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Encyclopedia > History of video game consoles (first generation)
History of…
Video games
Console games

First generation
Second generation
Video game crash of 1983
Third generation
Fourth generation
Fifth generation
Sixth generation
Seventh generation
Video games were first presented in 1948 as a United States patent. ... A console game is a form of interactive multimedia used for entertainment. ... The second generation of video game consoles lasted from 1976 until 1984. ... E.T. for the Atari 2600. ... In the history of video games, the 8-bit era was the third generation of video game consoles, but the first after the video game crash of 1983 and considered by some to be the first modern era of console gaming. ... In the history of video games, the 16-bit era was the fourth generation of video game consoles. ... In the history of computer and video games, the 32-bit / 64-bit era was the fifth generation of video game consoles. ... The sixth-generation era (sometimes referred to as the 128-bit era; see Number of bits below) refers to the computer and video games, video game consoles, and video game handhelds available at the turn of the 21st century. ... In the history of computer and video games, the seventh generation began on November 22, 2005 with the release of Microsofts Xbox 360, and continued a year later with the release of Sonys PlayStation 3 on November 11, 2006 and Nintendos Wii on November 19, 2006. ...

Arcade games

Golden Age of Arcade Games
This article contains a timeline of notable events in the history of video arcade gaming: // The Galaxy Game, the earliest known coin-operated arcade video game, makes its debut on the campus of Stanford University. ... In Space Invaders, the player controls the firing and horizontal position of the green cannon at the bottom, fending off constant attack by echelons of eponymous enemies. ...

The first generation of video game consoles lasted from 1972 until 1977. The Nintendo GameCube is an example of a popular video game console. ...

Contents

Interactive television

Television engineer Ralph Baer conceived the idea of an interactive television while building a television set from scratch for Loral in 1951 in the Bronx, New York. He explored these ideas further in 1966 when he was the Chief Engineer and manager of the Equipment Design Division at Sanders Associates. Baer created a simple two-player video game that could be displayed on a standard television set called Chase, where two dots chased each other around the screen. After a demonstration to the company's director of R&D Herbert Campman, some funding was allotted and the project was made "official". In 1967 Bill Harrison was brought on board, and a light gun was constructed from a toy rifle that was aimed at a target moved by another player. Ralph H. Baer (born 1922) is a German-born American inventor, noted for his many contributions to games and the video game industry. ... Loral Corporation was a small Bronx defense contractor on the verge of bankruptcy when in 1972 it was acquired by Bernard Schwartz, who over the course of the next two decades built it into a major player in the global aerospace and defense industry, acquiring sixteen other defense and aerospace... 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... The Bronx is one of the five boroughs of United States. ... Sanders Associates was a company in Nashua, New Hampshire. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

A simulation of Tennis for the Magnavox Odyssey, without overlay
A simulation of Tennis for the Magnavox Odyssey, without overlay

Bill Rusch joined the project to speed up development and soon a third machine-controlled dot was used to create a ping-pong game. With more funding additional games were created, and Baer had the idea of selling the product to Cable TV companies, who could transmit static images as game backgrounds. A prototype was demonstrated in February 1968 to Teleprompter Vice President Hubert Schlafly, who signed an agreement with Sanders. The Cable TV industry was in a slump during the late 60's and early 70's and a lack of funding meant other avenues had to be pursued. Development continued on the hardware and games resulting in the final "Brown Box" prototype, which had two controllers, a light gun and sixteen switches on the console that selected the game to be played. Baer approached various U.S. Television manufacturers and an agreement was eventually signed with Magnavox in late 1969. Magnavox's main alterations to the Brown Box were to use plug-in circuits to change the games, and to remove the colour graphics capabilities in favour of color overlays in order to reduce manufacturing costs. It was released in May 1972 as the Magnavox Odyssey. Image File history File links Magnavox_Odyssey_Ping-Pong. ... Image File history File links Magnavox_Odyssey_Ping-Pong. ... The Magnavox Odyssey was the worlds first commercially sold video game console. ... Ping Pong redirects here. ... Coaxial cable is often used to transmit cable television into the house. ... Schematic representation: A teleprompter (also known as an autocue) is a display device that prompts the person speaking with an electronic visual text of a speech or script. ... Magnavox (Latin for loud voice) is a consumer electronics company that is now part of Philips Consumer Electronics. ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... The Magnavox Odyssey was the worlds first commercially sold video game console. ...


Digital electronics

The Odyssey was built using a combination of analog (for the output, game control) and digital circuitry. Many collectors confuse the use of discrete components to mean the system is analog. However, the games and logic itself are implemented in DTL, a common pre-TTL digital design component using discrete transistors and diodes. Likewise, Ralph Baer himself considers the system digital. [1] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Analog electronics. ... Diode-transistor logic (DTL) is a class of digital circuits built from bipolar junction transistors (BJT), diodes and resistors; it is the direct ancestor of transistor-transistor logic. ... A Motorola 68000-based computer with various TTL chips. ... Ralph H. Baer (born 1922) is a German-born American inventor, noted for his many contributions to games and the video game industry. ...


