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Encyclopedia > History textbooks

Historiography is a term with multiple meanings that has changed with time, place and observer, and is thus resistant to a single encompassing meaning. Broadly speaking, historiography is related to the study of the writing of history, examining factors such as how the style of historical writing, methods of interpretation, and tools of investigation have changed over time, but it can also refer to a body of historical work. History studies the past in human terms. ...


Historiography is often broken down topically, such as "Historiography of Islam" or "Historiography of China". There are many approaches or genres of history, such as Oral history and Social history. Beginning in the 19th century with the rise of academic historians a corpus of literature related to historiography has come into existence, with classic works such as E. H. Carr's, What is History? (1961) and Hayden White's Metahistory (1974). Oral history is an account of something passed down by word of mouth from one generation to another. ... ŅSocial history is an area of historical study considered by some to be a social science that attempts to view historical evidence from the point of view of developing social trends. ... Edward Hallett Carr (28 June 1892 – 5 November 1982) was a British historian, journalist and international relations theorist, and fierce opponent of empiricism within historiography. ... What is History? is a 1961 nonfiction book by historian Edward Hallet Carr on historiography. ... Insert non-formatted text hereHayden White(1928-3012) is an historian in the tradition of literary criticism, perhaps most famous for his work Metahistory: The Historical Imagination in Nineteenth-Century Europe (1973). ... Metahistory is a historiography book by Hayden White first published in 1974. ...

Contents

Defining historiography

There are two basic issues involved in historiography. (Breisach, 1994) First, the study of the development of history as an academic discipline over time, as well as its development in different cultures and epochs. Second, the study of the academic tools, methods and approaches that have been and are being used, including the historical method. The historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use primary sources and other evidence to research and then to write history. ...


The term "historiography" can also be used to refer to a specific body of historical writing that was written during a specific time concerning a specific issue. For instance, "medieval historiography during the 1960s" would be taken to mean the methodological approaches and ideas about medieval history that were developed during that decade.


Conal Furay and Michael J. Salevouris define historiography as "the study of the way history has been and is written — the history of historical writing... When you study 'historiography' you do not study the events of the past directly, but the changing interpretations of those events in the works of individual historians." [1]


Questions studied

Some of the common questions of historiography are:

  1. Reliability of the sources used, in terms of authorship, credibility of the author, and the authenticity or corruption of the text.
  2. Historiographical tradition or framework. Every historian uses one (or more) historiographical traditions, some of which are Marxist, or Annales School, ("total history"), political history, etc.
  3. Moral issues, guilt assignment, and praise assignment
  4. Revisionism versus orthodox interpretations

Issues engaged by critical historiography includes topics such as: The Annales School is a school of historical writing named after the French scholarly journal Annales dhistoire économique et sociale (later called , then renamed in 1994 as ) where it was first expounded. ... Political history is what most people refer to simply as history. ... The term Critical Historiography is used by various scholars in recent decades to emphasize the ambiguous relationship between history writing and historiography. ...

  • What constitutes an historical "event"?
  • In what modes does a historian write and produce statements of "truth" and "fact"?
  • How does the medium (novel, textbook, film, theatre, comic) through which historical information is conveyed influence its meaning?
  • What inherent epistemological problems does archive-based history possess?
  • How do historians establish their own objectivity or come to terms with their own subjectivity?
  • What is the relationship between historical theory and historical practice?
  • What is the "goal" of history?

The history of written history

Understanding the past appears to be a universal human need and the telling of history has emerged independently in civilisations around the world. What constitutes history is a philosophical question. For the purposes of this survey it is written history recorded in a narrative format for the purpose of informing future generations about events. The earliest critical historical thought emerged in Greece, a development which would be an important influence on the writing of history elsewhere in the world. Philosophy of History is an area of philosophy concerning the eventual significance, if any, of human history. ...


Greek historiography

Written history appeared first with the ancient Greeks, whose historians greatly contributed to the development of historical methodology. The very first historical works were The Histories composed by Herodotus of Halicarnassus (484 BC–ca.425 BC), who became later known as the 'father of history' (Cicero). Herodotus attempted to distinguish between more and less reliable accounts, and personally conducted research by travelling extensively, giving a remarkably unbiased account of various Mediterranean cultures. Although Herodot's overall emphasis lay on the actions and characters of men, he also attributed an important role to divinity in the determination of historical events. The Histories of Herodotus of Halicarnassus is considered the first work of history in Western literature. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC Years: 489 BC 488 BC 487 BC 486 BC 485 BC - 484 BC - 483 BC 482 BC... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC - 420s BC - 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC Years: 430 BC 429 BC 428 BC 427 BC 426 BC - 425 BC - 424 BC 423 BC...


