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Encyclopedia > Histosols

In both the FAO soil classification and the USA soil taxonomy, Histosols are soils comprised primarily of organic materials. They are defined as containing at least 20 percent organic material to a depth of 40 centimetres. Typically, Histosols have very low bulk density and are poorly drained because the organic matter holds water very well. Most are acidic and many are very deficient in major plant nutrients which are washed away in the consistently moist soil. The FAO developed a supra-national classification, also called World Soil Classification, which offers useful generalizations about soils pedogenesis in relation to the interactions with the main soil-forming factors. ... Soil taxonomy provided by United States Department of Agriculture / Natural Resources Conservation Centre provides an elaborate classification of soil types according to several parameters and in several levels: Order, Suborder, Great Group, Subgroup, Family, and Series. ... Organic has several meanings and related topics. ... For alternative meanings see acid (disambiguation). ...


Histosols are known by various other names in other coutries, such as peat or muck. In Australia, Histosols are called Organosols. Peat in Lewis, Scotland Peat is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetable matter. ... Muck can refer to several different things: A type of soil: Muck (soil) An island in Scotland: Muck, Scotland Other meanings: A Multi-User Chat Kingdom (see MUD) To clean, as in to muck out A euphemism for manure Bottom sediments, as in a muckworm, a bottom dweller, also derisively...


Histosols form whenever organic matter forms at a more rapid rate than it is destroyed. This occurs because of restricted drainage precluding decomposition, and the remains of plants and animals remain within the soil. Thus, Histosols are very important ecologically because they, and Gelisols, store large quantities of organic carbon. If accumulation continues for a long enough period, coal forms. Gelisols are an order in USA soil taxonomy. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Carbon, C, 6 Chemical series Nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14 (IVA), 2, p Density, Hardness 2267 kg/m3 0. ... Coal is a fossil fuel extracted from the ground either by underground mining, open-pit mining or strip mining. ...


Most Histosols occur in Canada, Scandinavia, the West Siberian Plain, Sumatra, Borneo and New Guinea. Smaller areas are found in other parts of Europe, the Russian Far East (chiefly in Khabarovsk Krai and Amur Oblast), Florida and other areas of permanent swampland. Fossil Histosols are known from the earliest extensive land vegetation in the Devonian. Scandinavia, Fennoscandia, and the Kola Peninsula. ... The West Siberian Plain (Russian: За́падно-Сиби́рская равни́на) is a large plain that occupies the western portion of Siberia, between the Ural Mountains in the west and the Yenisei River in the east. ... Sumatra (also spelled Sumatara and Sumatera) is the sixth largest island of the world (approximately 470,000 km²) and is the largest part of Indonesia. ... Borneo (including the Kalimantan provinces of Indonesia, Sabah and Sarawak of Malaysia, and Brunei) is the third largest island in the world. ... World map showing location of Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is geologically and geographically a peninsula, forming the westernmost part of Eurasia. ... The term Russian Far East (Russian: Да́льний Восто́к Росси́и; English transliteration: Dalny Vostok Rossii) refers to the extreme south-east parts of Russia, between Siberian Federal District and the Pacific. ... Khabarovsk Krai (Хаба́ровский кра́й) (1995 pop. ... The Amur Oblast (363,700 km², pop. ... State nickname: Everglade State, Sunshine State Other U.S. States Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Governor Jeb Bush Official languages English Area 170,451 km² (22nd)  - Land 137,374 km²  - Water 30,486 km² (17. ... FOSSIL is a standard for allowing serial communication for telecommunications programs under DOS. FOSSIL stands for Fido Opus Seadog Standard Interface Layer and was made by a group of Fidonet sysops to make their software work on different machines. ... The Devonian is a major division of the geologic timescale that extends from the end of the Silurian period (360 million years ago (mya)) to the beginning of the Mississippian subperiod of the Carboniferous (408. ...


Histosols are generally very difficult to cultivate because of the poor drainage and often low chemical fertility. However, Histosols formed on very recent glacial lands can often be very productive when drained and produce high-grade pasture for dairying or beef cattle. They can sometimes be used for fruit if carefully managed, but there is a great risk of the organic matter becoming dry powder and eroding under the influence of drying winds. A tendency towards shrinkage and compaction is also evident under cropping. Austrias longest glacier, the Pasterze, winds its 8 km (5 mile) route at the foot of Austrias highest mountain, the Grossglockner A glacier is a large, long-lasting river of ice that is formed on land and moves in response to gravity. ... Pastureland Pasture is land with lush herbaceous vegetation cover used for grazing of ungulates as part of a farm or ranch. ... Dairy farming is a class of agricultural enterprise, raising female cattle for long-term production of milk, which may be either processed on-site or transported to a dairy for processing and eventual retail sale. ... Fruit stall in Barcelona, Spain. ...


Like Gelisols, Histosols have greatly restricted use for engineering purposes because structures tend to subside in the wet soil. Gelisols are an order in USA soil taxonomy. ...


In USA soil taxonomy, Histosols are subdivided into:

Soil taxonomy provided by United States Department of Agriculture / Natural Resources Conservation Centre provides an elaborate classification of soil types according to several parameters and in several levels: Order, Suborder, Great Group, Subgroup, Family, and Series. ...


Folists - Histotols that are not saturated with water for long periods of time during the year.

Fibrists - Histosols that are primarily made up of only slightly decomposed organic materials, often called peat.

Saprists - Histosols that are primarily made up of highly decomposed organic materials, often called muck

Hemists - Histosols that are primarily made up of moderately decomposed organic materials

Peat in Lewis, Scotland Peat is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetable matter. ... Muck can refer to several different things: A type of soil: Muck (soil) An island in Scotland: Muck, Scotland Other meanings: A Multi-User Chat Kingdom (see MUD) To clean, as in to muck out A euphemism for manure Bottom sediments, as in a muckworm, a bottom dweller, also derisively...


See also

Pedogenesis
Pedology (soil study)
Soil classification

Pedogenesis or soil evolution (formation) is the process by which soil is created. ... Pedology, (from the Greek pedon = soil), is the study of soils and soil formation. ... Soil classification is the branch of soil science which deals with the systematic categorization of soils based on distinguishing characteristics developed during soil formation as well as criteria that dictate choices in land use and soil management. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Histosols home (177 words)
Most Histosols form in settings such as wetlands where restricted drainage inhibits the decomposition of plant and animal remains, allowing these organic materials to accumulate over time.
As a result, Histosols are ecologically important because of the large quantities of carbon they contain.
Histosols are often referred to as peats and mucks and have physical properties that restrict their use for engineering purposes.
Histosol news (506 words)
Histosols are known by various other names in other countries, such as peat or muck.
Fossil Histosols are known from the earliest extensive land vegetation in the Devonian.
Histosols are generally very difficult to cultivate because of the poor drainage and often low chemical fertility.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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