karl Dönitz (as President)
Military offices
Preceded by
Walther von Brauchitsch
Oberbefehlshaber des Heeres (Army Commander)
1941–1945
Succeeded by
Ferdinand Schörner
Notes and references
1. The positions of Head of State and Government were combined 1934–1945 in the office of Führer and Chancellor of Germany

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Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A dictatorship is an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by a dictator. ... Social Darwinism is the idea that Charles Darwins theory can be extended and applied to the social realm, i. ... Indoctrination is the process of inculcating ideas, attitudes, cognitive strategies or a professional methodology. ... For other uses, see Propaganda (disambiguation). ... Anti-intellectualism describes a sentiment of hostility towards, or mistrust of, intellectuals and intellectual pursuits. ... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Eugenics Conference [10], 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ... Militarism or militarist ideology is the doctrinal view of a society as being best served (or more efficient) when it is governed or guided by concepts embodied in the culture, doctrine, system, or people of the military. ... Economic interventionism is a term used to describe activity undertaken by a central government to affect a countrys economy in an attempt to increase economic growth and/or standards of living. ... Ideologies Communist internationals Prominent communists Related subjects Anti-communism refers to opposition to communism. ... What constitutes a definition of fascism and fascist governments is a highly disputed subject that has proved complicated and contentious. ... The economics of fascism refers to the economic policies implemented by fascist governments. ... There are numerous debates concerning fascism and ideology and where fascism fits on the political spectrum. ... Actual Idealism was a form of idealism developed by Giovanni Gentile that grew into a grounded idealism contrasting the Transcendental Idealism of Immanuel Kant and the Absolute idealism of Georg Hegel. ... Volksgemeinschaft was an attempt by the German Nazi Party to establish a national community of unified mind, will and spirit. ... Historically, corporatism or corporativism (Italian: corporativismo) refers to a political or economic system in which power is given to civic assemblies that represent economic, industrial, agrarian, social, cultural, and professional groups. ... National Syndicalism is typically associated with the right-wing labor movement in Italy which would later become the basis for Mussolini’s Fascist Party. ... There are multiple definitions of the term state capitalism. ... State socialism, broadly speaking, is any variety of socialism which relies on ownership of the means of production by the state. ... 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The flag of the British Union of Fascists showing the Flash and Circle symbolic of action within unity The British Union of Fascists (BUF) was a political party of the 1930s in the United Kingdom. ... This sie is so crap it dont even give u the definition Signed by STAINLESS ... Kyrkliga Folkpartiet (Clerical Peoples Party) a minor pro-fascist party in Sweden founded in 1930. ... Estado Novo (Portuguese for New State; pron. ... The Faisceau was a short-lived French Fascist party. ... Yoke and Arrows. ... The VNV flag The Flemish National Union (Dutch: Vlaamsch Nationaal Verbond, VNV) was a Nationalist Flemish political party in Belgium, founded by Staf de Clerq on October 8, 1933. ... The General Dutch Fascist League (in Dutch Algemeene Nederlandsche Fascisten Bond) was a minor Dutch fascist party founded in 1932. ... The Imperial Fascist League was a British political movement founded by Arnold Leese in 1929. ... The National Fascisti were a splinter group from the British Fascisti formed in 1924. ... The National Front was a far right political party in Switzerland that flourished during the 1930s. ... The Nationalist Party (Flokkur Þjóðernissinna) was a minor Icelandic political party that espoused a limited form of Nazism before and during the Second World War. ... The National Socialist Dutch Workers Party (Dutch Nationaal-Socialistische Nederlandsche Arbeiderspartij) was a minor Dutch fascist party founded in 1931. ... The National Socialist League was a short lived political movement in the United Kingdom immediately before the Second World War. ... The National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands (in Dutch: Nationaal-Socialistische Beweging in Nederland, NSB) was a Dutch fascist and later national socialist political party. ... 