Thucydides, on the other hand, largely eliminated divine causality in his account of the war between Athens and Sparta, establishing a rationalistic element which became defining of subsequent Western historiography. He was also the first to distinguish between cause and immediate origins of an event, while his successor Xenophon (ca. 431–355 BC) introduced autobiographical elements and character studies in his Anabasis. Xenophon, Greek historian Xenophon (In Greek , c. ... The Greek term anabasis referred to an expedition from a coastline into the interior of a country. ...


The proverbial Philippic attacks of the Athenian orator Demosthenes (384-322 BC) on Philip II of Macedon marked the height of ancient political agitation. The now lost history of Alexander's campaigns by the diadoch Ptolemy I (367-283 BC) may represent the first historical work composed by a ruler. Polybius (ca. 203–120 BC) wrote on the rise of Rome to world prominence, trying to harmonize the Greek and Roman point of views. A philippic is a fiery, damning speech delivered to condemn a particular political actor. ... Demosthenes (384–322 BC, Greek: Δημοσθένης, DÄ“mosthénÄ“s) was a prominent Greek statesman and orator of ancient Athens. ... Philip II of Macedon: victory medal (niketerion) struck in Tarsus, 2nd c. ... ... For the unrelated astronomer, see Ptolemy Ptolemy I Soter (367 BC–283 BC), ruler of Egypt (reigned 323 BC - 283 BC) and founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty. ... Polybius (c. ...


Reports exist of other near-eastern histories, such as that composed by the Phoenician historian Sanchuniathon; but his very existence is considered semi-fabled and writings attributed to him are fragmentary, known only through the later historians Philo of Byblos and Eusebius, who asserted that he wrote before even the Trojan war. Sanchuniathon or Sanchoniathon or Sanchoniatho is the purported Phoenician author of three works in Phoenician, surviving only in partial paraphrase and summary of a Greek translation by Philo of Byblos. ... Philo of Byblos (Herennios Philon), (ca 64 - 141 CE) was an antiquarian writer of grammatical, lexical and historical works in Greek, whose name Herennius makes it appear that he was a client of the Consul suffectus Herennius Severus, through whom Philo could have achieved the status of a Roman citizen. ... Eusebius is the name of several significant historical people: Pope Eusebius - Pope in AD 309 - 310. ... The fall of Troy by Johann Georg Trautmann (1713–1769) From the collections of the granddukes of Baden, Karlsruhe The Trojan War was waged, according to legend, against the city of Troy in Asia Minor, by the armies of the Achaeans (Mycenaean Greeks), after Paris of Troy stole Helen from...


Roman historiography

The Romans adopted the Greek tradition, becoming the first people to write history in a non-Greek language. While earlier Roman works were still written in Greek, the Latin Origines, composed by the Roman statesman and patriot Cato the Elder (234–149 BC) in a conscious effort to counteract the immense Greek cultural influence, marked the beginning of Roman historiography. Hailed for its lucid style, Julius Caesar's (100 BC–44 BC) Bellum Gallicum may represent the earliest autobiographical war coverage. The politician and orator Cicero (106–43 BC) introduced rhetorical elements in his political writings. Marcus Porcius Cato (Latin: M·PORCIVS·M·F·CATO[1]) (234 BC, Tusculum–149 BC) was a Roman statesman, surnamed the Censor (Censorius), Sapiens, Priscus, or the Elder (Major), to distinguish him from Cato the Younger (his great-grandson). ... Gaius Julius Caesar [1] (Latin pronunciation ; English pronunciation ; July 12 or July 13, 100 BC or 102 BC – March 15, 44 BC), was a Roman military and political leader and one of the most influential men in classical antiquity. ... An 18th century edition of Commentarii de Bello Gallico Commentarii de Bello Gallico (literally Commentaries on the Gallic War in Latin) is an account written by Julius Caesar about his nine years of war in Gaul. ... Cicero at about age 60, from an ancient marble bust Marcus Tullius Cicero (IPA:Classical Latin pronunciation: , usually pronounced in American English or in UK English; January 3, 106 BC – December 7, 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, lawyer, political theorist, philosopher, widely considered one of Romes greatest orators...