It was not a large success due to restrictive marketing, although other companies with similar products (including Atari) had to pay a licensing fee for some time. For a time it was Sanders' most profitable line, even though many in the company had been unsupportive of game development.

PONG arcade version
PONG arcade version

Many of the earliest games utilising digital electronics ran on university mainframe computers in the United States, developed by individual users who programmed them in their idle time. In 1961, a group of students at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology programmed a game called Spacewar! on a DEC PDP-1. In 1970 Nolan Bushnell saw Spacewar! for the first time at the University of Utah. Deciding there was commercial potential in an arcade version, he hand-wired a custom computer capable of playing it on a black and white television. The resulting game, Computer Space, did not fare well commercially and Bushnell started looking for new ideas. In 1971 he saw a demonstration of the Magnavox Odyssey, and hired Al Alcorn to produce an arcade version of the Odyssey's ping-pong game (using Transistor-transistor logic), called PONG. This is a screenshot of a copyrighted computer game or video game. ... This is a screenshot of a copyrighted computer game or video game. ... PONG helped bring computerized video games into everyday life “Pong” redirects here. ... This Article does not cite its references or sources. ... Representation of a university class, 1350s. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private, coeducational research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Spacewar! is one of the earliest video games for a digital computer. ... The DEC logo Digital Equipment Corporation was a pioneering American company in the computer industry. ... The PDP-1 (Programmed Data Processor-1) was the first computer in Digital Equipments PDP series and was first produced in 1960. ... Nolan K. Bushnell 9000 (born February 5, 1943) is an American electrical engineer and entrepreneur who founded both Atari and the Chuck E. Cheeses Pizza-Time Theaters chain. ... The University of Utah (also The U or the U of U or the UU) is a public university in Salt Lake City, Utah. ... Centipede by Atari is a typical example of a 1980s era arcade game. ... Computer Space is a video arcade game released in November, 1971 by Nutting Associates. ... The Magnavox Odyssey was the worlds first commercially sold video game console. ... Al Alcorn grew up in San Francisco, went to Berkeley, and later was at the video pioneering company, Ampex. ... A Motorola 68000-based computer with various TTL chips. ... PONG helped bring computerized video games into everyday life “Pong” redirects here. ...


Home video games achieved widespread popularity with the release of a home version of PONG in the Christmas of 1975. Its success sparked hundreds of clones, including the Coleco Telstar, which went on to be a success in its own right, with over a dozen models. 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ... The Telstar is a video game console produced by Coleco which first went on sale in 1976. ...


The first console to feature a CPU was the second-generation console Fairchild Channel F released in August 1976, which was based on the Fairchild F8. Bushnell's company Atari released the Atari VCS based on the MOS Technology 6502, in 1977. Die of an Intel 80486DX2 microprocessor (actual size: 12×6. ... The second generation of video game consoles lasted from 1976 until 1984. ... The Fairchild Channel F is the worlds second cartridge-based video game console, after the Magnavox Odyssey. ... In computing, the F8 was an 8-bit microprocessor created by Fairchild Semiconductor. ... This article is about a corporate game company. ... The Atari 2600, released in October 1977, was the first successful video game console to use plug-in cartridges instead of having one or more games built in. ... The MOS Technology 6502 is an 8-bit microprocessor that was designed by Chuck Peddle for MOS Technology in 1975. ...


First generation video game consoles

Console Magnavox Odyssey PONG Coleco Telstar
Image
Launch price US$100 US$100 US$100
Release date Flag of United States May, 1972-1974
1975
Flag of European Union 1974-1976
Flag of United States 1975 Flag of United States 1976-1979
Media Cartridge n/a Cartridge (Telstar Arcade)
Accessories (retail) Light Gun n/a Controller styles

The Magnavox Odyssey was the worlds first commercially sold video game console. ... PONG helped bring computerized video games into everyday life “Pong” redirects here. ... The Telstar is a video game console produced by Coleco which first went on sale in 1976. ... This work is copyrighted. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Home_Pong_thumbnail. ... Image File history File links Ctelstar. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... May is the fifth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_(bordered). ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ... Image File history File links European_flag. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... For the song by the Smashing Pumpkins, see 1979 (song). ...

References

Home video-game systems became popular during the 1970s and 80s. ...

Notes

  1. ^ The Original GamerDad: Ralph Baer. Retrieved on 2006-10-20.

For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 20 is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 72 days remaining. ...

See also

Children playing on a Amstrad CPC 464 in the 1980s. ... The history of computing hardware starting in the 1960s begins with the development of the integrated circuit (IC), which formed the basis of the first computer kits and home computers in the 1970s, notable examples being the MITS Altair, Apple II and Commodore PET; and which eventually powered personal and... There are numerous debates over who created the first video game. ...

External links

  • The Dot Eaters: Bits From the Primordial Ooze
  • ClassicGaming Expo 2000: Baer Describes the Birth of Videogames

 
 

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