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Ioannis Metaxas From 1936 to 1941, Greece was ruled by an authoritarian regime under the leadership of General Ioannis Metaxas akin to that of Francos Spain. ... Flag of the Arrow Cross Party The Arrow Cross Party (Hungarian: Nyilaskeresztes Párt – Hungarista Mozgalom, literally Arrow Cross Party-Hungarist Movement) was a pro-German anti-Semitic national socialist party led by Ferenc Szálasi which ruled Hungary from October 15, 1944 to January 1945. ... Austrian National Socialism was a Pan-Germanic movement that was formed at the beginning of the 20th century. ... The Greater German Peoples Party (German Großdeutsche Volkspartei) was a political party during the First Republic (1918-1934) of Austria, founded in 1920. ... The Greek National Socialist Party was a minor Nazi party founded in Greece in 1932 by George S. Mercouris, a former Cabinet minister. ... The Hungarian National Socialist Party was a political epithet adopted by a number of minor Nazi parties in Hungary before the Second World War. ... Italian fascism (in Italian, fascismo) was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... Anthem Giovinezza (The Youth)¹ From the Gustav Line to the Gothic Line Capital Salò Language(s) Italian Religion None defined. ... Symbol of the Hirden, the stormtroopers or paramilitary organization of the Nasjonal Samling. ... The National Fascist Community (Národní Obec FaÅ¡istická (NOF): sometimes translated as National Fascist League) was a Czechoslovakian Fascist movement led by Radola Gajda and based on the Fascism of Benito Mussolini. ... The National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista; PNF) was an Italian party, created by Benito Mussolini as the political expression of Fascism (previously represented by groups known as Fasci; see also Italian fascism). ... National Socialist Bloc (in Swedish: Nationalsocialistiska Blocket), a Swedish national socialist political party formed in the end of 1933 by the merger of Nationalsocialistiska Samlingspartiet, Nationalsocialistiska Förbundet and local nazi units connected to the advocate Sven Hallström in UmeÃ¥. Later Svensk Nationalsocialistisk Samling merged into NSB. The leader... Not to be confused with Nasi. ... The Nazi Party, officially: National Socialist German Workers Party, (German: , abbreviated NSDAP), was a political party in Germany between 1919 and 1945. ... PÄ“rkonkrusts (Thunder Cross in Latvian), was a Latvian radical nationalist organization active in the 1930s. ... The Sudeten German Party (in German: Sudetendeutsche Partei, abbreviation: SdP) was created by Konrad Henlein under the name Sudetendeutsche Heimatfront (in English: Front of Sudeten German Homeland) on October 1st, 1933, some months after the state of Czechoslovakia had outlawed the DNSAP, the German National Socialist Workers Party. In April... An UstaÅ¡e guard pose among the bodies of prisoners murdered in the Jasenovac concentration camp The UstaÅ¡e (also known as Ustashas or Ustashi) was a Croatian extreme nationalist movement. ... The flag of Albania used by the fascist government The Albanian Fascist Party (Albanian Partia Fashiste e Shqipërisë -- PFSh) was a fascist movement which held nominal power in Albania from 1939, when the country was conquered by Italy, until 1943, when Italy capitulated to the Allies. ... -1... 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The National Romanian Fascia (Romanian: Fascia NaÅ£ională Română) was a small fascist group that was active in Romania for a short time during the 1920s. ... The National Renaissance Front (Romanian: Frontul RenaÅŸterii NaÅ£ionale, FRN; also translated as Front of National Regeneration, Front of National Rebirth, Front of National Resurrection, or Front of National Renaissance) was a fascist-inspired Romanian political party created by King Carol II in 1938 as the single monopoly party... The Finnish Patriotic Peoples Movement, Isänmaallinen kansanliike (usually abbreviated to IKL), was the successor to the semi-fascist Lapua Movement. ... The Romanian Front (Frontul Românesc) was a Fascist party led by Alexandru Vaida-Voevod as a splinter group from the National Peasants Party. ... 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(believed by some to have originated in a Tupi language expression) Integralist banner Brazilian Integralism (Portuguese: Integralismo brasileiro) was a Brazilian political movement created in October 1932. ... FSB symbol The Bolivian Socialist Falange (Spanish: Falange Socialista Boliviana) was a Bolivian party established in the year 1937. ... Movimiento Nacional Socialista de Chile was a political movement in Chile that initially supported the ideas of Adolf Hitler, although later moved towards a more indigenous form of fascism. ... Dr. Abba Ahimeir (1898-1962), (born: Abba Shaul Geisinovich) was a journalist, writer and historian, and one of the ideologues of Revisionist Zionism. ... Office Prime Minister, Conducător of Romania Term of office from September 4, 1940 until August 23, 1944 Profession Soldier, politician Political party none, formally allied with the Iron Guard Spouse Rasela Mendel Date of birth June 15, 1882 Place of birth PiteÅŸti, Romania Date of death June 1... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Zoltán Böszörmény (5 January 1893-?) was a leading exponent of Fascism in Hungary before the Second World War. ... Corneliu Zelea Codreanu Corneliu Zelea Codreanu (born Corneliu Zelinski; September 13, 1899 – November 30, 1938) was the charismatic leader of the Romanian ultra-Nationalist and strongly anti-Semitic movement in the interwar period, the Iron Guard (Garda de Fier) or The Legion of the Archangel Michael (also known as the... Marcelo Caetano Marcelo José das Neves Alves Caetano also spelled Marcello Caetano (pron. ... Enrico Corradini (1865, near Montelupo Fiorentino—1931, Rome) was an Italian novelist, essayist, journalist, and nationalist political figure. ... Marcel Déat Marcel Déat (March 7, 1894-January 5, 1955) was a French Fascist and politician prior to and during World War II. Born in Guerigny, Déat became a member of the French Socialist Party in 1914. ... Léon Joseph Marie Degrelle (June 15, 1906 – April 1, 1994) was a Walloon Belgian politician, who founded Rexism and later joined the Nazi German Waffen SS (becoming a leader of its Walloon contingent). ... Giovanni Gentile (IPA:) (May 30, 1875 - April 15, 1944) was an Italian neo-Hegelian Idealist philosopher, a peer of Benedetto Croce. ... Kita Ikki ) (3 April 1883 - 19 August 1937) was a Japanese author, intellectual and political philosopher who was active in the early Showa period Japan. ... Dimitrije Ljotić (August 12, 1891, Belgrade - April 22, 1945, Ajdovščina) was a Serbian politician and German collaborationist during World War II. Although born in Belgrade he spent most of his life in Smederevo. ... Doctor Arnold Spencer-Leese (1877-1956) was a noted veterinarian, anti-Semite and fascist politician, born in 1877 in Lytham, Lancashire, England. ... Ioannis Metaxas (Greek Ιωάννης Μεταξάς, April 12, 1871 – January 29, 1941) was a Greek General and the Prime Minister of Greece from 1936 until his death in 1941. ... Sir Oswald Ernald Mosley, 6th Baronet (November 16, 1896 – December 3, 1980), was a British politician known principally as the founder of the British Union of Fascists. ... Mussolini redirects here. ... General Eoin ODuffy (20 October 1892 - 30 November 1944), was in succession a Teachta Dála (TD), the Chief of Staff of the Irish Republican Army, the second Commissioner of the Garda Síochána, leader of the fascist Blueshirts and then the first leader of Fine Gael (1933... Ante Pavelić (July 14, 1889 – December 28, 1959) was the Head (Poglavnik) and founding member of the Croatian national socialist/fascist UstaÅ¡e movement in the 1930s and later the leader of the Independent State of Croatia, a puppet state[1] [2] of Nazi Germany during World War II. // Ante... William Dudley Pelley wanted poster William Dudley Pelley (March 12, 1890-July 1, 1965) was an American Fascist and leader of the Silver Legion. ... Vidkun Abraham Lauritz Jonssøn Quisling, (July 18, 1887 – October 24, 1945) was a Norwegian army officer and fascist politician. ... For other people called Jose Rivera, see Jose Rivera José Antonio Primo de Rivera José Antonio Primo de Rivera, Marqués de Estella (April 24, 1903–November 20, 1936) was the son of general Miguel Primo de Rivera, who was dictator of Spain from 1923 until 1930. ... Konstantin Vladimirovich Rodzaevsky (August 11, 1907-August 30, 1946) was the vozhd (leader) of the Russian Fascist Party, which he led in exile from Manchuria. ... António de Oliveira Salazar, GColIH, GCTE, GCSE, pron. ... Plínio Salgado (January 22, 1895–December 7, 1975) was the founder and leader of the 1930s Brazilian fascist movement known as Integralism. Early life Born in the small traditional town of São Bento do Sapucaí in São Paulo state, he was the son of Col. ... Ferenc Szálasi Ferenc Szálasi (January 6, 1897-March 12, 1946) was a Fascist and the Prime Minister of Hungary during the final days of Hungarys participation in World War II. Born the son of a soldier in Kassa, Szálasi followed in his fathers footsteps and... The Allach makers mark featuring the SS insignia. ... Sieg des Glaubens (German for Victory of Faith) is the first documentary directed by Leni Riefenstahl, who was hired despite opposition from Nazi officials that resented employing a woman — and a non-Party