Strabo (63 BC–ca. AD 24) was a main exponent of the Greco-Roman tradition of combining geography with history, presenting a descriptive history of peoples and places known to his era. Livy (59 BC–AD 17) records the rise of Rome from city-state to world dominion. His inquiry into the question of what would have happened if Alexander the Great had marched against Rome represents the first known instance of alternate history.[2] The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... A portrait of Titus Livius made long after his death. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent, c. ... Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history. ... Alternative history or alternate history can be: A History told from an alternative viewpoint, rather than from the view of imperialist, conqueror, or explorer. ...


Biography, although popular throughout antiquity, was introduced as a branch of history by the works of Plutarch (c. 46 - 127) and Suetonius (c. 69-after 130) who described the deeds and characters of ancient 'VIPs', stressing their human side. Tacitus (c. 56–c. 117) denounces Roman immorality by praising German virtues, elaborating on the topos of the Noble savage. Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus ( 69/75 - after 130), also known as Suetonius, was a prominent Roman historian and biographer. ... Gaius Cornelius Tacitus Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (c. ... A section of Benjamin Wests The Death of General Wolfe; Wests depiction of this Native American has been considered an idealization in the tradition of the Noble savage (Fryd, 75) In the 18th century culture of Primitivism the noble savage, uncorrupted by the influences of civilization was considered...


Writing history was popular among Christian monks in the Middle Ages. They wrote about the history of the Church and of their patrons, the dynastic history of the local rulers. History was written about states or nations during the Renaissance. The study of history changed during the Enlightenment and Romanticism. Voltaire described the history of certain ages that were important according to him, instead of describing events in a chronological order. History became an independent discipline. It was not called philosophia historiae anymore, but merely history (historia). The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... // The Age of Enlightenment (French: ; German: ; Polish: ) was an eighteenth-century movement in European and American philosophy, or the longer period including the Age of Reason. ... Wanderer above the sea of fog by Caspar David Friedrich Romantics redirects here, for the band, see The Romantics Romanticism is an artistic, literary and intellectual movement that originated in 18th century Western Europe during the industrial revolution. ... For the sport horse, see Voltaire (horse). ...


Chinese historiography

In China, Sima Qian (around 100 BC) was the first to lay the groundwork for professional historiography. His written work was the Shiji (Records of the Grand Historian), a monumental lifelong achievement in literature. Its scope extends as far back as the 16th century BC, including many treatises on specific subjects, along with individual biographies for prominent people, as well as exploring the lives and deeds of commoners found in his own time or in previous eras. His work influenced every subsequent author of history in China, including the prestigious Ban family of the Eastern Han Dynasty era. Chinese historiography refers to the study of methods and assumptions made in studying Chinese history. ... Sima Qian Si Ma Qian (司馬遷) (c. ... The Records of the Grand Historian or the Records of the Grand Historian of China was the magnum opus of Sima Qian, in which he recounted Chinese history from the time of the mythical Yellow Emperor until his own time. ... The Records of the Grand Historian or the Records of the Grand Historian of China (Chinese: 史記; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shih-chi; literally Historical Records), written from 109 BCE to 91 BCE, was the magnum opus of Sima Qian, in which he recounted Chinese history from the time of the mythical... The Han Dynasty (Traditional Chinese characters: 漢朝, Simplified Chinese characters: 汉朝, pinyin Hàncháo 202 BC - AD 220) followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. ...


Traditionalist Chinese historiography describes history in terms of dynastic cycles. In this view, each new dynasty is founded by a morally righteous founder. Over time, the dynasty becomes morally corrupt and dissolute. Eventually, the dynasty becomes so weak as to allow its replacement by a new dynasty.


Muslim historiography

Further information: Historiography of early Islam
See also: Ilm ar-Rijal, Science of hadith, Isnad, and Ibn Khaldun

The first detailed writings on the subject of historiography itself appeared in the works of the Muslim historian and historiographer Ibn Khaldun (1332-1406), who is regarded as the "father of historiography", especially for his historiographical writings in Muqaddimah and Kitābu l-ʕibār (Book of Advice).[3] The historiography of early Islam is the study of how various historians have treated the events of the first two centuries of Islamic history. ... Ilm ar-Rijal (Arabic) is the science of biography especially as practiced in Islam, where it was first applied to the sira, the life of the Prophet Muhammad. ... The Science of hadith is the process that Muslim scholars use to evaluate hadith. ... The isnad (Arabic اسناد or in Quranic era Arabic اسند) are the citations or backings that establish the legitimacy of the hadith, which are the sayings of Muhammad, Prophet of Islam. ... Ibn KhaldÅ«n or Ibn Khaldoun (full name Arabic: , ) (May 27, 1332/732AH – March 19, 1406/808AH), was a famous Muslim historian, historiographer, sociologist and economist born in present-day Tunisia. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Ibn KhaldÅ«n or Ibn Khaldoun (full name Arabic: , ) (May 27, 1332/732AH – March 19, 1406/808AH), was a famous Muslim historian, historiographer, sociologist and economist born in present-day Tunisia. ... The Muqaddimah, or the Muqaddimah of Ibn Khaldun (Arabic: مقدّمة ابن خلدون), records an early Muslim view of universal history. Many modern thinkers view it as one of the first works of sociology. ...


Muslim historical writings first began developing earlier from the 7th century with the reconstruction of Muhammad's life in the centuries following his death. Due to numerous conflicting narratives regarding Muhammad and his companions from various sources, it was necessary to verify which sources were more reliable. In order to evaluate these sources, various methodologies were developed, such as the "science of biography", "science of hadith" and "Isnad" (chain of transmission). These methodologies were later applied to other historical figures in the Muslim world. There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... For other persons named Muhammad, see Muhammad (name). ... In Islam, the Ṣaḥābah (Arabic: ‎ companions) were the companions of Muhammad. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ...


Ilm ar-Rijal (Arabic) is the "science of biography" especially as practiced in Islam, where it was first applied to the Sira, the life of the prophet of Islam, Muhammad, and then the lives of the four Rightly Guided Caliphs who expanded Islamic dominance rapidly. Since validating the sayings of Muhammad is a major study ("Isnad"), accurate biography has always been of great interest to Muslim biographers, who accordingly became experts at sorting out facts from accusations, bias from evidence, etc., and were renowned throughout the known world for their honesty in recording history. Modern practices of scientific citation and historical method owe a great deal to the rigor of the Isnad tradition of early Muslims. The earliest surviving Islamic biography is Sirat Rasul Allah of Ibn Ishaq (d. 768). Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... Sira redirects here. ... In religion, a prophet (or prophetess) is a person who has directly encountered the divine and serves as an intermediary with humanity. ... The Four Rightly Guided Caliphs (Arabic: ‎ transliterated: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam and in general around the world to refer to the first four caliphs who are seen as being model leaders. ... Scientific citation is the process by which conclusions of previous scientists are used to justify experimental procedures, apparatus, goals or theses. ... The historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use primary sources and other evidence to research and then to write history. ... For the medical term see rigor (medicine) Rigour (American English: rigor) has a number of meanings in relation to intellectual life and discourse. ... Ibn Ishaq (or ibn Ishaq), (d. ...


The "science of hadith" is the process that Muslim scholars use to evaluate hadith. The classification of Hadith into Sahih (sound), Hasan (good) and Da'if (weak) was firmly established by Ali ibn al-Madini (161 AH - 234 AH). Later, al-Madini's student Muhammad al-Bukhari (810 - 870) authored a collection that he believed contained only Sahih hadith, which is now known as the Sahih Bukhari. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Sahih is a Islamic term that means authentic. ... Hasan ibn Ali ibn Abu Talib (c. ... In Islamic context, Daif is a the categorization of a hadiths authenticity as weak. Other categorizations include sound (as in, a sound proposal), good and fabricated. ... Ali ibn al-Madini (161 AH [1] - 234 AH [2]) was a well known Sunni Islamic scholar that contributed to the Science of hadith. ... 161 AH is a year in the Islamic calendar that corresponds to X – X CE. Ali ibn al-Madini [citation needed] Categories: | ... 234 AH is a year in the Islamic calendar that corresponds to X – X CE. Ali ibn al-Madini [1] ^ http://www. ... For other uses, see Al-Bukhari (name) Popularly known as just Bukhari, Al-Bukhari or Imam Bukhari (810-870), he was a famous Sunni Islamic scholar of Persian ancestry,[1] most known for authoring the hadith collection named Sahih Bukhari, a collection which Sunni regard as the most authentic (Arabic... The authentic collection (Arabic: الجامع الصحيح, al-Jaami al-Sahih [1]) or popularly al-Bukharis authentic (Arabic: صحيح البخاري, Sahih al-Bukhari) is one of the Sunni six major Hadith collections (Hadith are oral traditions recounting events in the lives of the Islamic prophet Muhammad ). Sunni view this as their most trusted collection. ...