member too. ... Triumph of the Will (German: Triumph des Willens) is a propaganda film by the German filmmaker Leni Riefenstahl. ... The Doctrine of Fascism is a seminal essay signed by Benito Mussolini and officially attributed to him, although it was most likely written by Giovanni Gentile. ... The Fascist manifesto was the initial declaration of the political stance of the founders of Fascism in Italy. ... Mein Kampf (English: My Struggle/My Battle) is a book by the Austrian-born leader of Nazi Germany, Adolf Hitler. ... The book cover My Life is the autobiography of the British Fascist leader Sir Oswald Mosley. ... Alfred Rosenberg The Myth of the Twentieth Century (German: ) is a book by Alfred Rosenberg, one of the principal ideologists of the Nazi party and editor of the Nazi paper Völkischer Beobachter. ... Revolt Against the Modern World (La Rivolta contro il Mondo Moderno) is a book written by Julius Evola in 1934. ... The Zweites Buch (Second Book and sometimes Secret Book) is an unedited transcript of Adolf Hitlers thoughts on a number of topics; it was written after Mein Kampf and was never published in his lifetime. ... La Conquista del Estado letterhead La Conquista del Estado (Conquest of the State) was a publication in Spain. ... Der Angriff (meaning The Attack in English) was a newspaper published by Berlin Gau of NSDAP since 1927. ... Cover of Gândirea, 1938 Gândirea (The Thinking; known during its early years as Gândirea Literară - Artistică - Socială, The Literary - Artistic - Social Thinking) was a Romanian literary magazine, established in Cluj by Cezar Petrescu and D. I. Cucu as a modernist and expressionist-influenced journal (May 1, 1921... Je suis partout (I Am Everywhere) was a French newspaper founded by Jean Fayard, first published on November 29, 1930. ... The Münchener Beobachter was the daily supplement to, and subsequently bercame, the Voelkischer Beobachter. ... Das Schwarze Korps (The Black Corps), the official SS newspaper. ... 1943 Stürmer issue: Satan Der Stürmer (literally, The Stormer) was a weekly Nazi newspaper published by Julius Streicher from 1923 to the end of World War II in 1945, with brief suspensions in circulation due to legal difficulties. ... Il Popolo dItalia (The People of Italy), was a paper founded by Benito Mussolini on November 15, 1914. ... Signal Signal was a magazine published by the German Third Reich from 1940 through 1945. ... One of the last editions of the Völkischer Beobachter (April 20, 1945) hails Adolf Hitler as man of the century on the occasion of his 56th birthday, ten days before his suicide. ... A type of Italian architecture from the 1930s used to celebrate the XXth year of the fascist regime in Rome. ... Heroic realism is an artistic style which includes both the Socialist realism style of propaganda art associated with Communist regimes, and Nazi heroic realism, the very similar art style associated with Fascism. ... Germany pavilion at the Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne in Paris, 1937. ... Nazism created an elaborate system of propaganda, which made use of the new technologies of the 7th art, cinema. ... Nazi plunder stored in a church at Elligen, Germany, 1945 Nazi plunder refers to art theft and other items stolen as a result of the organized spoliation of European countries during the time of the Third Reich by agents acting on behalf of the ruling Nazi Party of Germany. ... Emblem Founded by Heinrich Himmler, Herman Wirth, and Richard Walther Darré on July 1, 1935, as Studiengesellschaft für Geistesurgeschichte‚ Deutsches Ahnenerbe´ e. ... The Grand Council of Fascism (Italian: ) was the main body of Mussolinis Fascist government in Italy. ... Kyokujitsu-ki, the Flag of Imperial Japan, symbol of the Imperial Way Faction, before and during their government administrative period. ... The German-American Bund was an American Nazi organization established in the 1930s. ... Russian Fascist Organization (RFO) was the name adopted by a Russian emigre group active in Manchuria before World War II. The original RFO was formed in 1925 by members of the Law Faculty at Harbin Normal University. ... MVSN Albanian Militia was formed in 1939 following Italys invasion and annexation of Italians living in Albania and later on Albanians were also recruited. ... For the 1970 film see Black Brigade (film) Black Brigades (Italian: Brigate Nere) were one of the fascist paramilitary groups operating in the Italian Social Republic (in northern Italy), during the final years of World War II, and after the signing of the Italian Armistice in 1943. ... For the University of Nebraska–Lincoln football teams defense, see Blackshirts (football). ... The Army Comrades Association (ACA), better known by its nickname The Blueshirts, was an Irish organisation set up by former police commissioner and army General Eoin ODuffy in the 1930s. ... A member of Einsatzgruppe D is just about to shoot a Jewish man kneeling before a filled mass grave in Vinnitsa, Ukraine, in 1942. ... Greenshirt has come in certain circles to be used as a derrogatory term for Christians. ... The Silver Legion of America, commonly known as the Silver Shirts, was an American Nazi organization founded by William Dudley Pelley on January 30, 1933. ... SS redirects here. ... The seal of SA The  , abbreviated SA, (German for Storm division or Storm section, usually translated as stormtroop(er)s), functioned as a paramilitary organization of the NSDAP — the German Nazi party. ... The National Union was the political party of the dictatorship of Portuguese Prime Minister António de Oliveira Salazar who ruled Portugal from 1932 until a stroke debilitated him in 1968, and of Salazars successor Marcelo Caetano. ... Mocidade Portuguesa (Portuguese Youth) was a compulsory Paramilitary youth organization similar to the Hitler Youth. ... Waffen-SS recruitment poster; Volunteer to the Waffen-SS The Waffen-SS was the armed wing of the Schutzstaffel. ... Werwolf (German for werewolf, the spelling Wehrwolf is incorrect) was a Nazi plan at the end of World War II for a clandestine force which would carry out guerrilla attacks against the Allies in the Allied-occupied regions of Germany. ... Black: Zenith of the Axis Powers Capital Not applicable Political structure Military alliance Historical era World War II  - Tripartite Pact September 27, 1940  - Anti-Comintern Pact November 25, 1936  - Pact of Steel May 22, 1939  - Dissolved 1945 This article is about the independent countries (states) that comprised the Axis powers. ... The NSDAP/AO was the Foreign Organization of the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP). ... The ODESSA, which stands for the German phrase Organisation der ehemaligen SS-Angehörigen, which phrase in turn translates as “Organization of Former Members of the SS,” is the name commonly given to an international Nazi network alleged to have been set up towards the end of World War II... Arditi was the name adopted by Italian Army elite assault troops of World War I. The name derives from the Italian verb Ardire (to dare) and translates as the braves. Reparti dassalto (Assault Units) were formed in the summer of 1917 by Colonel Bassi, and were assigned the tactical... Fascio (plural: fasci) is an Italian language word which was used in the late 19th century to refer to radical political groups of many different (and sometimes opposing) orientations. ... The Aventine Secession is the common reference to an Italian movement reuniting parties in opposition to Fascism and Benito Mussolinis regime. ... The Acerbo Law was a 1923 electoral law, ostensibly proposed by Baron Giacomo Acerbo, forced through the Italian Parliament - if a party gained 25 percent of the votes, they gained 2/3 of the seats. ... For the movie by Dino Risi, see March on Rome (film) The March on Rome was a pseudo-coup détat by which Mussolinis National Fascist Party came to power in Italy. ... The Beer Hall Putsch was a failed coup détat that occurred between the evening of Thursday, November 8 and the early afternoon of Friday, November 9, 1923, when the Nazi partys leader Adolf Hitler, the popular World War I General Erich Ludendorff, and other leaders of the Kampfbund... The 6 February 1934 crisis refers to an anti-parliamentarist demonstration organised in Paris by far-right leagues (antiparliamentarian militias), which finished by a riot on Place de la Concorde, which is located on the Right Bank of the Seine, in front of the Palais Bourbon, seat of the National... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... “Shoah” redirects here. ... The Congress of Verona in November 1943 was the only congress of the Italian Republican Fascist Party, the successor of the National Fascist Party. ... Denazification (German: Entnazifizierung) was an Allied initiative to rid German and Austrian society, culture, press, economy, judiciary and politics of any remnants of the Nazi regime. ... For the 1947 Soviet film about the trials, see Nuremberg Trials (film). ... British politics after the First World War saw the emergence of a number of fascist movements, none of which ever came to power: British Fascisti British Fascists British Union of Fascists Imperial Fascist League National Fascisti National Socialist League Categories: | | | | ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... A list of political parties, organizations, and movements adhering to various forms of fascist ideology, part of the list of fascist movements by country. ... A list of political parties, organizations, and movements adhering to various forms of fascist ideology, part of the list of fascist movements by country. ... A list of political parties, organizations, and movements adhering to various forms of fascist ideology, part of the list of fascist movements by country. ... A list of political parties, organizations, and movements adhering to various forms of fascist ideology, part of the list of fascist movements by country. ... Nazi Party (NSDAP) leaders and officials Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Gunter dAlquen Ludolf von Alvensleben Max Amann Benno von Arent Heinz Auerswald Hans... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Between 1925 and 1945, the German SS grew from a mere eight members to over a quarter of a million Waffen-SS and well over a million Allgemeine-SS members. ... Members of the Dutch Eindhoven Resistance with troops of the US 101st Airborne in Eindhoven in September 1944. ... Anti-Nazi League logo The Anti-Nazi League (ANL) was an organisation set up in 1977 on the initiative of the Socialist Workers Party with some sponsorship (and a few small financial donations) from some trade unions and the endorsement of a list of prominent people to oppose the rise... Clerical fascism is an ideological construct that combines the political and economic doctrines of fascism with theology or religious tradition. ... Crypto-fascism is when a party or group secretly adheres to the doctrines of fascism while attempting to disguise it as another political movement. ... Ecofascism is a term used in two different ways: (1) For specific elements of radical environmentalism which are openly affiliated with neo-fascism, or which share conceptual similarities with fascist theories. ... This article describes semi-religious developments of Nazism after 1945. ... The word fascist ( or fascism) is sometimes used to denigrate people, institutions or groups that would not describe themselves as ideologically fascist, and that may not fall within the formal definition of the word. ... Members of the second Ku Klux Klan at a rally during the 1920s. ... Categories: Pages needing attention | Politics stubs ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ... The Oath of the Horatii (1784), by Jacques-Louis David The Roman salute is a gesture in which the arm is held out forward straight, with palm down. ... During the late 1920s and early 30s, Communist Party leaders linked to the Communist International (such as Rajani Palme Dutt and Joseph Stalin) argued that capitalist society had entered a third period in which social fascism posed a threat. ... Synarchism (from Greek words meaning to rule together, in Spanish Sinarquismo), is the ideology of a political movement in Mexico dating from the 1930s. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The völkisch movement is the German interpretation of the Populist movement, with a romantic focus on folklore and the organic. ... Nazi propaganda poster. ... The head of government in Germany has traditionally been called Kanzler (Chancellor). ... Braunau am Inn is a city in the Innviertel (River Inn area) of Upper Austria (Ober sterreich), the north-western province of Austria. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Gerald Peary - film reviews - Downfall (625 words)
The familiar story, of the Nazi’s final battles against the invading Russians and the double suicide of Hitler and Eva Braun, is told efficiently; the 155 minutes pass quickly.
Hitler’s OK too, if a bit aged, stooped and sixtyish instead of straight-shouldered and fiftyish: the fine Swiss-German actor Bruno Ganz (Alice in the Cities, An American Friend).
Downfall strives for proper imbalance: Ganz’s Hitler can be kind to his secretary, Traudl Junge (Alexandra Maria Lara), friendly to those fiercely loyal to him, such as Magda (Corinna Harfouch) and Joseph Goebbels (Ulrich Matthes), and courtly toward his girfriend, Eva Braun (Juliane Kohler).
anglofritz; Out-Hitlering Hitler (518 words)
Manifesting any of the traits, to any degree, that Hitler is famous for unlocks the option: solemnity, industry, moral vacuity, a certain fashion sense, fascism, pseudo-fascism -- anything negative, really.
The bizarre Hitler cult of the Anglos is really just an expression of their subconsciousness, an expression of their repressed sides and unfulfilled longings.
The bizarre Hitler cult in Anglo-land is best understood as denial of the continuing colonial aggression (including genocides), really bad education, and all kinds of vague resentments about somehow being "behind" the curve of history all of a sudden.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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