Until the 10th century, history most often meant political and military history, but this was not so with Persian historian Biruni (973-1048). In his Kitab fi Tahqiq ma l'il-Hind (Researches on India), he did not not record political and military history in any detail, but wrote more on India's cultural, scientific, social and religious history. He also discussed more on his idea of history in another work The Chronology of the Ancient Nations.[4] Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari (838-923) is also known for writing a detailed and comprehensive chronicle of Mediterranean and Middle Eastern history in his History of the Prophets and Kings in 915. Other famous Muslim historians included Urwah (d. 712), Al-Waqidi (745-822), Ibn Hisham (d. 834), and Ibn Hajar (1372-1449), among others. For information about all peoples of Iran, see Demographics of Iran; for Central Asian Persians, see Tajiks. ... A statue of Biruni adorns the southwest entrance of Laleh Park in Tehran, Iran. ... Taj Mahal, a popular icon of India The culture of India was moulded throughout various eras of history, all the while absorbing customs, traditions and ideas from both invaders and immigrants. ... Science and technology in ancient India covered all the major branches of human knowledge and activities, including mathematics, astronomy, physics, chemistry, medical science and surgery, fine arts, mechanical and production technology, civil engineering and architecture, shipbuilding and navigation, sports and games. ... A Muslim couple is being wed in India, even as a Hindu man takes his ritual bath in the river. ... Balamis 14th century Persian version of Universal History by al-Tabari Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Jarir at-Tabari 838–923 (father of Jafar, named Muhammad, son of Jarir from the province of Tabaristan, Arabic الطبري), was an author from Persia, one of the earliest, most prominent and famous Persian... The history of the Mediterranean region is the history of the interaction of the cultures and peoples of the lands surrounding the Mediterranean Sea —the central superhighway of transport, trade and cultural exchange between diverse peoples. ... This article is a general overview of the history of the Middle East. ... The History of the Prophets and Kings (Arabic: تاريخ الرسل والملوك Tarikh al-Rusul wa al-Muluk, popularly Tarikh al-Tabari) is a history by Persian author and historian Ibn Jarir al-Tabari (838–923) from the Creation to AD 915, and is renowned for its detail and accuracy concerning Arab and Muslim... Urwah Ibn Al-Zubayr (d. ... al-Waqidi الواقدي (d. ... Ibn Hisham, Abu Muhammad Abd al-Malik (d. ... Ibn Hajar Asqalani is a Sunni Scholar. ...


Modern historiography

Modern historiography began with Ranke in the 19th century, who was very critical on the sources used in history. He was opposed to analyses and rationalizations. His adagium was writing history the way it was. He wanted eyewitness accounts and wanted an emphasis on the point of view of the eyewitness. Hegel and Marx introduced the change of society in history. Former historians had focused on cyclical events of the rise and decline of rulers and nations. A new discipline emerged in the late nineteenth century that analyzed and compared these perspectives on a larger scale and that discipline was sociology. Leopold von Ranke (December 21, 1795- May 23, 1886) was one of the greatest German historians of the 19th century, and is frequently considered the founder of scientific history. ... Textual criticism or lower criticism is a branch of philology or bibliography that is concerned with the identification and removal of errors from texts. ... Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 - November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, in present-day southwest Germany. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818, Trier, Germany – March 14, 1883, London) was a German philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


The French Annales School radically changed history during the 20th century. Fernand Braudel wanted history to become more scientific by demanding more mathematical evidence in history, in order to make the history discipline less subjective. Furthermore, he added a social-economic and geographic framework to answer historical questions. Other French historians, like Philippe Ariès and Michel Foucault described history of daily life topics as death and sexuality. They wanted history to be written about all topics and that all questions should be asked. The Annales School is a school of historical writing named after the French scholarly journal Annales dhistoire économique et sociale (later called , then renamed in 1994 as ) where it was first expounded. ... Fernand Braudel Fernand Braudel (August 24, 1902–November 27, 1985) was a French historian. ... Philippe Aries was an important French medievalist and historian of the family and childhood, in the style of Georges Duby. ... Michel Foucault (IPA pronunciation: ) (October 15, 1926 – June 25, 1984) was a French philosopher and historian. ...


Foundation of important historical journals

The idea of the historical journal, a forum where academic historians could exchange ideas, came into being in the nineteenth century. The early journals were similar to those used in the physical sciences, and were seen as a means by which history could be professionalised. Journals also helped historians to establish various historiographical approaches, the most notable example of which was Annales. Économies. Sociétés. Civilisations. a publication instrumental in establishing the Annales School. The Annales School is a school of historical writing named after the French scholarly journal Annales dhistoire économique et sociale (later called , then renamed in 1994 as ) where it was first expounded. ...

1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1859 (MDCCCLIX) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... Historische Zeitschrift, founded in 1859 by Heinrich von Sybel is considered to be the first and for a time the foremost historical journal. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Svenska Historiska Föreningen is a Swedish historical society, founded in 1880. ... Year 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The American Historical Review (AHR) is the official publication of the American Historical Association (AHA), a body of academics, professors, teachers, students, historians, curators and others, founded in 1884 for the promotion of historical studies, the collection and preservation of historical documents and artifacts, and the dissemination of historical research. ... 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Journal of American History (sometimes abbreviated as JAH), is the official journal of the Organization of American Historians. ... The Journal of American History (sometimes abbreviated as JAH), is the official journal of the Organization of American Historians. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Journal of Negro History was founded in 1916. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... Scandia: tidskrift för historisk forskning (usually referred to as just Scandia) is an academic journal for history which has been published since 1928, when it was founded by the Swedish historian Lauritz Weibull (1873-1960), professor at the University of Lund. ... 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Annales School is a school of historical writing named after the French scholarly journal Annales dhistoire économique et sociale (later called , then renamed in 1994 as ) where it was first expounded. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... --Rlandmann 06:43, 20 Jun 2005 (UTC) Categories: Possible copyright violations ... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ... 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ... Technology and Culture is an academic journal founded in 1959. ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Subaltern Studies Group (SSG) or Subaltern Studies Collective are a group of South Asian scholars interested in the postcolonial and post-imperial societies of South Asia in particular and the developing world in general. ... 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... MCMXC redirects here; for the Enigma album, see MCMXC a. ... MCMXC redirects here; for the Enigma album, see MCMXC a. ... MCMXC redirects here; for the Enigma album, see MCMXC a. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ...

Approaches to history

The question of how a historian approaches historical events is one of the most important questions within historiography. It is commonly recognised by historians that, in themselves, individual historical facts are not particularly meaningful. Such facts will only become useful when assembled with other historical evidence, and the process of assembling this evidence is understood as a particular historiographical approach.


Some of the more common historigraphic approaches are:

The Annales School is a school of historical writing named after the French scholarly journal Annales dhistoire économique et sociale (later called , then renamed in 1994 as ) where it was first expounded. ... Big History is a discreet field of historical study that arose in the late 1980s. ... Cliometrics refers to the systematic use of economic theory and econometrics techniques to study economic history. ... The chronological comparison or commentory between different societies at a given time is called comparative history. ... Deconstruction is a term in contemporary philosophy, literary criticism, and the social sciences, denoting a process by which the texts and languages of Western philosophy (in particular) appear to shift and complicate in meaning when read in light of the assumptions and absences they reveal within themselves. ... Sometimes referred to as Rankian History, diplomatic history focuses on politics, politicians and other high rulers and views them as being the driving force of continuity and change in history. ... Economic history is the study of economic change, and of economic phenomena in the past. ... Family history is the study of multiple generations of people who appear to be related. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Great man theory is a theory held by some that aims to explain history by the impact of Great men, or heroes: highly influential individuals, either from personal charisma, genius intellects, or great political impact. ... Historical materialism is the methodological approach to the study of society, economics and history which was first articulated by Karl Marx (1818-1883), although Marx himself never used the term. ... History from below is a form of historical narrative which was developed as a result of the Annales School and popularised in the 1960s. ... The history of ideas is a field of research in history that deals with the expression, preservation, and change of human ideas over time. ... Marxist or historical materialist historiography is an influential school of historiography. ... Metahistory is a historiography book by Hayden White first published in 1974. ... Microhistory is a branch of the study of history. ... Military history is composed of the events in the history of humanity that fall within the category of conflict. ... Numismatics is the scientific study of currency and its history in all its varied forms. ... Oral history is an account of something passed down by word of mouth from one generation to another. ... Palaeography, literally old writing, (from the Greek words paleos = old and grapho = write) is the study of script. ... Political history is what most people refer to simply as history. ... Postmodernist architecture of the Stata Center by Frank Gehry Sydney Opera House The term Postmodernism (sometimes referred to as Pomo, Po-Mo, or PoMo [1], [2], [3]) was coined in the early 1960s to describe a dissatisfaction with modern architecture, founding the postmodern architecture. ... Prosopography is an important methodological tool within historical research, its goal being the collection of all known information about individuals within a given period, often in the form of a register or database (frequently also known as a Prosopography, e. ... Psychohistory is the study of the psychological motivations of historical events. ... Quantitative history is an application of statistical methodology developed in social science into the field of history. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... ŅSocial history is an area of historical study considered by some to be a social science that attempts to view historical evidence from the point of view of developing social trends. ... Universal history is basic to the Western tradition of historiography, especially the Judeo-Christian wellspring of that tradition. ... Whig history is a pejorative name given to a view of history that is shared by a number of eighteenth and nineteenth century British writers on historical subjects. ... Womens history is a term that refers to information about the past in regard to the female human being. ... World History is a field of historical study that emerged as a distinct academic field in the 1980s. ...

References

  1. ^ (The Methods and Skills of History: A Practical Guide, 1988, p. 223, ISBN 0-88295-982-4)
  2. ^ Livy's History of Rome: Book 9
  3. ^ Salahuddin Ahmed (1999). A Dictionary of Muslim Names. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. ISBN 1850653569.
  4. ^ M. S. Khan (1976). "al-Biruni and the Political History of India", Oriens 25, p. 86-115.

Bibliography

Theory and philosophy

  • Frank Ankersmit (ed), A New Philosophy of History, 1995, ISBN 0-226-02100-9
  • Michael Bentley, Modern Historiography: An Introduction, 1999 ISBN 0-415-20267-1
  • Peter Burke, History and Social Theory, Polity Press, Oxford, 1992
  • E. H. Carr, What is History? 1961, ISBN 0-394-70391-X
  • R.G. Collingwood, The Idea of History, 1936, ISBN 0-19-285306-6
  • Geoffrey Elton, The Practice of History, 1969, ISBN 0-631-22980-9
  • Richard J. Evans In Defence of History, 1997, ISBN 1862071047
  • David Hackett Fischer, Historians' Fallacies: Towards a Logic of Historical Thought, Harper & Row, 1970.
  • Keith Jenkins, Rethinking History, 1991, ISBN 0-415-30443-1
  • Keith Jenkins, ed. The Postmodern History Reader (2006)
  • Arthur Marwick, The Nature of History, 1970, ISBN 0-333-10941-4
  • Alun Munslow. The Routledge Companion to Historical Studies (2000)
  • John Tosh, The Pursuit of History, 2002, ISBN 0-582-77254-0
  • W.H. Walsh, An Introduction to Philosophy of History, 1951.
  • Hayden White, The Content of Form: Narrative Discourse and Historical Representation, 1987, ISBN 0-8018-4115-1

Edward Hallett Carr (28 June 1892 – 5 November 1982) was a British historian, journalist and international relations theorist, and fierce opponent of empiricism within historiography. ... What is History? is a 1961 nonfiction book by historian Edward Hallet Carr on historiography. ... Robin George Collingwood (February 22, 1889 - January 9, 1943), British philosopher and historian. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Professor Richard Evans (born 1947) is a British historian of Germany. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Keith Jenkins is one of Britains leading dudes of postmodern history. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Insert non-formatted text hereHayden White(1928-3012) is an historian in the tradition of literary criticism, perhaps most famous for his work Metahistory: The Historical Imagination in Nineteenth-Century Europe (1973). ...

Histories of historical writing

  • Geoffrey Barraclough, History: Main Trends of Research in the Social and Human Sciences, (1978)
  • Michael Bentley (ed.), Companion to Historiography, Routledge, 1997, ISBN 0-415-28557-7 990pp; 39 chapters by experts
  • Ernst Breisach, Historiography: Ancient, Medieval and Modern, 1994, ISBN 0-226-07278-9
  • H. Floris Cohen, The Scientific Revolution: A Historiographical Inquiry, Chicago, 1994, ISBN 0-226-11280-2
  • Mark T. Gilderhus, History an Historiographical Introduction, 2002, ISBN 0-13-044824-9
  • Georg G. Iggers, Historiography in the 20th Century: From Scientific Objectivity to the Postmodern Challenge (2005)
  • Susan Kinnell, Historiography: An Annotated Bibliography of Journal Article, Books and Dissertations, 1987, ISBN 0-87436-168-0
  • Lloyd Kramer and Sarah Maza, eds. A Companion to Western Historical Thought Blackwell 2006. 520pp; ISBN 978-1-4051-4961-7.
  • Arnaldo Momigliano, The Classical Foundation of Modern Historiography, 1990, ISBN 0-520-07870-5
  • Philippe Poirrier, Aborder l'histoire, Paris, Seuil, 2000.
  • Philippe Poirrier,Les enjeux de l'histoire culturelle, Paris, Seuil, 2004.

Feminist historiography

  • Mary Ritter Beard, Woman as force in history: A study in traditions and realities
  • Gerda Lerner, The Majority Finds its Past: Placing Women in History, New York: Oxford University Press 1979
  • Bonnie G. Smith, The Gender of History: Men, Women, and Historical Practice, Harvard UP 2000
  • Mary Spongberg, Writing women's history since the Renaissance, Palgrave Macmillan, 2002

Mary Ritter Beard (1876 - 1958), was a United States historian and campaigner for womens suffrage. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Thematic and regional

  • John Ernest. Liberation Historiography: African American Writers and the Challenge of History, 1794-1861. University of North Carolina Press, 2004
  • Frank Farrell. Themes in Australian History: Questions, Issues and Interpretation in an Evolving Historiography (1990)
  • Marc Ferro, Cinema and History, Wayne State University Press, 1988
  • R. Darcy and Richard C. Rohrs, A Guide to Quantitative History (1995)
  • Hudson, Pat. History by Numbers: An Introduction to Quantitative Approaches (2002)
  • James W. Loewen, Lies My Teacher Told Me: Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong, Touchstone Books 1996
  • Tessa Morris-Suzuki, The Past Within Us: Media, Memory, History, 2005, ISBN 1-85984-513-4
  • Gary Nash, Charlotte Crabtree, and Ross Dunn. History on Trial: Culture Wars and the Teaching of the Past, (2000)
  • Peter Novick, That Noble Dream: The "Objectivity Question" and the American Historical Profession (1988), ISBN 0-521-34328-3
  • Thomas Söderqvist. The Historiography of Contemporary Science and Technology (1997)
  • Sommer, Barbara W. The Oral History Manual (2003)
  • Jan Vansina, "Oral Tradition as History," University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, 1985

Marc Ferro is a French historian specialised in the history of Russia, the USSR and cinema. ...

Journals

See also

Philosophy of History is an area of philosophy concerning the eventual significance, if any, of human history. ... The historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use primary sources and other evidence to research and then to write history. ... Historiography is the study of how history is written. ... The historiography of science is the historical study of the history of science (which often overlaps the history of technology, the history of medicine, and the history of mathematics). ... This is a list of historians. ... This is a list of historians categorized by their area of study. ... The Medieval Chronicle Society is an international and interdisciplinary organisation founded to facilitate the work of scholars interested in medieval chronicles, or more generally medieval historiography. ... In historical scholarship, a primary source is a document, or other source of information that was created at or near the time being studied, by an authoritative source, usually one with direct personal knowledge of the events being described. ... In historical scholarship, a Secondary source is a work of history written as a synthetic account, usually based on primary sources and other secondary sources. ... Where a primary source presents material from a first-hand witness to a phenomenon, and a secondary source provides commentary, analysis and criticism of primary sources, a tertiary source is a selection and compilation of primary and secondary sources. ...

External links

Arturo Alfonso Schomburg a. ...


 
 

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